Evaluation of body mass index, pre-vaccination serum progesterone levels and anti-anthrax protective antigen immunoglobulin G on injection site adverse events following anthrax vaccination in women
Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
(Impact Factor: 2.94).
11/2008; 17(11):1060-7. DOI: 10.1002/pds.1657
In 2002, CDC initiated the Anthrax Vaccination Program (AVP) to provide voluntary pre-exposure anthrax vaccination for individuals at high risk for exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores. The AVP offered an opportunity to investigate hypothesized reasons for a reported gender difference in injection site adverse events (AEs) following anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA).
To evaluate in women the impact of body mass index (BMI), pre-vaccination serum progesterone levels, and pre-vaccination anti-anthrax protective antigen immunoglobulin G concentrations (anti-PA IgG) on the occurrence of AEs following subcutaneous AVA vaccination.
Participants' BMI was determined at enrollment. Also, pre-vaccination blood samples were assayed for serum progesterone and anti-PA IgG. Post-vaccination solicited AEs were recorded by participants using a 4-day diary card.
Obese group had an elevated risk for arm soreness. Decreased pre-vaccination serum progesterone level was associated with arm swelling. Increased pre-vaccination anti-PA IgG was associated with itching on the arm; and within the obese group, was associated with arm swelling, lump or knot, redness, soreness, and warmth.
In AVA vaccinated women, obesity was associated with arm soreness and decreased pre-vaccination serum progesterone levels were associated with increased rate of arm swelling. Increased pre-vaccination anti-PA IgG may be associated with an increased frequency of itching on the arm, and in obese women, may increase the occurrence of arm swelling, lump or knot, redness, and warmth. Administering AVA according to a woman's menstrual phase may reduce the occurrence of certain injection site reactions.
Available from: Raymond E Biagini
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ABSTRACT: The original license for production of the anthrax vaccine, Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA), was issued in 1970. Since that time, over 8 million AVA immunizations have been administered to 2+ million individuals. In 2002, the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, reviewed the safety and efficacy of AVA. They concluded that the vaccine is acceptably safe and effective in protecting humans against anthrax. The vaccine should protect people against all known strains of anthrax bacteria, as well as against any strains that might be created by potential terrorists or others. Although the Institute of Medicine concluded that AVA was reasonably safe, they noted that it is fairly common for people to experience local reactions (e.g., redness and swelling at the injection site) and for a smaller number to experience systemic reactions such as fever and malaise, within hours or days of vaccination. Results of animal studies done previously and subsequent to this report are generally in agreement. For instance, AVA vaccination increases the level of anthrax anti-protective antigen IgG (anti-PA IgG), which is thought to be one possible correlate of protection (although absolute protective concentrations have not been identified in humans). Anthrax lethal factor neutralization has also been identified as possibly being an important additional correlate of immunity. Future vaccine research efforts include developing a recombinant anthrax vaccine and anthrax monoclonal antibodies to block the anthrax toxin(s). It is projected that the next-generation vaccine will elicit a markedly increased anti-anthrax immune response within a shorter time period and consequently, will enable the easier inoculations of individuals working within high-risk areas.
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionDevelopment of Cellular VaccinesDevelopment of Acellular VaccinesVaccine EfficacyDuration of ImmunityVaccine SafetyRecombinant PA VaccinesAnthrax Vaccine ResearchConclusions and Future ProspectsReferences
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ABSTRACT: Anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) administered intramuscularly (IM) results in fewer adverse events (AEs) than subcutaneous (SQ) administration. Women experience more AEs than men. Antibody response, female hormones, race, and body mass index (BMI) may contribute to increased frequency of reported injection site AEs.
We analyzed data from the CDC anthrax vaccine adsorbed human clinical trial. This double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial enrolled 1563 participants and followed them through 8 injections (AVA or placebo) over a period of 42 months. For the trial's vaccinated cohort (n=1267), we used multivariable logistic regression to model the effects of study group (SQ or IM), sex, race, study site, BMI, age, and post-vaccination serum anti-PA IgG on occurrence of AEs of any severity grade. Also, in a women-only subset (n=227), we assessed effect of pre-vaccination serum progesterone level and menstrual phase on AEs.
Participants who received SQ injections had significantly higher proportions of itching, redness, swelling, tenderness and warmth compared to the IM study group after adjusting for other risk factors. The proportions of redness, swelling, tenderness and warmth were all significantly lower in blacks vs. non-black participants. We found arm motion limitation, itching, pain, swelling and tenderness were more likely to occur in participants with the highest anti-PA IgG concentrations. In the SQ study group, redness and swelling were more common for obese participants compared to participants who were not overweight. Females had significantly higher proportions of all AEs compared to males. Menstrual phase was not associated with any AEs.
Female and non-black participants had a higher proportion of AVA associated AEs and higher anti-PA IgG concentrations. Antibody responses to other vaccines may also vary by gender and race. Further studies may provide better understanding for higher proportions of AEs in women and non-black participants.
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