ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

The topic of this chapter is the measurement of students' self-regulated learning (SRL) and its components. The first section develops key points about measurement in general. In the second section, the authors describe a model of SRL and its components that researchers seek to measure—metacognition, intrinsic motivation, strategic action. Currently used protocols are surveyed, including questionnaires, structured interviews, teacher ratings, think aloud methods, error detection tasks, trace methodologies, and observations. Finally, the authors critique these current protocols and forecast what measurements of SRL might be like in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 562
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=562
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 563
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=563
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 564
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=564
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 565
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=565
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 566
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=566
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 567
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=567
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 568
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=568
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 569
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=569
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 570
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=570
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 571
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=571
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 572
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=572
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 573
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=573
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 574
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=574
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 575
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=575
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 576
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=576
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 577
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=577
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 578
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=578
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 579
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=579
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 580
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=580
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 581
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=581
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 582
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=582
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 583
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=583
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 584
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=584
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 585
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=585
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 586
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=586
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 587
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=587
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 588
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=588
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 589
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=589
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 590
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=590
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 591
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=591
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 592
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=592
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 593
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=593
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 594
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=594
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 595
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=595
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 596
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=596
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
. Handbook of Self-Regulation.
: Academic Press, . p 597
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10529531?ppg=597
Copyright © Academic Press. . All rights reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher,
except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
... Following this notion, we studied construct validity in the present study, i.e., the terms validity and construct validity were used interchangeably in this study. Specifically, we relied upon Winne's (Winne & Perry, 2000) definition of construct validity operationalised in the context of SRL measurement: construct validity of instruments or protocols represents a set of concerns about whether the measurement methods, as they are operationally defined, represent the SRL processes researchers intend to measure and not other phenomena. ...
... SRL is characterised as an aptitude and an event (Winne & Perry, 2000). An aptitude describes "a relatively enduring attribute of a person that predicts future behaviour" (Winne & Perry, 2000, p. 534). ...
... For example, it might be expected that a learner will behave differently when studying for a summative (e.g., exam) than when studying for a formative assessment (e.g., post-lecture quiz) if the learner reported that they adapt their learning tactics to the circumstances of assignments. More importantly, this prediction is considered valid regardless whether this question was asked a week or a year before the task, and regardless of the educational context the assignment was administered in (e.g., course subject) (Winne & Perry, 2000). In contrast, events are defined as the "very actions learners perform, rather than descriptions of those actions or of mental states that actions generate" (Winne, 2010, p. 269). ...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary research that looks at self-regulated learning (SRL) as processes of learning events derived from trace data has attracted increasing interest over the past decade. However, limited research has been conducted that looks into the validity of trace-based measurement protocols. In order to fill this gap in the literature, we propose a novel validation approach that combines theory-driven and data-driven perspectives to increase the validity of interpretations of SRL processes extracted from trace-data. The main contribution of this approach consists of three alignments between trace data and think aloud data to improve measurement validity. In addition, we define the match rate between SRL processes extracted from trace data and think aloud as a quantitative indicator together with other three indicators (sensitivity, specificity and trace coverage), to evaluate the “degree” of validity. We tested this validation approach in a laboratory study that involved 44 learners who learned individually about the topic of artificial intelligence in education with the use of a technology-enhanced learning environment for 45 minutes. Following this new validation approach, we achieved an improved match rate between SRL processes extracted from trace-data and think aloud data (training set: 54.24%; testing set: 55.09%) compared to the match rate before applying the validation approach (training set: 38.97%; test set: 34.54%). By considering think aloud data as “reference point”, this improvement of the match rate quantified the extent to which validity can be improved by using our validation approach. In conclusion, the novel validation approach presented in this study used both empirical evidence from think aloud data and rationale from our theoretical framework of SRL, which now, allows testing and improvement of the validity of trace-based SRL measurements.
... Саморегулиращият се ученик осъзнава какво точно трябва да направи и ефективно разпределя, насочва и управлява усилията и ресурсите си в учебния процес. Това означава, че учениците с добри умения за саморегулиране са мотивирани да учат; предварително обмислят и самостоятелно дефинират учебните цели; избират подходящи стратегии за тяхното постигане; ефективно планират и използват времето си и наличните ресурси; наблюдават и контролират напредъка си; променят поведението си, когато целите не са изпълнени; правят самооценка на постигнатите резултати и избраните методи и ги адаптират в съответствие с получената обратна връзка (Winne, 1996(Winne, , 2018Weinstein, 1988;Zimmerman,1989;Pintrich & De Groot, 1990;Winne & Perry, 2000;Zimmerman, 2000;Boekaerts & Niemivirta, 2000;Pintrich, 2000). Така се осъществява трансфер на отговорността за ученето от учителите към учениците. ...
... Разработени са няколко модела на саморегулираното учене, както и разнообразни инструменти за неговото емпирично проучване (Weinstein, 1988;Zimmerman & Pons, 1988;Pressley, 1989Pressley, , 1990Winne, 1996Winne, , 2000Zimmerman, 1998;Zimmerman, 2000;Boekaerts & Niemivirta, 2000). Корените на концепцията за саморегулираното учене се откриват в теорията за социалното научаване (по-късно социално-когнитивна теория), разработена от професора по психология в Стандфордския университет Албърт Бандура. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of a research project to create, validate and test a comprehensive and reliable tools for assessing the self-regulated learning of Bulgarian students and their engagement with learning. The toolkit was piloted with 2572 students in primary schools, secondary general, profiled and vocational schools. The first pilot study was conducted in the academic year 2020/2021 among students of V, VIII and XI grades. The second pilot study was conducted in the academic year 2021/2022 among the same group of students already in VI, IX and XII grades. The validated instruments provide the opportunity to evaluate different aspects of the skills, motivational attitudes and behaviours of students in lower-secondary and upper-secondary education allowing them to understand, monitor and self-direct the process of their learning.
... However, there were no significant differences between groups. It is possible that administering the achievement goal questionnaire once was not able to capture a complete and dynamic measurement of goal orientation, and perhaps we can detect motivational differences and how it impacts metacognition by exploring a new methodology for measuring motivation, such as electrodermal activity or changes in affective states (Winne and Perry, 2000;Zimmerman, 2011). Additionally, studies demonstrated the need to use different theoretical frameworks for different research questions investigating metacognitive processes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Self-regulated learning (SRL) is critical for learning across tasks, domains, and contexts. Despite its importance, research shows that not all learners are equally skilled at accurately and dynamically monitoring and regulating their self-regulatory processes. Therefore, learning technologies, such as intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), have been designed to measure and foster SRL. This paper presents an overview of over 10 years of research on SRL with MetaTutor, a hypermedia-based ITS designed to scaffold college students’ SRL while they learn about the human circulatory system. MetaTutor’s architecture and instructional features are designed based on models of SRL, empirical evidence on human and computerized tutoring principles of multimedia learning, Artificial Intelligence (AI) in educational systems for metacognition and SRL, and research on SRL from our team and that of other researchers. We present MetaTutor followed by a synthesis of key research findings on the effectiveness of various versions of the system (e.g., adaptive scaffolding vs. no scaffolding of self-regulatory behavior) on learning outcomes. First, we focus on findings from self-reports, learning outcomes, and multimodal data (e.g., log files, eye tracking, facial expressions of emotion, screen recordings) and their contributions to our understanding of SRL with an ITS. Second, we elaborate on the role of embedded pedagogical agents (PAs) as external regulators designed to scaffold learners’ cognitive and metacognitive SRL strategy use. Third, we highlight and elaborate on the contributions of multimodal data in measuring and understanding the role of cognitive, affective, metacognitive, and motivational (CAMM) processes. Additionally, we unpack some of the challenges these data pose for designing real-time instructional interventions that scaffold SRL. Fourth, we present existing theoretical, methodological, and analytical challenges and briefly discuss lessons learned and open challenges.
... Obvykle se jedná o kombinaci uzavřených otázek a otevřených (Cross & Paris, 1988). Některé výzkumy (Kruger & Dunning, 1999;Winne & Perry, 2000) však zpochybňují techniky rozhovoru a naznačují, ţe subjektivní výpovědi jedince o výkonu mají omezenou platnost při usuzování na jejich výkon a mnoho ţáků má rovněţ značně zkreslené představy o svém výkonu a tíhnou k přecenění či naopak podcenění úsudku o svém výkonu. Někteří autoři dále konstatují (Brown, 1987; McDonald, Edwards, & Zhao, 2012), ţe při řešení úlohy jedinec stylizuje své slovní výpovědi a můţe tak omezit postihnutí všech myšlenkových procesů, které by za normální situace mohl vyuţít, a tak výzkumníkovi můţe poskytovat údaje, které neodpovídají skutečnému postupu během řešení úkolu. ...
Book
Full-text available
This study focuses on identification of metacognitive development levels among students in their grade 5 in either (a) mainstream elementary schools, (b) elementary schools implementing Dalton education elements in their curriculum or (c) elementary schools implementing RWCT program in their daily activities. The main goal of the empirical study is to verify or disprove the assumption which states that the type of educational programme can influence the metacognitive development of a child in a specific reading domain. That is why author of this text examines the level of (a) the regulation aspect and (b) knowledge aspect of metacognition at research sample of 1103 students from different types of elementary schools. The results of this study verify the hypothesis that the type of education program has direct influence on metacognitive development of a student: (a) students of RWCT elementary can better judge the relative effectivity of suggested strategies based on the task situation (metacognitive knowledge) and together with student from Dalton plan elementary schools they are able to (b) recognize false answers from correct ones and are also (c) more accurate in their error approximations of answers related to reading comprehension (metacognitive regulation). Students from RWCT elementary schools, as well as from Dalton plan elementary were significantly better at (d) scoring high in their tests which evaluated the reading comprehension levels, than their peers in mainstream schools. Students from RWCT elementary schools, as well as from Dalton plan elementary also (e) showed a slight underestimation in their performance. The conclusion part of the study suggests possible outcome explanations of the differences among individual types of study programmes in relation to the metacognitive knowledge and regulation levels among students (based on curriculum) and also suggestions for future research in this specific area, limits of this study and suggestions for theory and clinical practice.
... In fact, despite showing robust metacognitive knowledge, students may fail to activate and sustain their efforts and regulate sources of personal influence (e.g., managing emotions and environmental distractors) toward a self-set goal (Zimmerman and Moylan, 2009). The work of Winne and Perry (2000), which stresses that the optimized use of metacognitive strategies is critical to the effective regulation of study, is consistent with the latter proposition. For example, students who regularly check the strategies used to overcome distractors while studying (e.g., putting the phone in airplane mode to limit text messages and phone call interruptions during study time) are likely to attain their goals and improve performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
An experimental study was designed to analyze the effect of school-based training in self-regulation learning strategies on academic performance (Mathematics, Sciences, Language, and English). Class-level variables (i.e., gender, the teacher’s teaching experience, class size) were considered and the effects of the intervention were measured at the end of the intervention and 3 months later. A sample of 761 students from 3rd and 4th grades (356 in the control condition and 405 in the experimental condition), from 14 schools, participated in the study. Data were analyzed using three-level analysis with within-student measurements at level 1, between-students within-classes at level 2, and between-classes at level 3. Data showed a positive effect of the intervention on student performance, both at post-test (d = 0.25) and at follow-up (d = 0.33) considering the four school subjects together. However, the effect was significant just at follow-up when subjects were considered separately. Student performance was significantly related to the students’ variables (i.e., gender, level of reading comprehension) and the context (teacher gender and class size). Finally, students’ gender and level of reading comprehension, as well as the teacher’s gender, were found to moderate the effect of the intervention on students’ academic performance. Two conclusions were highlighted: first, data emphasize the importance of considering time while conducting intervention studies. Second, more teaching experience does not necessarily translate into improvements in the quality of students’ instruction.
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, unobtrusive measures of self-regulated learning (SRL) processes based on log data recorded by digital learning environments have attracted increasing attention. However, researchers have also recognised that simple navigational log data or time spent on pages are often not fine-grained enough to study complex SRL processes. Recent advances in data-capturing technologies enabled researchers to go beyond simple navigational logs to measure SRL processes with multi-channel data. What multi-channel data can reveal about SRL processes, and to what extent can the addition of peripheral and eye-tracking data with navigational log data change and improve the measurement of SRL are key questions that require further investigation. Hence, we conducted a study and collected learning trace data generated by 25 university students in a laboratory setting, that aimed to address this problem by enhancing navigational log data with peripheral and eye-tracking data. We developed a trace-based measurement protocol of SRL, which interpreted raw trace data from multi-channel data into SRL processes. Specifically, the study compared the frequency and duration of SRL processes detected, how much duration and times of occurrences of the detected SRL processes were affected or refined. We also used a process mining technique to analyses how temporal sequencing of the detected SRL processes changed by enriching navigational log data with peripheral and eye-tracking data. The results revealed that by adding new data channels, we improved the capture of learning actions and detected SRL processes while enhancing the granularity of the measurement. In comparison to the use of navigational logs only, the completeness of temporal sequencing relationships between SRL processes with multi-channel data improved. In addition, we concluded that eye-tracking data is valuable for measuring and extracting SRL processes, and it should receive more attention in the future.
Chapter
This chapter presents procedures for developing and validating two measurements informed by SRL theory: Writing Strategies for Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire (WSSRLQ) and Second-Language Writer Self-efficacy Scale (L2WSS). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to evaluate a hypothesised multi-dimensional model of SRL strategies in the WSSRLQ. The quantitative results validated a nine-factor correlated structure under the four dimensions of SRL strategies including cognition, metacognition, social behaviour and motivational regulation. The second part of this chapter illustrates the procedures undertaken to validate the L2WSS. EFA and CFA results confirmed the proposed three-dimensional structure of writing self-efficacy, including linguistic self-efficacy, self-regulatory efficacy and performance self-efficacy. Statistical analyses suggest that the two newly-developed measurements are reliable and valid tools to be used in L2 writing.
Thesis
Full-text available
Metacognition plays a significant role in the discussion of reading comprehension. Good readers are distinguished by their abilities to use metacognitive skills in planning, monitoring, and evaluating their comprehension. Numerous research studies have demonstrated that metacognitive skill and reading comprehension have a positive and interdependent relationship. The purpose of the present study was to examine primary and secondary research on metacognition and its effects on English reading outcomes. Fifteen articles containing seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. The results indicated that metacognition has a positive impact on reading comprehension for both typical literacy learners and d/Dhh literacy leaners, regardless of hearing loss level, grade placement, communication method, and other factors.
Article
Full-text available
z Günümüz bilgi çağında, yaşam boyu öğrenme kavramının ön plana çıkmasıyla birlikte bireyler okul içinde ve dışında kendi öğrenmelerini sağlama ve düzenleme gerekliliğini hissetmektedirler. Bireylerin kendi öğrenmelerini sağlama ve düzenleme gereksinimi ise öz düzenlemeye dayalı öğrenme kavramını ortaya çıkarmıştır. Bu çalışma, ortaokul 6.sınıf öğrencilerinin yazma becerilerinin geliştirilmesinde Öz Düzenleme Stratejisi Gelişimi Modeli'ne dayalı eğitimin etkisini araştırmak amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. ÖDSG öğretimi altı basamaktan oluşur ve yazma stratejilerinin öğretiminde etkin bir şekilde kullanılabilir. Ön bilgileri harekete geçirme, stratejiyi tartışma, model olma, stratejiyi ezberleme, stratejiyi destekleme ve bağımsız yazma basamaklarının takip edilmesiyle yapılan çalışma, öğrencilerin bağımsız bir şekilde strateji kullanabilmelerini sağlar. Bu araştırmada öntest-sontest, kontrol gruplu yarı deneysel yöntem kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, iki devlet ortaokulunda öğrenim görmekte olan 60 öğrenci oluşturmaktadır. Katılımcıların yer aldığı 2 şubenin deney ve kontrol grubu olarak belirlenmesi seçkisiz bir şekilde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma verilerinin toplanmasında ve değerlendirilmesinde Üstbilişsel Yazma Stratejileri Farkındalık Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde SPSS 24 paket programından yararlanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda, öz düzenlemeye dayalı yazma eğitiminin öğrencilerin üstbilişsel yazma farkındalık düzeylerini olumlu etkilediği görülmektedir. Abstract In today's information age, with the concept of lifelong learning coming to the fore, individuals feel the need to provide and organize their learning in and out of school. The individuals' necessity to provide and regulate their learning has revealed the concept of self-regulated learning. We carried out this study to investigate the effect of education based on the Self-Regulation Strategy Development Model on the writing skills" development of 6th-grade secondary school students. Teaching SRSD consists of six steps used effectively in teaching writing strategies. Following the steps of activating prior knowledge, discussing, modeling, memorizing the strategy, and writing independently enable students to use the strategy independently. During the study, we used a pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental method. The researchers' group consists of 60 students studying at two public secondary schools. The determination of the two branches' participants took place as the experimental and control groups were carried out randomly. We used Metacognitive Writing Strategies Awareness Scale to collect and of research data evaluation. SPSS's twenty-four package program was used in the analysis of the data. In conclusion, self-regulated writing education affects students' metacognitive writing awareness levels positively. Atıf İçin / Please Cite As: Türkben, T. (2022). Öz düzenleme stratejisi gelişimi öğretiminin ortaokul öğrencilerinin üstbilişsel yazma farkındalıklarına etkisi. Manas Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 11(2), 555-571.
Article
Full-text available
The topic of how students become self-regulated as learners has attracted researchers for decades. Initial attempts to measure self-regulated learning (SRL) using questionnaires and interviews were successful in demonstrating significant predictions of students’ academic outcomes. The present article describes the second wave of research, which has involved the development of online measures of self-regulatory processes and motivational feelings or beliefs regarding learning in authentic contexts. These innovative methods include computer traces, think-aloud protocols, diaries of studying, direct observation, and microanalyses. Although still in the formative stage of development, these online measures are providing valuable new information regarding the causal impact of SRL processes as well as raising new questions for future study.
Article
We examined achievement goals measured by self-reports and by traces (behavioral indicators) gathered as undergraduates used software tools to study a multimedia-formatted article. Traces were operationalized by tags participants applied to selections of text and hyperlinks they clicked in the article. Tags and hyperlinks were titled to represent achievement goal orientations. Self-reported goal orientations did not correlate with goals traced as actions. In separate regression models, traces of goal orientations were stronger predictors of achievement than self reports. We suggest future research include traces in studies of achievement goals because traces reflect proximal events that comprise learning activities that can supplement static orientations that are operationally defined to be indifferent to the dynamics of learning activities.
Article
THIS 7-MONTH naturalistic study investigated students' reading and writing engagements as they conducted a research investigation related to World War II. Students were free to choose their research topics, to search for and to select from source materials, and to write up and present their findings in their own way. The participants were 11- and 12-year-old pupils in an open-concept school in Aberdeen, Scotland. Data took the form of fieldnotes, photocopies of research booklets and source texts, structured, unstructured, and debriefing interviews, and audio and videotapes. Ongoing data analysis led to selection of key informants whose work sampled the range of composing-from-sources processes which were apparent in this context. Three major task impressions were uncovered: research as accumulating information, research-as transferring information, and research as transforming information. These task impressions were characterized by differing emphases on the following research subtasks: planning, searching, finding, recording, reviewing, and presenting. Students did not carry out these subtasks in either a strictly linear or a strictly cyclical pattern. Task impressions were also related to the differential use of the following strategies when working from sources: duplicating, drawing, and labeling, sentence-by-sentence reworking, read/remember/write, cut-and-paste synthesis, and discourse synthesis. The task impressions and strategy use of individual students influenced and were influenced by the materials used and the social and instructional context of the classroom. Students who viewed research as a process of transforming information were more likely to demonstrate a range of strategies which allowed them to traverse their topics from multiple perspectives.
Article
Realizing the promise of software technologies in education requires thinking differently about how software simultaneously can serve research and contribute to learning. This article examines 3 axioms underlying contemporary educational psychology: Learners construct knowledge, learners are agents, and data include lots of randomness. By drawing out corollaries of these axioms, this research uncovers significant challenges researchers face in using classical forms of experimental research to build a basis for school reform and for testing school reforms using randomized field trials. This article describes a software system, gStudy, that is designed to address these challenges by gathering finer grained data that better support theorizing about the processes of learning and self-regulated learning. This research illustrates how this can be realized and suggests 10 ways that using software like gStudy can help pull up research by its bootstraps and bolster searches for what works.
Article
Self-regulated learning (SRL) with hypermedia environments involves a complex cycle of temporally unfolding cognitive and metacognitive processes that impact students’ learning. We present several methodological issues related to treating SRL as an event and strengths and challenges of using online trace methodologies to detect, trace, model, and foster students’ SRL processes. We first describe a scenario illustrating the complex nature of SRL processes during learning with hypermedia. We provide our theoretically driven assumptions regarding the use of several cognitive methodologies, including concurrent think aloud protocols, and provide several examples of empirical evidence regarding the advantages of treating SRL as an event. Last, we discuss challenges for measuring cognitive and metacognitive processes in the context of MetaTutor, an intelligent adaptive hypermedia learning environment. This discussion includes the roles of pedagogical agents in goal-generation, multiple representations, agent-learner dialogue, and a system's ability to detect, track, and model SRL processes during learning.
Article
People's judgments about how well they have learned and comprehended text materials can be important for effectively regulating learning, but only if those judgments are accurate. Over two decades of research examining judgments of text learning—or metacomprehension—has consistently demonstrated that people's judgment accuracy is quite poor. We review recent research that has shown some success in improving judgment accuracy and then argue that the most common method used to investigate metacomprehension accuracy may inadvertently constrain it. We describe a new method that sidesteps some problems of the older method and present evidence showing how people can achieve high levels of metacomprehension accuracy.