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Creating Value with Diverse Teams in Global Management

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Abstract

Describes a set of skills and principles that turn culturally diverse teams from destroyers or mediocre performers into sustaining value creators. The Map-Bridge-Integrate (MBI) approach is presented to identify and develop an operating mode that unlocks each team's own potential. To map, teams use objective means to describe their cultural differences and apply this understanding to explain past incidents and set up future expectations. To bridge, team members communicate carefully, taking others' cultural backgrounds into account and adapting their own behavior to the team. To integrate, team members manage the team's interaction so that relevant information emerges, conflicts are resolved, and ideas evolve and are built upon. It is argued that in each of these steps, cultural differences can both hinder processes and enhance results. It is concluded that the final outcome is the creation and execution of unique and innovative solutions to complex organizational challenge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Our contention is, therefore, that even if the R&D team is composed entirely of researchers, insofar as they belong to different organizations, they may embed sharply diverse institutional backgrounds. If team members differ significantly in terms of their values, teamwork becomes more complicated (DiStefano & Maznevski, 2000). Researchers inevitably differ in their cultural characteristics (Hoppe, 1993), and the teams they comprise can either overcome or leverage their cultural differences to createor destroyvalue (Ambos & Schlegelmilch, 2004;DiStefano & Maznevski, 2000). ...
... If team members differ significantly in terms of their values, teamwork becomes more complicated (DiStefano & Maznevski, 2000). Researchers inevitably differ in their cultural characteristics (Hoppe, 1993), and the teams they comprise can either overcome or leverage their cultural differences to createor destroyvalue (Ambos & Schlegelmilch, 2004;DiStefano & Maznevski, 2000). ...
... Team members interact on the basis of their own cultural values and norms, which are often tacit and difficult for people from a different culture to understand. Cultural differences inevitably hinder smooth interactions (DiStefano & Maznevski, 2000). ...
Article
Collaboration is a key to success. Nonetheless, collaboration dynamics are affected by partner compatibility, which, in turn, is strongly affected by team member diversity. Studies on team diversity have shown significant variation in the magnitude, significance, and causal direction of the correlations. We examine how international R&D teams collaborate, investigating the impact of team diversity on innovation. We focus on institutional diversity to analyze how, together with the duration of the collaboration, it affects innovation outcomes. We argue that institutional diversity hampers effective knowledge sharing and negatively affects innovation outcomes. However, this negative effect is mitigated by the duration of the R&D collaboration. The longer the diverse actors collaborate, the more likely they are to overcome the barriers of institutional diversity and find effective modes of collaboration for knowledge transfer and innovation. We test our hypotheses in the context of 3,658 clinical trial projects conducted between 2001 and 2015.
... Also, the advancement of technology is seen as a tool to enhance people to connect and interact across the world, as well as facilitate organisation to find the employees or team members with expertise in the area the organisation needs. Thus, the company should develop the global mindset to take advantage of a diversified workforce (DiStefano and Maznevski, 2000;Cohen, 2010). ...
... Those studies examined the relationships between cultural diversity and team performance through various mediators that have presented both the opportunities and challenges for the company. As multicultural teams become important to the organisations, challenges for working as a team are created (De Dreu et al., 1999;Wall and Callister, 1995;DiStefano and Maznevski, 2000;Jones et al., 2020). ...
... Besides, a study explored three different kinds of team diversity's effects on team outcomes with two moderators including task type and task interdependence. Informational diversity and social category diversity tended to have a positive notion to team whereas the value diversity indicated the decrease in team satisfaction and performance (Jehn et al., 1999;DiStefano and Maznevski, 2000). ...
Article
Team performance is key in each organisation. Hence, cultural effects in teams are a relevant matter of subject clarifying the ambiguous findings from previous research. With this background, we investigate how the macro-constructs of conflict, communication effectiveness, social integration, creativity and satisfaction interact with cultural diversity on team performance in an environment characterised by a largely homogeneous and ethnic workforce. We test our hypotheses on a sample of firms in Thailand. Our results indicate that creativity and satisfaction have a significant positive impact on team performance whereas cultural diversity has a significant positive impact on influencing conflict in a team-based environment. However, cultural diversity has no significant impact on communication effectiveness and social integration, and it has no significant impact on team performance. The key theoretical contributions from our study are that cultural diversity can contribute to conflict even in a team composition that is seemingly cohesive and homogeneous in nature. Further, our study establishes that creativity and satisfaction have a positive effect on team performance even in the context of a homogeneous and ethnically majority-based team. For the practitioners, the results of the study indicate that initial actions need to be taken by the leaders of multicultural teams as they create teams to avoid the initial pitfalls due to conflict.
... Multinational teams of all shapes and sizes are often seen to be at the 'heart' of globalization (Snow, Snell, Canney Davison, & Hambrick, 1996) and an attractive way of organizing a specialized workforce. However, although global teamwork is highly useful for many international business endeavors, such teams do not always deliver as expected (Distefano & Maznevski, 2000;. For example, Govindarajan and Gupta (2001) found that only 18 percent of the 70 multinational teams they studied were successful and as much as one-third were considered unsuccessful -a fairly typical distribution of organizational outcomes of such teams (Zander and Butler, 2010). ...
... The new challenge brought by globalization is the existence of a multitude of different simultaneous boundaries (both in terms of number and variety) and the necessity to deal with them not only in team-internal but also in team-external interactions. As external interactions are characterized by less frequency, less rich communication channels and delayed feedback as compared to teaminternal interactions, communication issues become amplified and more difficult to overcome (Distefano & Maznevski, 2000;Maznevski & Chudoba, 2000). ...
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In this chapter we suggest that globalization of businesses brings with it three new challenges that teams need to face. These include an increase in the number of internal and external stakeholders to manage; the need to interact across more and different types of boundaries; and an increasing necessity to integrate local responsiveness and global coordination. We focus on how these new globalization challenges impact teams in general and team leadership in particular, and how team leaders can make a difference by developing specific capabilities to address them
... • No antecedents or antecedents of hostile relations • Antecedents of positive relations Hindering Enabling [22][23][24][32][33][34] Characteristics of stakeholders and quality of their relationship Diversity of stakeholders Enabling/hindering [3,[35][36][37][38][39] Attitude of stakeholders Enabling/hindering [7,40,41] Leadership Enabling [20,22,27,36,[42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49] The contextual conditions refer to the set of specific or unique circumstances or factors that may influence the inception and trajectory of a co-creation process, thus becoming either resources or liabilities during collaboration [7,22,26]. Regarding this, literature [23][24][25] suggests that a crisis situation, triggered by turbulent environments and events, or by the failure of an actor or sector to solve a problem independently, leads to a shared sense of urgency that stimulates those affected to work together for finding a solution. ...
... However, diversity can impede, in the advanced stages of the co-creation process, on consensus building due to problems of communication, which result in a lack of cohesiveness of the group, conflicts, and a negative atmosphere [36,37]. Hence, DiStefano and Maznevski concluded that "diverse teams tend to perform either better or worse than homogeneous ones, with more performing worse than better" [39] (p. 45). ...
Article
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In recent decades, stakeholder engagement had been gaining momentum in planning practice. More recently, at the heart of the discussions about collaborative endeavours stands the concept of co-creation, an umbrella term for multiple forms of collaboration between stakeholders, which is seen as an approach for fostering new and innovative solutions for highly complex challenges. Despite this idyllic representation, co-creation does not always lead to positive outcomes. One reason is that co-creation poses major operationalization challenges, which make it a significant subject for research. In this article, we explore the conditions that allow co-creation practices aimed at fostering innovation and creativity in infrastructure projects to take place and flourish. Based on the review of literature on co-creation, on the analysis of project-related documents, and on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with the stakeholders, this article follows the co-creation process of the Overdiepse polder project, part of the innovative Dutch water management programme ‘Room for the River’. The results show that co-creation is an iterative process that depends on conditions related to the context, the characteristics of the stakeholders and their relationships, but also on the design and dynamics of the process. The results of this study can be of help to researchers, academics, and professionals interested in studying or applying co-creative approaches.
... Teamwork activities are in increasing demand in industry and education because modern tasks and products are more complicated than before and companies need effective collaboration in their teams to meet their goals [1]- [5]. Teams whose members are dependent of each other in their goals and tasks perform better than individuals [6]- [8]. Working in teams has the potential to provide a higher level of diversity, and teammates could learn from each other and exchange more opinions [3]. ...
Conference Paper
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To achieve the benefit of the growing emphasis on teamwork in engineering courses, it is important to improve how student teams are managed. A prominent way to promote social constructive collaboration is the use of peer evaluations, which enable engineering students to learn from feedback provided from other team members to improve their performance in teams. In this work, we studied the effect of repeated use of a peer evaluation system over time in multiple classes on the quality of peer evaluations in a course late in the students’ program. Specifically, we studied the repeated use of the Comprehensive Assessment of Teamwork Effectiveness (CATME) peer evaluation system in a senior level civil engineering course in an Australian University using MANCOVA. Teams whose members had longer team tenure— based on completing more surveys or having more experience in prior teams using CATME— provide more consistent ratings of teammates. This adds to the body of evidence that the quality of ratings improves with repeated use of a peer rating system. We suggest that curriculum decision-makers adapt more widespread use of peer evaluation in courses that involve teamwork to encourage students to develop the valuable skill at providing feedback to peers, which in turn will promote the improvement of team skills.
... In line with Stahl and Tung (2015), we use the Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS) perspective (Dutton, Glynn, and Spreitzer 2008) that views cultural diversity as an asset for global organizations (DiStefano and Maznevski 2000;. Only few empirical studies address the positive effect of cultural diversity on team innovation (Lisak et al. 2016;Stahl, M€ akel€ a, et al. 2010), even fewer have examined the mechanisms that enable any positive effect of culturally diverse teams ; van Knippenberg, De Dreu, and Homan 2004). ...
Article
In this study, we investigated the conditions for successful collaboration in culturally diverse teams from a Positive Organizational Scholarship perspec- tive. As a result of globalization, organizations increasingly rely on cultur- ally diverse teams. Based on 19 semi-structured interviews with international managers of a large German car manufacturer, we analyzed how these teams work together and which factors promote collaboration. Our findings result in a new framework for understanding culturally diverse teams, which indicates that agile team behavior is an important factor for performance in culturally diverse teams. Agile forms of collaboration enable better adaption to change through iterative learning processes. Agile methods have strong structural elements, but in between, allow the greatest possible scope for continuous adjustment. These structuring and flexible elements seem to meet the requirements of culturally diverse teams in particular. The minimal structure provides the opportunity to bring in all perspectives and views of a culturally diverse team. In addition, we confirm the influence of well-studied factors such as openness, per- spective taking and leadership behavior. Our findings help to further sharpen the understanding of culturally diverse teams and point to a fruit- ful future research direction on agile behavior and cultural diversity in teams.
... Most studies confirm that diversity has an effect although oftentimes described as a doubleedged sword: On the one hand, more perspectives and a broader pool of knowledge can be accessed. On the other hand, diversity leads to communication problems, weaker team cohesion and more conflict (Milliken and Martins, 1996;Cady and Valentine, 1999;Distefano and Maznevski, 2000;Mannix and Neale, 2005;Leung and Wang, 2015). This is why most authors conclude that team diversity requires facilitation -what is in line with a today's understanding of managing diversity. ...
Conference Paper
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The following paper describes a systematic literature review with the purpose of evaluating the empirical evidence of the assumption that culturally diverse teams are more creative and innovative than more homogeneous ones. It was found that both quantitative and qualitative studies have proven that cultural diversity has got an impact on creativity and innovativeness. However, cultural diversity in itself does not necessarily lead to increased creativity. Additional personal factors like openness as well as organizational factors like supporting strategies are needed and have to be managed in order to benefit from diversity. Due to the research design of this review, it resulted in a narrow selection of empirical studies. Nevertheless, evidence could be broadened by conducting more studies with a focus on cultural diversity in innovation teams and its interdependencies with other influencing factors.
... As Joseph Distefano pointed out, diverse teams typically perform worse or better than homogeneous teams and better performance for diverse teams is conditioned on proper management and training because "Compared to homogeneous teams they (multicultural team) can be more creative, generate more and better alternatives to problems, and generate more and better criteria for evaluating alternatives". [1] It implies that if a team has more complexly cultural background, then the team has greater potential to produce better outcome. One important aspect to achieve better performance is that each team members have good teamwork behaviors as the prerequisite to ensure a functioning team. ...
Conference Paper
This Teaching and Learning Experiences in Engineering Education work-in-progress paper examines cultural influences on engineering student teamwork and peer assessment behavior. Teamwork skills are considered an important competency of engineering students and a learning objective of ABET. Students from all over the world come to developed countries like the U.S., U.K., and Australia for their college education and more than one fifth of these students major in engineering disciplines. These non-domestic or international students possess unique cultures and their unique cultures potentially impact their cross-cultural interactions. For example, working in a team context often requires communication and collaborative behavior with team members. If these cultural differences influence team interactions, they potentially impact a team’s engineering problem solving and design processes and their teamwork peer assessment behavior. In this research study we focus on the teamwork and peer assessment behavior of a large sample of first year engineering students from China, India and South Korea [T3] as compared to domestic [U.S.] students both matriculating in a large Midwestern U.S. engineering program. Our Research questions is: do teams of four students containing one or more T3 students have, on average, different peer rating behavior and comment pattern from teams containing only domestic students?
... In addition, while traditional pharma projects employ highly qualified specialists, OSP promotes diversity of research resources, bringing together individuals from different geographical regions and educational backgrounds. Diversity may drive up performance because product targets would be validated among a wide community of students, researchers and practitioners (DiStefano & Maznevski, 2000). ...
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RESUMO A Open Source Pharma (OSP) é uma forma inovadora de realinhar a pesquisa farmacêutica com as demandas em saúde, em particular na busca de soluções para doenças infecciosas relacionadas à pobreza. A OSP significa a colaboração aberta, o acesso aberto a dados e outros resultados, e as licenças abertas para compartilhamento e distribuição de resultados de pesquisa. O artigo apresenta uma análise exploratória das práticas atuais e dos modelos de negócios adotados pela OSP a partir da revisão da literatura e de uma entrevista aprofundada com Matthew Todd, líder do projeto Open Source Malaria. Concluímos que a OSP pode se tornar uma alternativa de trabalho mais promissora do que a indústria farmacêutica tradicional, quando recebem apoio de políticas públicas, de modo que os seus benefícios possam se tornar plenamente visíveis. Palavras-chave: Open Source Pharma; Doenças Infecciosas Relacionadas à Pobreza; Ciência Aberta; Saúde Pública; Descoberta de Drogas. ABSTRACT Open Source Pharma (OSP) stands out as an innovative way to re-align pharmaceutical research with health needs, in particular to find solutions to poverty-related infectious diseases. OSP means open collaboration, to open access to data and other results, and open licenses for sharing and distribution of research outcomes. This paper provides an exploratory analysis of OSP current practices and business models, based on literature review and one in-depth interview with Matthew Todd, leader of the Open Source Malaria project. We claim that OSP may become a working and more promising alternative to traditional pharma as long as it is supported by public policy so as to fully emerge and visibilise its benefits. Keywords: Open Source Pharma; Poverty-related infectious diseases; open science; public health; drug discovery.
... Other teams acknowledged that cultural differences within their teams had surfaced at an early stage but that, over time, these differences had been resolved and equalised ('equalisers'). While other teams had explicitly recognised and even nurtured diversity to leverage differences into creative and innovative solutions ('creators') (DiStefano and Maznevski 2000). ...
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In the 21stcentury, business engagements are becoming increasingly global, and global teams are now an established form of organising work in multinational organisations. As a result, managing cultural diversity within a global team has become an essential part of ensuring motivation, creativity, innovation and efficiency in today’s business world. Global teams are typically composed of a diversity of experiences, frames of references, competencies, information and, not least, cultural backgrounds. As such, they hold a unique potential for delivering high performance in terms of innovative and creative approaches to global management tasks; however, instead of focusing on the potentials of cultural diversity, practitioners and studies of global teams tend to approach cultural diversity as a barrier to team success. This study explores some of the barriers that cultural diversity poses but also discusses its potential to leverage high performance in a global context. Our study highlights the importance of how team leaders and team members perceive ‘culture’ as both a concept and a social practice. We take issue with a notion of culture as a relatively fixed and homogeneous set of values, norms and attitudes shared by people of national communities; it is such a notion of culture that tends to underlie understandings that highlight the irreconcilability of cultural differences. Applying a more dynamic and context-dependent approach to culture as a meaning system that people negotiate and use to interpret the world, this study explores how global leadership teams can best reap the benefits of cultural diversity in relation to specific challenging areas of intercultural team work, such as leadership style, decision making, relationship building, strategy process, and communication styles. Based on a close textual interpretation of31 semi-structured interviews with members of global leadership teams in eight Danish-owned global companies, our study identified different discourses and perceptions of culture and cultural diversity. For leaders of the global leadership teams (Danish/European) and other European team members, three understandings of cultural diversity in their global teams were prominent: 1) Cultural diversity was not an issue 2) Cultural diversity was acknowledged as mainly a liability. Diversities were expressed through a difference in national cultures and could typically be subsumed under a relatively fixed number of invariable and distinct characteristics. 3) Cultural diversity was an asset and expressions of culture had to be observed in the situation and could not simply be derived from prior understandings of cultural differences. A clear result of our study was that those leaders of global teams who drew on discourses of the Asian ‘Other’ adherred to the first two understandings of cultural diversity and preferred leadership styles that were either patriarchal or self-defined as ‘Scandinavian’. Whereas those leaders who drew on discourses of culture as dynamic and negotiated social practices adhered to the third understanding of cultural diversity and preferred a differentiated and analytical approach to leading their teams. We also focused on the perceptions of team members with a background in the country in which the global teams were co-located. These ‘local’ team members expressed a nuanced and multifaceted perspective on their own cultural background, the national culture of the company, and their own position within the team, which enabled them to easily navigate between essentialist perceptions of culture while maintaining a critical stance on the existing cultural hegemonies. They recognised the value of their local knowledge and language proficiency, but, for those local members in teams with a negative or essentialist view of cultural diversity, it was difficult to obtain recognition of their cultural styles and specific, non-local competences. Our study suggests that the way global team members perceive culture, based on dominant societal discourses of culture, significantly affects the understandings of roles and positions in global leadership teams. We found that discourses on culture were used to explain differences and similarities between team members, which profoundly affected the social practices and dynamics of the global team. We conclude that only global teams with team leaders who are highly aware of the multiple perspectives at play in different contexts within the team hold the capacity to be alert to cultural diversity and to demonstrate agility in leveraging differences and similarities into inclusive and dynamic team practices.
... This is an important tool for helping to understand and resolve cultural misunderstandings. Map, Bridge, Integrate (MBI) was developed by Distefano and Maznevski (2000) and goes through a number of stages to help identify and resolve cultural misunderstandings, as follows. ...
Article
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As the economy globalises the concept of cultural training in business needs a rethink. As this paper explains, the key change is that every area of business increasingly involves multinationals, making the cultural analysis of countries as independent entities increasingly irrelevant. Cultural trainers are having to think in different terms in training businesses to improve performance in new markets, overseas branches, multinational teams, joint ventures and international mergers and acquisitions and above all to create trust. This change is presenting the models developed by thinkers like Hofstede, Trompenaars, Lewis and Meyer in a different light, placing emphasis on the concepts they have developed rather than the countries they apply them to. This paper explores how cultural concepts can be applied to business and suggests practical training activities to raise cultural awareness and improve business performance. The author concludes that cultural training is an aspect of management training, not an extension of language training, although under- standing something about the language and even speaking it is important in avoiding misunderstandings and communication breakdown.
... The practice of redesigning and monitoring NCs' job and teams relates to the efficient management of multicultural, diverse teams [62,63]. In the WL context, it is not uncommon for expatriates' job description to be altered to include training their national replacements [28]. ...
Article
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This paper addresses a key social–cultural aspect of sustainability in the Gulf region: Workforce localization (WL). Our research objective is to empirically explore organizational socialization (OS) practices in the context of WL in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where National Citizens (NCs) are a powerful minority in the workforce. This research adopts a qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews with managers in charge of the WL program in 14 organizations in the UAE, across different industrial sectors and ownership. We found five major OS practices: Establishing thorough orientation programs, providing formal training programs (skills, diversity/cultural awareness, supervisor, mentoring and coaching team building), redesigning NCs’ jobs and work teams, engaging expatriates in NCs’ OS processes, and organizing networking events. All organizations rigorously evaluated the effectiveness of their OS practices. This study contributes to the empirical literature on management OS, WL, and diversity management in a non-western, emerging Arab country. It contributes to theory development on the content of OS practices, showing how a minority can be a powerful group around whom socialization processes are tailored to integrate them fully into the organization. Practically, our findings inform managers of how to adapt their existing OS practices to the specific needs of minority members, and support Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)-based organizations and policymakers with the design, monitoring, and implementation of WL programs, and with the development of a sustainable workforce.
... For instance, virtuality in itself is a context of specific importance. Many researchers argue that virtual communication can exacerbate the challenges of intercultural communication (Distefano & Maznevski, 2000;Holtbrügge, Weldon, & Rogers, 2013), thus requiring even more sensitivity and attention to cultural and contextual dynamics. Yet again, current research in this domain focuses predominantly on the impact of cultural values on communicative behaviors and the core behavioral repertoire for effective communication in virtual work (Abugre, 2018;Holtbrügge et al., 2013;Jarvenpaa & Leidner, 1999;Zakaria, Amelinckx, & Wilemon, 2004). ...
Article
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The centrality of communication in international business (IB) is undeniable; yet our understanding of the phenomenon is partially constrained by a cross-cultural comparative focus as opposed to intercultural, process-oriented research designs that capture the dynamic nature of communicative interactions. Our brief review of studies at the intersection of culture and communication in the context of global work interactions reveals the dominant research trends that guided IB scholarship to date in this domain. We propose eight shifts in perspective to advance the field’s theorizing and create avenues for further research.
... En dehors des nécessités pragmatiques de l'internationalisation, cette formation d'équipe au sein de l'entreprise repose sur le postulat selon lequel les groupes pluriculturels trouvent des solutions diversifiées aux problèmes en raison de leurs points de vue et styles de travail différents. Ils travaillent ainsi de manière plus productive que les équipes monoculturelles (Adler et Gundersen, 2008 ;DiStefano et Maznevski, 2000 ;Stumpf, 2003). La divergence de principes, de valeurs et de styles de travail peut cependant mener à des disfonctionnements et des pertes de productivité (Barmeyer et Davoine, 2005) ; cela concerne en particulier les principes et attentes des participants: les collaborateurs d'un pays ont une conception, à leurs yeux, évidente du travail en équipe, de la collaboration, du projet, du leadership, etc., qu'ils considèrent comme 'normale' et 'correcte' et suivant laquelle ils adaptent -inconsciemment -leur comportement. ...
... There are many benefits to GVTs, including enhanced task focus (Miloslavic et al., 2015), greater problem solving (DiStefano & Maznevski, 2000), and greater learning (Reyt & Wiesenfeld, 2015). Moreover, this crisis has also under scored the importance of the boundary-spanning role that GVTs can play in a virtually connected, yet physically distant, world. ...
... Managing cross-border work teams, working effectively in a multicultural environment, or adjusting to a foreign culture while delivering the same work performance is a challenging life situation. Due to the effects of globalisation, more and more international companies employ culturally diverse teams, and due to technological advancements, these groups often no longer even work physically in the same space, making it even more challenging to cooperate (Distefano and Maznevski, 2000;Han and Beyerlein, 2016). Different habits, value systems, or even rules for expressing emotions can make cooperation significantly more difficult and cause many conflicts (Ayoko and Konrad, 2012). ...
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As a result of globalisation, a significant proportion of companies operate across borders and in many cases, work communities are also organised from workers with diverse cultural backgrounds. Due to the intensive flow of services, goods and labour, and cultural differences, conflicts can arise, and these tensions can negatively affect people and organisations' well-being and performance. Nowadays, cultural knowledge and intercultural competencies are more appreciated and highly requested by most employers.The younger generations (Generation Z and Millennials) were born into cultural diversity and have broad mobility possibilities to deepen their intercultural competencies, but the older generations in Hungary had more limited mobility opportunities. Cultural intelligence (CQ), which is the ability to adapt to different intercultural interactions effectively, can be developed effortlessly by spending extended periods abroad. High CQ results in better interpersonal relationships and work performance in culturally diverse environments. Cultural intelligence is a widely researched field within the managerial studies, but most studies focus on international students, young business students and sojourners. Thus, our primary goal was to explore not just the adolescents and young professionals, but the middle-aged and seniors as well.This quantitative study aimed to explore Hungarian generations' cultural intelligence and find possible connections between cultural intelligence and overseas exposure/mobility program participation. To answer our research questions, we analysed the total and dimensional CQ scores of 329 Hungarian respondents and compared the results based on participation in different mobility programs, length and frequency of cultural exposure.
... Indeed, a growing body of research finds that team diversity can improve team performance (e.g., Earley and Mosakowski, 2000), in particular via increased creativity ) and innovation ( Lisak et al., 2016). Indeed, diverse backgrounds of team members can create value by allowing for diversity of perspectives and adaptability, which, in turn, allows for tapping a wider range of information sources, feeding off more networks, and thus aiding creativity and problem solving (DiStefano and Maznevski, 2000;Ng and Tung, 1998). ...
Article
Global Virtual Team (GVT) member diversity provides many advantages but also poses many challenges. Diversity comes in different forms that each has different effects on GVT dynamics and performance. Past research typically explored the effect of only one type of diversity at a time. Using multi-source, multi-wave data from 5728 individuals working in 804 consulting project GVTs, the present study is unique in that it explores and compares the effects of different forms of team member diversity on different aspects of GVT effectiveness in a single sample. It proposes a refined theoretical model that differentiates between the effects of personal versus contextual diversity and articulates how these distinct forms of diversity affect different aspects of GVT effectiveness (i.e., task outcomes versus psychological outcomes). The results reveal that (1) team member diversity in general has a substantial effect on GVT effectiveness; (2) contextual diversity has a positive effect on task outcomes; and (3) personal diversity has a negative effect on psychological outcomes. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
... Moreover, the cultural effect construct by Kogut and Singh (1988) has been undertaken in IJV research in several dispositions when firms enter new markets (Beugelsdijk et al., 2017(Beugelsdijk et al., & 2018Kirkman et al., 2006). In general, previous studies report that cultural characteristics significantly influence team psychology and processes that result in different team performances and outcomes (Brett et al., 2006;Mannix & Neale, 2005;Earley & Gibson, 2002;DiStefano & Maznevski, 2000). Consistent with these studies, Hypothesis One is constructed to explore this topic: ...
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This research investigates the effects of cultural characteristics, awareness of international joint venture (IJV) importance, commitment, and team commonality on team and IJV performances. This study employs a database of IJV firms from the Thailand Board of Investment and an original survey conducted of IJV top managers via a mailed questionnaire. Data was analyzed using ordinary least square regression. The results indicate that the cultural characteristics of IJV managers have no significant effect on the awareness of IJV importance while individualism and power distance show significant effects on commitment. Also, uncertainty avoidance and power distance exhibit a significant positive impact on team performance. Subsequently, IJV importance awareness mediates between commitment and cultural characteristics to some degree, while individualism and power distance significantly alter commitment. In addition, uncertainty avoidance and power distance exhibit a significant positive impact on team performance, while team commonality reveals no moderating effect.
... Studies have shown that how diversity is managed and the impact of process variables (e.g. creativity, cohesion, conflict) and context factors (e.g., team tenure, complexity of the task, team's geographical cohesion) influence whether and how diversity impacts the group's performance (DiStefano and Maznevski 2000;Stahl and Maznevski 2021). Furthermore, there are naturally several kinds of nuances regarding what the negative or positive impact is depending on the context. ...
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Diversity have become a desired value in sport organizations. However, regardless of the aspiration towards more gender diverse leadership, women leaders remain a minority. Diversity and its impact on group performance has also increased interest among scholars. Building on information/decision-making theory and the concept of the right fit, this paper introduces a new theoretical model that sheds light on the contradiction of gender-biased recruitment/selection processes in sports organization boards and the impact of diversity on organizational outcomes. The model is partly tested with survey data from the Finnish National Governing Bodies of Sport (NGBs). This paper shows that, because of the gender-biased recruitment/selection process, the benefits of gender-diverse organization boards may not be fully actualized, which not only affects the functioning of sports organizations, but may also limit women’s inclusion on sports organization boards.
... As mentioned earlier, project-related group work is a popular pedagogical model within engineering education, and students are often expected to complete group assignments as part of the course grade. Although there are sound pedagogical reasons for group work, it can provide challenges for all students, but even more so, the more diverse the groups become (Distefano and Maznevski 2000;Poort, Jansen, and Hofman 2018). Many studies, predominantly from the UK, USA, and Australia, have outlined the advantages and disadvantages of IGW in higher education (see Spencer-Oatey and Dauber 2017 for an overview), with a general consensus that though it provides students with valuable real-life skills and experiences, there are a number of issues that can arise. ...
... In business, increasingly, our global economy depends on the functioning of highly diverse teams. In some cases, culturally homogenous groups have been shown to be more productive than culturally heterogenous ones (DiStefano and Maznevski, 2000). These productivity gaps arise from barriers to shared understanding and failures to competently tap into the range of valuable skills that diverse groups offer (DiStefano, 2003). ...
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There has been an increasing degree of internationalization of several higher education institutions mainly under the ERASMUS context. Those mobility programs bring important gains in terms of students' competences to the Higher Education Institutions and to the employers, but there are also many constraints associated with the student's mobility process. The Setubal Brand Management is a multicultural pedagogical project that also promotes interpersonal skills and encourages a greater integration in the region and with local students. It includes students with diverse educational and cultural backgrounds. In this chapter, several specific pedagogical approaches were taken into account, such as: development of specific contents; implementation of different team-building actions; the inclusion of facilitating elements of communication; and the constitution of multicultural groups. A critical analysis of student perceptions and the sharing of the project with colleagues and with the academic community allowed implementation of several improvements.
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As discussed in Chapter 2, organizations today face a clarion call to do more to address diversity, inclusion, and equity through renewed purpose and leadership—and these are the same elements that combine to form a Virtuous Circle that drives strong diversity performance within the organization.
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Today’s multinational enterprises (MNEs) tend to rely on high performers who are dispersed across the globe, creating the need to manage ‘virtual talent’. Virtual talent here refers to high-potential or high-performing employees in strategic roles who are part of a virtual collaboration, namely a collaboration that spans geographical boundaries and relies to a significant extent on electronic communication media. This chapter highlights the specific challenges and levers of managing talent involved in global virtual collaborations, with a special attention to distances, boundaries, and perceived proximity. It will further elaborate on particular, important issues of managing global virtual talent within MNEs. Lessons will here be drawn from case study evidence on onshore-offshore collaborations. Finally, the chapter will provide a brief outline of the emerging practices of managing ‘virtual contractors’.
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The knowledge propagated in higher educational environments provide students a shared understanding of ideas from multiple fields of knowledge, thus providing an intellectual foundation necessary for a successful professional career. The praxis of knowledge transmission in andragogical settings has been significant advances and adaptations to the needs of twenty-first century learners. However, there is a dearth of studies regarding the development of student competencies and intra-personal skills across cultural boundaries. This chapter assesses the implementation of a new methodology that promotes intercultural skills for adult students in higher education environments. Specifically, this chapter evaluates how students perceive interculturality at the university level and how they would foster the development of these particular skills given the opportunity. Results show that learner awareness regarding interculturality increases when provided the opportunity, leading to increased self-consciousness and evidencing their contribution to the development of student interculturality skills.
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This study was designed to investigate the relationship between leadership behavior and employee performance in Mogadishu. Emphasis was put on trying to establish the relationship between leadership behavior and employee performance in Mogadishu-Somalia. The study employed the use of both descriptive and correlation research design to establish the nature of the relationships. To analyze the data, the spearman correlation statistical tool was used with the aim of establishing the relationship between above variables. This formed the basis of the detailed analysis, conclusions and recommendations. The findings revealed the existence statistically significant has a positive relationship between leadership behaviour and employee performance, the study also indicate that there is a statistically significant moderate positive relationship between leadership behavior and employee performance. The basis of the findings, the researchers made the following conclusions. Telecommunication companies should provide good leadership behavior to their employee that will improve performance of employee. Telecommunication companies should provide the performance appraisal of their employees that based on their system of their promotion to better satisfactory. Telecommunication companies should promote their employee performance in order to satisfy it. Finally, telecommunication companies should supposed to not only think about resource or money but take into account that there are other factors that can effects their employee performance. Further research on human capital and employee performance.
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In this article, we summarize and review the research on teams and groups in organization settings published from January 1990 to April 1996. The article focuses on studies in which the dependent variables are concerned with various dimensions of effectiveness. A heuristic framework illustrating recent trends in the literature depicts team effectiveness as a function of task, group, and organization design factors, environmental factors, internal processes, external processes, and group psychosocial traits. The review discusses four types of teams: work, parallel, project, and management. We review research findings for each type of team organized by the categories in our heuristic framework. The article concludes by comparing the variables studied for the different types of teams, highlighting the progress that has been made, suggesting what still needs to be done, summarizing key learnings from the last six years, and suggesting areas for further research.
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The authors report on their two-year study of successful transnational teams, in which they examined how such teams are designed and managed to help their firms pursue global business strategies. Based on this study, they present a comprehensive model of team effectiveness that includes the key characteristics differentiating a transnational team from other types of work teams. The model shows how transnational teams operate—how they are staffed and led, communicate across great distances, and cope with cross-cultural issues. In closing, they describe how a company's human resources department can help an “international” or “multinational” team become a “transnational” team—one that has successfully transcended the cultural, geographic, and managerial barriers to team effectiveness.