Article

Impact of management by objectives on organizational productivity.

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Abstract

Goal setting, participation in decision making, and objective feedback have each been shown to increase productivity. As a combination of these 3 processes, management by objectives (MBO) also should increase productivity. A meta-analysis of studies supported this prediction: 68 out of 70 studies showed productivity gains, and only 2 studies showed losses. The literature on MBO indicates that various problems have been encountered with implementing MBO programs. One factor was predicted to be essential to success: the level of top-management commitment to MBO. Proper implementation starts from the top and requires both support and participation from top management. Results of the meta-analysis showed that when top-management commitment was high, the average gain in productivity was 56%. When commitment was low, the average gain in productivity was only 6%. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... The lack of upper-level support will almost certainly mean adoption failure by organizations. Rodgers and Hunter's (1991) metaanalysis found that Management-By-Objective (MBO) was most successful when the leadership had endorsed and adopted the method for themselves. MBO had declining rates of success as leadership involvement, and support waned (Rodgers & Hunter, 1991). ...
... Rodgers and Hunter's (1991) metaanalysis found that Management-By-Objective (MBO) was most successful when the leadership had endorsed and adopted the method for themselves. MBO had declining rates of success as leadership involvement, and support waned (Rodgers & Hunter, 1991). Organizational traction of the premortem and midmortem techniques can expect similar parallels. ...
Thesis
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Proactive project-risk identification and mitigation are essential project tasks that organizations sometimes struggle with and may even ignore. At project initiation, there is an idealized version of how the plan will unfold. Stakeholders may know of risks but not voice their concerns to avoid being labelled a negative influence. Risks that could have been easily identifiable and mitigated may later cause poor team performance and even complete project failure. The purpose of this Signature Project was to integrate the two concepts of prospective hindsight and punctuated equilibrium as a unique approach to project-risk management. The goal was to create a set of integrated tools that can be easily administered by a project manager while also developing a starting point for future research efforts. This study extended the value of the prospective hindsight driven premortem meeting by creating a replica “midmortem” meeting that is delivered at the temporal midpoint of a project. Executive MBA students (N=14) provided feedback on the concepts and their experiences with them. The proposed Prospective Hindsight Punctuation (PHP) framework is a practical, common-sense approach to identify and mitigate project risk. The findings from this study suggest its scalable and modular components have benefits beyond risk management. The premortem meeting may be used as a team-building exercise during project initiation while the midmortem meeting may provide additional value as a productivity management mechanism during the project’s midpoint transition. Research participants identified the length of the project and leadership support among the potential factors that may influence adoption and effectiveness. The PHP framework’s broader dissemination and application hold significant promise for individuals, consulting practices, and organizations seeking to improve their success in delivering projects and managing team development.
... Considering a team setting, Fan and G omez-Miñambres (2020) show that setting standard goals can increase team performance, especially when goals are challenging but attainable for weak-link workers. In a meta-analysis, Rodgers and Hunter (1991) find that a noncompetitive rating system in the form of Management by Objective can improve performance between 6 and 56% depending on the commitment level of managers. We contribute to this stream of research by generating insights on the performance of a non-competitive rating system as compared with a competitive rating system. ...
... Competitive Non-competitive Landy and Farr (1980) Derived Direct Siegel (1982) Paired Comparison Rodgers and Hunter (1991) Management by Objective Goffin et al. (1996); Goffin et al. (2009); Cascio and Aguinis (2018); Roch et al. (2007) Relative Absolute Wagner and Goffin (1997) Comparative Absolute Locke and Latham (2002) and lab experiments, they are therefore generally descriptive. ...
Article
Enhancing workforce performance is the key to success for professional firms. Firms often evaluate workers based on their performance compared to their peers or against an objective standard. Which of these rating systems leads to higher workforce performance? To answer this question, we construct game-theoretic models of two performance rating systems: (i) a Relative rating system where workers compete with each other for a constrained number of high ratings, and (ii) an Absolute rating system where workers are awarded high ratings by performing at or above a standard threshold. We derive the workers’ equilibrium performance as a function of their ability and the characteristics of the rating pool. From a firm’s perspective, we find that an Absolute rating system can lead to higher performance than a Relative rating system when the rating pool size is small or the workers’ cost of effort relative to their efficiency rate is low, and the reverse holds true otherwise. When considering the workers’ perspective, we find that higher ability workers prefer an Absolute system due to its predictable nature, while lower ability workers prefer a Relative system as it provides them an opportunity to outperform other workers.
... In another study of the impact of management by objectives on organizational productivity by Rodgers and Hunter (1991), MBO was concluded to effectively increase employee performance and organization productivity. The study involved reviewing 70 MBO programs and it was found that in 68 of them there were gains in organizational productivity. ...
Chapter
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Administration is part of life just as our shadows are part of us. We see this in all spheres we are involved in including the lowest level in the cycle of life which is I see as “self” first, followed by family and others. At each of these levels, whenever the need for choice, target or goal attainment comes up, it means that a core element of administration is birthed. This forms the basis of this paper, integrating the elements of proficient administration to building a vibrant library system in the public libraries of our tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The paper provides an omnibus of diverse administration aspects and the suggested one for a proficient library system. Literatures were drawn from secondary sources of data collection, such as: Books, Journals, and other relevant internet materials. It reveals some important areas of administration, centering more on developmental administration, fusing it into the library administration to create a better system in our libraries. It concludes that more concerted efforts should be geared towards creating a contemporary administrative team so as to build a formidable and actionable administration that formulates trending and pertinent policies, fast response to issues, open to embracing challenges off all sorts and innovation-inclined. Keywords: Administration, library administration, developmental administration, administrative proficiency, scope of administration
... Review organizational goal 2. Set worker objective 3. Monitor progress 4. Evaluation 5. Give reward. Another Management by objectives process developed by Rodgers & Hunter (1991) goal setting, participation in decision-making and objective feedback have each been shown to increase productivity. On the other hand, Robert Kreitner (2008) discussed about a four-step process of MBO cycle. ...
Article
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Management by Objectives (MBO) is one of the most effective performance appraisal method widely used in the organization. This study deals with the effect of Management by Objectives on performance appraisal and employee satisfaction. A self-administered questionnaire was used to judge the perception of the employees regarding MBO and its effect on their performance appraisal and employee satisfaction. The number of participants included in the survey was 60 employees from 33 commercial banks at Rajshahi Division in Bangladesh. This study aims to identify the respondent's demographic profile such as age, education, salary, and banking experience and reveals the importance of MBO on their performance appraisal and employee satisfaction. IBM SPSS v23.0 program has been used to analyze the questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, Pearson correlation analysis, and Regression analysis used to test the hypotheses. Econometric results suggest that MBO should be used as a method of performance appraisal and most of the commercial banks use Management by Objectives as an effective tool. In our correlation analysis we found performance appraisal and employee satisfaction have a significant positive relationship (r=0.715). Performance appraisal increase employee satisfaction. Employee satisfaction increase productivity and effectiveness in the organization. Proper reward mechanism increase satisfaction level of the employees.
... The linkage between performance appraisal, and employee performance has been established by several studies. A body of empirical research suggests that performance appraisals do result in increases in employee performance and productivity (Rodgers and Hunter, 1991;Schay, 1988;Taylor and Pierce, 1999). These improvements are seen to derive from the greater employee identification with and commitment to, the objectives of the organisation. ...
Thesis
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The main challenge that faces managers in all kinds of organizations is how to get maximum performance from their employees. Performance appraisal, therefore, seems to be unavoidable as it sets the tone for matching actual performance with set goals and proposing corrective actions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of performance appraisal (PA) on the performance of employees at GCB Bank, Koforidua. A descriptive study design was used for the study and a population of 80 was studied. The researchers used census and considered all the units of the population for the study. Quantitative data was collected using questionnaire and the data collected were then analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The study revealed that, 360-degree appraisal was the only appraisal method used by the Bank; the challenges faced during performance appraisal included limited appraisal time, panics/fear of low scores, lack of regular feedback, and lack of adequate corrective measures; further PA had a positive impact on performance. The study recommended that, the Bank should adopt an additional appraisal method to allow a comparative analysis which would lead to eventual variations which may need redress. Each of the PA methods has its own strengths and weaknesses and none is able to achieve the purpose of performance appraisal alone, neither is anyone able to evade all of the pitfalls, therefore the need for combination of methods. Also, feedback to performance appraisal results should be improved to help employees know their shortcoming and correct it immediately. Lastly, even though the Bank has been successful in using PA to boost performance, they should put in more effort to improve upon the effectiveness of its PA to inure to the good of employee performance.
... When the goal is assigned by a supportive authority figure, goal commitment and performance are high (Latham and Saari, 1979a ). These findings are supported by a meta -analysis that showed a 56% average gain in productivity when management commitment to a MBO program is high versus a 6% increase when their commitment is low (Rodgers and Hunter, 1991 ). Thus, it is not surprising that Bandura (see Chapter 10 ) found that a third way of increasing self -efficacy is through persuasion from a significant other. ...
Article
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Goal‐setting is among the most valid and practical theories of employee motivation. This conclusion has been reached by multiple authors working independently. The conclusion is based on the fact that the theory has been shown to predict, influence, and explain the behavior of over 40,000 people in numerous countries (e.g., Australia, Canada, the Caribbean, England, Germany, Israel, Japan, and the United States), in both laboratory and field settings, involving at least 88 different tasks in occupations that included logging, word processing, engineering, and teaching in a university. Although developed as a theory of motivation in the workplace, it has been used effectively in sport psychology. Most recently the theory has been found useful for promoting the motivational processes of brain‐injured patients.
... Empirical results of management studies show that a formal goal setting approach is helpful to reach these goals and to perform tasks properly (Locke and Latham 2002). There is also evidence that management through objectives as a combination of goal setting, participation in decision making, and objective feedback helps to reach desired goals (Drucker 2012;Rodgers and Hunter 1991). Furthermore, there is not only evidence from business research about the usefulness of goal setting but also from health services research. ...
Technical Report
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This theoretical and conceptual paper focuses on the general performance requirements for organizations in general and health care organizations (HCO) in particular. The presented model postulates general principles not only regarding different organizations but also regarding different performance goals such as quality, safety, health of employees, economic growth, change management and implementation success. In general, I focus on the social basis of collective success: the functional system requirements for the survival and flourishing of social systems. The underlying hypothesis is that if an organization lacks certain basic social properties, there will be performance problems not only in one domain but also in all other organizational domains, as long as the success depends on collective action and/or sociotechnical actions.
... Additionally, a sustainability vision must point directly at an overarching goal to be clear in approximately five minutes [5], since goal-setting has been the focus of organizational performance studies at all organizational levels [e.g., 136,91]. In field research, goal-setting was reported to render significant, positive effects on firm productivity after researchers examined the role of goal-setting in corporate planning, processes, strategy, and performance [137]. In addition, by knowing the sustainability vision and policies of the organization reflecting organizational goals [130], organizational members are equipped with a clear idea of what their organization values and what it is about [91], accentuating the need for clarity in the sustainability vision. ...
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While vision is considered as the starting point for any transformation process toward sustainability, little is known about how such a vision looks. To fill in a fundamental gap in the corporate sustainability literature, the present study advances a theory of organizational vision into a coherent theory of sustainability vision. It adopts the theory-building approaches of covering-law, enlightenment, and process by comparing and contrasting a diverse set of relevant plausible, logical, empirical, and/or epistemological conjectures so that highlighting occurs to form the substance of the refined theory. The resulting theory of sustainability vision asserts that effective sustainability visions are characterized by the seven attributes of brevity, clarity, future orientation, stability, challenge, abstractness, desirability or ability to inspire and one imagery of stakeholder satisfaction. Relevant propositions and a model are introduced for future research, followed by practical implications.
... As such, it is not surprising that in highly competitive business environments, leaders regularly focus on bottom-line outcomes as a means of ensuring organizational success and survival and creating increases in shareholder value (Cushen, 2013;Krippner, 2011). Frontline supervisors, in particular, often emphasize bottom-line attainment as a way of motivating their employees' productivity (Latham & Locke, 2007;Rodgers & Hunter, 1991;Yukl, 2013). For example, a supervisor may encourage employees to obtain high customer satisfaction ratings, to produce a certain quantity of widgets, to bill a certain number of hours, or to sell a dollar value in products because these performance metrics help the organization's financial success. ...
Article
Given that many organizations are competitive and finance centered, organizational leaders may lead with a primary focus on bottom-line attainment, such that they are perceived by their subordinates as having a bottom-line mentality (BLM) that entails pursuing bottom-line outcomes above all else. Yet, the field is limited in understanding why such a leadership approach affects employees’ positive and negative contributions in the workplace. Drawing on social exchange theory, we theorize that supervisors high in BLM can influence employees’ felt obligation toward the bottom line, which in turn can influence employees’ task performance and unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB). We also examine employee ambition as a moderator of this process. Using three-wave, multisource data collected from the financial services industry, our results revealed that high-BLM supervisors elevate employee task performance as well as UPB by motivating employees’ felt obligation toward the bottom line. Furthermore, we found that employee ambition served as a first-stage moderator, such that the mediated relationships were stronger when employee ambition was high as opposed to low. Our findings break away from the dominant dysfunctional view of BLM and provide a more balanced view of this mentality.
... ). Thus, top managers' positive beliefs about the benefits of higher levels of sustainability adoption will stimulate their participation in adopting techniques, policies, and better monitoring and controlling of the environmental effects of operational activities.Rodgers and Hunter (1991) investigated the impact of varying levels (from low to high) of top management beliefs and participation on organizational performance. They suggested that when top management voices strong support for but does not participate in sustainability activities, there is less adoption of sustainability initiatives relative to situations chara ...
Article
Because sustainability management plays a vital role in firm performance, it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms that drive better firm performance with sustainability adoption. Thus, drawing upon responsible leadership theory and the dynamic resource‐based view, this study examines how the level of sustainability adoption influences firm performance, both environmental and financial, emphasizing the role of top management beliefs and participation in sustainability adoption. With responses from 310 employees working in manufacturing, healthcare, and retail industries, the SEM analysis results support that (i) perceived top management's strong beliefs lead to a higher level of sustainability adoption by organizations; (ii) perceived top management's active participation positively moderates the relationship between perceived top management beliefs and the level of sustainability adoption; (iii) the higher level of sustainability adoption results in better environmental and financial performance; and (iv) environmental performance positively and partially mediates the relationship between the level of sustainability adoption and financial firm performance. Finally, we offer guidance to managers who would like to leverage top management attributes to achieve environmental and financial performance via environmental sustainability practices.
... Thompson et al. (2004) say that the goals are strong tools that split the vision statement into particular tasks and actions to attain the desirable results, it also serves as a benchmark for tracking the performance or progress of the corporation. Setting goals consistently leads to increased productivity (Rodgers and Hunter, 1991). The major purpose of the strategic analysis is to identify changes in the environment of the company by gathering information about these changes and developing cultural or structural competencies that enable adaptation to these variables (Carayannis et al., 2003;Novikov, 2018). ...
Article
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This study aims to identify the impact of strategic planning on the performance of private corporations for a model from developing countries. Secondary data were obtained from articles, books, and records. The preliminary data were collected with the help of the questionnaire. The survey included the employees with knowledge in the field of administrative sciences, economics, and people with knowledge and experience in the area of strategic planning for 13 services corporations. The data collected from private corporations were analysed by statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS). The study reached several results, the most important of which is that strategic planning and elements of strategic planning have a positive impact on performance. Also the study showed that there is a difference in the application of strategic planning due to the size of the corporation and the operational period of the corporation. Keywords: strategic planning; performance; vision; mission; goals; strategic analysis; strategic option; balance scorecard.
... In order to achieve successful deployment, leaders must not only introduce and champion the premortem and midmortem but be visible practitioners of these techniques as well. Implementation of corporate initiatives are more successful when leadership has not only endorsed the process but visibly adopted the same procedures for themselves (Rodgers & Hunter, 1991). In common sense parlance when it is time to engage in the premortem and midmortem meetings organizational leadership must not just "talk the talk" they must also "walk the walk." ...
Conference Paper
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The premortem meeting is a technique used by teams to identify and mitigate risk during project initiation. This paper elaborates on the findings from a recent study that seeks to extend the benefit of the premortem by combining its driving element of "prospective hindsight" with the team development concept of "punctuated equilibrium." Knowing that their team will undergo a midpoint transition at a project's temporal midpoint, a project manager may seek to administer what this study has uniquely called a "midmortem" meeting. Extending the use of prospective hindsight may not only create an additional opportunity to identify risks but also provide a mechanism for the project manager to help focus the team on the remaining critical tasks. Despite the positive impact some study participants experienced in the personal application of these "common sense" techniques, they felt there was little chance that organizational leadership would practice or champion them. Feedback from the study suggests that in practice most leaders are unwilling to engage in and thus support techniques that utilize reflective action. Additional research is recommended to help examine the efficacy of this proposed risk management and team performance enhancing framework as a possible complement to existing project management processes. Research efforts that involve the real-world application of these techniques may be necessary to gain the leadership support required for organizational implementation.
... In terms of private companies, this debate played out mostly in the 1970s and 1980s under the auspices of Management By Objectives (MBO). Most studies found that target setting was positively associated with company performance on various metrics 20,21 . Nowadays the notion that setting targets is constitutive of best management practice is mainstream. ...
Article
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Corporations are an important source of GHG emissions1–3 and important actors in mitigating climate change⁴. This paper presents and analyses a database of corporate climate action that provides an up-to-date assessment of companies’ carbon management practices, as well as systematically benchmarking companies’ emissions pathways against international targets. Our analysis covers 138 companies in 7 high-emitting sectors, accounting for 21% of emissions from all listed companies globally⁵. While most companies have implemented basic carbon management practices, we find that less than half of them have implemented more strategic practices. Further analysis indicates companies separate into those that hardly undertake any carbon management practices and those that undertake most. Perhaps surprisingly, most corporate emissions targets in our sample are aligned with the Paris Agreement goals, although most companies are yet to set quantified targets. Companies that have implemented more carbon management practices today are more likely to have set 2 °C-aligned targets. Carbon management and emissions performance are associated most strongly with where companies are headquartered and their size. © 2018, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.
... However, supervisors need to be well acquainted with the performance of subordinates and at the same time, the subordinates should have inputs in the process and not rely on external judgement only (Folger et al 1992). Additionally, even though the study results show that among the minority private organizations use appraisal through management by objective, Rodgers and Hunter (1991) advocated that many studies indicate that effective objective-setting type appraisals can increase employee goal achievement by thirty percent. The study sought to know the reasons why private organizations have or practice performance management system in place. ...
Article
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Performance management is one of the important key activities performed by organizations to monitor the performance of their employees. Organizations must regularly evaluate the performance of their employees in order to understand their current and future abilities. The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of performance management on employee and organizational performance. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design and involved a sample size of 120 human resource officers and managers from selected private organizations in Tanzania. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and interviews and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and the results presented using tables. The findings of the study reveal that private organizations practice performance management and have effective performance management system to evaluate/appraise the performance of their employees. Moreover, the findings reveal that there is a significant relationship between performance management and employee performance as well as between performance management and organizational performance. The study recommends the need of the private organizations to maintain and continue practising and implementing effective performance management systems, also to continue evaluating the performance of their employees frequently because it helps to determine training needs and at the same time acts as a motivational strategy hence leads to a better performance of employees and organization.
... Otherwise, relevant studies on quality and environmental management standards related to the practices mentioned are indicated. There are three levels of top management commitment to corporate social responsibility: minimum legal compliance; enlightened self-interest; pro-active change Stahl and Grigsby (1997) Top management commitment has a significant positive effect on productivity Rodgers and Hunter (1991), Switzer et al. (1999) Although the link is weak, organizations conform better to the environmental standards when top management is more committed to them Chung et al. (2005) Management commitment indirectly influences environmental behavior at work Management representative contributes significantly to the long-term total quality goals of the company Lo and Sculli (1998) 3. Energy policy (p. 6) The depth of policy reflects the degree of environmental management system success Chung et al. (2005) Environmental policy is the core of environmental management system Darnall and Kim (2012) ...
Book
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This book is a comprehensive reference on ISO management system standards and their implementation. The impacts that ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 have had on business performance are analyzed in depth, and up-to-date perspectives are offered on the integration of these and other management standards (e.g. SA8000, ISO/TS 16949). Detailed information is provided on the signaling value of different management standards and on the new ISO standards for management systems, such as ISO 50001 and ISO 45001, relating to energy management and occupational health and safety. The role of audits in ensuring compliance with the standards and achievement of objectives is also carefully considered. The volume examines avenues for further research and emerging challenges. In offering an integrated, holistic perspective on ISO management system standards, this book will have wide appeal for academics, public decision-makers, and practitioners in the field of quality and environmental management.
... The dissemination of accountability serves as a formal authorization to define a manager's discretion in controlling production and spending as well as his or her overall scope of responsibility (Emmanuel et al., 1990). With regard to budgetary motivation, the tiered goal application from the organizational level down to the individual level has an effect on performance (Baum, Locke, & Smith, 2001;Latham & Locke, 1975;Locke & Latham, 2002;Martocchio & Frink, 1994;Rodgers & Hunter, 1991). ...
... Otherwise, relevant studies on quality and environmental management standards related to the practices mentioned are indicated. There are three levels of top management commitment to corporate social responsibility: minimum legal compliance; enlightened self-interest; pro-active change Stahl and Grigsby (1997) Top management commitment has a significant positive effect on productivity Rodgers and Hunter (1991), Switzer et al. (1999) Although the link is weak, organizations conform better to the environmental standards when top management is more committed to them Chung et al. (2005) Management commitment indirectly influences environmental behavior at work Management representative contributes significantly to the long-term total quality goals of the company Lo and Sculli (1998) 3. Energy policy (p. 6) The depth of policy reflects the degree of environmental management system success Chung et al. (2005) Environmental policy is the core of environmental management system Darnall and Kim (2012) ...
Chapter
Several CSR certifiable meta-standards have been launched in recent decades but one of the most popular and widespread has been the SA8000 standard, as the ISO 26000 launched by ISO is not suitable for certification purposes (Hahn in Bus Strategy Environ 22:442–455, 2013). Indeed, in the scholarly literature, SA8000 has been considered to be one of the best CSR initiatives, as it is intended to institutionalize business ethics through standardization (Gilbert and Rasche in Bus Ethics Q 187–216, 2007). Nevertheless, the adoption of this CSR standard has not been widely studied compared to the cases of ISO 9001, ISO 14001 or EMAS. In order to fill this gap in the literature, the aim of the present chapter is to shed light on the adoption of the SA8000 meta-standards by Italian companies. The empirical study focused on the Italian case because it seems paradoxical; Italy is the country in the world with the highest intensity of SA8000 certification in relative terms, even though this CSR standard was targeted at developing countries with labour intensive industries. The work analyzes the motivations, obstacles and benefits of the adoption of the SA8000 standard using primary data obtained from a survey of 130 Italian organizations. The article contributes to the empirical literature on the adoption of CSR standards. Implications for managers, policy makers and other stakeholders are discussed, together with avenues for further research.
... Otherwise, relevant studies on quality and environmental management standards related to the practices mentioned are indicated. There are three levels of top management commitment to corporate social responsibility: minimum legal compliance; enlightened self-interest; pro-active change Stahl and Grigsby (1997) Top management commitment has a significant positive effect on productivity Rodgers and Hunter (1991), Switzer et al. (1999) Although the link is weak, organizations conform better to the environmental standards when top management is more committed to them Chung et al. (2005) Management commitment indirectly influences environmental behavior at work Management representative contributes significantly to the long-term total quality goals of the company Lo and Sculli (1998) 3. Energy policy (p. 6) The depth of policy reflects the degree of environmental management system success Chung et al. (2005) Environmental policy is the core of environmental management system Darnall and Kim (2012) ...
Chapter
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ISO/TS 16949 was launched in 1999 by the International Automotive Task Force (IATF) with the aim of harmonizing the diverse assessment and certification systems worldwide in the supply chain for the automotive sector. ISO/TS 16949 aimed to eliminate the need of the automotive suppliers for multiple sectoral certifications such as QS9000, VDA6 and EAQF. The fourth version of the standard—published in October 2016—has been renamed IATF 16949. Despite the relative success of this standard for a very relevant industry such as the automotive sector, in the scholarly literature the adoption of the ISO/TS 16949 standard has been under-researched. In order to fill this gap, the aim of this Chapter is to analyze the critical points of working with a management system based on the ISO/TS 16964 or the IATF 16949 from a scholarly perspective, considering the strengths and flaws of the adoption of the standard. For that purpose, a qualitative exploratory study was designed—which is still in progress because of the transitionary nature of the standards. The research focuses on four case studies, one Original Equipment Manufacturer of the automotive sector and one manufacturer from each of Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3 of the automotive sector. The perspectives of other main stakeholders, such as auditors and consultants directly involved in the implementation and certification of ISO/TS 16949 and IATF 16949 were also considered.
... In Figure 4 we will illustrate the MBO Process by Kumar, (2011 As reported by Cappelli & Conyon (2017), this technique is successfully used by companies as managers are reinforced to set objectives and performance requirements in the beginning of each appraisal cycle. Moreover, Rodgers & Hunter (1991) made a remark regarding MBO programs: if the implementation is accurate and the management agrees, this type of management had a general positive impact on productivity, especially when objective performance standards are mutually agreed by managers and subordinates (McConkie, 1979). ...
Article
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This paper highlights the main elements of a doctoral research regarding the efficiency of workers evaluation process in the workplace. Based on the global competition, organizations are in continuous quality improvement of their processes to stay competitive. The focus is on motivating and constantly offering constructive feedback to the employees by evaluating them on the following criteria: job description requirements, operational objectives and behavioral objectives. The aim of this study is to confirm that in the context of digitization, both evaluation based on objectives and 360-degree evaluation have its advantages and disadvantages and to analyze the impact of it in organization’s performance. Since this process is divided in two parts (mid-year review and final review), an interesting research question would be how useful is to offer feedback to employees at the middle of the evaluation period and its impact on the final review. The first part of the paper will focus on defining the evaluation process and its scope, pursue by an analysis of 360-degree evaluation, evaluation based on objectives, and the evaluation process in the digital era. It would be a challenge to discover the inclination of organizations for different types of evaluations as well as perception differences between employees and employers. Many researches consider that one of the used methods implemented in companies is the evaluation based on objectives. A larger documentation on this subject would delimit the types of evaluations to help companies to easily choose the type that fits its culture. For this purpose, we will perform an outline on the existing literature by analyzing authors’ opinions on this subject and identifying advantages and disadvantages of the two types of evaluation specified above.
... Otherwise, relevant studies on quality and environmental management standards related to the practices mentioned are indicated. There are three levels of top management commitment to corporate social responsibility: minimum legal compliance; enlightened self-interest; pro-active change Stahl and Grigsby (1997) Top management commitment has a significant positive effect on productivity Rodgers and Hunter (1991), Switzer et al. (1999) Although the link is weak, organizations conform better to the environmental standards when top management is more committed to them Chung et al. (2005) Management commitment indirectly influences environmental behavior at work Management representative contributes significantly to the long-term total quality goals of the company Lo and Sculli (1998) 3. Energy policy (p. 6) The depth of policy reflects the degree of environmental management system success Chung et al. (2005) Environmental policy is the core of environmental management system Darnall and Kim (2012) ...
Chapter
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This introductory chapter contains a general overview and a descriptive analysis of the dissemination of the two main global management system standards or metastandards—the ISO 14001 and the ISO 9001—on an international level. The first two global certifiable management system standards are presented, together with a descriptive analysis of the global dissemination of both. Similarly, insights related to some of the conclusions of the scholarly literature on the subject and a short reference to avenues for further research are also summarized in this chapter.
... Within the context of these goals, employee productivity can then be used to evaluate employee performance. In addition to supporting the needs of the organization during a pandemic, with the commitment of top management, MBO can help to drive more successful organizational performance (Rodgers & Hunter, 1991). ...
... Con riferimento al primo aspetto è interessante ragionare sulla capacità degli strumenti di smart working di consentire un analogo (o migliore) raggiungimento degli obiettivi di efficienza ed efficacia della pubblica amministrazione (Borgonovi 2005), analizzando il loro impatto sulle performance organizzative e individuali. Con riguardo al secondo punto, si analizzerà come le organizzazioni pubbliche siano in grado di reagire ai cambiamenti organizzativi in atto, studiandoli anche da un punto di vista delle opportunità emergenti, secondo un'ottica coerente con le teorie del management by objectives (Rodgers and Hunter 1991;Antoni 2005) e dell'organisational engagement (Kahn 1990;Verhoef et al. 2019). Il presente lavoro si sofferma, dal punto di vista metodologico, su un'analisi di un caso studio (Yin 2015), individuato nel Comune di Bari. ...
Conference Paper
L'attuale crisi pandemica dovuta al Covid-19 ha comportato nella pubblica amministra-zione un ampio ricorso al lavoro agile (o smart working), che ha rappresentato non solo una forma organizzativa flessibile del lavoro, ma lo strumento indispensabile per la tutela della salute del lavoratore, così come di tutta la comunità. Il presente lavoro si pone l'obiettivo di soffermarsi sugli impatti e le conseguenze dell'introduzione dello smart working nella p.a. italiana. Nello specifico, il lavoro si sofferma sull'analisi di un caso studio, individuato nel Comune di Bari, dove l'introduzione del lavoro agile è stata analizzata sia in termini di cambiamento organizzativo, sia di conseguenze economiche e di impatto sull'efficienza ed efficacia gestionali, misurate in particolare attraverso l'impatto sulla performance individuale ed organizzativa. Parole chiave: lavoro agile, performance, coinvolgimento organizzativo 1. Introduzione I processi di aziendalizzazione (Anselmi 1995), avviati ormai da almeno tre decenni nella p.a., hanno visto alcuni importanti novità e cambiamenti negli ultimi anni, in riferimento in particolare alle regole di comportamento, agli stili di direzione, ai modelli organizzativi e agli strumenti di gestione (Hinna et al. 2018). A tale proposito, la l. 124/2015 (riforma Madia) ha contribuito radicalmente a ripensare i processi della p.a., adottando nuove forme organizzative ed introducendo nell'ordinamento italiano lo strumento del lavoro agile (o smart working). Tale strumento è stato poi ribadito con la l. 81/2017 che lo ha definito esplicitamente, all'
... Die Tendenz geht zu netzwerkförmigen Arrangements von relativ selbstständigen Gruppen (Miles & Snow, 1995) bzw. zu einer "Community-of-communities" (Brown & Duguid, 1991 (Rodgers & Hunter, 1991), vor allem, wenn sie nicht als vorwiegend hierarchisches Steuerungsinstrument missbraucht wird. Eine gelebte einheitsstiftende, offene, partizipative und kundenorientierte Organisationskultur mit einem klaren Leitbild ("mission") und einer "corporate identity" sind für die freie Koordination ebenso wichtig wie zentrale Richtlinien, Regeln und Prozesskontrollen, die primär richtungsweisenden, aber partiell auch beschränkenden Charakter haben (Denison, 1990;McGovern & Hope-Hailey, 1997;Brown & Eisenhardt, 1997;Gebert & Boerner, 1999). ...
Book
In diesem Buch geht es um gelungene und misslungene Innovationen aus deutschen Unternehmen und um die wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse und praktischen Lehren, die man daraus ziehen kann. Diese Betrachtung ist in mehrerer Hinsicht einzigartig: In der Innovationsforschung werden entweder einzelne Innovationsfälle ausführlicher recherchiert oder Breitenerhebungen zu ausgewählten Fragen von Innovationen durchgeführt. Hier haben wir die Vorzüge beider Verfahren kombiniert: Wir haben intensive Fallstudien erstellt, gewonnen aus ausführlichen Interviews mit den Hauptbeteiligten, so dass die spezifische Entwicklung jeder einzelnen Innovation erfasst werden konnte. Dies geschah nicht nur bei Einzelfällen, sondern bei insgesamt 42 Produkt- und Verfahrensinnovationen. Ergänzt wurde es durch eine anschließende Fragebogenerhebung bei den befragten Hauptbeteiligten, so dass wir auch vergleichende Auswertungen machen konnten, um Hypothesen bzw. Erklärungen statistisch abgesichert zu prüfen. Dabei haben wir gelungene und misslungene Innovationen aus denselben Unternehmen verglichen, so dass die ermittelten Unterschiede direkt die Innovationsprozesse widerspiegeln und nicht etwa Unterschiede zwischen Unternehmen, Branchen oder Marktbedingungen. Aus den recherchierten Innovationsfällen wurden 21 ausgewählt und jeweils als Beispiel für die untersuchten Thesen dargestellt (im Inhaltsverzeichnis kursiv gedruckt). Diese Fallgeschichten sind nicht, wie sonst oft üblich, als Heldentaten oder Schurkenstücke ausgemalt, sondern sie geben einen realistischeren Einblick in die Vielgestaltigkeit und Verschlungenheit typischer Innovationsprozesse als üblich.
... This finding indicates that the application of all MBO parameters in the management of private secondary schools sampled contributed significantly to their effectiveness or goals attainment. This finding corroborates Mullins (2010), and Rodgers and Hunter (1991), who observed that MBO provides an opportunity for staff to accept greater responsibility and to make a higher level of personal contribution. Amah and Ahiauzu (2013) also found that employee involvement positively influenced organizational effectiveness. ...
Article
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The study determined the relative effectiveness of Jigsaw and problem-solving strategies on students’ knowledge of mean(μ) in statistics. for the grouped and ungroupeddata.As a quasi-experimental study with one research question and hypothesis raised at a 5% level of significance. sample of 35 mathematics teachers and 2,454 of SS2 students were stratified selected from public senior secondary schools in Lagos State, Nigeria. An adapted nine questions of one public examination on ‘means(μ) in statistics’ were constructed, and it was pre-tested on ten students outside the research population. With the Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.80 of the pre-and post-instrumentation and after a week interval, statistical tools used for the study included means, standard deviation, t-test, One-way ANOVA, Scheffe and graph plot. Findings showed animprovement of all groups taught means(μ)in statistics, but Multimedia andImprovised groups had higher scores than control; and demonstrated that computation among students could be improved via the methods Also, there was a significant difference among the students exposed to these strategies (F-calculated>F-value, df=(2,2451), P<0.05) with Multimedia and Control equal 0.000 as Improvised and Control, while Multimedia and Improvised were 0.011. The discussions of these findings, conclusions, and recommendations were given in the study.Keywords: Instructional strategy,Jigsaw, problem-solving, mathematics, knowledge of mean(μ)in statistics.
... The MBO concept includes a top-down, but participative goal-setting process that is concluded by objective feedback and has been found to increase work productivity (Rodgers & Hunter, 1991). Still, there are doubts about the feasibility of this approach, pointing out the missing focus on motivational factors that drive goal achievement behaviour (Jamieson, 1973). ...
Article
Full-text available
What are the scientific origins of the SMART goal-setting formula? What are the motivational needs of Generation Y? How can the SMART formula be renewed to match the expectations of Generation Y? Literature review and web research. Conceptual design. The SMART formula was found as an endemic, but non-scientific concept. A major limitation of the SMART acronym is its cognitive focus and framing. Motivational needs of Generation Y are not explicitly considered. Theoretical development of the new goal-setting formula SAVE for Generation Y: Specific, Attainable, Valuable, Elevated. https://www.journal-alm.org/article/view/22398
... Ein frühes Umsetzungsbeispiel ist Management by Objectives (MbO), wobei abstrakte Unternehmensziele für die Arbeitnehmenden operational übersetzt und mit ihnen vereinbart bzw. ihnen vorgegeben werden (Rodgers & Hunter, 1991). Unternehmen wie Google sprechen von Objectives and Key Results (OKRs; Doerr, 2018). ...
Article
Die Arbeitsleistung von abhängig Beschäftigten wird in Organisationen häufig ergebnisorientiert gesteuert: Es kommt weniger auf die investierte Arbeitszeit als vielmehr auf das Resultat an. Für diese ergebnisorientierte, indirekte Leistungssteuerung liegen bislang kaum diagnostische Instrumente vor, die im Rahmen quantitativer Studien eingesetzt werden können. Über einen handlungsregulationstheoretischen Zugang zur Theorie der indirekten Steuerung war es möglich, den Fragebogen zur Erfassung der Qualität indirekter Leistungssteuerung in Organisationen (ILSO) zu entwickeln. Der Fragebogen beinhaltet 16 Subskalen, die sich in drei übergeordnete Dimensionen eingruppieren lassen: Regulationsanforderungen, Regulationsmöglichkeiten und Regulationsprobleme. Item-und Skalenanalysen sowie die Überprüfung der konvergenten, diskriminanten und kriterienbezogenen Validität in einer ersten Konstruktionsstudie (N = 244), einer zweiten Konstruktionsstudie (N = 513) sowie einer Validierungsstudie (Welle 1: N = 598 / Welle 2: N = 353) bestätigen die Qualität des Instrumentes. Wir empfehlen die Anwendung des Verfahrens unter Anderem zur psychischen Gefährdungsbeurteilung in indirekt gesteuerten Betrieben.
... According to which organizations should involve employees in goal setting as well as assigning rewards to these set objectives. The adoption of this approach has been evident in private as well as public sector (Rodgers & Hunter, 1991). Although MBO has been highly prevalent in work settings but critics remain to limit the focus on goal setting. ...
Thesis
This dissertation explores the goal-striving process in work settings. Based on the conservation of resources conceptualization, the current research examines how resource dynamics shape individual's behavior during goal pursuit. In this research three independent studies probe the resource mechanism. Specifically, the first study presents the investment of personal resources like self-efficacy, optimism and subjective well-being based on the value placed on end result(s) (goal attainment) or striving experience (goal commitment). Cross-cultural data collected from salespeople working in France, Pakistan and the USA support the hypothesized reciprocal relationships. The second study explores the curvilinear interactive role of grit and perceived organizational support in an individual's goal progress. Time lagged data collected from university professors working in the USA confirm the curvilinear relationship between grit and goal progress. The linkage between perceived organizational support and goal progress appears to be linear. The third study of this dissertation tests the mechanism through which fear of goal failure can predict unethical behavior. This study also explores the moderating role of conscientiousness and moral attentiveness during this process. The current research contributes to the field by testing various hypothesized models in work settings.
... In recent decades, leadership practices such as ROWE, objectives and key results (OKR), management by results (MBR), or management by objectives (MBO) have become more and more prevalent. This may well be because such practices promise higher productivity (Rodgers & Hunter, 1991). For employees, however, these practices mean that success or failure at work is closely linked to how far objectives have (or have not) been achieved. ...
Article
Employees exposed to high workload often compensate for this by extending their working hours. This diary study examines the relationship between workload, exhaustion, and two strategies for extending working hours: skipping breaks, and working longer than initially planned. The study analyses a sample of N= 87 employees and N= 639 measurement points with a multilevel structural equation model to investigate both within and between-person associations. The results showed that on days when the workload is higher than usual, participants were also more exhausted at the end of the working day. Also, the strategies skipping breaks and working longer were used more frequently on these days. However, there is no correlation between daily use of strategies and exhaustion. The study suggests analyzing the two strategies to extend ones working hours as separate constructs. On the between-person level, skipping breaks fully explains the association between workload and exhaustion. In the long run, this might have adverse effects on employees’ well-being. Journal Psychology of Everyday Activity (1998-9970), see also http://www.allgemeine-psychologie.info/wp/journal/
... But to explore the difficulty of arranging for a control group in a social intervention study, we will utilize the example of an organization-wide management intervention (or program, such as Total Quality Management). Productivity gains are expected when top management participates in the intervention process (Rodgers & Hunter, 1991). How could management justify leaving some of the second level managers out of the process while including others? ...
Technical Report
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Expertise zu agiler Arbeit, die praktische Erfahrungen (Best Practise) und wissenschaftliche Reflektion (gesichertes Wissen, Forschungslücken) in verständlicher Weise vereint.
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The study examined the relationship between performance management and project success in property companies in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Nigeria. The cross-sectional survey a type of quasi-experimental research design was employed. Two hundred and thirty-nine managers and supervisors from twenty property companies were covered and a sample size of one hundred and forty-eight employees were drawn from the population. copies of questionnaires were administered to respondents and the simple random sampling technique was utilized. However, only 110 copies of retrieved questionnaires were properly filled and used. Data was analyzed using Spearman's Rank Order correlation coefficient. The result showed positive and significant relationship between the dimensions of performance management (planning performance and rewarding performance) and the measures of project success (project timeliness and project quality). Hence, it was concluded property companies' capacity to properly plan and reward performance, will help boost their project success. It was recommended that management of property companies should ensure a proper project development planning and that performance are satisfactorily rewarded to motivate the employees, thus enhancing the organization's project quality.
Chapter
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In vielen Unternehmen wird das Arbeitsverhalten der Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter über Kennzahlen, Ziele, Produktivitätsindikatoren und Benchmarking-Werte gesteuert. Der Philosoph Klaus Peters (2011) hat aufgezeigt, dass die inzwischen dominierende betriebliche Leistungssteuerung als indirekte Steuerung charakterisiert werden kann. Indirekte Steuerung geht im Vergleich zum früher praktizierten command-and-control mit mehr Freiheit bzw. Selbstständigkeit, aber auch mit maladaptivem Bewältigungsverhalten bei den Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeitern einher, das als interessierte Selbstgefährdung bezeichnet wird. In dem vorliegenden Buchkapitel werden Interventionen vorgestellt, die adaptives Bewältigungsverhalten, d. h. Selbstsorge, fördern und das Risiko für negative Auswirkungen interessierter Selbstgefährdung reduzieren. Zu unterscheiden sind folgende Interventionen: (1) Mitarbeitende werden zum Selberdenken angeregt, um die Veränderungen in der betrieblichen Leistungssteuerung auf ihren Arbeitsalltag zu übertragen und daraus abzuleiten, wie sie mehr Verantwortung für ihre Gesundheit übernehmen können und ihre Arbeitssituation aushandeln zu können. (2) Führungskräfte identifizieren mit der veränderten Leistungssteuerung verbundene Führungsfragen und erproben neues Führungsverhalten. (3) Teams entwickeln gemeinsame Strategien im Umgang mit psychischen Belastungen und gestalten ihre Arbeitsbedingungen gemeinsam. (4) Das Top Management und Unterstützungssysteme in der Organisation (z. B. Human Resource Management) setzen sich für eine konsequente und widerspruchsfreie Umsetzung indirekter Steuerung ein. Aktuelle Entwicklungen in Betrieben, wie die Einführung agiler Teamarbeit, bieten Potenzial für eine gesundheitsförderliche Umsetzung indirekter Steuerung. Online zugänglich über https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-22738-8_3
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This study deals with the importance of applying Management by Objectives (MBO) method, as a method for performance appraisal (PA) in enhancing employees' effectiveness. A self-administered questionnaire was used, the number of participants included the survey is 172 employees from 13 firms operating in Kosovo. The study aim is to identify the importance of creating objectives , communication objectives, planning goals, setting control points, employees' commitment to determine objectives, freedom and independence in fulfilling duties, continuous communication , as steps for realizing MBO method in employees' effectiveness. The questionnaire of the study has been prepared, the responses obtained, the econometric model is constructed in order to test empirically this relationship, passed through the IBM SPSS v.23.0 program has been utilized for the obtained findings. Results and proposals are brought forward by the matched t-test, independent sample t-test, anova, pearson and correlation used as the hypothesis tests. Econometric results suggested that MBO method should be used as a method of performance appraisal as the employees' effectiveness is enhanced. Also it resulted that the evaluation of individual employees' performance and a clear definition of results are the hugest parameters from all the other activities of MBO method which we took in the study to raise employees' effectiveness in organization.
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Along with China’s ambitious strategy for shale gas development, water contamination risks with shale gas extraction has aroused great attention. Meanwhile, an innovative water management mechanism called as ‘River Chief System’ has been popularizing around China to improve the river water quality efficiently. Could this mechanism be available in shale gas water risk management?And how could it be adapted to improve the sustainable development of shale gas?Therefore, this paper starts by a discussion on the logic of River Chief System’ success and worries; then, a comprehensive examination of current multi-channel governance system of shale gas in China is presented to explore the dilemmas in its water governance; and a causal loop model is built to clarify interrelations among these dilemmas. The result identifies that River Chief System’s superiorities which can be learned are mainly reflected in clear responsibility, authority and multi-sectoral collaboration system. However, its temporary “campaign-style” character, over-reliant on the commitment and capability of river chief, blurred evaluation mechanism has hindered its expanding in the long run. Accordingly, 5 policy implications based on River Chief System for the sustainable improvement of shale gas is presented.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze how the integration between knowledge management and dynamic capacities in contexts that demand organizational agility contributes to the management by objectives. Design/methodology/approach To achieve the proposed objective, the present paper adopts the single case study in the startup Effecti. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, analyzed a posteriori through the technique of content analysis. From the loads of evidence observed, a model was presented that consists of different management theories and that guides the management by objectives process of a startup. Findings The proposed model proves to be able to describe the modus operandi of a startup and enables it to develop the cycles of testing, measurement and seizure of knowledge, largely stimulated and inherent to the creation process of new businesses in dynamic and uncertain contexts. Practical implications It is expected that the research results presented in details can illustrate concrete examples of application of the main concepts: agile organization, dynamic capabilities, knowledge management, performance assessment, enterprise risk management and management by objectives. Originality/value The originality of this study is focused on the integration of conceptual triad and its application in the case study of a startup: agile organization, dynamic capabilities and knowledge management.
Chapter
Published in 2011, the ISO 50001 system on energy management has since become one of the fastest-growing ISO management standards. However, its efficacy, implementation and integration within enterprises have been overlooked in the literature. The aim of this chapter is to analyze the relevance of the ISO 50001 standard to reducing energy consumption, and identify its limitations, advantages, and possible weaknesses. Based on a review of the existing literature on ISO management standards and energy management, it appears that ISO 50001 has inherited advantages and limitations similar to other ISO management systems. This chapter can help researchers and managers to analyze the expected outcomes and success factors of ISO 50001. It also sheds more light on its impact on existing energy-related policies.
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This study analysed the contribution of MBO in enhancing sustainable organisational performance. Previous studies have revealed that MBO contributes to enhancing the profitability of hotels, increasing the performance of employees, improving the effectiveness of operating processes and enhancing the service provided within hotels. The study was conducted via a questionnaire method. Separate questionnaires were administered to managers and employees of 5 star hotels. The data were analysed using the Statistical Analysis for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 25). The results indicated that hotel managers are in favour of the application of MBO as it contributes towards the achievement of their personal goals as well as the goals of the hotel. The employees also showed a willingness towards implementing MBO thanks to its advantages that assist in enhancing sustainable organisational objectives. The study recommends the activation of the MBO in hotels owing to its contribution towards enhancing the performance, achieving the targeted profitability and enhancing the sustainability of organisations.
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A human resource management (HRM) analysis framework is proposed and tested using data from first tier suppliers to the Big 3 in North America. Relationships among underlying dimensions of human resource management practices and manufacturing performance are examined. The study found support for the proposed framework, suggesting that human resource management practices can be grouped into five distinct factors, four of which are associated with specific manufacturing competitive dimensions (quality, flexibility, cost and time). The remaining HRM factor is generic. The four priority‐specific HRM factors are strongly related to their respective manufacturing performance dimensions.
Chapter
At present, enterprises are functioning in dynamically changing environment which from the one hand it forcing into introducing numerous of innovations and on the other hand inducing to achieve the competitive advantage among others through the implementation of contemporary strategies and management methods. It constitutes condition sine qua non not only for adapting the enterprise into appearing changes as well as the quick respond for the market requirements but also to increase enterprises’ efficiency. The goal of this paper is to present the conception of implementing Management by Objectives (MBO) and Kaizen methods on the basis on production intelligent facility. According to this, the phases and stages as well as whole methodology of the implementation process of these both methods will be presented. The proposed methodology seems to be universal and can be applicable and modified in a different type of manufacturing enterprise.
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The purpose of this study was to contribute to the empirical literature related to the influence of student discipline on teacher job satisfaction. Further, this research aimed to explore the correlation between student discipline and teacher job satisfaction while controlling for the contributing factors of job satisfaction (i.e., workplace characteristics, personal attributes, human capital elements, and principal leadership). In addition, the results of this research study were interpreted through the lens of the Affective Events Theory indicating a person’s emotions and behaviors for the workplace may influence their job satisfaction. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to see whether there is a significant relationship between student discipline and teacher job satisfaction when teacher job satisfaction covariates have been controlled.
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Using a database of 171 studies across 62,965 organizational units with job attitude data and business performance outcomes ranging from 1994 to 2015, we tested the hypothesis that positive employee job attitudes relate more strongly to business unit success during bad economic times than during favorable economic times. Results showed that although the relationship between favorable job attitudes and unit-level performance is positive and generalizable across all time periods, the relationships between job attitudes and all business success outcomes studied (profitability, productivity, turnover, and customer perceptions) were substantially stronger during the recession years of 2001, 2002, 2008, and 2009 in comparison to other years. Favorable employee job attitudes may provide extra assistance that helps business units continue to achieve under challenging economic conditions.
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Chapter
Through observation, research, shared experiences, and collective wisdom gained from failure and success, this chapter explores best practice to help leaders navigate the challenges and demands that they encounter in their careers. The topics explored in this chapter are critical for males and females alike because they provide specific examples of best practice and research on how to become an effective leader. Yet they are especially relevant for women in leadership positions because data and scenarios are shared that shed light on the gender inequities that still exist in leadership today. Understanding the unique dynamics that women face and changing practices and approaches to address these issues are necessary. Each topic assists leaders in positioning themselves so they are optimizing their potential for success.
Thesis
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“AzerGold” CJSC is one of the mining companies in Azerbaijan which has lack of Performance Management system. Lack of reward system and lack of communication among employees in both headquarters and regions were determined as main reasons behind not having proper Performance Management System. Conducted research and surveys showed that these problems affect the organization in several ways, such as decreasing employee’s motivation to work, dissatisfaction of them and high rate of turnover. This study aims to find alternative policy options to these problems by looking at multinational companies’ experience. The online surveys among employees in headquarter office were used to determine effect of lack of PMS on them. At the result of our research in order to cover the lack of performance management system in “AzerGold” CJSC, ”360-Degree Feedback”, “Management by Objective” (MBO), “Technological Performance Appraisal system” were techniques that given priority for meeting the requirements of the company. In conclusion, among these tools, the “Electronic Performance Appraisal system” is considered the most appropriate technique due to its developed features for solving the lack of performance management system in the company.
Chapter
This research investigates the role of project commitment in the context of information systems security. In doing so, the research adopts a psychological point of view by exploring and discussing the concept of project commitment in setting information security goals. Information security can be viewed as the efficient control of uncertainty arising from malicious acts intended to exploit valuable assets, and in the context of information systems the valuable assets under consideration are data. Data were collected by using an interpretive approach through in-depth interviews and observation within a single case study in Greece. The contribution of this research to interpretive information-systems consists of the study of project commitment and goal theory in an information security-management context, and its grounding within an interpretive epistemology. Ultimately, this research promotes an interdisciplinary and interorganizational theory that fosters a dialogue transcending industry-specific contexts and explores different management practices that can improve security project commitment and management in its real life context.
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Employees' performance appraisal is a vital and integral aspect of human resource management. Human resource managers do not only recruit, select, orient and place workers but are expected to continually evaluate the performance of the workers. Scholars and practitioners in human resource management have expressed divergent views on the significance of performance assessment to employees, organizations and society. The study, therefore, methodically examined the processes, methods and necessity for objective assessment of employees' performance in organizations, with a view to encouraging human resource managers to periodically appraise their employees using some suitable appraisal methods. Primary and secondary sources of data generation were employed. The data generated were subjected to descriptive analysis. The findings, among other things, revealed that employees' appraisal is significant for several purposes such as improving the attainment of the overall organizational goal; recruitment and selection of competent workers; promotion and training of workers; setting and measurement of goals; employee development and performance management; succession planning; downsizing; decisions taking and providing feed back to employees about their performance. Accordingly, the study suggests that organizations should periodically appraise their workers using objective and appropriate methods capable of enhancing the organizational and employees' goals.
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In modern conditions, the competitiveness of enterprises largely depends on the ability of management to ensure the necessary economic efficiency of operational activities, achieving strategic and tactical goals, rational use of labor, financial and material resources, which determines the relevance of research on innovative approaches to management “my goals”. The article substantiates that this concept is focused on increasing productivity through clear guidelines for each employee of the organization and increase staff motivation through its participation in setting their own goals. The main purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between the practical use of the method of “goal management” in the company and its organizational effectiveness. The object of the study was selected pharmaceutical company “Tuyil” (Ilorin, Nigeria) and its staff with a representative sample of 242 people. The source of the primary information in this study was the results of a survey of company employees. The analysis of the survey results was performed using the methods of descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA). It is empirically confirmed and theoretically proved that the practical application of the principles of “goal management” is closely correlated with the efficiency of the company. The results of the study provide recommendations for improving the system of “goal management” in the company, namely: the creation of favorable internal relations among employees, which would guarantee their commitment and loyalty to the organizational goals and objectives of the company; Establishing feedback, which involves constant monitoring of the achievement of goals and determining their progress in the implementation of specific tasks, as well as bringing to the management of those unplanned problems that arise in the process of achieving goals. Keywords: goal commitment, performance feedback, task complexity, organization, Nigeria.
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