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Personality influences on the choice of situations

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Abstract

real people in their everyday lives deliberately choose to enter some situations and to avoid others / review a rapidly growing body of data which suggests that these choices are determined, at least in part, by the degree to which people perceive certain situations as either "fitting" or failing to "fit" such aspects of their own personalities as their traits, their attitudes, and their self-conceptions / because this chapter is intended primarily as a review of the available literature, the major theoretical perspectives that bear on this work are described only in their broadest outlines (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... As people recurrently engage in similar environments and situations, their behavior appears to display a higher degree of regularity than would be apparent if we considered a wider cross-situational sample. Indeed, there is ample experimental and ecological evidence that suggests that differences in individual behavioral profiles result in differential choices leading to profile-congruent situations, and thus foster the impression of greater overall behavioral consistency (for a review of the evidence, see Ickes, Snyder, & Garcia (1997)). ...
... A further important point is that there is also evidence that chronic exposure to similar situations may have a significant effect over people's behavioral tendencies (Ickes et al., 1997;Kenrick & Funder, 1988). So it is not far-fetched to assume that people may sometimes take advantage of an intuitive understanding of these dynamics to effect desired changes in themselves. ...
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People display recognizably characteristic behavioral patterns across time and situations, with a given degree of regularity. These patterns may justify the attribution of personality traits. It is arguably the commonsense view that the proper explanation of these behavioral regularities is given by intrinsic properties of the agent's psychology. In this paper, I argue for an externalistic view of the causal basis of personality-characteristic behaviors. According to the externalistic view, the relevant behavioral regularities are better understood as the result of a systematic interaction between features internal to the agent and environmental-situational factors. Moreover, if the premise is granted that people are typically able to exercise a certain degree of control over the environmental-situational conditions they find themselves in, the resulting picture is of active sort of externalism, as people may at times engage in selection and manipulation of environmental-situational conditions as a way of managing their own behavioral tendencies.
... Only a few personality researchers think that human personality fluctuates across contexts (e.g., Mischel, 1968;Mischel & Peake, 1982). Individuals differ in the way they express their personality traits; that is, their behaviors may fluctuate when interacting with both their physical and social environments in the natural course of their lives (Ickes et al., 1997;Mehl et al., 2006). ...
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... At the same time, psychologists like Allport (1937: 312) have argued that 'the ever-changing nature of traits and their close dependence upon the fluid conditions of the environment forbid a conception that is over-rigid or over-simple.". Other researchers have focused on smaller scales: what people do to situations in their everyday lives (Ickes et al., 1997), which have been referred to as situation management strategies (Rauthmann & Sherman, 2016). Such strategies include maintenance (maintaining the situation as it is), construal (uniquely perceiving or cognitively restructuring mental representations of the situation), evocation (usually unwillingly eliciting responses from others), selection (seeking or shunning certain situations), modification (actively changing an existing situation into something else), and creation (pro-actively generating an entirely new situation). ...
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... In contrast, individuals who are unhappy with their relationship, show a negative bias in the perception of their relationship, which may cause disappointment and relationship conflicts. In both cases, the person makes relationship experiences that are congruent with their prior relationship satisfaction, which contributes to the stability of individual differences in relationship satisfaction (e.g., Ickes et al., 1997;Swann & Read, 1981). Second, individuals actively select themselves into environments, including romantic relationships (a transaction called proactive process). ...
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... Some scholars have endeavored to explore CSR determinants by moving beyond standard neo-classical models to scrutinize a host of psychological factors (e.g., personality traits). A series of studies by Snyder and colleagues convincingly demonstrated that individuals might make decisions that divulge their personality traits and values (Ickes et al., 1997;2010;Snyder, 1983;Snyder and Ickes, 1985). Later, Petrenko et al. (2016) indicated that organizations whose CEOs possess a strong need for attention and who are preoccupied with having their positive self-views reinforced engage in higher levels of CSR. ...
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