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Integrity testing in organizations

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The purpose in this paper was to selectively review the knowledge base on integrity testing in organizations. Evidence for reliability and criterion-related validity of integrity tests are reviewed. Integrity tests measure a stable individual differences variable (test–retest correlation = .85) most closely related to conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability. Predictive and concurrent validities for the criteria of job performance, counterproductive behaviors on the job, violence at work, absenteeism, turnover, drug and alcohol abuse and theft are summarized. Criterion-related validities for 3 other specific criteria (i.e., accidents, property damage, training success) are presented. The incremental validity of integrity tests above and beyond cognitive ability are also assessed and compared to incremental validity with other noncognitive predictors. The research presented and reviewed in this paper suggests that: (1) integrity tests are a valuable addition to the arsenal of predictors in personnel selection, and (2) the construct of integrity has an important role to play in theories of both job performance and counterproductivity in organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... In order to examine the incremental validity of integrity tests for overall job performance compared to other noncognitive measures, Ones and Viswesvaran (1998a) sought meta-analytically established criterion-related validities for the same criterion reported in refereed journals. The noncognitive predictors included were structured and unstructured interviews (McDaniel, Whetzel, Schmidt & Maurer, 1994), biodata measures (Rothstein, Schmidt, Erwin, Owens & Sparks, 1990), assessment centers (Gaugler, Rosenthal, Thornton & Bentson, 1987), personality scales (Barrick & Mount, 1991), and interests . ...
... Based on meta-analyses reporting personality scale validities and intercorrelations among predictors, Ones and Viswesvaran (1998a) computed the multiple correlations of combining the noncognitive measure with a cognitive ability measure. The criterion-related validity of cognitive ability was taken as .51 ...
... Interestingly, other personality predictors exhibited incremental validities in the .01 to .05 range. Schmidt and Hunter's (1998) analysis also led to the same conclusions as Ones and Viswesvaran (1998a). However, it is important to note that these findings were for the criterion of overall job performance (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998a;Schmidt & Hunter, 1998) and training performance (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). ...
... Many researchers have investigated the effect of intentional distortion on criterion-related validity. Many (for example, Barrick & Mount, 1996;Christiansen, Goffin, Johnston & Rothstein, 1994;Dicken, 1963;Hough, 1998a;Hough et al., 1990;McCrae & Costa, 1983;Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998bSchwab & Packard, 1973) have found that distortion does not affect criterion-related validity of personality scales. On the other hand, many others (for example, Douglas, McDaniel & Snell, 1996;Dunnette et al., 1962;Ironson & Davis, 1979;Norman, 1963a;Otto & Hall, 1988;Schmit & Ryan, 1992;Schmit, Ryan, Stierwalt & Powell, 1995;Zichar & Drasgow, 1996) have found that intentional distortion seriously affects validity. ...
... Integrity tests are of two types: overt tests, which directly assess attitudes towards theft and dishonest and illegal acts, and personality-based tests, which are designed to measure personality characteristics that correlate with a broad range of counterproductive behaviors (Sackett, Burris & Callahan, 1989). Ones and Viswesvaran (1998b) summarized previous Ones' meta-analyses of the relations between integrity tests and Big Five variables: true score correlations between integrity tests and Big Five factors are .42 for Conscientiousness, .40 for Agreeableness, .33 for Emotional Stability, .12 for Openness to Experience, and -.08 for Extraversion. ...
... Ones et al., suggested that self-enhancement ability may be an aspect of social competence and those individuals who distort their responses in a socially desirable direction may be the same individuals who can impress instructors through successful interpersonal interactions during their training periods. Ones and Viswesvaran (1998b) meta-analyzed the relations between integrity (a compound variable) and training performance for newly hired employees participating in job training. Training performance was measured by either objective tests (75% of their data) or supervisory ratings of training success (25% of their data), both obtained at the end of the training period. ...
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This chapter describes the evolution of personality taxonomies and proposes a working set of personality taxons for use in conjunction with the Big Five to enhance our understanding of the role of personality in work settings. We also chronicle significant contributions of personality variables in describing and predicting effective work behaviors. We summarize findings describing the importance of personality variables as they relate to career and occupational choice, organizational choice, training, satisfaction, leadership, and occupational health and safety. We also provide a thorough review of (a) methods of assessing personality variables (including the questionnaire method, self and other ratings, biodata, conditional reasoning, virtual reality testing, genetic testing, and neurological testing); and (b) measurement equivalence across different measurement methods, language, and culture. In addition, we summarize research addressing issues related to the use of personality variables, including applicant reactions, mean score differences between groups, intentional distortion (socially desirable responding) and its effect on validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... Collins and Griffin (1998) describe the psychology of dysfunctional job performance, Folger and Skarlicki (1998) attempt to explain aggressive behaviors with a popcorn metaphor, and Greenberg (1998) outlines thècognitive geometry' of employee theft. Other explanations of dysfunctional workplace behaviors include or emphasize: the role of organizational factors (O'Leary-Kelly, Griffin and Glew 1996), revenge and blame attributions ( Bies and Tripp 1998;Murray 1999), integrity ( Ones and Viswesvaran 1998;Ones, Viswesvaran and Schmidt 1993), volition ( Dalton and Wimbush 1998), and typologies of deviant workplace behaviors ( Robinson and Bennet 1995). While some efforts concentrate on retaliatory forms of counterproductive behaviors (e.g. ...
... Revenge responses: venting, dissipation, fatigue, explosion, acts of covert and overt violence and aggression Dysfunctional impression management (IM) ( Gardner and Martinko, 1998) Self-monitoring, Machiavellianism, Selfconsciousness Ambiguity, Accountability, Resource scarcity Apologies, Feedback avoiding Information manipulations Self-handicapping Alcohol and drug abuse ( Harris and Greising, 1998) Tenure, Age, Race, Stress Job autonomy, Stressors, Adverse Working conditions Image Theory Progression decisions Shocks Adoption decisions Wages, EAP participation, Turnover, Absenteeism, Accident rates Workplace absence ( Dalton and Mesch, 1991;Dalton and Wimbush, 1998) Age, Gender, Tenure, Commitment Controlling organizational rules, Lenient absenteeism policy Assessment of advantages and loses of absentee behavior Interpretations of reasons for absentee behavior Absenteeism, Sick leave Understanding employee theft ( Greenberg, 1990Greenberg, , 1993 Personality, Moral development Wages, Organizational ethics, Peer pressure Perceptions of workplace inequities Theft, Minimization and externalization behaviors (Increased organizational costs) , Viswesvaran, and Schmidt, 1993;Ones and Viswesvaran, 1998) Conscientiousness Agreeableness, Emotional stability, Socialization, Trustworthiness Job complexity, Organizational ethics Drug and alcohol abuse, Poor job performance, Violence, Absenteeism, Thefts Psychology of counterproductive job performance ( Collins and Griffin, 1998) Impulsivity, Machiavellianism, Self-regulation, Integrity, Self-control, Socialization ...
... Another individual difference variable, which has been demonstrated to relate to counterproductive behavior, is integrity, as measured by integrity tests (Ones, Viswesvaran and Schmidt 1993). In general, integrity tests have been found to be related to a wide variety of productive and counterproductive behaviors including low productivity, absenteeism, stealing, violence, drug use, and disciplinary problems ( Hogan and Brinkmeyer 1997;Hogan and Hogan 1989;Ones and Viswesvaran 1998;Ones et al. 1993). Discussions of the construct of integrity have suggested that it includes the notions of reliability, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability ( Ones, 1993;Sackett andWanek 1996), although Ones et al. (1993) had suggested that the majority of the relationships represented by integrity tests could be captured in the construct of conscientiousness. ...
Article
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Over the past decade, there has been an increase in attention to counterproductive workplace behaviors including violence, stealing, dishonesty, volitional absenteeism, drug and alcohol abuse, and aggression, many of which have been addressed in this special issue. Accompanying the attention to these specific types of behaviors has been a proliferation of theories developed to explain, understand, and manage counterproductive behavior. While these theories have addressed many apparently divergent types of behaviors, many similarities exist between and among these various perspectives. In this article, we integrate these various perspectives into a causal reasoning framework, proposing that individuals' attributions about the causal dimensions of workplace events are a primary factor motivating both the emotions and behaviors that result in counterproductive workplace behaviors.
... Our primary purpose in this study is to present a meta-analysis of integrity test validities for predicting absenteeism. Ones and Viswesvaran (1998b) indicate that first integrity tests have existed since the late 1940s and that, in the US, there are over 40 off-the-shelf integrity tests available to organizations. Ones and Viswesvaran (1998b) write 'Even by most conservative estimates, millions of people in the US have been tested using integrity tests'. ...
... Ones and Viswesvaran (1998b) indicate that first integrity tests have existed since the late 1940s and that, in the US, there are over 40 off-the-shelf integrity tests available to organizations. Ones and Viswesvaran (1998b) write 'Even by most conservative estimates, millions of people in the US have been tested using integrity tests'. As such, integrity tests are perhaps the most researched occupational scales in the literature. ...
... Recent construct validity work investigating what integrity tests measure has found that while some integrity tests focus on applicants' attitudes toward theft, others attempt to measure poor impulse control, lack of conscientiousness, disregard of rules and regulations, and general organizational delinquency (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998b). To systematically examine what personality constructs integrity tests tap into, Ones (1993) examined the correlations between integrity tests and the Big Five personality dimensions using both a large primary data set and meta-analytic cumulation. ...
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Until recently, research focus has been on a variety of demographic, attitudinal, and organizational variables in predicting and explaining absenteeism. If personality traits predict absenteeism, then it may be possible to use measures of these traits to identify and select job applicants and thereby reduce absenteeism rates. In this research, our goal was to examine whether integrity tests could be used to predict absenteeism. Meta-analysis was applied to studies of the validity of pre-employment integrity tests for predicting voluntary absenteeism. Twenty-eight studies based on a total sample of 13 972 were meta-analysed. The estimated mean predictive validity of personality-based integrity tests was 0.33. This operational validity generalized across various predictor scales, organizations, settings, and jobs (SDρ = 0.00). Overt integrity tests, however, showed much lower predictive validity for absenteeism and greater variability than personality-based tests (ρ = 0.09; SDρ = 0.16). The results indicate that a personnel selection approach to reducing absenteeism in organizations may be a useful strategy, particularly if personality-based integrity tests are utilized. Potential explanations for differences between these results and those found for Big Five measures of personality are offered. Future research investigating models of absenteeism should incorporate the personality constructs assessed by integrity tests. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Researchers have also found relationships between agreeableness and various behaviors relating to ethical leadership, such as positive relationships with ethical decision making (Antes et al., 2007) and ratings of integrity (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998), as well as negative relationships with CWBs (Berry et al., 2007). Similarly, studies have also tied emotional stability (Berry et al., 2007;Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998), extraversion (Cohen et al., 2014;O'Fallon & Butterfield, 2011), and openness (Antes et al., 2007) to a variety of outcomes relating to ethical leadership behavior. ...
... Researchers have also found relationships between agreeableness and various behaviors relating to ethical leadership, such as positive relationships with ethical decision making (Antes et al., 2007) and ratings of integrity (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998), as well as negative relationships with CWBs (Berry et al., 2007). Similarly, studies have also tied emotional stability (Berry et al., 2007;Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998), extraversion (Cohen et al., 2014;O'Fallon & Butterfield, 2011), and openness (Antes et al., 2007) to a variety of outcomes relating to ethical leadership behavior. ...
Article
Unethical leadership behavior can encourage follower CWBs and have costly organizational impacts. In this meta-analysis, we use data from 3,000 managers and executives to identify antecedents of ethical behaviors: integrity and accountability. Results suggest that many five factor model (Big Five) personality scales, personality derailers (dark side attributes), and values predict integrity and accountability. Leaders who are more conscientious, professional, and rule following and less attention seeking receive higher ratings of integrity and accountability. The strongest relationships were often for personality derailers (Excitable, Leisurely, Mischievous, Imaginative). Values and preferences (Aesthetics, Hedonism, Recognition) also had notable relationships. We discuss our results and their implications for organizations seeking to reduce CWBs, promote OCBs, or establish a climate of ethical behavior.
... Integrity. Integrity may be understood as a facet of conscientiousness, or as a compound variable consisting of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and adjustment (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998). However, because of its important practical role in employment testing, it is often measured separately from conscientiousness, with its own assessments. ...
... Integrity testing measures one's propensity towards counterproductive work behaviors, such as theft, drug and alcohol use, undependability, and causing property damage, through accidents or otherwise (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998;Sackett & Wanek, 1996). Three of the most widely used integrity scales are the PDI Employment Inventory (Paajanen, 1985), the London House Employment Productivity Index (Rafilson, 1988); and the Reliability Scale of the Hogan Personnel Selection Series (Hogan & Hogan, 1989) (scales for the Big 5 are covered below). ...
Article
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This report reviews the literature on noncognitive and other background predictors (e.g., personality, attitudes, and interests) as it pertains to graduate education. The first section reviews measures typically used in studies of graduate school outcomes, such as attrition and time to degree. A review of qualities faculty members and administrators say they desire and cultivate in graduate programs is conducted. There appears to be a divergence between the qualities faculty members say are important and the measures researchers typically use in validity studies. The second section reviews three categories of noncognitive variables that might predict outcomes (general personality factors, quasi-cognitive factors, and attitudinal factors) and the definitions, measures, correlates, and the validity of those measures. The role of background factors, both environmental and group, is part of this review.
... Integrity. Integrity may be understood as a facet of conscientiousness or as a compound variable consisting of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and " adjustment " (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998). However, due to its important practical role in employment testing, it is often measured separately from conscientiousness, with its own assessments. ...
... Consequently, it has been treated separately from conscientiousness in meta-analytic studies of the validity of employment predictors (e.g., Ones et al., 1993; Schmidt & Hunter, 1998 ). Integrity testing measures one's propensity toward counterproductive work behaviors, such as theft, drug and alcohol use, reliability, and causing property damage, through accidents or otherwise (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998; Sackett & Wanek, 1996). Three of the most widely used integrity scales are the PDI Employment Inventory (Paajanen, 1985), the London House Employment Productivity Index (Terris, 1986), and the Reliability Scale of the Hogan Personnel Selection Series (Hogan & Hogan, 1989). ...
Article
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We reviewed the literature on "noncognitive" predictors - specifically, personality as it pertains to graduate education. The review is divided into 3 sections. In the first section, we reviewed measures typically used in studies of graduate school outcomes, such as attrition and time to degree. We also reviewed which student qualities faculty and administrators said they desired and cultivated in graduate programs. We also noted that there are many qualities faculty ranked high in desirability but which could only imperfectly be gleaned from sources such as letters of recommendation and personal statements. In the second section, we reviewed general personality factors (e.g., the "Big Five"), specifically, definitions, measures, correlates, and the validity of those measures. We concluded with a discussion of how personality factors might be used in admissions and guidance applications for graduate education.
... T he past two decades have seen an increase in research interest in the study of counterproductive behaviors in organizations by employees (cf. Ones, Viswesvaran and Schmidt 1993;Ones and Viswesvaran 1998;Sackett, Burris and Callahan 1989). The antecedents and consequences of counterproductive behaviors have been empirically investigated and theoretical models have been developed to understand such behaviors (Greenberg 1990;Martinko and Zellars 1998). ...
... This result may suggest that there is construct overlap between organizational records of absenteeism and organizational records of quality, perhaps derived from common determinants, e.g. integrity (Ones and Viswesvaran 1998;Ones, Viswesvaran and Schmidt 1992). Another possibility for the overlap is that both measures shared the same method of measurement: organizational records. ...
Article
The correlations reported in the extant literature between one form of counterproductive behaviors - absenteeism - and four different indices of job performance were meta-analytically cumulated. Job performance indices utilized were productivity, quality, interpersonal behaviors, and effort. The former two were measured using organizational records, while the latter two were measured using supervisory ratings. The results suggest that absenteeism measures are more highly correlated with organizational records of quality, and supervisory ratings of both effort and interpersonal behaviors. Lower correlations were found with organizational records of productivity. These results suggest the potential for common determinants of absenteeism and some aspects of job performance. The fairly independent literatures that have developed on absenteeism and job performance can inform one another. Implications for modeling and assessing job performance are noted.
... Ujian integriti digunakan untuk pelbagai tujuan. Sebagai permulaan, kebanyakan majikan dan beberapa penyelidik percaya bahawa menggunakan ujian integriti dapat membantu majikan mencegah kecurian pekerja dan tingkah laku kontraproduktif (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998). Menurut anggaran, kos yang berkaitan dengan tindakan tersebut mungkin cukup tinggi dalam konteks organisasi tertentu. ...
Article
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Honesty, transparency, and responsibility to the organisation depicts the integrity personality of an officer towards the organisation. Therefore, integrity is one of the components that could drive the development of the organisation to be more progressive and excellent in its specialisation. Various data could be assessed by the management to evaluate the integrity level of its staff, however it is quite difficult for the management to read through all the unstructured data and analyse them without missing any information. Accordingly, this study proposes the development of an analytical integrated technique to assess the integrity level of structured and unstructured data in the form of dashboard to make it easy for the management to analyse their staff’s data. The primary objective of this study is to examine the roles of dashboard as an alternative to visualize integrity data of staff at one higher learning institution in Malaysia. This objective could be achieved by developing a dashboard framework for integrity and generating reports and visualisations in the form of dashboard based on the respective staff. The outcome of the study is the identification of the roles of dashboard and the reporting and visualisation in the form of dashboard for the organisation’s purpose. The potential use of the dashboard system is wide, particularly for organisations that want an integrity framework for their staff information, as well as generating reports and interesting visualisations in the form of dashboard, in line with the needs of the organisation.
... Integrity is another commonly studied personality-like construct in the personnel selection literature, and a fair amount of research has explored Black-White group mean score differences on this construct. Measures of integrity are quite heterogeneous and include elements of various constructs such as conscientiousness, agreeableness and emotional s tability, and honesty/humility (Berry, Sackett & Wiemann, 2007;Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998). In their narrative review, Hough and colleagues (2001) also looked at differences in mean integrity scores. ...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes current research on differences between racial or ethnic groups and national cultural groups on predictors that are frequently used in employee selection. It reviews the research on score differences for African-American, US Hispanic/Latinos and Whites, as well as national culture groups, examines the various explanations for those differences and propose directions for future research aimed at further understanding score differences between groups. Before investigating the research on observed score differences, it is important to highlight the scope of the covered predictors and the difference between constructs and methods in the predictors commonly used in personnel selection. Current research finds that minority cultural groups tend to score lower on cognitive tests than the majority cultural group. As was true for the research on score differences between race and ethnic groups, aspects of the measurement can play a role in differences observed.
... Integrity tests when added to selection systems generally improve the predictive ability of the system. For example, even though cognitive ability has consistently displayed the highest validity in the prediction of employee job performance (Ree, Earles, &Teachout, 1994), Ones andViswesvaran (1998) reported that integrity tests accounted for 14% of the variance in job performance, after controlling for cognitive ability. Ones and Viswesvaran (2007) showed that integrity improved the prediction of maximal performance (i.e., an employee performing at their peak capacity) over job knowledge (DR 2 5 .07, ...
Article
Covert integrity measures are thought to draw from the Big Five dimensions of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability. Using a construct-based approach, we had subject matter experts identify items from a Big Five personality measure, the Trait Self-Descriptive Personality Inventory that reflected an operational definition of integrity. The resulting 10 items exhibited a three-factor structure that corresponded to the three Big five dimensions associated with integrity. Study 1 used primary (N = 388) and archival (N = 429) data sets collected from Canadian Armed Forces recruits to establish the construct validity of the new test. With respect to convergent and discriminant validity, the Integrity scale was related to the Honesty–Humility scale of the HEXACO-PI and was unrelated to organizational commitment. Hierarchical regression analyses provided evidence that the integrity scale predicted counterproductive work behavior and job performance over and above the Big Five. Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1 using a civilian sample (N = 200). The Integrity scale was related to the Hogan Reliability Index but not to the General Health Questionnaire. It predicted work engagement over and above the Big Five. We also tested the proposition that integrity is a second-order factor based on conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability. Structural equation models in both studies confirmed that proposition. We discuss the implications of our results for both theory and practice.
... Employee theft represents one of the most frequently observed forms of deviant employee behaviors (Kidwell and Kochanowski 2005). Ones and Viswesvaran (1998) estimate that employee theft costs U.S. businesses forty billion dollars in cash and merchandise per year. It is also estimated that retailers alone lose $46 billion annually due to employee theft (Alstete 2006). ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate whether situational factors predict ethicality judgments of theft behavior, and whether the effect of situational factors is moderated by moral relativism. Design/Methodology/Approach Data were obtained across two laboratory experiments using undergraduate business students attending a Canadian university (n = 372). Student participants viewed a videotaped vignette of an employee informed that he had been caught stealing sales commission. In the vignettes, we manipulated two situational factors: whether or not (a) the theft has monetary consequences for the organization, and (b) similar theft is commonplace within the organization. Findings In Experiment 1, both situational factors interacted with moral relativism in the prediction of ratings of unethical conduct. In Experiment 2, using a within-participant research design, we achieved an interaction between the organizational consequences manipulation and moral relativism, although we obtained a considerably stronger effect size for the interaction compared to the first experiment. Implications We discuss implications of our findings and suggest avenues for future research. In particular, we consider the possibility that managers may not share a common frame-of-reference when considering the ethicality of theft. This could affect whether and the extent to which theft behavior is reprimanded. Originality/Value Our study contributes to research on employee theft, and also adds incrementally to our understanding of how both situational factors and moral relativism jointly influence perceptions of theft behavior.
... Prior to our discussion of the influence of personality and beliefs on one's worldview, we should address the current state of research on personality and ethical decision making. Consistent evidence exists indicating a positive relationship between conscientiousness and integrity (e.g., Ones, Viswesvaran, & Schmidt, 1993), while other work has shown a negative relationship between neuroticism and integrity (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998). More recently, however, Antes et al. (2007) investigated the impact of personality on ethical decision making specific to the research context. ...
Business ethics provide a potent source of competitive advantage, placing increasing pressure on organizations to create and maintain an ethical workforce. Nonetheless, ethical breaches continue to permeate corporate life, suggesting that there is something missing from how we conceptualize and institutionalize organizational ethics. The current effort seeks to fill this void in two ways. First, we introduce an extended ethical framework premised on sensemaking in organizations. Within this framework, we suggest that multiple individual, organizational, and societal factors may differentially influence the ethical sensemaking process. Second, we contend that human resource management plays a central role in sustaining workplace ethics and explore the strategies through which human resource personnel can work to foster an ethical culture and spearhead ethics initiatives. Future research directions applicable to scholars in both the ethics and human resources domains are provided.
... Ones and Viswesvaran (1998b) examined gender differences in 724,806 job applicants and found women scored higher on overt integrity tests than men. Integrity tests reportedly measure a composite of conscientiousness, agreeableness and emotional stability (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998a). Marusic and Bratko (1998) Barrick & Mount, 1991;Ferguson, et. ...
... For example, unethical behaviors such as stealing, excessive absenteeism, and violence have been linked to low integrity (Hogan & Brinkmeyer, 1997;Hogan & Hogan, 1989;Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998;Ones, Viswesvaran, & Schmidt, 1993). ...
Article
This dissertation expands the logic underlying Weiner’s (1985a) achievement-motivation model, and applies this logic to the justification of unethical behavior. A conceptual model is developed in which causal attributions linked to anger and shame are predicted to increase the degree to which unethical behaviors are seen as justifiable. Conversely, attributions linked to guilt and frustration are predicted to impede the justification of unethical behaviors. Results of two scenario-based studies are reported. Study 1 tests the conceptual model using a sample of undergraduate students, whereas Study 2 samples a population of practicing physicians. Results provided only limited support for the hypotheses, but did indicate that both attributions and emotions are related to justification in some situations. Implications of these findings for the study of ethics and attributions, as well as for promoting ethical behavior, are discussed.
... Lawton and Parker (1988) provide a good review of the personality variables found related to workplace safety. As has already been noted, the personality trait of integrity is predictive of work accidents (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998). ...
Article
In this comment on Geller (2002) and S. Roberts (2002), we first outline the content domain of the field of I/O Psychology, hopefully dispelling some myths that OBMresearchers and practitioners have about our field. Second, we turn our attention to the dependent variable in organizational research (i.e., the criterion; the target of interventions). We distinguish among several dependent variables such as individual behaviors, individual job performance, and organizational performance. We discuss and describe empirical research on the explanatory value of person- and organization-based variables. A large body of research in I/O Psychology has documented the relevance and importance of person-based constructs such as cognitive ability, integrity, and conscientiousness for work performance and outcomes. The field of OBMcan enhance research and practice by incorporating person-based variables to its models, joining the larger family of I/O psychologists studying behavior in the workplace.
... A psychological test is any test used to quantify a person's mental abilities, aptitude, intelligence or personality. There is now almost 100 years of research into the development of psychological tests of ability and personality that have long been used in clinical, educational, industrial and organisational settings to facilitate decision making (Anderson and Cunningham-Snell, 2000;Bartram, 2004;Berman and Bradt, 2006;Jeanneret and Silzer, 2000;Hambleton and Oakland, 2004;Klehe, 2004;Lubin et al., 1986;Oakland, 2004;Ones and Anderson, 2002;Ones and Viswesvaran, 1998). They have waxed and waned in fashion over the years (Green, 1978) and have been very passionate about issues like the use of the term "psychological" (Dattilio et al., 2007) or sales to unqualified people (LoBello and Zachar, 2007). ...
Article
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Purpose This study seeks to investigate human resource practitioners' attitudes and beliefs about work related psychological tests. The purpose was to look at the structure and correlates of those beliefs. Design/methodology/approach In all, 255 practitioners from human resource and related disciplines completed a 64‐item questionnaire on their attitudes to, and beliefs about, work‐related psychological tests. Findings Overall, the participants were positive about the validity and hence usefulness of tests. Factor analysis suggested that attitudes to tests fell into four easily identifiable factors (Test complexity, Practical application, Bias, and Usefulness of psychological tests). It was found that all four factors were predicted by age or educational qualifications or both. Research limitations/implications The study had a restricted sample of test users. It would be interesting to test a bigger and more representative sample of those in HR, training and coaching and get more specific details on which tests they used, why those particular tests and how they used the data they provide. Originality/value The aim of this study is to investigate whether practitioners generally find psychological tests in general useful, what aspects of psychological tests are most valued and what aspects are least liked. It also set out to determine whether the perceived scepticism toward, or enthusiasm for, psychological tests could be predicted by test user experience, and test user academic qualifications. Whist some survey studies have been interested in expert opinion, this study looked at practitioners from HR and related disciplines.
... For instance, job investment has been shown to be positively related to work satisfaction (Brown, 1996) and to be positively, though indirectly, linked to performance (Brown & Leigh, 1996). Loyalty and integrity also show positive correlations with job performance (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998). We added active criticism and acceptance of criticism because they are important aspects of performance feedback and concern both superiors and subordinates in a 360-degree feedback situation. ...
Article
This research is aimed at showing that interpersonal sensitivity (being attuned to and correctly inferring another person's thoughts and feelings) is an important aspect of what people expect from a good leader and that interpersonally sensitive leaders have more satisfied subordinates. In the first study, participants indicated how much they expected a good superior to be interpersonally sensitive (among other characteristics). People expect leaders to be interpersonally sensitive more so than subordinates. In the second study, participants interacted in same‐gender dyads as leaders and subordinates. We measured subordinate satisfaction and leader interpersonal sensitivity. More interpersonally sensitive leaders had more satisfied subordinates. Interpersonal sensitivity is important for good leadership: It is expected from leaders, and it contributes to increased subordinate satisfaction.
... Ones et al., 1993) focuses primarily on the prediction of typical performance (Sackett et al., 1988). Validities have been reported for counterproductive behaviors, productivity (production records), and supervisory ratings of job performance (see Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998, for a review). These criteria reflect typical performance. ...
Article
In a sample of industrial job applicants, relationships among scores on an integrity test, a job knowledge measure, and maximal performance as assessed by a work sample measure were investigated. The observed correlation between the personality-based integrity test and maximal performance was .27, indicating that integrity tests can be predictive of maximal performance. Furthermore, integrity test scores correlated .14 with job knowledge and job knowledge scores had a validity of .36 for maximal performance. Theoretical implications for the maximal/typical performance distinction are discussed.
... Several theoretical perspectives of counterproductive workplace behavior emphasize their common elements. Greenberg (1993) focused on employee theft, Dalton and Wimbush (1998) assessed workplace absence, Bies, Tripp, and Kramer (1997) and Murray (1999) worked on a theory of revenge in organizations, Bennett (1998) studied perceived powerlessness, Folger and Skarlicki (1998) developed a popcorn metaphor for employee aggression, Neuman (1998) studied organizational factors, Gardner and Martinko (1998) developed the approach of dysfunctional impression management, Ones and Viswesvaran (1998) looked at integrity and workplace performance, Fox and Spector (1999) defined the psychology of counterproductive job performance, Mack, Shannon, Quick, and Quick (1998) worked on stress for preventing counterproductive workplace behavior, Aquino (2000) studied structural and individual determinants of workplace victimization and Douglas and Martinko (2001) pointed out the role of individual differences in the prediction of workplace aggression. ...
Article
The current study was designed to evaluate the magnitude and types of counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) among a group of white-collar employees from different firms. A total of 766 employees voluntarily participated in our study. We focused especially on employees' perceptions of their work environment and on their affective responses to those perceptions. Data were dependent on self-reporting and privacy, and anonymity measures were taken into account. The five different instruments used to evaluate job satisfaction were, organizational constraints, interpersonal conflict, quantitative workload and CWB. We found a high degree of job satisfaction, a minimal quantitative workload and a limited exhibition of CWBs among our sample. Organizational constraints were found to be the most strongly correlated to exhibited CWBs, followed by interpersonal conflict and quantitative workload. Job satisfaction had a diminishing effect on CWBs. Among the five dimensions of CWBs, abuse and withdrawal were found to be the most important. The most frequently reported CWB was ‘came to work late without permission.’ Except for income we found no statistically significant relationship between demographic characteristics and the exhibition of CWBs. We concluded that by abolishing pre-existing organizational constraints there may be a reduction in CWBs.
... P sychometric tests of ability and personality have long been used in clinical, educational, industrial and organisational settings to facilitate decision making (Anderson & Cunningham-Snell, 2000;Bartram, 2004;Hambleton & Oakland, 2004;Klehe, 2004;Oakland, 2004;Ones & Anderson, 2002;Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998). Various recent reviews have looked at trends and changes in their use (Kwiatkowski, 2003;Lievens, van Dam, & Anderson, 2002;Ryan & Sackett, 1988;Te Nijenhuis, Voskuijl, & Schijive, 2001); the use of new technologies (Chapman & Webster, 2003) as well as how applicants view these procedures (Hausknecht, Day, & Thomas, 2004). ...
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In all 255 adult professionals concerned with selection, assessment and training completed a questionnaire which asked their beliefs about the validity, cost, practicality and legality of different assessment techniques (i.e., Assessment Centres, Biodata, Interviews) and their knowledge and use of both personality and ability tests. Participants tended to be positive about the tests themselves, how they were used and about test publishers. They rated Assessment Centres, Cognitive ability tests and Work Samples as the most valid, while Interviews were rated as most practical. Results from knowledge of personality and intelligence tests indicated that only a few tests were widely known, more so in personality/motivation than intelligence. Implications of these results for educating and informing practitioners are considered.
... Meta-analyses of relations between integrity tests and the Big Five factors indicate that integrity tests are correlated substantially with conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998b). Individuals who are high in these traits should be more honest and less willing to engage in faking behaviors. ...
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... The findings regarding the relationships between workplace integrity and extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, and openness have been much less consistent, but all have been linked to workplace behavior in general (Murphy, 2000;Barrick, Mount & Judge, 2001). However, some studies have shown agreeableness to be positively and neuroticism to be negatively related to integrity, with effect sizes rivaling those seen with conscientiousness (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1998). It is important to note that studies examining workplace integrity have primarily investigated low-level positions and have operationalized integrity as not engaging in counterproductive behaviors, such as wasting time and stealing from the organization. ...
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The research base for selection into teacher education programs and teaching practice is only recently emerging (Klassen & Kim, 2019; Klassen et al., 2017). In this light, reviewing selection practices and methods used in other fields—especially those where the methods are well-developed and well-researched—provides a lens through which to view and consider teacher selection. Various selection methods have been used to select individuals into educational (training) programs and into employment. Though the methods used in other fields have some degree of overlap with each other, each area also has its own distinct methods and research base that characterize the field. As such, in this chapter, we will review the practices and the evidence base for the methods that are used to select individuals into medical schools, law schools, and into large organizations.
Chapter
Employees can engage in a wide spectrum of misbehaviour in organizations. Such counterproductivity costs employers billions of dollars annually worldwide (Ones, 2002). The extent of actual, psychological and societal costs to organizations can be better understood when one considers the multitude of different ways employees can misbehave. Geddes and Baron (1997) found that 69 per cent of managers reported having experienced verbal aggression. Wimbush and Dalton (1997) used multiple methods and samples to estimate the base rate for employee theft, and found ‘Depending on the level one ascribes to nontrivial employee theft, .. . [the different techniques of estimating employee theft] . . . converge on theft rates over 50 per cent’ (p. 756). It is estimated that substance abuse costs the United States alone more than $135 billion each year (DeCresce et al., 1990). Harwood, Fountain and Livermore (1992) estimated that in the United States economy $82 billion in lost potential productivity could be attributed to alcohol and drug abuse in 1992 ($67.7 billion and $14.2 billion, respectively).
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Personality and individual differences research is relevant to practically every facet of human existence. For instance, since theories of persons either explicitly or implicitly guide clinical work, the field contributes to discussions of understanding abnormal psychology and provides a guide for conceptualising best treatment. Additionally, the field is relevant to understanding human development across the lifespan, and our understanding of personality and individual differences impacts upon our views of socialisation and interpersonal relations. This book presents research which draws attention to the rich scientific literature that continues to emerge with respect to personality and individual differences psychology.
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Mean subgroup (gender, ethnic/cultural, and age) differences are summarized across studies for several predictor domains – cognitive ability, personality and physical ability – at both broadly and more narrowly defined construct levels, with some surprising results. Research clearly indicates that the setting, the sample, the construct and the level of construct specificity can all, either individually or in combination, moderate the magnitude of differences between groups. Employers using tests in employment settings need to assess accurately the requirements of work. When the exact nature of the work is specified, the appropriate predictors may or may not have adverse impact against some groups. The possible causes and remedies for adverse impact (measurement method, culture, test coaching, test-taker perceptions, stereotype threat and criterion conceptualization) are also summarized. Each of these factors can contribute to subgroup differences, and some appear to contribute significantly to subgroup differences on cognitive ability tests, where Black–White mean differences are most pronounced. Statistical methods for detecting differential prediction, test fairness and construct equivalence are described and evaluated, as are statistical/mathematical strategies for reducing adverse impact (test-score banding and predictor/criterion weighting strategies).
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The study investigated the dimensionality of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) by examining the relationships between various counterproductive behaviors. Utilizing a university alumni sample (N = 343), data was collected through both self–report and direct judgments of the likelihood of co–occurrence. Eleven categories of CWB were examined: (1) Theft and Related Behavior; (2) Destruction of Property; (3) Misuse of Information; (4) Misuse of Time and Resources; (5) Unsafe Behavior; (6) Poor Attendance; (7) Poor Quality Work; (8) Alcohol Use; (9) Drug Use; (10) Inappropriate Verbal Actions; and (11) Inappropriate Physical Actions. CWB items and categories were generally positively related. Multidimensional scaling analysis suggests that the CWB categories vary on two dimensions: an Interpersonal–Organizational dimension and a Task Relevance dimension.
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This study examined the relationship between Conscientiousness, its sub-factors of Achievement and Dependability, and constructive and destructive behavioral intentions. In a sample of 270 undergraduate students, scores on personality measures were correlated with constructive and destructive behavioral tendencies as measured by responses to scenario situations. Results indicated that both Achievement and Dependability were negatively related to destructive behavioral intentions. As hypothesized, the relationship between Achievement and constructive behavioral intentions was significantly higher than the relationship between Dependability and constructive behavioral intentions. Contributions, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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The Counterproductive Behavior Index (CBI) is a 120-item, true-false questionnaire developed to assess five aspects of counterproductive workplace behavior: Dependability Concerns, Aggression, Substance Abuse, Honesty Concerns, and Computer Abuse, plus an overall measure of Total Concerns. It also yields a Good Impression score. To assess predictive validity, undergraduates with significant work experience simulated persons who had each of the five counterproductive behaviors but were exercising care not to get caught trying to conceal that behavior. All differences between simulated and normative responding were highly significant, with a median sensitivity of .89 for a specificity of .90. For similar participants, construct validity correlations ranged from .37 though .72 with a median of .50, and the correlation of CBI Total Concerns with a Total Validity Index was .66. Test-retest reliabilities of the CBI scales ranged from .79 to .94 with a median correlation of .87. These compare favorably with previously reported internal consistencies (Cronbach alphas). Analysis of the CBI scores of the original normative group at different levels of Good Impression showed that none of the six Concerns scores were affected by attempts to make a good impression until the Good Impression score reached the 90th percentile.
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Recent, well-publicized scandals, involving unethical conduct have rekindled interest in academic misconduct. Prior studies of academic misconduct have focussed exclusively on situational factors (e.g., integrity culture, honor codes), demographic variables or personality constructs. We contend that it is important to also examine how␣these classes of variables interact to influence perceptions of and intentions relating to academic misconduct. In a sample of 217 business students, we examined how integrity culture interacts with Prudence and Adjustment to explain variance in estimated frequency of cheating, suspicions of cheating, considering cheating and reporting cheating. Age, integrity culture, and personality variables were significantly related to different criteria. Overall, personality variables explained the most unique variance in academic misconduct, and Adjustment interacted with integrity culture, such that integrity culture had more influence on intentions to cheat for less well-adjusted individuals. Implications for practice are discussed and future research directions are offered.
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