Opiates, immune system, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and nonhuman primate model

Ponce School of Medicine, Ponce, Puerto Rico.
Journal of NeuroVirology (Impact Factor: 2.6). 09/2008; 14(4):279-85. DOI: 10.1080/13550280802078209
Source: PubMed


Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and illicit drug addiction remain major health problems not only in the United States but all over globe. The effect of drug addiction on HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) has been somewhat underexplored. However, in United States more than one fourth of HIV-positive individuals are injection drug users. Opiates are known to negatively affect the immune system, and therefore may have deleterious effects on progression of disease among HIV-infected individuals. This review discusses the effects of opiates on immune system as well as its effect on HIV replication and AIDS progression. In addition, the effects of opiates on disease progression in non-human primate model of AIDS is presented with at least one possible reason for rapid disease progression in multi-virus the challenge model.

Download full-text


Available from: Vanessa Rivera-Amill, Feb 18, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Six morphine-dependent and three control macaques were infected with a mixture of SIV/SHIV. Half of the animals in the morphine group developed accelerated disease (rapid progressor) and died within 20 weeks postinfection. The evolution of the envelope gene in the brain of the rapid progressor and morphine-dependent group along with that in the control group was assessed. Six to 10 clones from the brain of each macaque were sequenced and were compared against each other as well as against a challenge virus. Analysis of the sequences revealed that the diversity and divergence of the clones were higher in the control group as compared to the morphine-dependent macaques, although this difference was not statistically significant.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · AIDS research and human retroviruses
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Animal models for HIV research have been indispensible in fulfilling Koch's postulate and in exploring issues of viral infectivity and pathogenesis, sequence divergence, route(s) of acquisition, tissue distribution and tropism, immunogenicity and protection capacity of vaccine candidates, escape from adaptive immunity, and more. Did they fail to predict the efficacy of T-cell vaccines in humans? This article summarizes progress and status of models to inform and complement clinical work.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · European Journal of Immunology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Morphine, as a narcotic analgesic drug, can suppress the immune system including the spleen and lymph node during long-term administration. Quantitative studies can be an appropriate indicator for the assessment of organ disturbances. As such, this study aimed to determine the effect of chronic morphine treatment on the histological parameters of the spleen and lymph node, with the use of stereological methods. Nineteen male mice were divided into two groups, experimental and control. Addiction was induced by administration of 0.5% morphine solution in the experimental group. On day 71, after a physical dependency test, the animals were deeply anesthetized, dissected and their spleens and inguinal lymph nodes were removed. After histological preparation, the sections with a constant distance were selected and stained with hematoxilin-eosin. The total volume, red pulp, white pulp, and trabecular volume of the spleen as well as the total volume, cortex, nodule, medulla, medullary cord, and medullary sinus of the inguinal lymph node were calculated by Cavalieri's and point-counting methods. Data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. The mean total volume 34.87+/-6.74 mm(3), mean white 9.57+/-2.66 mm(3) and red pulp volume 24.10+/-4.65 mm(3) of the spleen in the experimental group decreased significantly [approximately 44% (P<0.001), approximately 43% (P<0.003), and approximately 39.5% (P<0.001), respectively]. The mean cortex 4.37+/-1.39 mm(3) and nodule volume 1.67+/-0.70 mm(3) of the inguinal lymph node in the experimental group decreased significantly (P<0.04; approximately 31% and approximately 29.5%, respectively). In addition, the white blood cell count decreased in the experimental group 7.12+/-2.7 (approximately 21%). Long-term use of morphine can suppress the immune system by reducing both the spleen and inguinal lymph node volume, and white blood cells.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Archives of Iranian medicine
Show more