Article

Relaxation, meditation, and mindfulness: A mental health practitioner's guide to new and traditional approaches.

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Based on a newly revised theory of relaxation, ABC₂ Relaxation Theory, devised by the author, this book explains why hundreds of techniques used by professionals typically sort into six groups. The integration of these groups forms the core of the book. Smith's findings also reveal that not only can relaxation go beyond stress management, but that different families of relaxation have different effects. Rich with practical suggestions and concrete illustrations of application, this comprehensive training guide details the following techniques: Yoga Stretching; Progressive Muscle Relaxation; Breathing Exercise; Autogenic Suggestion; Imagery/Relaxing Self-Talk; and Meditation (including Mindfulness). Special applications include: relaxation with children; relaxation and pain management; and relaxation, spirituality, and religion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... with different degrees of effect on these outcomes [10]. For example, PMR, classified as somatic technique, has a greater effect in improving physical health outcomes. ...
... For example, PMR, classified as somatic technique, has a greater effect in improving physical health outcomes. However, guided imagery is more effective in improving emotional health outcomes [10]. According to the ABC relaxation theory, the authors hypothesized that PMR and GI approaches could improve physical and emotional symptoms, compared to a control condition. ...
... Furthermore, it is argued that emotional symptoms such as anxiety and depression may be diminished because negative emotional states are absent in the existence of complete physical relaxation, although this proposition is still not enough empirically supported [10]. The existing research have demonstrated emotional and physical benefits in a variety of ill and healthy populations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The initial clinical training has been reported by nursing students as the most challenging component of the nursing programs. Although progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery have been reported to improve emotional and physical health, the use of such approaches among nursing students rarely exist. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the deferential effects of progressive muscle relaxation [PMR] and guided imagery [GI] on physical and emotional symptoms in nursing students taking their initial clinical training. Methods Using a three-group, randomized, single blinded study conducted in a large Jordanian university, 156 nursing students were randomly allocated into one of three study groups (PMR group, GI group, and control group). The physical symptoms and emotional symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress were assessed at baseline and end of the intervention. The study protocol was registered in ClinicalTrail.gov, identifier: xxxxxx. Results Using one-way MANOVA and post-hoc comparisons, the results showed that PMR and GI significantly reduced more physical symptoms than control condition although PMR was more effective than GI in this regard. GI significantly decreased more emotional symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and stress than PMR and control condition. PMR decreased anxiety, depression, and stress but the results were not statistically significant. Conclusion The findings of this study support the ABC relaxation theory claiming that PMR im-proves better physical symptoms while GI improves better emotional symptoms. However, further studies using students from multiple settings are needed.
... Meditation belongs to one of the professional deep relaxation families that involves efforts to maintain focus or concentration on very simple stimuli (Smith, 2005). Health professionals who use meditation generally teach concentrative and mindfulness meditation. ...
... Health professionals who use meditation generally teach concentrative and mindfulness meditation. There are seven types of concentrative meditation (Smith, 2005). Three involve relaxation for bodily sensations (or body meditation, i.e., body sensation meditation, shaking meditation, breathing meditation), two involve mental activity (or mental meditation, i.e., mantra meditation, visual image meditation), and two involve external sensations (or sensation/sensation meditation, i.e., sound meditation and external image meditation). ...
... Three involve relaxation for bodily sensations (or body meditation, i.e., body sensation meditation, shaking meditation, breathing meditation), two involve mental activity (or mental meditation, i.e., mantra meditation, visual image meditation), and two involve external sensations (or sensation/sensation meditation, i.e., sound meditation and external image meditation). Mindfulness meditation/Zen meditation involves trying to focus calmly on the flow of all stimuli continuously without judgment or analysis (Smith, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence of the effectiveness of forgiveness meditation intervention among college students in 'emerging adulthood' is still limited. This study aims to examine the effect of forgiveness meditation intervention toward forgiveness, self-forgiveness, forgiveness of others, and forgiveness of situations among college students. This study used a quasi-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design with measurements follow-up two weeks after treatment ended. The subjects were "emerging adulthood", as many as 9 college students from Diponegoro University, Indonesia (MAge = 20.67; SDAge = 0.5; Female = 77.8%). The results of quantitative analysis using statistical test of Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test between pretest and posttest showed a significant increase in forgiveness (z =-2.668, p < .01), self-forgiveness (z =-2.670, p < .01), and forgiveness of situations (z =-2.384, p < .05). Testing between posttest and follow-up were not significant (p > .05). However, the test results between pretest and follow-up on these three variables were still significant, z =-2.668, p <.01; z =-2.673, p < .01; and z =-2.388, p < .05, respectively. In contrast, no significant increase in the variable of forgiveness of others (p > .05). The qualitative analysis and further discussions are also presented. Keywords: college student; emerging adulthood; forgiveness; meditation. https://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/psikologi/article/view/33220
... Theories can help identify the components and duration of intervention and decrease variations in the delivery of intervention [16]. Therefore, the development of the intervention protocol in the current study was based on the ABC Relaxation Theory (Smith, 2005), which suggests a standardized and empirically tested version of mindfulness meditation [17]. Moreover, no study has examined the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions among ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis in Arab countries such as Kuwait. ...
... The experimental group received the Smith's version of mindfulness meditation [26], which is a standardized theory-based intervention found to be effective in improving stress and its related health problems. Smith's version of mindfulness meditation [26] comprises the following components. ...
... The experimental group received the Smith's version of mindfulness meditation [26], which is a standardized theory-based intervention found to be effective in improving stress and its related health problems. Smith's version of mindfulness meditation [26] comprises the following components. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study aimed to examine the effects of mindfulness meditation on trait mindfulness, perceived stress, emotion regulation, and quality of life in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods An experimental study with repeated measures design was conducted among a sample of 74 end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis between January and May 2021 in the dialysis center at Jahra hospital, Kuwait. The patients were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 37) and control groups (n = 37). The experimental group participated in 30-minute mindfulness meditation sessions (three sessions a week for five weeks) held during their hemodialysis sessions; the participants in the control group were instructed to sit with their eyes closed and relaxed for 30 minutes three times a week for five weeks during hemodialysis sessions. The dependent variables of both groups were measured at baseline (T0), middle of intervention (T1), and end of intervention (T2) using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), and Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL-36) questionnaire. The study was registered in the ClinicalTrial.gov (Identifier: NCT05176730). Results The repeated measures ANOVA (within-subject) results for the experimental group showed that mindfulness meditation had significantly decreased perceived stress by the end of the intervention. Also, mindfulness meditation improved mindfulness, emotion regulation, and kidney disease-related quality of life in the experimental group, and this improvement occurred significantly at both T1 and T2. The repeated measures ANOVA (within and between-subject) results showed that the experimental group, as compared to the control group, had lower perceived stress, higher trait mindfulness, higher emotional regulation, and higher kidney disease-related quality of life over time. Conclusions The positive findings of this study offer health policy-makers and hospital administrators a promising tool to use with patients undergoing hemodialysis as a way to manage stress and improve quality of life. However, this study should be replicated in multiple settings with follow-up assessments.
... In the current study, the ABC standardized version of mindfulness meditation was used, which includes five 30minute weekly sessions of mindfulness meditation and has been found effective in improving stress and its responses. 39 An additional 3-hour educational workshop about the intervention was provided before the actual training sessions to enhance the participants' understanding of the intervention. In the initial educational session, the principal investigator (PI) held a Power Point presentation for the participants in each experimental group, which included an explanation of the intervention rationale and procedures and a demonstration of the entire intervention protocol. ...
... During the actual training sessions, the intervention was introduced to the participants in the experimental groups by the PI based on Smith's (2005) guidelines and protocols. 39 The participants were divided into 6 groups, with 10 to 11 participants in each group. The subgroups met separately in different classrooms, where the interventions were conducted, and provided with identical instructions. ...
... Smith's version of the mindfulness meditation intervention was used in the current study. 39 The participants were asked to sit upright in a comfortable position, place their feet on the floor, and quietly observe and reflect on internal and external stimuli such as breathing, thought, feeling, physical sensation, and sound, without reactions, judgments, or evaluations. They were asked to quietly attend to, note, and let go of all internal and external stimuli. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Mindfulness meditation was used to reduce stress and its responses such as cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP) among healthy and ill individuals in various cultures, but its effect has not yet been studied among nursing students, experiencing tremendous stress. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of mindfulness meditation on trait mindfulness, perceived stress, serum cortisol, and serum C-reactive proteins (CRP) in nursing students. Patients and methods: Using a two-arm, randomized, parallel study (conducted in a large university in Jordan, 108 nursing students were randomly assigned to experimental group receiving five 30-minute weekly sessions of mindfulness meditation and control group sitting quiet during the experimental sessions. Trait mindfulness, perceived stress, serum cortisol, and CRP were measured at baseline and end of the intervention. Results: Using one-way MANOVA and post-hoc comparisons, the results showed that mindfulness meditation was significantly effective in decreasing serum cortisol levels and perceived stress. The mindfulness meditation also decreased CRP and increased trait mindfulness although the results did not reach statistically significant levels. Conclusion: These findings underscore the need for serious consideration of mindfulness meditation in nursing colleges to improve stress and raise immunity in this vulnerable population. Trial registration: Mindfulness Meditation for Nursing Students: clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT05099224.
... There are numerous techniques that can be used for stress reduction, including progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), meditation, breathing exercises, yoga stretching, and imagery. 1 PMR is one of the most widely used relaxation techniques in the United States (US) 2 and is relatively easy to learn. PMR is a stress reduction technique that involves contracting muscle groups, holding the muscular tension, releasing the tension, and relaxing. ...
... A key element of PMR is being able to distinguish between the sensations of tension and relaxation while sustaining passive focus. 2,3 This process is completed for several muscle groups until all of the major muscle groups have been isolated, contracted, and relaxed. ...
... For example, for the new scale Basic Relaxation-Mental Relaxation, the traditional scale is At Ease/Peace, which refers to statements 3, 10, and 33. Note that statements2,9,17,19,23, 28, 30, and 34 refer to stress states and are not pictured on this scoring key. Source: Reprinted with permission from Jonathan C. Smith, PhD. ...
Article
The veterinary profession continually strives to address wellness issues such as compassion fatigue, burnout, stress, anxiety, and depression. Wellness issues may begin during the professional curriculum when students experience intense academic, clinical, social, and personal demands on their time. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) as a simple, non-invasive stress reduction technique for first-year veterinary students (n = 101) at a US veterinary college. Students completed a 38-item questionnaire, the Smith Relaxation States Inventory 3 (SRSI3), both before and after performing PMR. Scores for the categories of basic relaxation, mindfulness, positive energy, transcendence, and stress were assessed. Female students (n = 92) had significant (p < .05) improvement in basic relaxation, mindfulness, and stress after completing PMR. Male students (n = 9) had significant (p < .05) improvement in basic relaxation and stress after completing PMR. When grouped according to age, all students had significant (p < .05) improvement in the categories of basic relaxation and stress. Students in the 22-year-old (n = 31), 23-year-old (n = 29), 24-year-old (n = 15), and 25-year-old or greater (n = 17) groups also had significant improvement (p < .05) in mindfulness. Additionally, students in the 23-year-old group had significant (p < .05) improvement in positive energy. These results support the use of PMR as a potential self-care strategy for students to implement during their academic and professional careers.
... However, Smith (2002), in his theory on Attentional Cognitive Behavioral (ABC) Relaxation, maintained that the components of early versions of PMR were mixed with components of other relaxation techniques, such as breathing exercises. To provide a purer version of PMR, Smith (1999Smith ( , 2002Smith ( , 2005 proposed his own standardized version of PMR and explained how it works to decrease stress. It is an abbreviated technique involving 5 consecutive weekly sessions of PMR (Matsumoto & Smith, 2001;Ghoncheh & Smith, 2004;Smith, 2005). ...
... To provide a purer version of PMR, Smith (1999Smith ( , 2002Smith ( , 2005 proposed his own standardized version of PMR and explained how it works to decrease stress. It is an abbreviated technique involving 5 consecutive weekly sessions of PMR (Matsumoto & Smith, 2001;Ghoncheh & Smith, 2004;Smith, 2005). ...
... Studies have demonstrated that this form of abbreviated PMR (APMR) is as effective as the long PMR in reducing stress (Dolbier & Rush, 2012;Ghoncheh & Smith, 2004;Matsumoto & Smith, 2001) Overall, research has supported PMR as an empirically validated intervention to reduce stress physically, emotionally, and cognitively. Studies using different numbers of sessions in various populations (healthy and sick) found that PMR helped to improve anger management, depression, anxiety, insomnia, headache, memory, blood pressure, blood glucose, heart rate, and finger skin temperature (Alexandru, Ropert, Viorel & Vasil, 2006;Dolbier & Rush, 2012;Dayapog ̆ lu & Tan, 2012;Kiselica, Baker, Thomas, & Reedy, 1994;Konsta, et al., 2013;Kumar & Raje, 2014;Lolak, Connors, Sheridan, & Wise, 2008;Pawlow & Jones, 2002;Pawlow & Jones, 2005;Powell, 2004;Smith, 2002, Smith, 2005. Also, PMR combined with other mindbody techniques, such as deep breathing, autogenic training and guided imagery, has been studied in nursing students and has been found to be effective in improving some stress reactions, including, anxiety, heart rate, respiratory rate and finger skin temperature (Charlesworth, Murphy, & Beutler, 1981;Prato & Yucha, 2013). ...
... Each was originally designed as a training tool, written and structured to facilitate mastery of mindfulness skills and self-awareness of broad spectrum of RMM states that can emerge in practice. Over the years, RMM inventories have shown research promise [32,34,37]. ...
... In progressive muscle relaxation, one might sustain focus on detecting subtle sources of tension, the sensation of tensing up, and of releasing tension. Mindfulness is the acceptance of all external stimuli [37]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A growing body of research has examined the psychometric properties of popular mindfulness inventories for different population. The present study is aimed at exploring the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Relaxation/Meditation/Mindfulness (RMM) Tracker t Inventory in Iran. Method: This was a cross-sectional and methodological study that conducted in Kerman, southeast Iran. Fifty, 300, and 163 Iranian adult participants were participated in the pilot, exploratory, and confirmatory phase, respectively. Face, content, and structural validities, Cronbach's alpha, and Omega coefficient were used to validate the Persian scale. Results: The results showed that the "Persian version of RMM t" had acceptable content and face validities. The Principal Axis Factoring (PAF) with Promax Rotation showed that the P-RMM t has 3 scales of "Mindful Love, Thankfulness, and Transcendence," "Relaxation," and "Mindful Deepening" which further confirmed with confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency of all three scales was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha coefficients > 80). Conclusion: The Persian version of RMM Tracker t seems to be a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess the levels of mindfulness in the Iranian general population.
... Psychological factors, including improvements in happiness, stress, satisfaction of life, insomnia and appetite (45) was recorded for patients who practiced TCC in the current study ( Figure 2). As mind concentration is highly emphasized, patients who practiced TCC reported that they felt calm, relaxed, with reduced pain and could temporarily be freed from social pressures (46,47) . ...
... TCC is a fluid movement exercise that increases the metabolism of the body (47) . Nutrients absorption and waste excretions are facilitated; patients' appetite (48) was also noticeably better after practicing TCC. ...
Research
Full-text available
Background: This study investigated the effects of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) exercise on biological markers and psychological factors of breast carcinoma patients diagnosed with advanced invasive ductal carcinoma. Methods: Sixty breast cancer patients, and 50 healthy female subjects. Patients underwent a mastectomy for invasive ductal carcinoma, and completed 4 cycles of 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy. Peripheral blood was drawn from subjects to analyze the biological markers, namely white blood cell (WBC) and red blood cell (RBC) count and cytokine levels (IL2, IL4, IL6, IFN-γ and TNF-α). Following treatment, the patients participated in a TCC program for 12 months. Biomarkers and hand grip strength were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months after TCC practice. A psychological factor-based questionnaire was also conducted. Results: After 12 months of TCC, the levels of cytokines of patients achieved no statistically significant difference compared to healthy controls. The total WBC count was 7.55 ± 1.25 (p<0.05), and the total RBC count was 4.62±1.25 (p<0.05). Patients noticed improvements in short term memory. Following 12 months of TCC practice, patients also had stronger hand grip strength with baseline. Conclusions: TCC exercise can recommended for the rehabilitation of post-treatment breast cancer patients for biological and psychological improvements.
... Peningkatan kualitas tidur lansia setelah latihan relaksasi otot progresif didukung oleh konsep Smith (2005) dan Soewondo (2012) yang menyatakan bahwa gerakan kontraksi dan relaksasi otot dapat menstimulasi respon relaksasi baik fisik maupun psikologis. Menurut Demiralp, Oflaz, & Komurcu (2010) respon tersebut terjadi karena rangsangan aktivitas sistem syaraf otonom parasimpatis yaitu nuclei rafe yang terletak pada separuh bagian bawah pons dan medulla; akibatnya terjadi penurunan pada metabolisme tubuh, denyut nadi, tekanan darah dan frekuensi pernafasan, serta terjadi peningkatan sekresi serotonin sehingga tubuh menjadi tenang dan lebih mudah untuk tidur. ...
... menyatakan bahwa seseorang akan tertidur hanya jika telah merasa nyaman dan rileks. Smith (2005) menjelaskan bahwa kondisi rileks yang dihasilkan terjadi karena latihan relaksasi otot progresif dapat memberikan pemijatan halus pada berbagai kelenjar tubuh, menurunkan produksi kortisol dalam darah, mengatur pengeluaran hormon yang adekuat sehingga memberi keseimbangan emosi dan ketenangan pikiran. ...
Conference Paper
A sudden stroke is a traumatic condition causing emotional response to their family identified as the psychological response of post-traumatic incident. The Kubler-Ross approach describes the stages of phsychological response of loss on family toward the sudden stroke incident of the client i.e. denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. Identification of the stages after losing incident increase the understanding of how people process to the loss emotionally and cognitively. This research aimed to identify the percentage of respondents on each stage of psychological response of loss on family based on Kubler-Ross approach when the first time client of stroke was attacked in Tugurejo Hospital Semarang. This study involved 30 respondents by using purposive sampling technique. This research was descriptive quantitative by using univariat analysis to analyze each variable study. The data were collected by using a questionnaire. The result of this study showed that denial was suffered by 16,7% (5 respondents), there was no respondent suffered from anger; bargaining was suffered by 96,7% (29 respondents), depression was suffered by 30% (9 respondents), and acceptance was suffered by 96,7% (29 respondents). The study concluded that the most widely experienced responses of family were bargaining and acceptance since 100% (30 respondents) were Javanese who embraced the teaching “silent is gold” and “acceptance”. They did not speak orally but they retained an unpleasant feeling and even traumatic in their mind. Acceptance of Javanese respondents made them considered that everything coming to their life were a matter that must be accepted as it was.
... Peningkatan kualitas tidur lansia setelah latihan relaksasi otot progresif didukung oleh konsep Smith (2005) dan Soewondo (2012) yang menyatakan bahwa gerakan kontraksi dan relaksasi otot dapat menstimulasi respon relaksasi baik fisik maupun psikologis. Menurut Demiralp, Oflaz, & Komurcu (2010) respon tersebut terjadi karena rangsangan aktivitas sistem syaraf otonom parasimpatis yaitu nuclei rafe yang terletak pada separuh bagian bawah pons dan medulla; akibatnya terjadi penurunan pada metabolisme tubuh, denyut nadi, tekanan darah dan frekuensi pernafasan, serta terjadi peningkatan sekresi serotonin sehingga tubuh menjadi tenang dan lebih mudah untuk tidur. ...
... sia tidak dapat merasakan rileks dan cenderung menghalangi hadirnya rasa kantuk. Melalui latihan relaksasi otot progresif lansia dilatih untuk menghadirkan respon relaksasi sehingga dapat mencapai keadaan yang tenang dan kondusif untuk tertidur.Potter & Perry (2005) menyatakan bahwa seseorang akan tertidur hanya jika telah merasa nyaman dan rileks.Smith (2005) menjelaskan bahwa kondisi rileks yang dihasilkan terjadi karena latihan relaksasi otot progresif dapat memberikan pemijatan halus pada berbagai kelenjar tubuh, menurunkan produksi kortisol dalam darah, mengatur pengeluaran hormon yang adekuat sehingga memberi keseimbangan emosi dan ketenangan pikiran.Menurut Davis dan McKay ...
Article
Full-text available
Lansia merupakan kelompok orang yang paling sering mengalami penurunan kualitas tidur. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan manfaat latihan relaksasi otot progresif untuk menghadirkan rasa nyaman yang dibutuhkan dalam mereduksi penyebab gangguan tidur. Penelitian ini untuk mengidentifikasi pengaruh relaksasi otot progresif terhadap kualitas tidur lansia. Rancangan penelitian ini Quasi Experimental dengan pendekatan Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design. Sampel diambil secara Purposive Sampling. Besar sampel 51 responden, terdiri dari 26 responden kelompok intervensi dan 25 responden kelompok kontrol. Kelompok intervensi melakukan latihan relaksasi otot progresif selama empat minggu. Kualitas tidur diukur sebelum dan sesudah latihan relaksasi otot progresif menggunakan instrumen PSQI. Pengukuran dilakukan empat kali, yaitu sebelum intervensi (pre test), dua minggu setelah intervensi (post test 1), tiga minggu setelah intervensi (post test 2), dan empat minggu setelah intervensi (post test 3). Data dianalisis menggunakan t test dan Repeated Anova. Hasil Uji t berpasangan kelompok intervensi menunjukkan nilai t hitung > t tabel, dengan p = 0,000. Pada kelompok kontrol diperoleh nilai t hitung 0,05. Uji Repeated Anova memeroleh nilai F hitung (71,415) > F tabel (3,89) dengan p=0,000. Uji t tidak berpasangan didapatkan skor pretest, posttest 1, posttest 2 dan posttest 3 berbeda signifikan antara kelompok intervensi dan kelompok kontrol dengan p table t, with p = 0.000. In the control group, the results showed that counted t 0.005. The repeated ANOVA showed that counted F (71.415) > table F (3.89) with p= 0.000. Independent t-test showed that scores of pretest, posttest 1, posttest 2 and posttest 3 were different significantly between intervention and control groups with p<0.05. The average PSQI scores in intervention group showed a tendency of decreasing after progressive muscle relaxation exercise, while in the control group there was no significant changes in the scores. This is because the progressive muscle relaxation exercise is benefit to give calming, comforting and relaxing responses. The implication of this study is that progressive muscle relaxation exercise can significantly improve the quality of sleep of older people so that this exercise can be considered as a complementary therapy for management of sleep disturbance among older people as an independent nursing care. Keywords: Older people, progressive muscle relaxation exercise, quality of sleep.
... No further analysis of relations between self-report measures was possible due lack to failure to replicate the construct validity of the RI. Results indicate the R-State Aware is not a proxy measure of mindfulness as suggested by Smith (2005). Further research examining the relation between relaxation training and mindfulness is needed. ...
... Cognitive activity also changes in terms of frequency and content with reports of calmness common (Crist, Rickard, Prentice-Dunn, & Barker, 1989). Smith (2005) described the self-reported effects of relaxation as producing various relaxation states (R-State), which are "psychological states of mind associated with practicing relaxation and mastering the act of sustaining passive simple focus" (1999, p. 5) He also asserted that relaxation produced a "core state of mindfulness. " Mindfulness interventions are aimed at producing non-judgmental awareness and acceptance of emotion, bodily sensation, and cognition. ...
Article
Full-text available
Forty-four individuals, 18-47 (MN 21.8, SD 5.63) years of age, took part in a study examining the magnitude and direction of the relationship between self-report and direct observation measures of relaxation and mindfulness. The Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS), a valid direct observation measure of relaxation, was used to assess relaxed behavior and served as the criterion variable. Two self-report measures, the Relaxation Inventory (RI) and the Smith Relaxation State Inventory-Revised (SRSI-R), a measure assessing 15 relaxation-States (R-States) including the R-State Aware, a proxy for mindfulness. Participants were assessed on two occasions, one week apart. Self-report measures were administered in random order immediately after direct observation of relaxed behavior. Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between measures. Interobserver agreement of relaxed behavior was obtained on 41% of the observations. Data from Time 1 and 2 were combined and a mean score was derived and used in the analysis of relationships. There was no significant relation between the R-State Aware and BRS (r = .10, p = .25). No further analysis of relations between self-report measures was possible due lack to failure to replicate the construct validity of the RI. Results indicate the R-State Aware is not a proxy measure of mindfulness as suggested by Smith (2005). Further research examining the relation between relaxation training and mindfulness is needed.
... Psychological detachment is one of four validated recovery processes. The remaining three are: mastery, control and relaxation (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007; see also Parkinson & Totterdell, 1999;Smith, 2005;Sarang & Telles, 2006;Pelletier, 2004;Griffin, Fuhrer, Stansfeld & Marmot, 2002). Research has suggested psychological detachment as the most important for increasing psychological well-being (Brosschot, Gerin & Thayer, 2006). ...
... Meijman and Mulder (1998) defined the process of recovery as a mechanism which reverses the negative consequences of job demands. Further research has validated psychological detachment as a sound recovery process (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007;Parkinson & Totterdell, 1999;Smith, 2005;Sarang & Telles, 2006;Pelltier, 2004;Griffin et al., 2002). Moreover, research has suggested psychological detachment to be the most important recovery process due to its positive implications for employee psychological well-being (Brosschot, Gerin & Thayer, 2006). ...
Article
The job demands-resources model (JD-R model) underpinned the three main aims of this study: to provide support for the JD-R model"s account of work engagement and work stress in relation to psychological well-being; to suggest the inclusion of the recovery process, psychological detachment as a theoretical refinement; and to produce comparative, predictive models of psychological well-being at work. 48 employees from an organisation that delivers: education; support and care services participated. The results provide strong support for the JD-R model; provide evidence for the inclusion of psychological detachment as a theoretical refinement; and show psychological detachment and work stress to be the most predictive of psychological well-being in the work place. Study limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.
... In an article [25], the authors confirm that 6 breaths per min promote relaxation. In a book entitled "Relaxation, Meditations & Mindfulness" [31] mentions techniques to achieve a state of deep relaxation. These include Yoga classes, where progressive muscle relaxation and deep breathing occur. ...
... Derin nefes alma tekniği temporal lob epilepsisi, psikoz ve şiddetli solunum problemleri gibi hastalıklardan yakınan kişiler için faydalı değildir (Fried, 1993;J. C. Smith, 2005). ...
Book
Kayıp ve Yas İçin Danışmanlık Becerileri öncelikle farklı psikoterapi ortamında çalışan klinik süpervizörlerine ve danışma uzmanlarına ulaşmayı hedeflemiştir. Aynı zamanda, kayıp ve yas konularının yetersiz bir düzeyde ele alan (Humphrey, 1993) danışmanlık ve ilgili alanlardaki lisansüstü öğrencilerine değerli ve kullanışlı bir kaynak olacaktır. Burada ana hatları belirlenen stratejiler yetişkinler ve ergenler için daha uygundur ve temel olarak bireysel terapi seanslarını hedeflemektedir. Ancak bu stratejileri grup ve aile terapisi ortamlarında kullanmaya yönelik öneriler de verilmiştir. Belli konular ile ilgili çeşitli ek kaynak önerileri de metin boyunca verilmiştir.
... Some popular relaxation techniques such as yoga and mindfulness are also often used for stress management [31,32]. These types of relaxation techniques have also shown to be effective in improving mental health and have been shown that patients affected with psychological conditions can improve their symptomatology using relaxation strategies [33][34][35]. ...
Conference Paper
Virtual reality systems are increasingly being used for the enhancement of human health. One of the most popular applications of virtual reality technology over the past few years has been for the management of stress in both the clinical and general population. Recently published research has shown the viability and acceptability of the use of virtual reality for such purposes. Natural environments have been largely employed in virtual environments aimed to promote stress reduction, for their widely studied and established ability to regulate stress and promote well-being. The present article aims to summarize novel research on the topic. Furthermore, the present work will attempt to underline important progress in the research field of VR-mediated promotion of wellbeing and individuate prospective directions to further help the development of the scientific field, with a focus both on theoretical and practical matters.
... Each score of the three indices ranged from 1 to 9. A higher score indicated a more intense emotion state (higher valence, arousal, and dominance) (Bradley and Lang, 1994;Shu et al., 2018). R-state was based on the R-state pyramid theory proposed by Smith (2005). To keep the grading uniform, the value of the R-state also ranged from 1 to 9. A value of R-state greater than five indicated relaxation, and the numbers 5-9 corresponded to the five levels of R-state, as shown in Figure 2 (value 5 of R-state corresponded to level 1 of stress relief). ...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing social pressure enhances the psychological burden on individuals, and the severity of depression can no longer be ignored. The characteristics of high immersion and interactivity enhance virtual reality (VR) application in psychological therapy. Many studies have verified the effectiveness of VR relaxation therapy, although a few have performed a quantitative study on relaxation state (R-state). To confirm the effectiveness of VR relaxation and quantitatively assess relaxation, this study confirmed the effectiveness of the VR sightseeing relaxation scenes using subjective emotion scale and objective electroencephalogram (EEG) data from college students. Moreover, some EEG features with significant consistent differences after they watched the VR scenes were detected including the energy ratio of the alpha wave, gamma wave, and differential asymmetry. An R-state regression model was then built using the model stacking method for optimization, of which random forest regression, AdaBoost, gradient boosting (GB), and light GB were adopted as the first level, while linear regression and support vector machine were applied at the second level. The leave-one-subject-out method for cross-validation was used to evaluate the results, where the mean accuracy of the framework achieved 81.46%. The significantly changed features and the R-state model with over 80% accuracy have laid a foundation for further research on relaxation interaction systems. Moreover, the VR relaxation therapy was applied to the clinical treatment of patients with depression and achieved preliminary good results, which might provide a possible method for non-drug treatment of patients with depression.
... For example, evening relaxation after work indicates a break in the physiological activation associated with the stress response and enables the restoration of personal resources, such as cognitive and physical energy, and enhanced mood states (Sonnentag et al., 2008;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007). Research finds that recovery experiences aimed at relaxation during nonwork time are associated with lower physiological and mental activation as indicated, for example, through decreased heart rate and muscle tension (Smith, 2005), lower distress and physical symptoms (de Bloom et al., 2015;Shimazu et al., 2012), and higher life satisfaction (Park & Fritz, 2015). Recent meta-analytic evidence (Bennett et al., 2018;Steed et al., 2019) supports recovery's associations with employees' well-being (e.g., increased positive affect, life satisfaction, mental health, decreased negative affect, and fatigue), health (e.g., better sleep and general health), and increased job performance. ...
Article
Job stressors remain a common organizational phenomenon, and research shows the ability to recover during nonwork time is critical for well‐being and job performance. Recent labor data suggests a rise in dual‐career couples, indicating employees may be affected by their own as well as their spouses’ job stressors. Yet investigations into dual‐career couples’ mutual experiences of job stressors and nonwork outcomes are scarce. Informed by the work‐home resources model and crossover theory, we use a dyadic modeling approach to examine how heterosexual, dual‐career couples’ daily challenge and hindrance stressors relate to social support/undermining received by the spouse and subsequent evening relaxation—a critical recovery experience. We find a gendered pattern where husbands’ daily challenge stressors affect social support towards their wives and wives’ nightly relaxation. Husbands’ challenge stressors also related to social undermining toward their spouses, although this effect was moderated by the husbands’ exhaustion at the end of the workday. Neither wives’ challenge stressors, nor both partners’ hindrance stressors impacted spousal social behaviors. The results of this study highlight that job stressors can be differentially linked to dual‐career couples’ evening relaxation experiences and point to the importance of investigating stressors on the day level within a realistic social context.
... This effect on subjects may be measured using self-reporting psychometric techniques, using concepts of mood, affect, restorativeness and vitality, such as the Profile of Mood States Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule questionnaire, Restorative Outcome Scale questionnaire, and Subjective Vitality Scale questionnaire [26][27][28][29]. Thus, the psychological relaxation effect may be defined as a measurable, positive influence on psychological health and relaxation, and it could be measured using the abovementioned questionnaires [30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Forest bathing is an outdoor activity, and it might be a promising preventive treatment for social problems involving stress. A vast number of studies confirm the positive effects of this activity on people's health. Nevertheless, little is known about the influence of winter forest bathing when conducted in an environment with snow cover on the ground and trees. Thus, a crossover experiment was designed in this study, with the participation of twenty-two healthy university students from Finland. During the experiment, a short exposition by a forest environment or landscape with buildings (as a control) was applied. Participants self-reported their psychological relaxation before and after the exposition, and the results were analyzed and compared. The mood, emotions, restorativeness, and subjective vitality were recorded as indices reflecting the psychological relaxation effect. The negative mood indices decreased significantly after exposition by the snow-covered environment, but the positive 'vigor' indices did not increase or decrease significantly. The level of negative emotions increased after the exposition with the control environment. Likewise, positive emotions decreased after the interaction with the control. Restorativeness was significantly increased after the exposition by the experimental forest but decreased after the viewing of the control buildings. The size of the effect in terms of restorative-ness was the highest in this experiment. The subjective vitality was lowered as affected by the control, but it did not increase or decrease after the exposition with the experimental forest. There is probably an effect from the slight interruption in the process from the influence of the forest greens on participants because their vigor and vitality did not increase after the exposition with this environment in the study. However, snow might influence the participants as a calming and emotion-lowering component of the environment, but this idea needs to be further explored with the involvement of participants from other countries who would be viewing forest environments with snow cover and whose psychological relaxation could be measured.
... Therefore, detachment is a cognitiveemotional state that occurs during specific experiences in leisure time . Relaxation refers to mental experiences that are associated with low activation (Sonnentag and Fritz 2007), such as lower blood pressure (Friedman et al. 1996), decreased heart rate or muscle tension (Smith 2005), feelings of serenity, and reduced perception of external stimuli (Stetter 1998). Mastery experiences comprise leisure activities that are challenging but not overtaxing. ...
Article
Full-text available
While previous research has indicated that segmenting work and home is beneficial to employees’ recovery, this study, which includes 130 dual-earner couples, investigates if and when integrating work and home by receiving work-related support from one’s partner fosters employees’ recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, mastery). Moreover, we examine couples’ work-linkage (i.e., both partners working in the same organization and/or the same occupation) as a moderator. Additionally, we consider the consequences of offering work-related support for the supporting partner’s recovery experiences. We used the actor-partner interdependence model to account for the dependent structure of dyadic data. Results of multiple group analyses comparing work-linked with non-work-linked couples showed that receiving work-related support from a partner was associated with increased relaxation and mastery experiences, at least among work-linked couples. Work-related support was not associated with employees’ detachment. Providing work-related support was positively related to employees’ mastery experiences in non-work-linked couples only, whereas it was unrelated to psychological detachment and relaxation both in couples with and without work-linkage. Drawing on conservation of resources theory and on boundary theory, the findings of this study shed light on work-related spousal support as an enabler of recovery experiences in work-linked couples, extending the limited view that segmenting work and home is the only beneficial approach for recovery during leisure time.
... Overt progressive muscle relaxation uses strong tension of muscle then releases it. Meanwhile, covert progressive muscle relaxation lets the tension of muscle away (Smith, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sleep disturbance is prevalent among patients with chronic diseases. Thus, the use of non-pharmacological interventions is needed. Progressive muscle relaxation is considered effective to improve sleep quality, but its discussion is still limited.Objective: To investigate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on sleep quality among chronic disease patients.Design: Literature review.Data Sources: Search was performed through the CINAHL, Science Direct, and ProQuest database from 2014 to 2019 for English-based, full-text research articles.Review Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methods was used to select articles. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme was used for quality assessment.Results: From the 644 articles yielded, six articles were included. Progressive muscle relaxation could be given alone or in combination with cognitive behavioural therapy. It also has been proven to improve sleep quality among patients with chronic diseases regardless their ages. Procedures in progressive muscle relaxation vary, but all studies reported significant improvements on sleep quality. Most of studies used audio as a medium for progressive muscle relaxation training.Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation significantly improves the sleep quality among patients with chronic diseases. It is recommended for future studies to compare the effectivity between 4 or 7 muscle groups and 16 muscle groups on sleep quality.
... Baldwin (1999) found that yoga practices give protective factors like positive effect. Also, Smith (2005) reported that yoga intervention programmes offer participants a state of relaxation. ...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to determine the effect of yoga therapy in managing low back pain (LBP) among older adults. METHOD: 40 participants who were having low back pain were assessed. All participants completed baseline evaluation before beginning the Yoga intervention and at 6, 12 and 18 weeks. Participants completed a questionnaire titled Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODQ). The statistical tool used for data analysis was within-and-between subjects ANOVA. RESULTS: The finding showed no significant difference in the baseline assessment for LBP between the treatment group and the waitlisted control group, F(1,38) = 2.697, P=.000, η2 = .066. The posttest assessment at 6th week revealed a significant reduction of LBP among older adults in the yoga treatment group compared with those in the waitlisted control group, F(1,37) = 3209.376, P = .000, η2 = .989. The assessment at 12th week revealed significant reduction in LBP among older adult in the yoga treatment group compared with those in the waitlisted control group, F(1,36) = 2389.154, P = .000, η2 = .985. The assessment at 18th week further revealed a significant reduction in LBP among older adult in the yoga treatment group compared with those in the waitlisted control group, F(1,36) = 2775.162, P = .000, η2 = .987. CONCLUSION: Yoga therapy is an effective intervention for managing low back pain among older adults. Thus, gerontology counsellors can provide help to older people with low back pain within the framework of Yoga therapy. Further studies are required to find out and corroborate the efficacy of Yoga Therapy in managing low back pain among older adults.
... Forgiveness meditation is one of the many psychological interventions developed to forgive through meditation, which emphasizes the intrapersonal process. Meditation is one of the professional deep relaxation which involves easily sustaining focus on a very simple stimulus 23 . Meditation cultivates focused attention and moment-to-moment awareness of one's experience in order to heighten the capacity to bring conscious choice to responses and reactions 24 . ...
Article
Full-text available
College students as emerging adulthood may experience both mental and physical health problems due to maladaptive adjustments. Both mental and physical health problems are mutually reinforcing that cause marked impairment in everyday life functioning. Efforts to deal with mental health problem are expected to promote general health. Either forgiveness or meditation is separately proven effective in improving mental and physical health, but the efficacy of forgiveness meditation has not been adequately researched. This study aims to examine the effect of forgiveness meditation toward mental health improvement among college students, as indicated by the declined of distress. This study used one-group pretest-and-posttest quasi-experimental design with follow-up measurements two weeks after treatment ended. Measurements were conducted using the short version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Samples were obtained using purposive sampling techniques, as many as 9 college students from The Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia. The analysis using statistical test of Wilcoxon T-test between pre-test and post-test, and pre-test and follow-up, showed significant decrease (respectively were Z=-2.670, p=.008; Z=-2.675, p=.007), while between post-test and follow-up did not (Z=-.256, p=.798). The result showed a significant decrease in distress after treatment ended. This result remained significant up to follow-up measurements, though the difference between post-test and follow-up was not significant. Forgiveness meditation may have sustainable and increasing effect if it is regularly practiced. A sustained decrease in distress, which indicates the improvement of mental health, is further expected to support the improvement of physical health, adaptive adjustment, and optimal functioning. © 2019, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
... Nowadays the concepts of meditation and mindfulness tend to be used somewhat interchangeably. However, there are differences; meditation is a sustaining focus on a very simple stimulus (such as breath) and mindfulness is connected to the observation of the flow of stimuli without thoughts, worry or reaction while at the same time being aware of the experience (Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006;Smith, 2005). The state of mindfulness allows for observing mental responses to the present moment. ...
Article
Full-text available
College students do not only need to acquire professional competences-they also have to prepare to eventually manage career stress without loss of focus. In this context, a growing interest is taking shape towards the integration of mindfulness into the education system through meditation techniques. This study focused on two activities that require high cognitive load processing under stressful conditions: simultaneous and consecutive interpretation of final examinations. Interpreting of 302 undergraduate students' performances were assessed after two different pedagogical interventions: relaxation techniques, mindfulness training and a control group. Results suggest that focused attention meditation techniques related to mindfulness are more beneficial than relaxation techniques for tasks requiring extreme attentional resources. Higher education settings require students to cope with stressful situations and be able to overcome tension without loss of focus. Stress tends to be a major issue for college students since they have to face new challenges and often feel under pressure to get good grades in order to eventually earn a degree (Brougham,
... Interventions that have been used to reduce stress include techniques such as progressive muscle relaxation (Lehrer et al. 2007;Smith 2005), cognitive-behavioral interventions (Richardson and Rothstein 2008), and meditation (Krisanaprakornkit et al. 2006;Williams et al. 2001). Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback involves focussing in a manner similar to that of meditation (Cahn and Polich 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Pre-service teacher stress is an understudied research area, with the majority of research focusing on subjective reports of stress. The present study sought to examine the influence of stress-reduction techniques on both subjective and objective indicators of stress during microteaching in preservice teachers. A sample of 44 preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups; biofeedback, relaxation, or control. Participants in the biofeedback group received relaxation-assisted biofeedback training designed to teach participants the physiological signs of the stress response using HeartMath monitor, along with the HeartMath Quick Coherence® technique. Those in the relaxation group were given training in the HeartMath Quick Coherence relaxation technique, with no biofeedback training. Finally, those in the control group did not receive any relaxation or biofeedback training. Using a repeated-measures design, both psychological and physiological indices of stress were measured before and after students engaged in microteaching approaches. Examination of the psychological ratings identified that feelings of calm increased across time; this showed that participants were more comfortable with the microteaching situation with repeated practice. However, none of the physiological interventions were effective in reducing stress. The present study highlights practice as a useful strategy to reduce stress in microteaching situations and points to the importance of employing evidence-based interventions when attempting to reduce stress.
... It is a likert-type questionnaire composed of 19 items (1=nothing at all; 2=a little; 3=quite; 4=much) in which three factors are measured: focusing, passivity-receptivity and REMIND states (Table 1). It is based on the cognitive abilities that intervene in the practice of relaxation and mindfulness collected by Amutio (1998) and on the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2005). Reliability, according to Cronbach's alpha, is .90. ...
... It is a likert-type questionnaire composed of 19 items (1=nothing at all; 2=a little; 3=quite; 4=much) in which three factors are measured: focusing, passivity-receptivity and REMIND states (Table 1). It is based on the cognitive abilities that intervene in the practice of relaxation and mindfulness collected by Amutio (1998) and on the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2005). Reliability, according to Cronbach's alpha, is .90. ...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo de este trabajo es, por una parte, averiguar si existen diferencias por género y nivel académico en la competencia en relajación y mindfulness en el alumnado de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria y Bachillerato. Por otra, se pretende analizar la relación existente entre relajación-mindfulness (REMIND), clima de aula (CA) y rendimiento académico (RA) partiendo de la hipótesis de que el clima de aula ejerce de mediador. El estudio se realizó durante una intervención del Programa TREVA de REMIND sobre una muestra de 420 alumnos/as de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria y Bachillerato con una media de edad de 14.29. Los resultados no muestran diferencias en REMIND por género pero sí, parcialmente, por nivel educativo. Se comprobó que el CA ejerce como variable mediadora entre REMIND y RA. Se recomienda la implementación de programas de relajación-mindfulness en los centros educativos de Secundaria y Bachillerato.
... Se produce un estado fisiológico de profunda relajación, con una reducción del ritmo metabólico, cardiaco y respiratorio, mientras se mantiene un estado mental plenamente despierto y particularmente alerta. Este estado hipometabólico es totalmente opuesto al estado de alarma-defensa característico de la reacción de escape o lucha que desencadena una situación de estrés (Jevning, 1988;Smith, 2005b). Mediante la práctica continuada, los estudiantes pueden aprender a mantener la mente calmada y a concentrarse en el momento presente, llegando a experimentar la subjetividad y transitoriedad de sus pensamientos y sentimientos y pudiendo distanciarse de estos y observarlos (metacognición) desde una nueva perspectiva que facilita la reflexión y el aprendizaje (Grabovac, Lau, & Willett, 2011). ...
... A third possible factor is that the nonsignificant tendency for unpleasantness ratings to be lower in the experimental group (and thus for I/U ratios to be higher) may represent a small but genuine effect of the experimental manipulation. It would not be surprising if counting breaths, blinks, and heartbeats did reduce unpleasantness, for attention to somatic sensations (especially breathing) is a frequent component of relaxation training, which can improve mood (Smith 2005). Future studies should attempt to disentangle and separately evaluate these three potential factors, which are not mutually exclusive. ...
Article
Full-text available
Patients with chronic pain conditions such as fibromyalgia often demonstrate hypervigilance-undue alertness for unpleasant or threatening bodily sensations-as well as enhancement of these sensations. The generalized hypervigilance hypothesis (GHH) of Rollman and colleagues asserts that hypervigilance leads to this perceptual amplification. However, cause-and-effect relationships are difficult to establish in studies using a quasi-experimental design. In the present study, we sought to address this issue by attempting to induce hypervigilance experimentally, in one of two groups to which young, healthy adults had been randomly assigned. Those in the experimental group wrote about the flu and practiced counting their own blinks, breaths, and heartbeats; those in the control group wrote about a neutral topic and counted innocuous lights and sounds. Next, both groups rated the intensity and unpleasantness of pressure sensations (ranging from mild to painful) caused by a series of applications of a weighted rod to the forearm. The intensity/unpleasantness ratio of these ratings was significantly greater in the experimental group, suggesting that induced hypervigilance had caused perceptual amplification that generalized to pressure sensations, which had not been part of the experimental manipulation. Psychometric measures of anxiety and catastrophizing were equivalent in the two groups, indicating that the experimental manipulation operated via attentional rather than emotional changes. The results support the GHH.
... Diazepam (intravenous injection, 5 mg in one minute) was used in the second group (24). In group 3, patients were asked to lie down on a coach and were educated how to contract and relax their muscles (25,26). Finally, in the last group the psychiatrist used hypnosis to put the patients in a trance state (4,27). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Patients with conversion disorder may be seen by different specialists in various clinics and emergency situations. However, there are not sufficient studies on the most effective treatment for this disabling illness. Methods: In a clinical trial, we compared four treatment strategies; muscle relaxation, suggestion, hypnosis and intravenous diazepam infusion, in 80 patients with acute conversion disorder. Speed of recovery and number of the recurrences in a month following different treatment options were compared among groups. Results: Recovery was significantly quicker with muscle relaxation compared to hypnosis and diazepam infusion. In patients with comorbidity of major depressive disorder, recovery was even faster. There was no statistically significant differences in the number of remissions or relapses among the four groups. Conclusion: All the four different treatment strategies brought about significant recovery. However, after treating patients with muscle relaxation, recovery was faster compared to other treatment methods.
... Se produce un estado fisiológico de profunda relajación, con una reducción del ritmo metabólico, cardiaco y respiratorio, mientras se mantiene un estado mental plenamente despierto y particularmente alerta. Este estado hipometabólico es totalmente opuesto al estado de alarma-defensa característico de la reacción de escape o lucha que desencadena una situación de estrés (Jevning, 1988;Smith, 2005b). Mediante la práctica continuada, los estudiantes pueden aprender a mantener la mente calmada y a concentrarse en el momento presente, llegando a experimentar la subjetividad y transitoriedad de sus pensamientos y sentimientos y pudiendo distanciarse de estos y observarlos (metacognición) desde una nueva perspectiva que facilita la reflexión y el aprendizaje (Grabovac, Lau, & Willett, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo este estudio fue analizar los efectos que produce un programa psicoeducativo de entrenamiento en conciencia plena (mindfulness) sobre la autoeficacia en el rendimiento escolar y los estados de relajación (Estados-R), en adolescentes estudiantes de bachillerato. Se realizó un diseño controlado y aleatorizado con un grupo experimental y un grupo control en lista de espera con medición pretest-postest. Los instrumentos de medida empleados fueron el Cuestionario de Cartagena (Cartagena, 2008) y el Cuestionario SRSI-3 (Smith, 2005a). Los análisis estadísticos muestran la existencia de mejoras significativas en el grupo experimental en comparación con el grupo control, en los niveles de autoeficacia en el rendimiento escolar, así como en los estados de relajación básica, conciencia plena y energía positiva; además, se obtuvo una reducción significativa en el grupo experimental en comparación con el grupo control en la dimensión de estrés percibido.
... Relaxation training is a standard component of most behavioral migraine treatments provided by psychologists and other mental healthcare providers. Regular practice in the patient's day-to-day setting is required in order to gain full benefits and implement the strategies when needed [41]. ...
Article
Migraine is a disabling and prevalent disorder. Migraine is most effectively treated with a stepped care approach, where patients initially receive a broad level of care (primary care) and proceed to receive increasingly specialized care throughout the course of treatment. Behavioral treatments for migraine modify behaviors of people with migraine with the intention to prevent migraine episodes and secondary consequence of migraine. Behavioral treatments can be incorporated into each level of the stepped care approach for migraine treatment. In this article, we provide a rationale for including behavioral treatment strategies in the treatment of migraine. We then describe and review the evidence for behavioral treatment strategies for migraine, including patient education, relaxation strategies, biofeedback, and cognitive behavioral treatment strategies. Finally, we describe how behavioral treatments can be integrated into a stepped care approach for migraine care.
... Nowadays the concepts of meditation and mindfulness tend to be used somewhat interchangeably. However, there are differences; roughly explained, meditation is sustaining focus on a very simple stimulus (such as breath) and mindfulness is observing the flow of all simple stimuli without thoughts or worry (Smith, 2005). The state of mindfulness allows for observing mental responses to the present moment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Conflictive social interactions are associated with the attribution of responsibility for our negative experiences to the other, and with a distant social perception of the other. When we meditate we acquire skills related to thought that allow us to observe how we perceive and signify interaction with the other, which distances us from the response to the meaning of this perception. This way of attending to events can have a negative effect on the tendency to make dispositional attributions, which are generally more conflictive, since the person making the attribution blames the other for the unpleasant situation he or she is experiencing. For this reason, the associated practice of meditation may affect social interactions by reducing conflict. The relationship between infrequent meditation, associated to the development of self-observation, with the locus of attribution for an unpleasant event, the perception of anger with oneself, and the social distance from the outgroup was analysed using a sample of 229 individuals (118 non-meditators and 111 unspecific meditators). Results show that meditation has the effect of reducing dispositional attributions, perception of anger and social distance, and provide evidence for the moderating effect of self-observation ability.
... Existing studies on the role of yoga in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders suggest a favourable effect of yoga on cardiovascular response, which is reflected in the reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and of the heart rate as well as in higher heart rate variability [10]. Studies have also been conducted to explore the influence of yoga practices on the above mentioned emotional risk factors such as negative affect, anxiety and depression [11e13] and on protective factors such as positive affect [14] and states of relaxation [15]. ...
Article
Objective: To examine the efficacy of an integrative yoga programme as adjuvant treatment of essential arterial hypertension. Methods: An Integrative yoga programme was conducted during three months in 26 sessions with a group of ten essential arterial hypertension patients at a public health centre. The same number of patients acted as the control group without treatment. The patients were randomly selected and assigned to the groups. All patients filled in the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Smith Relaxation States Inventory 3 (SRSI3) before and after the treatment. Results: A statistically significant reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, negative affect, symptoms of anxiety and degree of stress could be observed in the study group. Conclusions: These positive and promising results confirm the effectiveness of these techniques in the treatment of essential arterial hypertension and suggest possible further investigations.
... This mental separation from work sets the stage for resource replenishment because a mere physical distance from work is not sufficient to reduce strain (Sonnentag, 2012). Relaxation is characterized by low physiological and mental activation associated with decreased heart rate and muscle tension (Smith, 2005). Nonwork activities with little effort and challenge (e.g., taking a walk or bath) can be associated with relaxation, increasing positive affect and decreasing activation (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007). ...
Article
Research has indicated the importance of recovery from work stress for employee well-being and work engagement. However, very little is known about the specific factors that may support or hinder recovery in the context of dual-earner couples. This study proposes spousal recovery support as a potential resource that dual-earner couples can draw on to enhance their recovery experiences and well-being. It was hypothesized that spousal recovery support would be related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via his or her own recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences). The study further investigated the crossover of life satisfaction between working spouses as a potential outcome of recovery processes. Data from 318 full-time employed married couples in South Korea were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that spousal recovery support was positively related to all 3 recovery experiences of the recipient spouse. Moreover, this recovery support was related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via relaxation and mastery experiences. Unexpectedly, psychological detachment was negatively related to life satisfaction, possibly indicating a suppression effect. Life satisfaction crossed over between working spouses. No gender differences were found in the hypothesized paths. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
... The categories consist of mindfulness, energized positive feelings, basic relaxation, and transcendence. Reliability for the SRSI3 has yet to be determined, but the previous version of the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (excluding the three new sub categories of mindful acceptance, mindful centering, and mindful awakening) has been shown to be reliable (Smith, 2005a). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the acute effect of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback on anxiety and relaxation states. Eighteen healthy males exposed to work-related stress were randomized into an HRV biofeedback group (BIO) or comparative group (COM). The device used by the COM group appeared identical to the HRV biofeedback device, however, it did not provide biofeedback, rather it displayed a wave which the subjects were instructed to observe. Subjects completed a modified Stroop task before and after a 10-min intervention. The Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAIT) was completed at recruitment, and the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAIS) and Smith Relaxation States Inventory 3 (SRSI3) were completed before and after testing. Subjects rated perceived efficacy and feelings of sleepiness using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Analysis of the VAS scores revealed that the COM group felt sleepier than the BIO group after using the intervention. After testing, HRV biofeedback resulted in large improvements in scores for mindfulness, energized positive feelings and basic relaxation, and the comparative intervention resulted in a moderate improvement in basic relaxation, small improvement in mindfulness, and no improvement in energized positive feelings. Both groups had moderate improvements in transcendence. There was a large decrease in state anxiety in the BIO group and moderate decrease in the COM group. These findings suggest that although there was benefit to both interventions, a single episode of short duration HRV biofeedback led to greater benefit and may be a valuable tool to include in the management of acute stress and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Headaches are complex physiological and psychological phenomena. A headache can serve as a manifestation of psychological distress and can also in and of itself cause psychological distress. Although there has yet to be solid evidence demonstrating the causal linkage between a specific headache disorder with a psychiatric disorder, it is undeniable that headaches are closely linked to psychiatric disorders and various psychological states. This chapter aims to provide an overview of the psychology of pain and its implications for headache disorders. It also explores the common psychiatric comorbidities for headache disorders, including stress and trauma, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, alcohol use, somatoform disorders, and schizophrenia. Of these comorbidities, this chapter focuses primarily on the mood and anxiety disorders in terms of screening and management of psychiatric comorbidities in headache patients – both pharmacological and behavioral.
Article
This study aimed to examine the effects and feasibility of a virtual screen-based stress management programme (V-DESSERTS) on inpatients with mental disorders. A single-blinded, pilot randomised controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. Convenience sampling was used and participants were randomised into either the intervention group or the waitlisted control group (WL). The intervention group received individual-based, twice-daily sessions of the programme. Each session comprised education and virtual screen-based relaxation practice. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires and physiological measures. The intervention group showed a significant increase in perceived relaxation and knowledge in comparison with the WL group. However, inconclusive results were observed on subjective and objective stress. The findings in this study indicated that the V-DESSERTS programme is feasible to be implemented for patients with schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorders.
In an era of top-down mandates and neoliberal reform policies, early career teachers must receive sustained social and emotional support as part of their regular professional development in order to navigate the murky waters of education that can sometimes feel disempowering and disillusioning. Teachers in high-poverty urban schools, who often deal with additional variables like student achievement gaps, disparate funding and high teacher turnover, among myriad other hurdles, are often highly impacted by these policies. This study examined the experiences of a group of early career teachers in an urban school district that participated in a mindfulness-based professional learning intervention. Findings show that participants not only experienced increased self-efficacy in assuaging personal and professional stressors, but also connected newly acquired strategies to the ways they supported the diverse students in their classrooms. Implications from this study suggest that learning about mindfulness-based strategies in an informal group setting can be beneficial for teachers, both personally and professionally, as they navigate the tensions of beginning their careers embedded in “the neoliberal program of reform”.
Chapter
Relaxation techniques are an increasingly important part of modern therapeutic paradigms for numerous biopsychosocial disorders. In essence, all relaxation techniques elicit a broad relaxation response associated with characteristic changes in physiological, muscular, and cognitive/affective processes. Core relaxation techniques of the therapeutic arsenal include breathing techniques, guided imagery, progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback, autogenic training, hypnosis, and meditation. This chapter describes the theory, clinical implementation, and efficacy research associated with each of these approaches. Technique-specific and broad clinical indications and contraindications are discussed. While an abundance of research has focused on the question of whether relaxation works, minimal research has focused on answering the question of how relaxation works. In this chapter we argue that to demonstrate the true public health value of relaxation interventions, future research needs to verify not only that various relaxation techniques work, but that they work for the reasons specified by the associated theory.
Chapter
Review of relevant interdisciplinary literature and several recent factor analytic studies revealed that serenity and inner peace encompasses four interrelated factors or components: higher power (including spirituality and search for meaning); harmony (including acceptance/wisdom, anger management, forgiveness, self-compassion, and meditation/mindfulness); positivity (including happiness/subjective well-being, positive emotions, humor, gratitude, and positive coping); and lifestyle (including living for today, health psychology, pursuit of a simple life, appreciate nature, positive social networks, contribute to society/volunteer efforts, and servant leadership). The chapter elaborates on these four factors, describing them and providing practical considerations. In addition, the chapter concludes with a discussion of the relationship between serenity and positive mental health.
Article
What is Relaxation? History and Basic Research Foundations Description of Relaxation Methods Evidence-Based Relaxation Applications Directions for Future Research
Chapter
Headache is a major public health problem, which can result in significant disability to the individual and costs to society. The most common types of primary headache are tension-type headache (TTH) and migraine. These headaches can lead to considerable pain, marked reductions in quality of life, and medical and psychological comorbidities including depression and anxiety. A number of behavioral treatments have been shown to be efficacious, chief among these being biofeedback, relaxation training, and cognitive behavior therapy. These behavioral treatments are not only effective for reducing pain, but they also favorably impact negative cognitive and affective states and headache-related disability. Meta analyses have shown that outcomes are greatest when medication treatment for migraine is combined with behavioral approaches. Special challenges in headache care can be best managed with the addition of behavioral techniques (e.g., medication overuse headache).
Article
Full-text available
En la última década Mindfulness ha despertado un inusitado interés en la psicología clínica, y de la salud. Su rango de aplicación se ha ampliado en diversos trastornos psicológicos, siendo, los trastornos de ansiedad un campo óptimo para su aplicación. El objetivo de este artículo es explorar la evidencia científica de la aplicación de las habilidades Mindfulness en el tratamiento del trastorno de la ansiedad generalizada (GAD). Para ello revisamos las características del trastorno y sus correlatos psicofisiológicos asociados. Dentro de este marco, se discute a nivel conceptual la idoneidad del tratamiento y se recoge la evidencia empírica al respecto a través de una revisión exhaustiva de las investigaciones realizadas hasta la actualidad. A continuación, se describe el tratamiento conductual basado en Mindfulness para el GAD, delineado por Roemer y colaboradores, en el que integran la aceptación y el cambio. Finalmente se concluye con la necesidad de mayor evidencia empírica que respalde la aparente idoneidad del tratamiento.
Article
The candidate confirms that the work submitted is his/her own and that appropriate credit has been given where reference has been made to the work of others This copy has been supplied on the understanding that it is copyright material and that no quotation from the thesis may be published without proper acknowledgement.
Article
This is an ongoing project. Special thanks to Christopher Germer, Ph.D. and the Institute for Meditation and Psychotherapy for their many contributions. This bibliography does not try to include all the references to the broader Buddhist/therapy dialogue, which would extend it considerably. Also, more complete references for mindfulness in relation to physical and medical conditions, as well as neuroscience and physiological effects of mindfulness can be found in John C. Williams and Lidia Zylowska's "Mindfulness Bibliography. From molecules to mindfulness: Howe vertically convergent fractal time fluctuations unify cognition and emotion. Consciousness & Emotion, 1, 193-226.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Conversion disorder is a type of motor or sensory dysfunction that does not conform to the concepts of anatomy and physiology of the central or peripheral nervous systems. This disorder, more prevalent among the young women, may appear after the stress, creating several non-prevalent clinical signs usually associated with mood and anxiety disorders. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of aversion therapy on a patient with conversion disorder associated with mood and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Case Report: The case is a 49-year-old woman with conversion disorder associated with mood and obsessive-compulsive disorders and a recent history of twitching in three fingers of her left hand. Finally, the disorder was improved as a result of the aversion therapy. Conclusion: In conversion disorder, considering the co-morbid mental disorders is very important for an effective treatment and aversion therapy can also be considered as a method of treatment.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Evaluation the efficacy of intravenous haloperidol compared to intravenous diazepam in patients with conversion disorders, referring to an emergency ward. Design: A parallel double-blind randomized controlled, trial. Randomization was performed through a central Webbased randomization system. Blinding was performed while the nurse giving the medicines, the physician who complete questionnaire and medical personnel were blind to the medicines. Methods: Participants 182 patients over 18 year of age, who had conversion disorders, were divided into two equal groups using the randomization table. Intervention One group received intravenous haloperidol and the other received intravenous diazepam. Outcome The patients were evaluated in relation to their response to treatment, physical symptoms and signs, and side effects up to discharge from the ward and at 24-hour and 1-week interval after discharge. T-test and chi-squared test were used to evaluate differences between the two groups. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to evaluate the outcomes during the patients’ presence in the emergency ward. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: One hundred eighty two patients were randomized. Complete recovery was observed in 85 patients of 91 patients (93.4%) receiving haloperidol; however, in the diazepam group only 34 patients of 91 patients (37.4%) exhibited full recovery (P<0.001). Two hours after injection of medications, 84 patients in the haloperidol group (92.3%) and 33 patents in the diazepam group (36.3%) were discharged (P<0.001). Restlessness, weakness, apnea and lethargy were the only side effects after injection of medications. Twenty-four hours after discharge, 20 patients in the haloperidol group (22.0%) had malaise and 1 patient in the diazepam group (1%) was lethargic (P<0.001). At 1-week interval, there was no relapse or any complication. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that intravenous injection of haloperidol and diazepam has an effective role in relieving symptoms and signs of conversion disorder patients referring to emergency units. Trial registration number: IRCT201108317449N1 Funding: Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Deputy of Research.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.