The Determinants of Reading Comprehension

Article · July 1962with5 Reads
DOI: 10.1177/001316446202200203
Abstract
To determine the relative variance of test content, method, and error components, parallel forms of 7 specially constructed vocabulary and reading tests were administered to 108 British and 75 American college students. Although the results did not support Vernon's belief that method factors would have the strongest influence, higher validities were obtained with a reading test employing an unconventional method. "Centroid factor analyses revealed a strong Comprehension factor, orthogonal to the Vocabulary factor, among both groups in the reading tests." Several general observations are also offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    • Sabers (1975) defines test-taking skills as being necessary to demonstrate an ability within a test situation. More specifically, a subject needs to be able to handle testing itself (Vernon, 1962). This can include the capacity to utilize the characteristic and format of a test as well as the test taking situation itselves (Millman, Bishop, & Ebel, 1965).
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies showed that reading comprehension items, which use a multiple-choice format, were solved above chance level even when the participants received only the response alternatives. In the present study, we pursued two goals. First, we examined whether similar results apply to measures of crystallized intelligence. Second, we investigated the structural equation model structure of performance on the original and manipulated tests. Based on a sample of 210 young adults, we replicated the finding that, even if only response options remain, participants perform above chance level on reading comprehension tests and extended these findings to performance on declarative knowledge tests. We found stable individual differences in performance on the manipulated measures with latent variables capturing shared variance in performance. These factors were strongly related with latent factors capturing shared variance in performance on the original test versions suggesting that general intellectual abilities are critical for performance on manipulated measures.
    Article · Nov 2016
    • It is also argue that two factors underlie reading comprehension. These include either " vocabulary, " " decoding, " or " literal reading " as the first factor and " comprehension " or " inferential reading " as the second factor (Johnson & Reynolds, 1941; Pettit & Cockriel, 1974; Stoker & Kropp, 1960; Vernon, 1962) making inferences. Second, with reference to this initial framework, they constructed an initial Q-matrix (i.e., mapping each item to one or more reading skills) based on evidence from students' think-aloud verbal reports and the expert rating.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) have great promise for providing diagnostic information to aid learning and instruction, and a large number of CDMs have been proposed. However, the assumptions and performances of different CDMs and their applications in regard to reading comprehension tests are not fully understood. In the present study, we compared the performance of a saturated model (G-DINA), two compensatory models (DINO, ACDM), and two non-compensatory models (DINA, RRUM) with the Michigan English Language Assessment Battery (MELAB) reading test. Compared to the saturated G-DINA model, the ACDM showed comparable model fit and similar skill classification results. The RRUM was slightly worse than the ACDM and G-DINA in terms of model fit and classification results, whereas the more restrictive DINA and DINO performed much worse than the other three models. The findings of this study highlighted the process and considerations pertinent to model selection in applications of CDMs with reading tests.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
    • A variety of reading subskills or microskills constitute the construct of reading, and text-and reader-related variables directly or indirectly interact with reading processes and comprehension. Although there is a lack of consensus among psychologists, psychometricians, educationalists, and L1 and second language (L2) reading specialists with regard to the constituents of reading ability (Alderson, 1990aAlderson, , 1990bAlderson, , 2000 Alderson & Lukmani, 1989; Davis, 1968; Lumley, 1993; Pettit & Cockriel, 1974; Rost, 1993; Thorndike, 1974; Vernon, 1962), research has proved that multiple reading subskills contribute significantly to general reading comprehension. For example, Grabe (1991) and others proposed six reading component skills that competent readers might have: (a) automatic recognition skills, (b) vocabulary and structural knowledge, (c) formal discourse structure knowledge, (d) content/world background knowledge, (e) synthesis and evaluation skills/strategies, and (f ) metacognitive knowledge and skills monitoring .
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing numbers of English language learners (ELLs) in Canadian schools pose a significant challenge to the standards-based provincial tests used to measure proficiency levels of all students from various linguistic and cultural backgrounds. This study investigated the extent to which reading item bundles or items on the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT) function differentially for Grade 10 students who speak only or mostly English at home (first language [L1] students; n = 1,969) and those whose home language is something other than English (ELL students; n = 3,675). Based on Roussos and Stout's (1996a) multidimensionality-based DIF analysis paradigm, a variety of substantive and statistical techniques were employed: (a) content review by English as a second language (ESL) experts, (b) exploratory and confirmatory dimensionality analyses, and (c) confirmatory differential bundle functioning (DBF)/differential item functioning (DIF) procedures. The evidence gathered in the study indicated that items associated with vocabulary knowledge favored L1 students, whereas items requiring grammatical knowledge or integrated reading and writing skill favored ELL students. Instructional implications for the promotion of effective literacy education programs are discussed, as is the development of a literacy curriculum that can meet the needs of linguistically diverse learners in a multilingual context.
    Article · Nov 2009
    • To illustrate, consider the following threats to the interpretation of a test purportedly measuring reading conprehenslon: the vocabulary level may be sufficiently difficult that the scores tap knowledge of isolated concepts rather than comprehension of connected discourse; the questions may require only recognition or recall of material presented in the passage; and, the time limits Tt'a'f be sufficiently stringent that the scores primarily reflect reading speed. These alternatives may be appraised via analyses of correlations between reading scores and vocabulary tests, of item diffieulty as a function of indices of feature-matching between question and passage, and of the degree of speededness in test performance (Kirsch ?Guthrie, 1980; Vernon, 1962). Or, the rival interpretations may be experimentally precluded, or rendered less plausible, by reducing the vocabulary demands, by eliminating simple featu.re-matching
    Chapter · Jan 1989
    • "schlußfolgerndes ('inferentielles') Lesen" (vgl. Joh nson &Stoker & Kropp, 1960;Vernon, 1962;Pettit & Cockriel, 1974;Steinert, 1978). Nun konnte kürzlich in einer Übersicht gezeigt werden, daß bei kritischer Analyse und Neubewertung bislang vorgelegter Dimensionsanalysen zum Leseverständnis "nichts dazu berechtigt, bei Lesekönnern (d.h.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Starting point of this study was the discussion about the structure of reading comprehension. Kalb, Rabenstein & Rost (1979a, b) affirm to assess several different subskills of reading comprehension with their test system "Lesen und Verstehen" ("reading and comprehension"), specially designed for this purpose. To check this, 220 second grade German elementary-school children were tested. Results show medium to high correlations for the 8 subtests (r = 0.56 to r = 0.85). Some coefficients are (nearly) as high as the corresponding subtests reliabilities. Corrected for attenuation, they reach r = 0.66 to r = 0.99. Exploratrory factor Analyses yield, depending on theoretical point ofview, either one broad general factoror, or at most, two factors: "reading comprehension" (F1) and "vocabulary" (F2), accounting unrotated for 85% (F1) respectively 6% (F2) of the reliable variance. As with comparable reading comprehension tests, "Lesen und Verstehen" can not measure several relative clearly separated components of reading comprehension. A reliable and valid diagnosis of typical reading comprehension profiles is not possible. ---------------- Ausgangspunkt derUntersuchung war die Frage nach der Struktur des Konzepts "Leseverständnis". An 220 Grundschulkindern der 2. Jahrgangsstufe wurde überprüft, ob mit dem von Kalb, Rabenstein & Rost (1979a, b) eigens dafür konzipierten Diagnoseverfahren "Lesen und Verstehen" - wie die Autoren behaupten - eine differentielle Erfassung von Teilfähigkeiten des Leseverständnisses möglich ist. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß alle 8 Diagnoseserien mittel bis hoch miteinander korrelieren (r = 0.56 bis r = 0.85), teilweise sogar in Höhe der Subtest-Reliabilitäten. Attenuitätskorrigiert stiegen die Koeffizienten auf sehr hohe Werte an (r = 0.66 bis r = 0.99). Eine Faktorenanalyse der beobachteten Korrelationen bestätigte die Vermutung, daß - je nach theoretischer Position - nur entweder ein allgemeinerGeneralfaktor des Leseverständnisses erfaßt wird oder es werden maximal 2 Faktoren genmessen, ein varianzstarker Faktor"allgemeines Leseverständnis" (F1) und ein varianzschwacherFaktor" Wortschatz" (F2). Wie bei anderen Leseverständniststs auch, ist es offensichtlich nicht gelungen, mehrere, deutlich voneinander unterscheidbare Komponenten des Leseverständnisses relativ rein zu erfassen. Von einer differentiellen Interpretation der einzelnen Diagnoseserien von "Lesen und Verstehen" sollte deshalb Abstand genommen werden.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 1986
    • Tending to elevate that average, however, were 8 Asian American students, 4 at School A and 4 at School B, who exhibited Verbal effects about 46 points greater than their cell means on the average. One possibility is that the Verbal SAT entails additional dimensions of difficulty for blacks, and possibly for Asian Americans as well, that might be overcome by special preparation-similar perhaps to the test sophistication factor found by Vernon (1962) in the multiple-choice responses of British students relatively unfamiliar with such tests, but not in the responses of American stu-dents. (This would be particularly plausible if some of the black students in the FTC sample were nonindigenous to the American educational system-from the West Indies, for example.)
    Article · Jun 1980
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