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Five Days of Emotion: An Experience Sampling Study of Undergraduate Student Procrastination

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Abstract

Affective correlates of procrastination were examined through experience-sampling. 45 undergraduate students carried electronic pagers for 5 days preceding an academic deadline. Students were paged 8 times daily. At each signal, the participants indicated what they were doing, extent of procrastination and affective state. Contrary to previous research, procrastination was not found to be correlated with either positive or negative affect. Participants' appraisals of their tasks when paged revealed that they procrastinated on unpleasant, stressful and difficult tasks, while engaging in activities that were significantly more pleasant. Specious rewards, self-regulation and the apparent short-term benefits of procrastination are discussed in relation to these findings and as a basis for counseling intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... However, these studies are still in the minority. The potential impact of task-or contextdependent variability in behavioral determinants (i.e., withinperson variability) on students' actual behavior (and on the occurrence of behavioral delays) has rarely been studied (van Eerde, 2003;Voelkle et al., 2014), although there has been an encouraging increase in studies that have made an effort to address this research gap over the past ten to twenty years (e.g., Pychyl et al., 2000;Krause and Freund, 2014;van Eerde and Venus, 2018;Pollack and Herres, 2020;Svartdal et al., 2020). The present study sought to complement previous research on potential indicators for self-regulatory failures that are thought to precede the occurrence of task-specific delay behavior under real-life conditions. ...
... Moreover, affective experiences have been identified as one of the major determinants for the occurrence of procrastination behavior (Sirois and Pychyl, 2013). Procrastination was found to be particularly likely to occur for tasks that students perceived as being particularly aversive, unpleasant, difficult, boring, or effortful (Lay, 1992;Blunt and Pychyl, 2000;Ferrari and Scher, 2000;Pychyl et al., 2000), and was related to everyday stresses (such as negative affect, Pollack and Herres, 2020; or poor sleep quality, van Eerde and Venus, 2018), providing additional support for the claim that the occurrence of procrastination behavior is not only determined by individual trait-based influences, but also affected by rather situational or context-specific influences. Further research focusing on withinperson processes is necessary to gain a more comprehensive insight into the relationship between self-regulatory failures and the occurrence of procrastination behavior under real-life academic conditions. ...
... However, insight into the dynamic processes that affect procrastination behavior under everyday conditions is only possible if situational and task-specific influences are examined in addition to person-level determinants. Some seminal research has pursued this direction in the last two decades (e.g., Pychyl et al., 2000;Moon and Illingworth, 2005;van Eerde and Venus, 2018;Pollack and Herres, 2020). One of the findings of these studies is that an increased occurrence of procrastination behavior was related to everyday stresses (such as negative affect, Pollack and Herres, 2020;or poor sleep quality, van Eerde and Venus, 2018), providing additional support for the theoretical propositions of the mood-repair hypothesis (Sirois and Pychyl, 2013). ...
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Academic procrastination involves the delayed implementation of actions required to fulfill study-related tasks. These behavioral delays are thought to result from momentary failures in self-regulation (i.e., within-person processes). Most previous studies focused on the role of trait-based individual differences in students’ procrastination tendencies. Little is known about the within-person processes involved in the occurrence of procrastination behavior in real-life academic situations. The present study applied an event-based experience sampling approach to investigate whether the onset of task-specific delay behavior can be attributed to unfavorable changes in students’ momentary appraisals of tasks (value, aversiveness, effort, expectations of success), which may indicate failures in self-regulation arise between critical phases of goal-directed action. University students (N = 75) used an electronic diary over eight days to indicate their next days’ intentions to work on academic tasks and their task-specific appraisals (n = 582 academic tasks planned). For each task, a second query requested the next day determined whether students’ task-related appraisals changed and whether they implemented their intention on time or delayed working on the respective task (n = 501 completed task-specific measurements). Students’ general procrastination tendency was assessed at baseline using two established self-report questionnaires. Stepwise two-level logistic regression analyses revealed that within-person changes in task-related appraisals that reflected a devaluation of the study-related tasks increased the risk for an actual delay. The risk to delay decreased when students maintained a positive attitude toward the task. Students’ general procrastination tendency did not predict individual differences in their task-specific delay behavior. We discuss these findings in light of the growing effort to understand the within-person processes that contribute to induce procrastination behavior under real-life academic conditions and illustrate how this knowledge can benefit the design of tasks and instructions that support students’ self-regulation to their best. THIS ARTICLE IS PART OF THE RESEARCH TOPIC: New Perspectives on Procrastination, Volume II
... Both types of procrastination lead to different negative consequences. Situational procrastination was linked to low academic achievement (Ferrari, 2010;Özer et al., 2009; for a meta-analysis see Kim & Seo, 2015), dispositional procrastination to delays in health seeking behaviors (Pychyl et al., 2000), and both procrastination types are associated with poor well-being (vanEerde, 2013; and increased reports of symptoms of depression (Ferrari et al., 1995;Flett et al., 1995Flett et al., , 2016. ...
... Persevering in the face of boredom and frustration calls for a degree of self-control and emotion regulation to inhibit "task-irrelevant emotions and cognitions" (Kuhl, 1994, p. 16). Frustration as a negative emotion is often regulated by engaging in a distracting activity, like watching task-irrelevant videos and playing video games (Pychyl et al., 2000). ...
... The relationship between procrastination (both situational and dispositional) and shame and guilt received little attention as compared to anxiety and stress. Empirical studies examining the association between guilt and procrastination focused mostly on situational or academic procrastination, frequently reporting a positive correlation between the two constructs (e.g., Pychyl et al., 2000;Rahimi, 2019). The feeling of guilt is mostly due to enjoying an alternative distracting activity, where these activities show the individual's lack of engagement in the important task they have been avoiding by procrastinating. ...
Article
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The relationship between different emotions with situational (e.g., academic) and dispositional (chronic) procrastination was examined extensively in the literature since the early days of procrastination research. A review of empirical studies over the past 40 years might shed light on the role of emotions in procrastination in different contexts with different populations. The current paper reviewed 83 studies (from 1977 to 2021) exploring the relationship between 9 different emotions and situational and dispositional procrastination. The emotions examined, listed in the order of the extent of focus of scholarly research are: anxiety, fear, shame, guilt, regret, boredom, frustration, anger, and revenge. Findings highlight the important role of emotions as motives, antecedents, correlates, or consequences of situational and dispositional procrastination. Based on the findings, a lack of a comprehensive theory summarizing dispositional and situational procrastination is pointed out and avenues for future research are outlined and recommended.
... It refers to "postponing academic duties such as preparing for exams and delaying homework sometimes or constantly" (Rothblum, Solomon & Murakami, 1986). Procrastination can manifest itself through various means such as watching TV, reading, sleeping, online gaming and online chatting (Pychyl, Lee, Thibodeau, & Blunt, 2000;Thatcher, Wretschko, & Fridjhon, 2008). ...
... There is growing evidence suggesting emotional correlates of procrastination. Among the myriad of factors influencing procrastination, previous studies have found academic procrastination to be correlated with factors such as task aversiveness (Pychyl et al., 2000), fear of failure, irrational cognition, depression, anxiety (Soloman & Rothblum, 1984) selfesteem, (Senécal, Koestner & Vallerand, 1995), perfectionism (Rice et. al., 2012), conscientiousness and neuroticism (Lee, Kelly, & Edwards, 2006;Milgram & Tenne, 2000;Schouwenburg & Lay, 1993;van Eerde, 2003;Kaur, 2018) and self-compassion (Sirois, 2014) among many other factors. ...
... Tice and Bratslavsky (2000) argue that engagement in mood regulation in the short-term results in failure of self-control in other areas of one's life. Experimental research (Tice, Bratslavsky & Baumeister, 2001;Pychyl et al., 2000;Tice and Bratslavsky, 2000) serves as evidence supporting the strong association between emotional regulation and procrastination. Thus, it can be hypothesized that emotions and regulation of emotions are significant contributing factors of procrastination even among students. ...
Article
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Procrastination is a rampant problem faced by a significant proportion of the student population and has adverse effects on academic achievement and various life outcomes. A deeper understanding of procrastination behaviours suggests toward several emotional correlates as factors underlying procrastination tendencies as opposed to the commonly held notions which explain procrastination as failures surrounding self-discipline and time management. The aim of the current study was to understand the influence of emotional intelligence on academic procrastination among undergraduate and postgraduate students. The study was conducted on 365 female undergraduate and postgraduate students. Data was gathered using the 'Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale' and the 'Academic Procrastination Scale'. Two-Way ANOVA was run on the scores obtained to study the influence of emotional intelligence and level of education on academic procrastination. Consistent with some previous findings, the findings of the current study suggest that emotional intelligence has a significant influence on academic procrastination among students. However, no significant differences in the influence were found between the two groups implying that the influence of emotional intelligence on academic procrastination does not depend on the level of education. ostering meaningful and effective educational experiences as well as facilitating better academic achievement requires an understanding of the problems associated with student-life and students' counterproductive behaviours. In India, approximately 34.6 million people were enrolled in higher education programs in the year 2015-16 while the gross enrolment ratio in higher education was 25.4 % for the age group of 18-23 years (All India Survey on Higher Education, 2016). Considering that a substantial proportion of the student population falls under the age range of 18-23 years, it is imperative to understand and analyse the problems faced by them and the factors that influence their academic performance and achievement in order to effectively tackle academic issues.
... In addition, Yildirim and Demir (2019) found procrastination to be a strong predictor of avoidant behaviors and self-handicapping among undergraduate students. In line with these findings, several other authors have found a positive association between procrastination in the academic domain and negative emotional experiences (Blunt and Pychyl, 1998;Fee and Tangney, 2000;Pychyl, Lee, Thibodeau and Blunt, 2000;Saddler and Buley, 1999). Thus, procrastination can be pinpointed as being the result of a failure in self-regulation or a mood repair strategy in which the priority is to feel good in the short term (i.e., by avoiding a task), while disregarding long-term objectives (e.g., performing well in a given class, Pychyl and Flett, 2012;Pychyl and Sirois, 2016;Sirois and Pychyl, 2013). ...
... Relatedly, the present findings demonstrate that students who procrastinate also experience psychological distress. These findings are in line with previous research (e.g., Balkis and Duru, 2016;Fee and Tangney, 2000;Pychyl et al., 2000). More specifically, Beutel et al. (2016), found a positive association between procrastination and perceived stress, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and loneliness. ...
Article
Procrastination is a maladaptive behaviour that students often experience in academic activities and can result in negative consequences to mental health. The challenges imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic can contribute to increase procrastination behaviors in academic activities that the student does not like and in those he/she is passionate. The main objective of this research was to test an integrative model of passion, procrastination, satisfaction with life and psychological distress in students during pandemic. The sample was comprised of 416 university students aged between 18 and 57 years (M age = 24.81 ± 7.02, 78.1% women). Structural Equation Modeling results revealed that academic procrastination negatively linked to harmonious passion, and positively linked to obsessive passion. Academic procrastination in turn negatively linked to satisfaction with life and positively linked to psychological distress. Harmonious passion also was directly positively associated to satisfaction with life and negatively associated to psychological distress. These results suggest that students' harmonious passion for their studies plays a protective role against academic procrastination and mental health indicators, while obsessive passion represents a risk factor. Powered by Editorial Manager® and ProduXion Manager® from Aries Systems Corporation Declarations Funding The authors did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work.
... Academic procrastination also affects the health of the individual negatively, causing mental and physical stress, sleep-related problems, fatigue and illness (Grunschel et al., 2013a;Patrzek et al., 2012;Rothblum et al., 1986;Tice & Baumeister, 1997). Procrastination also has negative emotional consequences such as anxiety, anger, shame, dissatisfaction, sadness, feeling under pressure, and guilt (Grunschel et al., 2013a;Patrzek et al., 2012;Pychyl et al., 2000;Rothblum et al., 1986;Tice & Baumeister, 1997). In addition to these negative consequences of procrastination, students stated that they had problems in their private lives, such as negative reactions from others, financial costs, and interference with their career plans, and these problems spread to the academic field as well (Grunschel et al., 2013a;Patrzek et al., 2012as cited in Steel & Klingsieck, 2016. ...
... Another important finding obtained in the study is that 65% of the students stated that they were uncomfortable with the procrastination behavior they experienced while preparing term papers, 62.2% were uncomfortable while studying for exams and 55.1% were uncomfortable while doing their weekly homework (Solomon & Rothblum, 1984). There is a relationship between academic procrastination and low student grades (Beswick et al., 1988;Fritzsche et al., 2003;Klassen et al., 2008;Moon & Illingworth, 2005;Steel et al., 2001;Tice & Baumeister, 1997;van Eerde, 2003); mental and physical stress, sleep-related problems, fatigue and illness (Grunschel et al., 2013a;Patrzek et al., 2012;Rothblum et al., 1986;Tice & Baumeister, 1997); negative emotional outcomes such as anxiety, anger, shame, dissatisfaction, sadness, feeling under pressure, and guilt (Grunschel et al., 2013a;Patrzek et al., 2012;Pychyl et al., 2000;Rothblum et al., 1986;Tice & Baumeister, 1997). ...
Article
The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of self-compassion in the relationship between perfectionism and academic procrastination in teacher candidates. Structural equation modeling, one of the quantitative research methods, was used in the study. The participants of the study consisted of a total of 478 teacher candidates, 328 female and 150 male, between the ages of 18-41. Personal Information Form, Aitken Procrastination Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and Self-Compassion Scale were used as data collection tools in the research. According to the findings, perfectionism has a negative relationship with self-compassion, perfectionism has a positive relationship with academic procrastination, and self-compassion has a negative relationship with academic procrastination. As a result of the Bootstrap analysis for the significance of indirect effects, it was found that self-compassion had a partial mediating role in the relationship between perfectionism and academic procrastination.
... In particular, this study provided robust statistical evidence that males procrastinate more than females (n = 102,484, k = 193; r = 0.042, 95%, p < 0.001) in both general and academic procrastination, which was consistent with previous investigations suggesting a relationship between them (Pychyl et al., 2000;Steel, 2007;Gröpel and Steel, 2008). There might be promising evidence suggesting a causal role of demographic features (i.e., gender) in procrastination. ...
... Males were found to possess a lower level of self-control, which is a key determinant of procrastination (Tewksbury and Higgins, 2006;Ward et al., 2018). As a result, males may tend to procrastinate more due to a lack of goal-directed processing ability and an inability to suppress tempting stimuli (Pychyl et al., 2000;Ferrari, 2001;Steel, 2007;Steel and Klingsieck, 2016). Similarly, males also have a higher level of impulsivity than do females (Cross et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination describes a ubiquitous scenario in which individuals voluntarily postpone scheduled activities at the expense of adverse consequences. Steel (2007) pioneered a meta-analysis to explicitly reveal the nature of procrastination and sparked intensive research on its demographic characteristics. However, conflicting and heterogeneous findings reported in the existing literature make it difficult to draw reliable conclusions. In addition, there is still room to further investigate on more sociodemographic features that include socioeconomic status, cultural differences and procrastination education. To this end, we performed quantitative sociodemographic meta-analyses ( k = 193, total n = 106,764) to fill this gap. It was found that the general tendency and academic procrastination tendency of males were stronger than females ( r = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.02–0.05). No significant effects of differences in socioeconomic status (i.e., poor or rich), multiculturalism (i.e., Han nation or minorities), nationality (i.e., China or other countries), family size (i.e., one child or > 1 child), and educational background (i.e., science or arts/literature) were found to affect procrastination tendencies. Furthermore, it was noteworthy that the gender differences in procrastination tendencies were prominently moderated by measurements, which has a greater effect on the Aitken Procrastination Inventory (API) ( r = 0.035, 95% CI: −0.01–0.08) than on the General Procrastination Scale (GPS) ( r = 0.018, 95% CI: −0.01–0.05). In conclusion, this study provides robust evidence that males tended to procrastinate more than females in general and academic profiles, and further indicates that procrastination tendencies do not vary based on sociodemographic situations, including socioeconomic status, multiculturalism, nationality, family size, and educational background.
... Additionally, it explores aspects of time management when working on the assignment, because procrastinators have been found to start working on assignments later (Minichov, 2011;Pychyl et al., 2000), and to submit their work later (Howell et al., 2006;Klingsieck & Fries, 2012). ...
... Steel, 2007), task aversiveness (cf. Hoppe et al., 2018;Pychyl, Lee et al., 2000), and gender (cf. Steel & Ferrari, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Current research has paid little attention to contextual or social factors that may contribute to procrastination. One social factor, which may influence procrastination, is group work among students. Compared to individual work, group work can enhance individual effort and performance when the individual's contribution is indispensable for group success. In a field experiment, students with high levels of trait procrastination completed a typical academic assignment (i.e., compiling a bibliography), either in group work with an indispensable contribution or in individual work. Lower procrastination and higher performance were found in group work with an indispensable contribution as compared to individual work. Exploration of positive and negative task-related affect revealed no differences between conditions. Results add to the current theoretical understanding of procrastination and might inspire a new approach, which aims at preventing procrastination by changes in the learning environment.
... In addition, Yildirim and Demir (2019) found procrastination to be a strong predictor of avoidant behaviors and self-handicapping among undergraduate students. In line with these findings, several other authors have found a positive association between procrastination in the academic domain and negative emotional experiences (Blunt and Pychyl, 1998;Fee and Tangney, 2000;Pychyl, Lee, Thibodeau and Blunt, 2000;Saddler and Buley, 1999). Thus, procrastination can be pinpointed as being the result of a failure in self-regulation or a mood repair strategy in which the priority is to feel good in the short term (i.e., by avoiding a task), while disregarding long-term objectives (e.g., performing well in a given class, Pychyl and Flett, 2012;Pychyl and Sirois, 2016;Sirois and Pychyl, 2013). ...
... Relatedly, the present findings demonstrate that students who procrastinate also experience psychological distress. These findings are in line with previous research (e.g., Balkis and Duru, 2016;Fee and Tangney, 2000;Pychyl et al., 2000). More specifically, Beutel et al. (2016), found a positive association between procrastination and perceived stress, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and loneliness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination is a maladaptive behaviour that students often experience in academic activities and can result in negative consequences to mental health. The challenges imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic can contribute to increase procrastination behaviors in academic activities that the student does not like and in those he/she is passionate. The main objective of this research was to test an integrative model of passion, procrastination, satisfaction with life and psychological distress in students during pandemic. The sample was comprised of 416 university students aged between 18 and 57 years (M age = 24.81 ± 7.02, 78.1% women). Structural Equation Modeling results revealed that academic procrastination is negatively linked to harmonious passion, and positively linked to obsessive passion. Academic procrastination in turn is negatively linked to satisfaction with life and positively linked to psychological distress. Harmonious passion also was directly positively associated to satisfaction with life and negatively associated to psychological distress. These results suggest that students' harmonious passion for their studies plays a protective role against academic procrastination and mental health indicators, while obsessive passion represents a risk factor.
... Approximately 30%-60% of undergraduate students report regular procrastination in studying for exams, writing term papers, and doing weekly readings to the point where performance is compromised [45][46][47][48][49]. The increased stress due to procrastination can manifest as anxiety, irritation, regret, despair, and/or self-blame [45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53]. ...
... Approximately 30%-60% of undergraduate students report regular procrastination in studying for exams, writing term papers, and doing weekly readings to the point where performance is compromised [45][46][47][48][49]. The increased stress due to procrastination can manifest as anxiety, irritation, regret, despair, and/or self-blame [45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53]. ...
Article
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Background: University students are experiencing higher levels of distress and mental health disorders than before. In addressing mental health needs, web-based interventions have shown increasing promise in overcoming geographic distances and high student-to-counselor ratios, leading to the potential for wider implementation. The Mindfulness Virtual Community (MVC) program, a web-based program, guided by mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapy principles, is among efforts aimed at effectively and efficiently reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress in students. Objective: This study’s aim was to evaluate the efficacy of an 8-week MVC program in reducing depression, anxiety, and perceived stress (primary outcomes), and improving mindfulness (secondary outcome) in undergraduate students at a large Canadian university. Guided by two prior randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that each demonstrated efficacy when conducted during regular university operations, this study coincided with a university-wide labor strike. Nonetheless, the students’ response to an online mental health program on a disrupted campus can provide useful information for anticipating the impact of other disruptions, including those related to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as future disruptions. Methods: In this parallel-arm RCT, 154 students were randomly allocated to an 8-week MVC intervention (n=76) or a wait-list control (WLC) condition (n=78). The MVC intervention included the following: (1) educational and mindfulness video modules, (2) anonymous peer-to-peer discussions, and (3) anonymous, group-based, professionally guided, 20-minute videoconferences. Study outcomes were evaluated at baseline and at 8-week follow-up using the following: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire Short Form (FFMQ-SF). Generalized estimation equations with an AR (1) covariance structure were used to evaluate the impact of the intervention, with outcome evaluations performed on both an intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) basis. Results: Participants (n=154) included 35 males and 117 females with a mean age of 23.1 years. There were no statistically significant differences at baseline between the MVC and WLC groups on demographics and psychological characteristics, indicating similar demographic and psychological characteristics across the two groups. Results under both ITT and PP approaches indicated that there were no statistically significant between-group differences in PHQ-9 (ITT: β=–0.44, P=.64; PP: β=–0.62, P=.053), BAI (ITT: β=–2.06, P=.31; PP: β=–2.32, P=.27), and FFMQ-SF (ITT: β=1.33, P=.43; PP: β=1.44, P=.41) compared to WLC. There was a significant difference for the PSS (ITT: β=–2.31, P=.03; PP: β=–2.38, P=.03).
... Task aversiveness, defined as how unpleasant a task is perceived to be, has similarly been reported as a critical reason underlying procrastination (e.g., undergraduates: Ferrari et al., 1998;Solomon & Rothblum, 1984; see also task difficulty, Schraw et al., 2007;graduate students: Onwuegbuzie, 2004). Not surprisingly, students are significantly more likely to procrastinate on tasks they perceive as unpleasant (e.g., undergraduates : Lay, 1992;Pychyl et al., 2000;graduate students, Onwuegbuzie, 2004) and also avoid tasks they perceive as confusing, difficult, or stressful (e.g., undergraduates: Ackerman & Gross, 2005;Ferrari & Scher, 2000;Pychyl et al., 2000). ...
... Task aversiveness, defined as how unpleasant a task is perceived to be, has similarly been reported as a critical reason underlying procrastination (e.g., undergraduates: Ferrari et al., 1998;Solomon & Rothblum, 1984; see also task difficulty, Schraw et al., 2007;graduate students: Onwuegbuzie, 2004). Not surprisingly, students are significantly more likely to procrastinate on tasks they perceive as unpleasant (e.g., undergraduates : Lay, 1992;Pychyl et al., 2000;graduate students, Onwuegbuzie, 2004) and also avoid tasks they perceive as confusing, difficult, or stressful (e.g., undergraduates: Ackerman & Gross, 2005;Ferrari & Scher, 2000;Pychyl et al., 2000). ...
Article
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Academic procrastination is understood as the postponement of academic tasks despite the possibility of negative consequences, with an estimated 46% of undergraduate students and 60% of graduate students regularly engaging in this behavior. The purpose of the present study was to contrast procrastination behavior on specific academic tasks (writing term papers, studying for exams, keeping up with weekly readings) between undergraduate (n = 354) and graduate students (n = 816), as well as examine the perceived reasons for this procrastination behavior. MANOVA results showed that undergraduate students reported greater perceived prevalence of procrastination than graduate students with respect to studying. Principal component analyses further revealed different components for undergraduate and graduate students, including fear of failure and task aversiveness for undergraduate students, and fear of failure and lack of assertiveness for graduate students.
... Perhaps one of the most pernicious consequences of procrastination is the higher degree of negative affective states experienced by the procrastinator. That is, those who are knowingly procrastinating experience higher degrees of guilt, anxiety, and worry (Pychyl et al., 2000a;. ...
... The ESM surveys and reflection prompts scheduled at 10 am and 7 pm were selected with the intention of covering both morningness and eveningness preferences described by Ferrari et al. (1997) and Hess et al. (2000), as well as to cover a variety of study and work schedule commitments I suspected students would likely be juggling. Otherwise, the decision for two surveys per day and their scheduled times, or even that times would be scheduled and not random as is not uncommon in ESM studies (e.g., Pychyl et al., 2000a), was largely speculative with little empirical justification. Moreover, the decision to observe study behaviour over two weeks prior to the due date was largely pragmatic, with no known theoretical frameworks to inform ideal observation periods. ...
Thesis
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Procrastination is the volitional delay of an intended task, despite believing that delay will be harmful. While not all delay is attributable to procrastination, procrastination is fundamentally characterised by delay. As much as 90% of the population have experience with procrastination, with around 20% in the general population and 50% of university students reporting problematic levels of chronic procrastination. Compared to their non-procrastinating peers, chronic procrastinators report lower levels of wellbeing, higher rates of depression, higher rates of alcohol and other drug use for coping, and poor health adjustment. Procrastinators tend to have lower salaries, shorter durations of employment, and a greater likelihood of being unemployed or underemployed. There is also a direct economic impact on the workforce, with office workers found to spend an average of 1.5 hours per work day procrastinating. Despite its prevalence, the variability of tasks, time available, subjectivity, and individual differences render procrastination difficult to observe as it happens. Consequently, while correlates, antecedents, effects, and types of procrastination have been widely investigated, progress in this field is limited by several factors. In particular, few studies have accurately quantified delay associated with procrastination over time. As a consequence, there is limited evidence supporting the ability of trait measures of procrastination to predict delay, and few interventions aimed at reducing procrastination have been clearly associated with reduced delay. Recent developments in smartphone technology and Experience Sampling Method (ESM) applications have enabled intensive longitudinal observations of such dynamic phenomena with relative ease; however, such methodology and statistical modelling of delay have yet to be reliably applied to the study of procrastination. To address the challenge of observing delay associated with procrastination, I conducted three studies of students enrolled in a 1st year psychology course: a small pilot study (N = 24) and two larger scale replications (Ns = 80 and 107) focusing on intensive longitudinal measurement of delay, procrastination scale validation, and an intervention to reduce procrastination respectively. Participant ages ranged from 17.38 to 65.85 years (M = 23.85, SD = 9.49) and 75% identified as female. Each study included a baseline survey of demographic and trait procrastination and personality variables, an ESM phase comprised of 28 SMS surveys over 14 days in the lead-up to submission of an assignment worth 30% of the course grade, and the collection of assignment submission date and mark from the course convenor. Participants in the ESM phase were randomly allocated into either an intervention or control condition, with participants in both conditions reporting their assignment progress, completion intent, and affect regarding their assignment progress. Participants in the intervention, but not the control, condition were messaged at the end of each ESM survey with open reflection prompts designed to reduce procrastination. Studies 1 and 3 also included follow up interviews with a small subsample of participants (N = 8) to garner first-hand perspectives of participation in the ESM component of the studies. Through the application of multilevel model analyses, the presence of quantified delay curves in all three studies provides firm evidence that regular self-reporting of task progress using ESM is a robust and reliable method for measuring behavioural delay. The use of multilevel modelling in quantifying delay enabled the inclusion of mixed effects, where the predictive ability of several procrastination scales could be assessed. A trait measure of passive procrastination was found to reliably predict behavioural delay, whereas no association was found between a measure of active procrastination, a type of procrastination purported to be adaptive and deliberate, and delay. The intervention prompting regular reflection on factors thought to be related to procrastination that was embedded into the ESM phase of each study was found to significantly reduce delay in Studies 1 and 3, but not in Study 2. Between-study differences in this intervention effect were likely related to contextual differences as participants in Study 2 were aware that the research pertained to procrastination whereas those in the other studies were not informed of the focus on procrastination. In the follow-up interviews, participants reported that regularly reporting task progress, as well as the intervention reflection prompts, may have assisted with the reduction of procrastination. Analyses conducted into the relationships between trait procrastination, neuroticism, and state affect and delay revealed that neuroticism (emotional stability) moderated the relationship between trait procrastination and affect, and affect mediated the relationship between trait procrastination and task delay. Moreover, cross-lagged panel model analyses of inter-temporal changes in affect and delay showed that participants who reported greater task progress at an earlier time were likely to report higher positive affect at a subsequent time, whereas those reporting higher positive affect at an earlier time tended to report lower progress at a subsequent time. Overall, the research offers three specific unique contributions to the body of knowledge. First, the use of ESM surveys of task progress is demonstrated to be a reliable method for measuring behavioural delay associated with procrastination. This is evidenced by the presence of accelerating delay curves, where assignment progress increases in a hyperbolic trajectory prior to a submission date. The reliable observation and modelling of delay is an oft-cited limitation of the field; thus, the replicated validation of this as a reliable method constitutes a valuable contribution. Second, multilevel mixed effects modelling is used to assess the ability of scales measuring different aspects of trait procrastination to predict behavioural delay, indicating that some trait procrastination measures are more predictive of behaviour than are others. The statistical method employed, and the use of task progress rather than study duration as the outcome, enabled the construct validity of the contentious ‘active’ form of procrastination to be challenged. This approach is proposed also to be a suitable method for assessing the behavioural efficacy of targeted interventions for reducing procrastination. Third, sending regular reflection prompts to randomly selected ESM recipients resulted in a significant reduction in behavioural delay in two of the three studies. This use of low-intensity reflection prompts delivered at a high frequency demonstrates smartphone use can be an effective medium for reducing procrastination without the need for intensive approaches requiring considerable commitment from both practitioners and participants. This intervention design sets an example for reducing delay in academia, with the method likely capable of being extended, with adaptation, to procrastination in other areas such as health behaviour change, personal finance, and collective action.
... Daarnaast zijn de gevolgen van uitstelgedag uiteenlopend. Zo wordt uitstelgedrag geassocieerd met gevoelens van depressie, schuld, angst en een laag gevoel van zelfvertrouwen Pychyl, Lee, Thibodeau & Blunt, 2000;Rothblum, Solomon & Murakami, 1986;Solomon & Rothblum, 1984). Daarnaast zorgt het uitstellen voor tijdsnood, wat leidt tot een lagere nauwkeurigheid bij het uitvoeren van een taak (Ferrari, 2001). ...
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Academic procrastination as a predictor of study success (Mulder, 2018) To limit study delay and dropout rates, the Saxion procrastination research group is developing a screening instrument that can identify students at an early stage on risk and success factors for study success. Building on the results Van de Bilt (2016) and Koopmans (2017) is also recommended to combine the 12 items originating from the SBS/PASS that are (negatively) related to study success, with items that assess active procrastination.
... As social needs are an important motive for procrastination (Steel & Klingsieck, 2016) and messengers (e.g., WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger) are among the most frequently used applications (Hendrickson et al., 2019), messengers might be a common outlet for people to not do what they had intended. Third, procrastination is likely to manifest as video streaming and gaming application use, as watching television and gaming are considered common procrastination modes (Pychyl et al., 2000;Steel, 2011). Use of video streaming applications (e.g., Netflix, Hulu, Disney+) might contribute to procrastination, in particular. ...
Article
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Procrastination is an increasingly prevalent phenomenon. Although research suggests smartphones might be involved, little is known about the momentary association between different patterns of smartphone use and procrastination. In a preregistered study, 221 students ( M age = 20, 55% female) self-reported procrastination five times a day for 30 days (i.e., experience sampling method) while their smartphone use was continuously monitored (i.e., passive logging). Using dynamic structural equation modeling on 27,151 observations, we estimated momentary within-person associations between procrastination and (a) total smartphone use and use of specific application categories (social media, messaging, browsers, games, and video streaming), (b) notifications, and (c) smartphone use fragmentation. Procrastination was positively albeit weakly associated with all aforementioned patterns, and associations varied from person to person. Collectively, our findings suggest these popular devices potentially encourage dilatory behavior.
... Estimates indicate that 80% to 95% college students engage in procrastination (Ellis & Knaus, 1977;O'Brien, 2002). Even for the average student, procrastination is considerable, representing over one-third of their reported daily tasks (Pychyl, Lee, Thibodeau, & Blunt, 2000). Rothblum, Solomon, and Murakami (1986,p.387) ...
Article
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The aim of the study was to study the relationship between parental involvement and procrastination on a sample of 500 adolescent students. The sample consisted of 500 secondary school students (250 girls and 250 boys) studying in ninth and tenth classes (aged 13 to 15 years). These students were subjected to measures of procrastination given by Lay (Form G, 1986) and Academic Procrastination (Milgram & Amir, 1998) and three measures of Parental Involvement Scale including cognitive stimulation, cognitive behaviour and personal involvement developed by Trama, 1998). The hypothesis that there would be negative relationship between procrastination and parental involvement has been supported in case of total sample, for boys only in case of general procrastination, and for girls in case of academic procrastination, and general procrastination and all parental involvement variables except for father’s cognitive behaviour and father’s cognitive stimulation. The results reveal that boys are less tolerant towards interference by parents in their studies as compared to girls. This explains insignificant relations obtained for academic procrastination on all parental variables for boys. Keywords: parental involvement, procrastination.
... Shifting the lens to subjective measures, emotion can be obtained by observer's report (Bartel & Saavedra, 2000;Barsade, 2002;Tsai, Knutson, & Fung, 2006) and self-report. Self-report is typically used in interviews (Sas & Zhang, 2010), reflective journal (Hariharan, 2011), experience sampling (Pychyl, Lee, Thibodeau, & Blunt, 2000;Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 2014) and surveys where participants are asked to rate their emotions based on a set of scales retrospectively (Barsade, 2002;Todorova, Bear, & Weingart, 2014) or momentarily (Barrett, 1997). In terms of potential limitation, social desirability bias, accessibility and consistency are considered to compromise external validity and study reliability (Ram et al., 2017). ...
Article
The process of design involves rich emotional experiences from resolving team conflict to breaking impasses to discovering creative insight. To explore emotion in designing we present a mixed-method study of experienced designers. Situated emotion is assessed by triangulating speech acoustics, electrodermal activity, and semantics with contextual inquiry of video data and retrospective self-reporting. We show the value of triangulating multimodal data in dealing with discrepancies amongst different measures. We present results to show how situated emotion mediates design work using multi-level model analysis. To conclude, we discuss how emotion relates to design ability and the role of emotion in designing. Finally, we reflect on the methodological approach we have taken and indicate directions for future emotion research in the process of design.
... As a result, such people would be less likely to access diverse and important information, attempt to resolve problems from a variety of perspectives, examine different environments, and identify and test various alternatives, thus being less capable of developing and implementing novel ideas (Amabile, 1996). Moreover, by reducing work efforts, low intrinsic motivation prevents employees from striving to face adversities or obstacles to idea promotion and implementation (Pychyl et al., 2000). Indirect support for this line of reasoning is provided by prior studies showing that job insecurity is associated with impaired employee functioning-higher counterproductive work behaviour ( and lower well-being (Vander Elst et al., 2012)-via psychological need frustration-a proximal determinant of intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1995). ...
Article
Research has disregarded the processes and boundary conditions associated with the effects of job insecurity on innovative work behavior. Combining the job demands‐resources and the self‐determination perspectives, the present study develops and tests a first‐stage moderated mediation model that identifies intrinsic motivation as a key mechanism accounting for a negative effect of job insecurity on innovative behavior and trait mindfulness as a buffer against the detrimental impact of job insecurity on intrinsic motivation and, indirectly, innovative work behavior. Two time‐lagged studies – a two‐wave study of 138 employees from Canadian firms and a three‐wave study of 157 employees from U.S. firms – were conducted to test the hypothesized model. Supporting our predictions, intrinsic motivation mediated a negative relationship between job insecurity and innovative work behavior. Moreover, high levels of trait mindfulness were observed to attenuate the negative relationship of job insecurity with intrinsic motivation and, indirectly, innovative behavior. These findings contribute to the literature by disclosing the processes linking job insecurity with impaired work outcomes and help to elucidate how and when employee can keep their innovative potential alive in spite of insecure work conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The procrastination type of mood modification was also a significant predictor in several models. This is consistent with previous research that has identified that procrastinated related tasks such as coursework are often identified as by individuals as stressful, boring or frustrating (Pychyl et al. 2000). We also noted in our previous research that some individuals use SNS to experience positive emotions of acceptance and appreciation at times when they are feeling lonely or isolated from their social group (Alblwi et al 2019b). ...
Article
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Procrastination refers to the voluntary delay of urgent tasks and can have several negative consequences such as stress, health issues and academic under-achievement. Several factors including personality, culture and gender have been identified as predictors of procrastination, although there are some conflicting findings within the literature. Social networking sites have been identified as a possible facilitator of procrastination, in part due to their design features that encourage immersion and continual interaction. However, social networking sites also provide the opportunity for intelligent, real-time prevention and intervention strategies to be delivered that can reduce the experience of procrastination. In this paper, we build upon our research in which we used a mixed-method approach to explore the types, triggers and acceptance of countermeasures for procrastination on social media. Following a survey of 288 participants from the UK ( n = 165) and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ( n = 123), we conducted a series of multiple regression and binary logistic regression models to determine predictors of these factors. Several predictors such as self-control and conscientiousness were found to be significant predictors, but overall, the amount of variance explained by the regression models was relatively low. The results demonstrate that participants are receptive to countermeasures for procrastination being delivered through social networking sites but suggest that the predictors of procrastination related phenomena experienced in social networking sites are different than in offline settings.
... Essentially, people might be particularly likely to justify procrastination in the context of negative mood as a pathway toward feeling better. The question here is whether employing justification on the front end as an excuse to fail at self-control actually works to mitigate the guilt people often feel after procrastinating (Pychyl, Lee, Thibodeau, & Blunt, 2000). ...
Article
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Recent work suggests that the cognitive process of justification, which is the act of generating an excuse to give in to temptation prior to acting, can license tempting behavior and disrupt long term goal pursuit. However, the emotional repercussions of justification are unknown. We examined the effect of justification on self-control failure and subsequent emotion in two studies depicting an initiatory self-control situation (i.e., when the long-term goal is to act and the temptation is to do nothing). We predicted that self-control failure via justification would result in less negative and more positive affect compared to self-control failure without justification. In Study 1, participants reported on a vignette character, and in Study 2 they reported on what they would do in the context of a dilemma of whether or not to exercise. Across studies, self-control failure was associated with increased negative affect and decreased positive affect. The two studies differed in terms of whether justification increased (Study 1) or decreased (Study 2) likelihood of self-control failure. This study extends justification findings beyond initiatory self-control situations (i.e., when the temptation is to do something active and long-term goal involves restraint) and clearly ties self-control decisions to affective processes.
... Likert scale is used to divide the project into 1 (ever) to 5 (often). This project focused on the core aspect of procrastination, that is, voluntarily choosing the delayed task to compete with another task (Steel, 2007), which includes the emotional attitude toward the delayed task (Pychyl et al., 2000). The higher the score, the easier it is for the participant to procrastinate through the use of the Internet. ...
Article
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Perceived stress, Internet addiction and procrastination are common issues among college students. Based on the Compensatory Internet Use (CIU) model and emotion regulation theory, this study aims to explore two possible mechanisms for the connection between perceived stress and Internet addiction: mediating effect of procrastination and moderating effect of flow experience on the Internet. Cross-sectional design and questionnaire survey were used in this study. Data were collected from 446 college students who voluntarily completed self-reporting of perceived stress, internet addiction, procrastination and flow. Potential relationship structure and moderation model between variables was calculated during the process. The results revealed that there were significant associations among perceived stress, Internet addiction, procrastination and flow. The results also showed that procrastination plays a mediating role between perceptual stress and Internet addiction, flow plays a moderating role between them. The results emphasized the importance of the intention behind college students’ overuse of the Internet. These results also provided a perspective of finding the possible causes of Internet addiction in college students, that is, individuals use the Internet to avoid stress and procrastinate, and the mobile experience on the Internet also affects the process.
... For instance, students have been found to procrastinate particularly often when writing a term paper, studying for exams, or reading weekly assignments (O'Brien, 2002;Prohaska, Morrill, Atiles, & Perez, 2000;Simpson & Pychyl, 2009). Further, procrastination has been found to be influenced by task aversiveness, expected outcomes, and affective as well as motivational characteristics of the situation (e.g., Lee, 2005;Pychyl, Lee, Thibodeau, & Blunt, 2000). To understand these fluctuations in academic procrastination and to reflect them adequately in empirical operationalization, it is necessary to analyze the construct not only from a trait perspective (procrastination as a tendency to generally delay doing things; Schouwenburg & Groenewoud, 2001;Tuckman, 1991), but also from a state perspective (procrastination varying across time and situations; Van Eerde, 2000). ...
Article
Academic procrastination can theoretically be conceptualized as a failure in motivational self-regulation. It can be assumed that besides the mere use of motivational regulation strategies, fitting motivational regulation strategies with the current motivational problem can also have beneficial effects on academic procrastination. As both academic procrastination and motivational regulation can be conceptualized as over time fluctuating and situation-specific behaviors, not only trait, but also state fractions of these constructs have to be considered. To elucidate the interrelations between academic procrastinatory behavior and motivational regulation, we therefore examined trait use, state use, trait fit, and state fit of motivational regulation strategies. To test their relevance for academic procrastinatory behavior, we conducted two longitudinal and situation-specific diary studies with 128 and 218 university students. Results of growth curve modeling indicate that academic procrastinatory behavior varies between persons, declines during exam preparation, and can be reduced by using well-fitting motivational regulation strategies. Specifically, both trait and state strategy fit were negatively associated with academic procrastinatory behavior, while mere strategy use was not.
... Furthermore, considering the insepara- . Moreover previous studies also found that conscientious individuals with adequate self-control inhibited the desire for immediate or enjoyable temptation and can execute tasks timely (Pychyl, Lee, Thibodeau, & Blunt, 2000;Steel, 2007). As for the Nontime_Consci facet, it might be personal-value-related component that explained the relationship between conscientiousness and procrastination. ...
Article
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Procrastination is a prevalent and universal problematic behavior, largely impairing individual's health, wealth and well‐being. Substantial studies have confirmed that conscientiousness, one of the big five personality, showed markedly inverse relation with procrastination. However, it is hitherto unknown about the neural basis underlying the impact of conscientiousness on procrastination. To address this issue, we employed the voxel‐based morphometry (VBM) and resting‐state functional connectivity (RSFC) methods to explore the neural substrates of conscientiousness responsible for procrastination (N = 330). In line with previous findings, the behavioral results showed a strong negative correlation between conscientiousness and procrastination (r = −.75). The VBM analysis found that conscientiousness was positively correlated with gray matter (GM) volumes in the left dorsal‐lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), right orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and right putamen, but negatively correlated with that in the left insula. Moreover, the RSFC results revealed that both dlPFC‐IPL (inferior parietal lobule) and dlPFC‐PCC (posterior cingulate gyrus) functional connectivity were positively associated with conscientiousness, while the functional connectivity of parahippocampal gyrus (PHC)‐putamen and insula‐IPL were negatively associated with conscientiousness. More importantly, the structural equation modeling (SEM) integrating RSFC results were well fitted for the influence process of conscientiousness on procrastination by both self‐control (i.e., dlPFC‐IPL, dlPFC‐PCC) and motivation pathways (i.e., PHC‐putamen, insula‐IPL). The current findings suggest that self‐control and motivation could be the two neural pathways underlying the impact of conscientiousness on procrastination, which provides a new perspective to understand the relationship between conscientiousness and procrastination.
... Until now, only a few studies have investigated moment-to-moment co-occurrence of positive and negative affect in relation to procrastination. For instance, Pychyl, Lee, Thibodeau, and Blunt (2000) used the ESM and found no significant relationships between negative or positive affect and state procrastination even though their participants reported experiencing guilt as a distinct emotion during procrastination episodes (see also Lavoie & Pychyl, 2001;Laybourn et al., 2019). More recently, Gort et al. (2020) used ambulatory assessments and found that individuals experienced more concurrent negative affect at the intraindividual level during procrastination episodes. ...
Article
Previous studies have shown that students procrastinate during exam preparation phase. Until now, only a few studies have investigated emotions that accompany academic procrastination in real-life situations. Further, there is a lack of studies that investigate the co-occurrence of both positive and negative emotions during procrastination episodes although both emotions can co-occur and interact within a person. We therefore examined how within-person experiences of exam-related emotions (i.e., anxiety and hope), learning-related confusion, and between-person factors (i.e., trait procrastination, gender, age, semester, and relevant exam) relate to state procrastination of learning during preparations for a relevant end-of-semester exam. A total of N = 93 students participated in an experience sampling procedure for 10 days prior to the relevant exam. As expected, multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that state procrastination was associated with higher anxiety, lower hope, and higher trait procrastination. The association between hope and state procrastination was weaker when anxiety was higher. Confusion and demographic variables had no significant relationship with state procrastination. Interestingly, these emotional experiences related to state procrastination were not comparable to delay per se suggesting that the two phenomena are distinct. Our research highlights the dynamic interplay of anxiety and hope during procrastination episodes.
... Estimates indicate that 80%-95% of students engage in procrastination (O'Brien, 2002), approximately 75% consider themselves procrastinators, and almost 50% procrastinate consistently and problematically (Day, Mensink, & O'Sullivan, 2000;Onwuegbuzie, 2000). The absolute amount of procrastination is considerable, with students reporting that it typically occupies over one third of their daily activities, often enacted through sleeping, playing, or TV watching (Pychyl, Lee, Thibodeau, & Blunt, 2000). Furthermore, these percentages appear to be on the rise (Kachgal, Hansen, & Nutter, 2001). ...
Article
"This study applied the Expectancy-Value Theory to explore the directionality of the associations among academic self-efficacy, motivational beliefs (e.g., expectation of success, task value), procrastination, and engagement in learning as well as the impact of these constructs on educational attainment. The data analysis was done by using structural equation modeling. The results reveal important associations among students’ personal variables. Correlational and path analyses show that: (a) self-efficacy is consistently found to predict both expectation of success, task value and procrastination, (b) the associations between self-efficacy and engagement are mediated by motivational beliefs and procrastination, (c) different faceted of engagement (class participation, homework completion, absenteeism) in high school predict educational attainment, and (d) class participation had stronger effects on educational attainment than homework completion. The data analysis provided empirical evidence to better understand the mechanism that mediates self-efficacy and school achievement. Also, the study provides empirical evidence supporting the multifaceted nature of school engagement and demonstrates its utility relative to educational success. The implications of these findings for teaching and learning a specific subject matter in formal classroom contexts are discussed. Keywords: self-efficacy, engagement in learning, expectation of success, valuing of school, procrastination."
... One of the main questions that need to be considered related to students' academic performance is the procrastination of academic tasks. In academic procrastination, affected students experience the pervasive and permanent desire to delay their academic obligations, causing them to spend over 30% of their daily activities in the engagement of procrastinatory behaviour (Pychyl, et al., 2012). Al-Harrasi & Al-Badi, (2014) state that smartphones have added great potential by enabling an increase in the use of social networking and in the number of hours spent on such sites. ...
Conference Paper
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Risk management practices of financial institutions play a significant role in financial stability and thereby strengthen the confidence of stakeholders. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of banks‟ risk management capabilities on stock returns. Four basic risk management capability measures are used for this purpose.The data from the financial reports of eight listed commercial banks for the period from 2006 to 2018 are used for the analysis. The DuPont analysis of ROE calculation is used to identify four risk management variables such as interest rate risk management, bank income diversification, credit risk managementand solvency risk management. The standard market model is estimated using two different regressions as regression 01 and regression 02 to capture the impact of firm size (control variable) on the whole model.The findings of regression 01 and regression 02 reveal that market return ( and income diversification (NNIM) are significant to predict bank stock returns. However, Interest rate risk management capability (NETIM), credit risk management capability (PROV), solvency risk management capability are insignificant variables under both models. The impact of firm size on the whole model is also insignificant and there is an insignificant positive relationship between bank stock returns and firm size (TA). Therefore, bank managers can employ effective strategies to increase non-interest income, hence it contributes to generate a higher return for the shareholders. Therefore, the study suggests shareholders to purchase the stocks of banks which has increased non-interest income and to aware on the market index changes in order to increase their returns. Keywords: Bank income diversification; Risk management capability; Stock returns
... Yet, over 90% of studies are conducted with student samples and only about 1% focuses on employe samples (Steel, 2007). Student samples have provided rich data, with daily diary studies indicating students spend a third of their day putting off tasks (Pychyl et al., 2000), but the results do not always generalize to an adult working population (Sackett and Larson, 1990). In particular, the Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) model indicates that those who procrastinate excessively could either not select, not be selected, or simply leave positions where their dillydallying is detrimental. ...
Article
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We investigated the causes and impact of procrastination on “slippery deadlines,” where the due date is ill-defined and can be autonomously extended, using the unique applied setting of grievance arbitration across two studies. In Study One, using 3 years of observed performance data derived from Canadian arbitration cases and a survey of leading arbitrators, we examined the effect of individual differences, self-regulatory skills, workloads and task characteristics on time delay. Observed delay here is a critical criterion, where justice is emphasized to be swift and sure. Multilevel Modeling established trait procrastination as a substantive predictor of observed delay, equivalent to the environmental contributors of expediting the arbitration procedure or grievance complexity. Also, despite substantive negative consequence of delay for both arbitrators and their clients, arbitrators who scored one standard deviation above the mean in procrastination took approximately 83 days to write their decisions compared to the 26 days for arbitrators one standard deviation below the mean. In Study Two, we conducted a replication and extension survey with a much larger group of American arbitrators. Consistent with Temporal Motivation Theory (TMT), trait procrastination was largely explained by expectancy, value, and sensitivity to time related traits and skills, which together accounted for majority of the variance in trait procrastination, leaving little left for other explanations. For example, perfectionism connection to procrastination appears to be distal, being largely mediated by each of TMT’s core variables. Finally, procrastination was largely synonymous with a deadline pacing style, indicating that observed delay can be used as a proxy for procrastination as long as little or no prior work was done (e.g., a u-shaped pacing style is not synonymous). In all, our results indicate that procrastination is rampant in the workplace and has seriously detrimental effects.
... It defines procrastination as a postponement, "often with the sense of deferring through indecision, when early action would have been preferable," or as "deferring action, especially without good reason." Pychyl (2001) points out that "all procrastination is delay, but not all delay is procrastination. ...
... For example, an academic task that was perceived as being unclear and uninteresting could have increased the negative affect of a student (e.g., unhappy and frustrated) and, in turn, that student would have been more likely to procrastinate (see Sirois and Pychyl, 2013). Although future studies are needed, untangling the complex bidirectional relations between procrastination and affect may prove to be especially difficult because students experience many fluctuations in procrastination and affect within a short time span (see Pychyl et al., 2000). Nonetheless, our multilevel perspective offers a useful framework to inspire future studies using experience sampling methods. ...
Article
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Much is known about the antecedents and outcomes of procrastination when comparing students to one another (i.e., between-person level). However, little is known about the antecedents and outcomes of procrastination when comparing the courses taken by the students during a semester (i.e., within-person level). In this study, we proposed that examining procrastination at both levels of analysis should improve our understanding of the academic experience of students. At both levels, we examined the mediating role of procrastination in the associations between two dimensions of motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled) and indicators of academic achievement (i.e., grades) and well-being (i.e., positive and negative affect). A sample of 359 university students completed questionnaires measuring their motivation, procrastination, and affect in each of their courses. The official final course grades were obtained at the end of the semester. Multilevel mediation analyses with structural equation modeling were conducted to test our hypotheses. At the between-person level, the indirect effects revealed that higher controlled motivation was significantly associated with worse outcomes (i.e., worse grades and higher negative affect) via higher levels of procrastination. At the within-person level, the indirect effects revealed that lower autonomous motivation was significantly associated with worse outcomes (i.e., worse grades, lower positive affect, and higher negative affect) via higher levels of procrastination. Overall, this study shows that different pathways at each level of analysis may explain how procrastination can be detrimental for the success and well-being of university students.
... They underestimate the time required to study successfully [17,59] and report problems in regulating study time and class attendance alongside non-university obligations [3,5,60]. They spend a considerable amount of time on activities that are not conducive to their academic performance or that distract them from learning activities, such as social networking or watching TV [61][62][63][64]. Overall, university students appear to be especially prone to procrastination [65][66][67] and report related selfhandicapping behaviors even during class attendance [68][69][70]. ...
Article
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Time management is regarded as an important prerequisite for effective and efficient learning in higher education. However, university students’ time management frequently proves to be deficient, especially with freshman students, who can therefore benefit from appropriate time management interventions. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of an intervention focused on imparting time management knowledge with those of an intervention focused on time management practice. We conducted an experiment with N = 118 university students who took part in a course over the duration of one semester. Participants with a time management deficit at the beginning of the semester (n = 88) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: (a) time management knowledge, (b) time management practice, (c) control group. Exam scores at the end of the semester were considered as an indicator of participants’ academic performance. The results showed significant time management improvements for both time management intervention groups, but the time management practice group appeared superior. Academic performance was better in the time management practice group also, although the results were inconsistent. The effect of time management practice on academic performance was mediated by students’ time management skills.
... Therewith, our findings extend the current understanding of taskrelated and situation-specific influences that contribute to the occurrence of procrastination behavior. Some studies had previously shown that a negative appraisal of tasks (i.e., tasks being perceived as aversive, effortful, or difficult) was positively related to students' procrastination behavior Ferrari & Scher, 2000;Pychyl et al., 2000). In addition, the aversiveness toward a task was explained by a lack of perceived control and uncertainty about how to proceed , which seems consistent with our present findings. ...
Article
Procrastination is thought to be affected by trait-based and by situational, or task-specific determinants. Situational and task-specific influences on students' procrastination behavior have rarely been studied. Most research has examined trait-based individual differences in students' general procrastination tendencies. This study used an adaptive experience sampling approach to assess students' (N = 88) task-related perceptions of ambiguity and their situation-specific procrastination behavior during exam preparation six times a day for seven days (n = 3581 measurements). Results revealed that 30% of all intended study sessions were procrastinated. The risk that study sessions were procrastinated increased with students' task-related ambiguity perceptions. Individuals' average risk of procrastinating study sessions was further predicted by their procrastination tendency and conscientiousness assessed at baseline. The findings suggest interventions that promote students’ ability to self-regulate but also modify tasks and instructions. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
... También se ha encontrado que los estudiantes universitarios tienen conciencia de su comportamiento procrastinador. Por ejemplo, el 70% de ellos se consideran a sí mismos procrastinadores, el 50% creen que procrastinan de forma consistente, lo cual les causa problemas académicos, y además reconocen que pierden un tercio de su tiempo diario (Day et al., 2000;Pychyl et al., 2000;Schouwenburg, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Un supuesto común es que el aprendizaje autodirigido podría ser una característica de los estudiantes universitarios, especialmente entre quienes aprenden en línea y tienen responsabilidades laborales. Sin embargo, la investigación de los instrumentos que miden la autodirección de las diferentes poblaciones estudiantiles ha avanzado poco. El propósito de análisis fue explorar la validez y confiabilidad del Cuestionario de Indagación del Perfil Autodirigido aumentado (CIPA+) y examinar la relación con la procrastinación académica. Los participantes fueron 194 estudiantes ecuatorianos de ambos géneros (123 mujeres) y con niveles educativos variados. A diferencia del CIPA+ original de cuatro factores, el análisis factorial reveló una estructura monofactorial con alta consistencia interna. Se encontró que la autodirección presenta una relación baja y negativa con la procrastinación académica y que tanto hombres como mujeres tienen igual nivel de autodirección y procrastinación. Es decir, al parecer, el incremento en la autodisciplina y la autonomía del estudiante se asocia con una reducción en la postergación de actividades académicas durante las clases en línea. Se concluye sugiriendo más estudios del CIPA+ en diferentes poblaciones y que los docentes usen estos instrumentos acompañados de mediciones del desempeño académico.
... Whether delay is considered adaptive or maladaptive, the most frequently reported cause of procrastination is task aversiveness (Steel, 2007). Researchers have observed that the delayed task/action, although perceived as important (e.g., Lay, 1986;Milgram, 1991), is considered unattractive, boring, stressful, difficult, highly effortful, or unclear (e.g., Ferrari, Mason, & Hammer, 2006;Ferrari & Scher, 2000;Pychyl, Lee, Thibodeau, & Blunt, 2000;Schraw, Wadkins, & Olafson, 2007). The perceived aversiveness of a task or an action may, however, vary according to the context or as a function of time; for example, task attractiveness may diminish when an individual is faced with another task providing a more immediate gratification, but may increase as the deadline approaches (Schouwenburg & Groenewoud, 2001). ...
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Procrastination is a widespread phenomenon that has been extensively studied but about which a clear and integrated picture is still lacking, as reflected in the multiplicity and diversity of its definitions, causes and consequences. In addition, its examination in everyday life has been somewhat overlooked. The aim of this paper is to further the understanding of procrastination, first by providing an overview of its various definitions, causes, and consequences. Using a qualitative approach, we then provide an in-depth descriptive account of procrastination episodes retrospectively reported by six participants from the general population in diverse situations of their daily life, focusing in particular on the definitions, causes, and consequences of procrastination behaviours. Finally, this descriptive account of procrastination is discussed in terms of a dimensional, multifactorial, and integrative approach.
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H ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα φαίνεται ότι επηρεάζεται και από μη γνωστικούς παράγοντες, όπως οι συναισθηματικές ικανότητες και τα κίνητρα μάθησης. Σκοπός της μελέτης ήταν η διερεύνηση της σχέσης ανάμεσα στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα, στη συναισθηματική νοημοσύνη και στην ακαδημαϊκή κινητοποίηση. Οι συμμετέχοντες ήταν 108 προπτυχιακοί φοιτητές του τμήματος Δημοτικής Εκπαίδευσης του Πανεπιστημίου Δυτικής Μακεδονίας. Συμπλήρωσαν ερωτηματολόγιο με τις κλίμακες Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students, Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale και Academic Motivation Scale. Τα αποτελέσματα ανέδειξαν αρνητική σχέση ανάμεσα σε όλες τις ικανότητες συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης και στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα και επιπλέον αρνητική σχέση ανάμεσα στην αυτόνομη κινητοποίηση και στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα. Ειδικότερα, η κατανόηση των συναισθημάτων του εαυτού, η χρήση των συναισθημάτων για ενίσχυση της επίδοσης και η εσωτερική ρύθμιση προβλέπουν χαμηλότερα επίπεδα ακαδημαϊκής αναβλητικότητας. Τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας υποστηρίζουν τις ευεργετικές επιδράσεις της συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης και της αυτόνομης κινητοποίησης στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα και θα μπορούσαν να συμβάλουν στον τρόπο με τον οποίο τα πανεπιστημιακά τμήματα οργανώνουν το πρόγραμμα σπουδών τους αλλά και στην ανάδειξη του αντικειμένου σπουδών από τους ίδιους τους πανεπιστημιακούς δασκάλους, ώστε να ενισχυθούν οι ακαδημαϊκές επιδόσεις των φοιτητών.
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Procrastination remains an omnipresent phenomenon impeding especially students' academic performance and well-being. Preliminary findings suggest that procrastination emerges due to dysfunctional emotion regulation efforts to regulate aversive emotions. This study's objective was to clarify whether the enhancement of general adaptive emotion regulation skills reduces subsequent procrastination. For the purpose of this study, data from a two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) with (N = 148) university students, comprising an active intervention (IG) and a passive wait-list control (WLC) group, was collected. Participants of the intervention group were provided with an online emotion regulation training over a period of 9 weeks. The results showed that the enhancement of general emotion regulation skills significantly reduced subsequent procrastination behavior within the IG as compared to the untreated WLC. Moreover, subsequent mediation analyses revealed that the reduction of procrastination was significantly mediated by the increase in general ER skills. The present results suggest that trainings which enhance general ER skills are an appropriate measure to reduce procrastination behavior among university students. The practical value of ER training interventions, particularly for student populations, is discussed.
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Bei akademischer Prokrastination handelt es sich um einen freiwilligen Handlungsaufschub einer geplanten studienbezogenen Tätigkeit, trotz Antizipation negativer Konsequenzen (Steel & Klingsieck, 2016). Theoretisch kann Prokrastination als Resultat einer misslingenden Motivationsregulation konzeptualisiert werden (Wolters, 2003) und steht in engem Zusammenhang mit Gewissenhaftigkeit (negativ) und Neurotizismus (positiv; Steel, 2007). Wenngleich bereits relativ viel zu den Determinanten von Prokrastination bekannt ist, ist bislang unklar, wie Prokrastination im Studium zustande kommt: Inwiefern ist Motivationsregulation für akademische Prokrastination bedeutsam – prokrastinieren Studierende, weil sie eine zu geringe Nutzung von Strategien zur Motivationsregulation aufweisen oder weil die Passung der Strategien zu der motivationalen Problemsituation nicht gegeben ist? Stellt Motivationsregulation einen erklärenden Mechanismus der Zusammenhänge zwischen Gewissenhaftigkeit bzw. Neurotizismus und akademischer Prokrastination dar? Neben diesen individuellen Faktoren ist eine Berücksichtigung der Lernsituation – sowohl auf Prozessebene als auch hinsichtlich universitärer Kursmerkmale – essentiell, um der Frage nachzugehen, ob das Auftreten akademischer Prokrastination generalisierbar oder auf situationsspezifische Aspekte zurückzuführen ist (van Eerde, 2000). Bisher ist allerdings nicht hinreichend geklärt, inwiefern Merkmale universitärer Kurse für akademische Prokrastination relevant sind (Pychyl et al., 2000). Um die Forschungslücken zu adressieren, wurden in dieser publikationsorientierten Dissertation als Ausgangspunkt (Fachartikel I) die Zusammenhänge zwischen konditionalem Strategiewissen zur Motivationsregulation (Strategiepassung), Effektivität der Regulation, akademischer Prokrastination und Studienabbruchsintentionen von 515 Studierenden untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass Studierende mit hohem konditionalem Strategie-wissen zur Motivationsregulation auch eine bessere Regulationseffektivität aufwiesen, weniger prokrastinierten sowie geringere Studienabbruchsintentionen äußerten. Weiterhin deuten Mediationsanalysen auf kaskadierende intrapsychische Prozesse. Um diese detailliert zu untersuchen, wurde in zwei Folgestudien (Fachartikel II) der Fokus auf die Prozesse in konkreten Lernsituationen gelegt. In zwei Tagebuchstudien wurden 3 121 Einzelmessungen von 128 Studierenden und 1 450 Einzelmessungen von 218 Studierenden erfasst. Die Analysen zeigten, dass akademisches Prokrastinationsverhalten zwischen Studierenden variiert, während der Prüfungsphase abnimmt und insbesondere durch eine Strategiepassung reduziert werden kann. In Fachartikel III wurde mittels einer Sekundäranalyse untersucht, ob Motivationsregulation einen erklärenden Mechanismus für die Zusammenhänge zwischen Gewissenhaftigkeit bzw. Neurotizismus und akademischem Prokrastinationsverhalten darstellt. In der Tat konnte der Effekt zwischen Gewissenhaftigkeit und Prokrastinationsverhalten durch Motivationsregulation erklärt werden. Schließlich fokussierte Fachartikel IV die Bedeutung spezifischer Kursmerkmale universitärer Lehrveranstaltungen für akademische Prokrastination. Die Ergebnisse von Mehrebenenanalysen mit 1 809 Studierenden aus 90 Kursen zeigten, dass akademische Prokrastination in beachtlichem Maße mit Kursmerkmalen assoziiert war und insbesondere negativ mit wahrgenommener Autonomie, sozialer Eingebundenheit und Kompetenzerfahrungen sowie Klarheit der Instruktion und positiv mit wahrgenommener Aufgabenschwierigkeit zusammenhing. Zusammenfassend liefert die Arbeit eine umfassende Betrachtung akademischer Prokrastination im Hinblick auf die individuellen Faktoren der Motivationsregulation, der Gewissenhaftigkeit und des Neurotizismus sowie auf die situativen Faktoren bezüglich Kursmerkmalen universitärer Lehrveranstaltungen. Korrespondierend zu bisherigen Erkenntnissen zeigte sich, dass Prokrastinationsverhalten zeit- und situationsspezifisch variiert (vgl. Wieland et al., 2018) sowie im Verlauf der Prüfungsphase abnimmt (vgl. Wäschle et al., 2014). Darüber hinaus veranschaulicht die vorliegende Dissertation, dass neben einer reinen Strategienutzung (vgl. Schwinger et al., 2012) insbesondere eine Strategiepassung (vgl. Steuer et al., 2019) hilfreich zur Überwindung akademischer Prokrastination ist und Motivationsregulation den Zusammenhang zwischen Gewissenhaftigkeit und akademischer Prokrastination erklären kann (vgl. Ljubin-Golub et al, 2019). Zudem ergab eine umfassende Betrachtung verschiedener Merkmale universitärer Lehrveranstaltungen belastbare Hinweise darauf, dass Kursmerkmale eng im Zusammenhang mit akademischer Prokrastination stehen (vgl. Svartdal et al., 2020). Theoretisch tragen die vorliegenden Befunde zu einem besseren Verständnis der Aktualgenese akademischer Prokrastination bei. Praktisch implizieren die Ergebnisse, dass in Interventionen zur Verringerung akademischen Prokrastinationsverhaltens auf Möglichkeiten zur Motivationsregulation eingegangen und Wissen über die Eignung von Motivationsregulationsstrategien zur Überwindung spezifischer motivationaler Probleme beim Lernen vermittelt werden sollte. Weiterhin können Interventionen auf einer instruktionalen Ebene zusätzlich zu bisherigen Trainingsansätzen (vgl. Grunschel et al., 2018) ein vielversprechender Ansatz zur Verringerung akademischer Prokrastination sein.
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Aim and Background: Cognitive models in establishing psychological problems refers to the effect of early maladaptive schemas in formation of psychology pathologies. The purpose of this study was the comparison of early maladaptive schema and procrastination in medical and nonmedical students of Shahid Beheshti University of medical sciences. Methods and Materials: The method is descriptive and comparative. There for two questionnaire of procrastination(GP) and early maladaptive schema of Yang (YSQ-SF) was filled by 462 students from 2 groups of medical (232) and nonmedical (230) students of Shahid Beheshti University of medical sciences Tehran in year school 2012 which was recruited accessibility. Analysis was performed by SPSS. Findings: This study indicates that the students in both groups obtained the lowest scores in Incompetence (DI)/ Dependence schema and the highest score in unrelenting standards / hyper criticalness schema. There was a significant difference between medical and nonmedical groups in Entitlement /Grandiosity schema. Also There was no significant difference between groups in procrastination. Conclusions: According to the data it can be concluded that medical students had less dysfunctional schemas compared to non-medical students. Girls compared to boys in both groups had less dysfunctional schemas. procrastination was high in both groups. also procrastination was higher in medical students compared to non-medical students. Boys had more procrastination in both groups compared to girls. Keywords: Cognitive Models, Early Maladaptive Schema, Procrastination, Medical Students, Nonmedical Students, University
Chapter
Procrastination, as an act of voluntarily delaying tasks, is particularly pronounced among students. Recent research has proposed several solutions to modeling student behaviors with the goal of procrastination modeling. Particularly, temporal and sequential models, such as Hawkes processes, have proven to be successful in capturing students’ behavioral dynamics as a representation of procrastination. However, these discovered dynamics are yet to be validated with psychological measures of procrastination through student self-reports and surveys. In this work, we fill this gap by discovering associations between temporal procrastination modeling in students with students’ chronic and academic procrastination levels and their goal achievement. Our analysis reveals meaningful relationships between the learning dynamics discovered by Hawkes processes with student procrastination and goal achievement based on student self-reported data. Most importantly, it shows that students who exhibit inconsistent and less regular learning activities, driven by the goal to outperform or perform not worse than other students, also reported a higher degree of procrastination.
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Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of research on choice preferences for delayed, larger versus immediate, smaller gratifications. In spite of the widespread recognition of the important role of delay of gratification in human affairs, previous experimental research on the topic has been limited. At the empirical level, extensive experimental work has been done on delay of reward in animals. Surprisingly, although voluntary delay behavior has been assumed to be a critical component of such concepts as “ego strength,” “impulse control,” and “internalization,” prior to the present research program relatively little systematic attention had been devoted to it in empirical work on human social behavior. The chapter presents, in greater detail, selected studies that focus on the role of cognitive processes during self-imposed delay. Many theorists have paid tribute abstractly to the importance of cognition for the phenomena of personality in general and for self-regulatory processes in particular. These tributes have been accompanied by some correlational research that explores, for example, the links between intelligence, self-control, cognitive styles, and other dispositional. The chapter offers a further theoretical analysis of the determinants of delay behavior.
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Twenty-five adolescents reported their daily activities and the quality of their experiences for a total of 753 times during a normal week, in response to random beeps transmitted by an electronic paging device. In this sample adolescents were found to spend most of their time either in conversation with peers or in watching television. Negative affects were prevalent in most activities involving socialization into adult roles. Television viewing appears to be an affectless state associated with deviant behavior and antisocial personality traits. The research suggests the importance of a systemic approach which studies persons' activities and experiences in an ecological context. The experiential sampling method described in this paper provides a tool for collecting such systemic data.
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The study investigated the personality profiles that emerge from dichotomizing subjects on two axes: (1) high vs low procrastination in handling the routines of daily living; and (2) high vs low manifest emotional upset experienced with reference to those routine tasks on which they, in fact, procrastinate. Anticipatory emotional upset was also investigated. It referred to the upset that would be experienced if subjects were to procrastinate on routine tasks that are, in fact, performed promptly and efficiently. The two kinds of emotional upset were found to be moderately intercorrelated and were weakly, if at all, correlated with procrastination. Profile analysis placed 99 of 164 Israeli engineering students in four groups approximating the four hypothesized procrastination-emotional upset types. Groups high in procrastination tended to be higher than groups low in procrastination on three hypothesized antecedents of procrastination: anxiety, the repressor/sensitizer construct, and pessimism. People who do not procrastinate as a rule, but are high in manifest upset when they do, were found to be lowest on these personality measures. The reverse was found for people high in procrastination. It was concluded that the three personality measures presumed to contribute to procrastination are adversely affected by the high frequency of emotional upset about procrastination experienced by those who procrastinate a great deal in handling life routines.
Article
An individual cannot touch, smell, taste, hear, or see self-esteem. The self is not a "natural" phenomenon and is thus not accessible to the same kinds of scientific inquiry and measurement as are natural psychological constructs that are observable (e.g., human motor behavior). Self-esteem is nonsensical-cannot be measured through sensory data collection-and hence imaginary (Berlow, personal communication); as a result, an individual's self-esteem must be inferred, either by an individual's report of his/her sense of self (experienced self) or by others reporting the individual's self-esteem (presented self). But the social science community has too readily accepted an individual's personal self-report of self-esteem as natural fact. The guiding, and unquestioned assumption has been that the individual alone has access to the self. Who are we as outsiders to question this source of data? Few self-esteem researchers have used "others" to infer self-esteem-and thus they have relatively little knowledge of the validity of their self-report data (Wells & Marwell, 1976).
Article
The present research examined the relations between individual differences in perfectionism and procrastinatory behavior in college students. A sample of 131 students (56 males, 75 females) completed measures of self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism, as well as measures of academic procrastination and general procrastination. Subjects also completed ratings of factors related to procrastination (i.e., fear of failure, task aversiveness). Correlational analyses revealed it was the socially prescribed perfectionism dimension that was most closely correlated with both generalized procrastination and academic procrastination, especially among males. There were few significant correlations involving self-oriented and other-oriented perfectionism. However, the fear of failure component of procrastination was associated broadly with all the perfectionism dimensions. Overall, the results suggest that procrastination stems, in part, from the anticipation of social disapproval from individuals with perfectionistic standards for others.
Article
500 students and 150 faculty members in 5 collegiate settings were asked the extent to which they procrastinated, as well as faculty perceptions of student procrastination. Results show a significant difference between faculty and student perception of student procrastination; a very small negative correlation between GPA and procrastination; significant differences in procrastination among freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors; and that faculty perception of student procrastination differed significantly according to the degree of the faculty member and his/her area of expertise. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Telic theories locate well-being in the attainment of desired end states (i.e., in need satisfaction) whereas autotelic theories locate well-being in the movement toward such end states (i.e., in the experience of involvement). This article outlines a model of subjective well-being which integrates these two approaches. It is proposed that need satisfaction and involvement are conceptually distinct sources of feelings of subjective well-being which derive, in part, from common origins such as the perception of opportunities for need satisfaction. The strengths of the relationships implied by this model were estimated using data obtained from 39 adult subjects who reported on their 10 most important personal projects (B. Little; see record 1983-26972-001). Results from within-subjects analyses supported the model when positive but not negative affect was used as a measure of well-being. Evidence is also presented to support the adoption of personal projects as a useful way of representing how persons structure and experience their lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Research on personal goals in relation to subjective well-being (SWB) typically involves appraisals of these goals on a number of appraisal dimensions. In this study, we examined how dimensional specificity affects predictions of SWB. Two studies were conducted. In the first, 19 doctoral candidates were interviewed with respect to their personal projects. Using a grounded-theory approach to the interview transcripts, 11 context-specific dimensions were identified: time pressure, time conflict, procrastination, anxiety, guilt, financial stress, uncertainty, social support, passion, commitment and positive effects on mood. These dimensions were then used in a second study of 81 doctoral students who completed a questionnaire package including: Personal Projects Analysis (PPA), the NEO Personality Inventory, and SWB measures. Regression analyses revealed that the context-specific PPA dimensions identified in Study 1 accounted for unique variance in perceptions of life satisfaction and provided a more detailed perspective on doctoral students' stress and coping resources. The results of the two studies are discussed in terms of the Personal Action Constructs now being used in studies of the conative aspects of well-being.
Article
Young adults (202 women, 61 men: M = 20.9) completed measures of decisional and behavioral procrastination, self-esteem, interpersonal dependency, and self-defeating behavior. Correlational analysis indicated that both procrastination types separately and combined were significantly related to low self-esteem, dependency on others, and defeating behaviors. Among specific self-defeating behaviors, decisional procrastination was related to failing to complete crucial tasks, inciting anger in others, and rejecting good-spirited others. Behavioral procrastination was related to failing task completion, rejecting well-minded others, feeling guilty after a positive event, and choosing handicapping situations. Multiple regression analyses indicated that self-defeating tendencies of failure to complete crucial tasks and rejecting oppurtunities for pleasure were significant predictors of decisional, behavioral, and overall dysfunctional procrastination. Interpersonal dependency also was a significant predictor of both decisional and dysfunctional procrastination, while self-esteem predicted behavioral procrastination. These results suggest that types of procrastination may be predicted by similar personality factors, and that chronic procrastination is dysfunctional toward achieving life goals.
Article
To examine the possible links between anxiety and procrastination, trait measures and self-report measures of dilatory behavior and state anxiety were obtained. A measure of state dejection, as distinguished from anxiety, was also included. Research participants were 23 female and 35 male first year Business Administration university students. Beginning 5 days prior to an examination period, these students reported on their feelings of anxiety and dejection and completed a dilatory behavior inventory regarding their behavior over the preceding 2 days. This was repeated every 2 evenings to yield three pre-examination assessments and two exam-day assessments. In a series of multiple regression analyses, trait procrastinators reported higher levels of pre-examination dejection than non-procrastinators (controlling for concurrent anxiety as a covariate), but did not report higher levels of state anxiety (controlling for concurrent dejection). Trait procrastination enhanced the prediction of pre-examination and exam-day dilatory behavior; trait and state anxiety did not. Furthermore, trait procrastination and trait anxiety were unrelated. It was concluded that anxiety plays a minor role, if any, in dilatory behavior, and should not be viewed as a strong correlate of trait procrastination.
Article
The purpose of the present study was to explore several of the processes accounting for situational choices. Subjects kept daily records of their moods and the situations they encountered over a 30-day period. They rated the importance of 17 goals in each situation and estimated how often they actually attained each goal. The frequencies of satisfying and frustrating outcomes were also rated. It was found that goal importance and goal attainment were the best predictors of time spent in situations, followed by positive affect felt in the situation, and next by the satisfied outcome ratings. These relationships were generally stronger in chosen as opposed to imposed situations. Some situations were chosen on the basis of affect (recreation-leisure), while other situations (work-study) were chosen despite their affective consequences. It was concluded that situational choices are predicted by different variables for different situations and for different persons. The relevance of various current motivational theories for the present findings is discussed. Other possible influences on situational choices are suggested.
Article
This paper considered three studies designed to examine procrastinatory behavior. In Study I, a general form (G) of a true-false procrastination scale was created. This form was based on an earlier version of the scale containing parallel forms A and B. Procrastination was positively related to measures of disorganization and independent of need-achievement, energy level, and self-esteem. High scorers on the procrastination scale were more likely to return their completed inventory late. Procrastination was unrelated to grade-point average (R = −10). In Study II, subjects completed Form G of the procrastination scale and a variation of Little's (1983) Personal Projects Questionnaire. Based on ratings of their personal projects, procrastinators and nonprocrastinators were distinguished in a number of ways, foremost being the nonprocrastinator's more positive response to the project dimension of stress and the procrastinator's greater sensitivity to how enjoyable the project was in terms of time spent. In Study III, after completing a personality inventory, air-passengers awaiting their flight departure were asked to take an envelope with them and to mail it back on a designated date. Procrastinators were less accurate in doing so than were nonprocrastinators. Various aspects of procrastinatory behavior were discussed, including a reconsideration of the defining of the construct.
Article
Aitken's Procrastination Inventory was administered to 200 college students. Scores were correlated with extraversion and neuroticism scores of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Procrastination was positively correlated with extraversion and curvilinearly related to neuroticism. Forty procrastinators and nonprocrastinators were further tested. Procrastinators showed a significant tendency to underestimate the time needed to complete a reading task. They also showed a preference for beginning a task by performing the simpler portions first. Treatment and theoretical implications are discussed.
Article
Trait procrastination is viewed as a summary variable linked to the predisposition to engage in dilatory behaviour. This paper sought to trace the sources of trait procrastination by locating it within the five-factor personality structure. Study 1 concerned self-ratings on trait adjectives (in Dutch) that were relevant in some way to procrastinatory behaviour. The position of these adjectives on the five factors of personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness, and Conscientiousness) was known. Respondents were 161 female and 117 male students attending a university in The Netherlands. They also completed a Dutch translation of a measure of trait procrastination. In Study 2, 271 female and 81 male Canadian university students completed the measure of trait procrastination and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (in English). The results were remarkably consistent across the two samples. Trait procrastination was largely associated with lack of Conscientiousness. Trait adjectives highly related to trait procrastination (Study 1) included ‘undisciplined’, ‘lazy’, and ‘disorderly’. Trait procrastination in Study 2 was highly related to lower scores on each of the six facets of Conscientiousness (Competence, Order, Dutifulness, Achievement-Striving, Self-Discipline, and Deliberation). There were also some relations to Neuroticism, primarily in terms of tentativeness (Study 1) or Impulsiveness (a facet of Neuroticism) in Study 2. Relatively minor links to the lack of Extraversion were noted, essentially in terms of inactivity. Implications of the main findings locating trait procrastination within the Big-five personality structure were discussed. This overall approach added to our understanding of what characterizes the concept of trait procrastination and what is unrelated.