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Improving fourth-grade students' composition skills: Effects of strategy instruction and self-regulation procedures

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Abstract

Extending S. Graham and K. R. Harris's (2003) self-regulated strategy development model, this study examined whether self-regulation procedures would increase the effectiveness of a writing strategies training designed to improve 4th graders' (N = 113) composition skills. Students who were taught composition strategies in conjunction with self-regulation procedures were compared with (a) students who were taught the same strategies but received no instruction in self-regulation and (b) students who received didactic lessons in composition. Both at posttest and at maintenance (5 weeks after the instruction), strategy plus self-regulation students wrote more complete and qualitatively better stories than students in the 2 comparison conditions. They also displayed superior performance at a transfer task requiring students to recall essential parts of an orally presented story. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... More specifically, the full-CSRI students will write more structured, coherent and better-quality compare-contrast texts than the brief-CSRI group and both will be better than the control. This is based on previous studies about the maintenance of effects of strategy-focused instruction that have shown that the effects last over time, more so than traditional instruction (Fidalgo, Torrance, & García, 2008;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Tracy, Reid, & Graham, 2009). ...
... Again, the results showed that the full-CSRI students wrote significantly better than the brief-CSRI group. This is consistent with the few studies which have evaluated the maintenance effects of strategy-focused instruction in elementary grades (e.g., Fidalgo et al., 2008;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Tracy et al., 2009). In these studies, the authors found that students who had received strategy-focused instruction (in planning, drafting and revising processes) wrote better compositions compared to the control 2 weeks after the instruction (Tracy et al., 2009), 5 weeks after the instruction (Glaser & Brunstein, 2007), and even 28 months after the intervention finished (Fidalgo et al., 2008). ...
... This is consistent with the few studies which have evaluated the maintenance effects of strategy-focused instruction in elementary grades (e.g., Fidalgo et al., 2008;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Tracy et al., 2009). In these studies, the authors found that students who had received strategy-focused instruction (in planning, drafting and revising processes) wrote better compositions compared to the control 2 weeks after the instruction (Tracy et al., 2009), 5 weeks after the instruction (Glaser & Brunstein, 2007), and even 28 months after the intervention finished (Fidalgo et al., 2008). Of course, there was, on average, a decrease in the three variables between post-test and the maintenance timepoints for all three conditions. ...
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The principal aim of strategy-focused instruction is to teach students strategies to control their writing processes and achieve quality writing. For this purpose, nine 4th grade Elementary School classes from three different schools (N = 215) were randomly allocated to two forms of strategy-focused program called Cognitive Self-Regulation Instruction (CSRI). The full-CSRI (experimental condition 1, n = 72) taught students a strategic approach to set appropriate product goals along with planning strategies. However, in the brief-CSRI (experimental condition 2, n = 69), the direct teaching of planning procedures was removed. These two experimental conditions were compared with a control condition (n = 74). We used a pre-test/post-test design and we also collected a maintenance writing performance 7 months after the intervention. Writing performance was holistically evaluated through reader-based measures made up of aspects related to structure, coherence, and quality. Only the full-CSRI condition wrote better compare-contrast texts than the control group in both the short term and at the maintenance timepont. The study discusses the effects of the intervention on each measure and whether or not it is necessary to train process strategies.
... However, the role of students' motivational variables in SRL writing strategy use and writing competence has not been adequately explored. While many studies have focused on teacher instruction (Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Limpo & Alves, 2013), the impacts of students' personal characteristics, e.g. motivation, on SRL writing strategy use and competence is not clear. ...
... In the field of writing, Flower and Hayes (1981) divided writing into three phrases that occur iteratively throughout the writing process: pre-writing; during writing; and postwriting. Self-regulated writers tend to use multiple SRL writing strategies (Glaser & Brunstein, 2007). Before writing, they may use planning strategies to analyse task requirements, set goals, plan and generate ideas. ...
... Prior studies have identified differences in high and low achievers' application of SRL writing strategies that intimately revolve around the whole writing process, e.g. planning, text-generating, monitoring and revising (Bai, 2016(Bai, , 2018Glaser & Brunstein, 2007). Apart from these four common types of strategies, this study extended the existing literature by showing that the high achievers had more self-initiating writing practices and were more likely to act on feedback than the low achievers. ...
Article
This study aimed to examine the relationships between motivational variables, self-regulated writing strategy use and writing competence with 511 fourth graders in Hong Kong. The high writing achievers reported a higher level of motivation, i.e. self-efficacy, task values (i.e. interest and utility) and growth mindset in English writing than the low writing achievers. The high achievers also used various self-regulated writing strategies more frequently than their low achieving counterparts. Self-efficacy and growth mindset were found to be almost equally important predictors of strategy use, while the impacts of interest and utility were weaker. The results indicated that self-regulated learning and competence in English writing can be improved through the promotion of motivation. This study highlights the influence of the social-cultural context on motivation. More importantly, growth mindset may emerge as a new research agenda in English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL) writing.
... It becomes obvious that competent student-writers display strategic behavior and this characteristic distinguishes them from students with writing difficulties. Several researchers have shown that explicit strategy instruction is an effective way of improving writing performance and process of students with or without writing difficulties (Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;De La Paz, 2005;Harris, Graham, & Mason, 2006). Explicit strategy instruction consists of teaching in small steps, modeling through working out with strategies, provision of guided practice, fading assistance and finally autonomous practice (Duffy, 2002). ...
... Students were divided into the aforementioned three subcategories: struggling, average and experienced writers based on criteria that were set by researcher. Specifically, struggling writers were considered students who scored at or below 25% on tasks regarding story structure, quantitative and qualitative (holistic) characteristics (Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Saddler & Graham, 2007). Average writers were considered students who scored from 25% to 75% and experienced writers were considered students who scored at or above 75%. ...
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This study examines whether a multi-component reading and writing explicit strategy instruction assisted by a technological cognitive tool, named "Daphne" would increase comprehension and composition skills of 3rd grade students in primary school with or without writing difficulties. In addition, the effectiveness of the aforementioned interventional approach to the enhancement of reading and writing strategic behavior is also examined. Students were divided into struggling, average and experienced writers. Results derived from post and follow up measurements indicated that all three subcategories of experimental groups improved their writing performance and displayed strategic reading and writing behavior. Further, struggling and average writers demonstrated significant gains in reading comprehension compared to control group that received no explicit strategy instruction.
... Because both tasks required applying the same text comprehension strategy (i.e., hand high structural similarity), near transfer was measured. In a study in the academic area of language arts, Glaser and Brunstein (2007) taught students how to apply a writing strategy (CLS) with or without self-reflective thoughts (MLS). Students who learned both the CLS and the MLS wrote stories that were more cohesive and of higher quality than the students in the control group. ...
... The results regarding near transfer are in line with previous research on MLS application in near transfer tasks. Specifically, the findings indicate that students are able to use already-learned MLSs to solve tasks that are highly similar structurally and solvable with the same CLS (e.g., Aghaie & Zhang, 2012;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Wischgoll, 2016). However, the trained groups showed no superiority over the control group in far transfer. ...
Article
In direct training, metacognitive strategies are taught explicitly, and research shows that students apply them after direct training in dealing with learning tasks that are structurally similar to training tasks (near transfer). However, students fail in applying metacognitive strategies in dealing with structurally dissimilar learning tasks (far transfer). Indirect training triggers students to transfer metacognitive strategies. Thus, combined direct and indirect training could be an option to foster transfer of metacognitive strategies. In a cluster randomized controlled study, two interventions – combined training and direct-only training – and an untreated control group were compared. Bayesian multilevel analyses show that, in a near transfer task, students in the training groups applied more strategies than those in the control group. A comparison between the combined and the direct-only group did not reveal any differences. Furthermore, only a minority of students applied metacognitive strategies, and even fewer did so in the far transfer task.
... The effect sizes have ranged from small to large. We identified nine previous studies that investigated SRSD instruction for story writing (Curry, 1997;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Graham et al., 2005;Harris et al., 2006;Harris et al., 2012;Lane et al., 2011;McKeown et al., 2016;Sawyer, Graham, & Harris, 1992;Tracy, Reid, & Graham, 2009). Four studies focused on students in grades four to six (Curry, 1997;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;McKeown et al., 2016;Sawyer et al., 1992), and the other five studies focused on students in grades two and three (Graham et al., 2005;Harris et al., 2006;Harris et al., 2012;Lane et al., 2011;Tracy et al., 2009). ...
... We identified nine previous studies that investigated SRSD instruction for story writing (Curry, 1997;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Graham et al., 2005;Harris et al., 2006;Harris et al., 2012;Lane et al., 2011;McKeown et al., 2016;Sawyer, Graham, & Harris, 1992;Tracy, Reid, & Graham, 2009). Four studies focused on students in grades four to six (Curry, 1997;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;McKeown et al., 2016;Sawyer et al., 1992), and the other five studies focused on students in grades two and three (Graham et al., 2005;Harris et al., 2006;Harris et al., 2012;Lane et al., 2011;Tracy et al., 2009). Most of the studies included another genre of writing in their interventions, such as narrative or persuasive. ...
Article
This mixed methods study investigated the effectiveness and social validity of a teacher-implemented story writing intervention in a primary school in Aotearoa/New Zealand. A quasi-experiment indicated students who received the intervention showed higher gains in holistic quality, number and quality of story elements, and total words written compared to students who received their regular instruction. In an interview, the teacher indicated the intervention was appropriate to meet the needs of the students, had acceptable procedures, and meaningful outcomes. Thus, the quantitative and qualitative data converged to indicate the intervention was effective and had social validity.
... Notably, the association between self-regulation and motivation was previously endorsed by a number of scholars (e.g. Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Pintrich, 2000;Pintrjch & Schunk, 2002;Zimmerman, et al., 1996;Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2005). In the same line, Chuang et al. (2018) concluded that using digital materials in language courses successfully escalated learners' learning motivation and self-paced learning skills. ...
... It should be noted here that the results on the efficacy of digitally self-regulated instruction in the present investigation verify the findings of a number of research studies, which revealed a significantly positive impact of self-regulated instruction on learners' achievement in different disciplines and educational contexts (e.g. Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Perels, et al., 2009;Winters, et al., 2008). The findings are also in line with the results obtained by Zhonggen and Guifang (2016), confirming that digitally based educational contexts provide interactive learning opportunities for learners to assist them to take their own learning responsibilities. ...
Article
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The present research was an endeavor to examine and compare the effects of digitally self-regulated and guided discovery learning instructions on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary acquisition. To this end, by conducting the Oxford Placement Test, 60 out of 140 Iranian EFL male and female learners from three language institutes in Isfahan, Iran, were randomly selected, and divided into three equal groups (i.e. two experimental groups and one control group). Prior to the instructions, a vocabulary pretest, designed and validated by the researchers, was conducted. Then, the experimental groups received two types of instruction, separately. The first experimental group was taught via digitally self-regulated learning (SRL) instruction based on Santangelo, Harris, and Graham's (2008) six-stage model. The second experimental group was instructed via guided discovery learning instruction based on Brown and Campione's (2011) stages. In contrast, the control group received the traditional method of teaching vocabulary such as word lists, dictionary use, and word translation. After conducting eight-session instructions, a posttest was administered. The data were analyzed via ANOVAs and post hoc analysis using the Tukey test. The findings of the study revealed that both digitally self-regulated and guided discovery promoted Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary acquisition. Additionally, the findings indicated that digitally self-regulated instruction was more effective than guided discovery instruction regarding vocabulary acquisition. Eventually, the theoretical and pedagogical implications regarding language learners, teachers, and curriculum designs are also provided.
... Schüler*innen in Kontrollgruppendesigns evaluiert (Brunstein & Glaser, 2011;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007a, 2007bGlaser, Keßler & Brunstein, 2009;Glaser, Keßler, Palm & Brunstein, 2010). Die Befunde der Studien zeigten, dass die Schüler*innen der Experimentalgruppe nach dem Training "inhaltlich vollständigere und sprachlich stilvollere Aufsätze" schrieben, ihre schreibbezogenen Fähigkeiten höher einschätzten, vollständigere Schreibpläne anfertigten und qualitativ anspruchsvollere Revisionen an ihren Textentwürfen vornahmen (Glaser & Palm, 2014, S. 12). ...
... Auch die auf dem SRSD-Modell basierenden, deutschsprachigen Trainings von unterschiedlichen Projektgruppen um Glaser fokussieren unter anderem die Vermittlung von Schreibstrategien und können sowohl in Einzelarbeit, als auch in kooperativen Arbeitsformen durchgeführt werden. Die Befunde mehrerer Interventionsstudien mit insgesamt rund 700 Schüler*innen in Kontrollgruppendesigns weisen ebenfalls auf eine gute Wirksamkeit der Trainings hin(Brunstein & Glaser, 2011;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007a, 2007bGlaser et al., 2009;Glaser et al., 2010).Aufgrund der durchgehenden Umsetzung des kooperativen Schreibens innerhalb des Trainingsprogramms handelte es sich bei dem übermittelten Feedback im Wesentlichen um Schüler*innen-Schüler*innen-Feedback. Obwohl mit = 0,62 auch jüngere Schüler*innen deutlich von einem Feedback durch ihre Mitschüler*innen profitieren, betonenGraham, Hebert und Harris (2015) insbesondere für die Klassenstufen eins bis acht die besondere Bedeutsamkeit des Feedbacks von Erwachsenen ( = 0,87). ...
Thesis
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Ein kompetenter Umgang mit schriftsprachlichen Informationen ist für eine wirksame Teilhabe an der Gesellschaft unerlässlich (MacArthur, Graham & Fitzgerald, 2017). Dabei gilt das Schreiben von Texten als eine der komplexesten und voraussetzungsreichsten Kulturtechniken überhaupt (Grünke & Knaak, 2020, S. 249). Nationale wie internationale Befunde zeigen, dass das Schreiben verständlicher Texte vielen Schüler*innen große Schwierigkeiten bereitet (Klieme et al., 2006; National Center for Education Statistics, 2012). Dennoch liegen bisher kaum ausreichend evaluierte Messinstrumente und Förderverfahren zum narrativen Schreiben vor (Canz, 2015, S. 21; Hennes et al., 2018, S. 53ff.). Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Trainingsprogramm entwickelt, bei dem die explizite Vermittlung von Schreibstrategien und das kooperative Schreiben im Mittelpunkt stehen. Die Überprüfung der Wirksamkeit des Trainingsprogramms erfolgt im Rahmen eines randomisierten Zwei-Gruppen-Plans mit Prätest, Treatment und Posttest (N=374). Es zeigt sich, dass die Leistungen der Schüler*innen der Experimentalgruppe sich signifikant besser entwickeln als die Leistungen der Schüler*innen der Kontrollgruppe.
... Alanyazın incelendiğinde, son zamanlarda ulusal ve uluslararası düzeyde öz düzenlemeye dayalı öğrenme becerilerini içeren araştırma çalışmalarının sayısında artış gözlemlenmiştir. Yapılan araştırmalara bakıldığında, öz düzenlemeye dayalı öğrenme doğrultusunda yazma becerisi (Almazloum, 2018;Berry ve Mason, 2012;Can, 2016;Chalk, Hagan-Burke ve Burke, 2005; De La Paz ve De La Paz, 1999;De La Paz ve Graham, 2002;Eissa, 2009;Fischer, 2002;Glaser ve Brunstein, 2007;Graham ve MacArthur, 1988;Graham, Harris ve Mason, 2005;Mason, Snyder, Sukram ve Kedem, 2006;Mason ve Shriner, 2008;Müldür, 2017;Müldür ve Yalçın, 2019;Saddler, Moran, Graham ve Harris, 2004;Saddler, 2006;Saddler ve Asaro, 2007;Sexton, Harris ve Graham, 1998;Sperger, 2010;Tolaman, 2017;Tracy, Reid ve Graham, 2009;Türkben, 2021b;Uygun, 2012;Welch, 1992;Zumbrunn, 2010;Zumbrunn ve Bruning, 2013), okuma becerisi (Kayıran, 2014;Mason, 2002;Souvignier ve Mokhlesgerami, 2006;Turkben, 2019;Uyar, 2015), dinleme becerisi (Mareschal, 2007;Zeng ve Goh, 2018) ve konuşma becerisi (Aregu, 2013;El-Sakka, 2016;Mahjoob, 2015) ile ilgili araştırmaların yapıldığı görülmektedir. Alanyazında yapılmış araştırmalar, öz düzenlemeye dayalı strateji öğretiminin temel dil becerilerinin geliştirilmesinde etkili olduğunu göstermektedir. ...
... Alanyazın incelendiğinde öz düzenlemeye dayalı öğrenme etkinliklerinin hikâye yazma becerilerini (Can, 2016;Glaser ve Brunstein, 2007;Harris, Graham ve Mason, 2006;Saddler, Moran, Graham ve Harris, 2004;Saddler, 2006;Saddler ve Asaro, 2007;Tracy, Reid ve Graham, 2009;Türkben, 2021b; De La Paz, 1999;De La Paz ve Graham, 2002;Eissa, 2009;Graham, Harris ve Mason, 2005;Harris, Graham ve Mason, 2006;Mason, Snyder, Sukram ve Kedem, 2006;Mason ve Shriner, 2008;Müldür, 2017;Müldür ve Yalçın, 2019;Sexton, Harris ve Graham, 1998;Sperger, 2010;Türkben, 2021b;Uygun, 2012;Welch, 1992). ÖDSG temelinde şekilllendirilen stratejilerin farklı yöntemler kullanılarak, farklı çalışma gruplarıyla ve farklı amaçlarla kullanıldığı görülmektedir. ...
Article
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z Günümüz bilgi çağında, yaşam boyu öğrenme kavramının ön plana çıkmasıyla birlikte bireyler okul içinde ve dışında kendi öğrenmelerini sağlama ve düzenleme gerekliliğini hissetmektedirler. Bireylerin kendi öğrenmelerini sağlama ve düzenleme gereksinimi ise öz düzenlemeye dayalı öğrenme kavramını ortaya çıkarmıştır. Bu çalışma, ortaokul 6.sınıf öğrencilerinin yazma becerilerinin geliştirilmesinde Öz Düzenleme Stratejisi Gelişimi Modeli'ne dayalı eğitimin etkisini araştırmak amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. ÖDSG öğretimi altı basamaktan oluşur ve yazma stratejilerinin öğretiminde etkin bir şekilde kullanılabilir. Ön bilgileri harekete geçirme, stratejiyi tartışma, model olma, stratejiyi ezberleme, stratejiyi destekleme ve bağımsız yazma basamaklarının takip edilmesiyle yapılan çalışma, öğrencilerin bağımsız bir şekilde strateji kullanabilmelerini sağlar. Bu araştırmada öntest-sontest, kontrol gruplu yarı deneysel yöntem kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, iki devlet ortaokulunda öğrenim görmekte olan 60 öğrenci oluşturmaktadır. Katılımcıların yer aldığı 2 şubenin deney ve kontrol grubu olarak belirlenmesi seçkisiz bir şekilde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma verilerinin toplanmasında ve değerlendirilmesinde Üstbilişsel Yazma Stratejileri Farkındalık Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde SPSS 24 paket programından yararlanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda, öz düzenlemeye dayalı yazma eğitiminin öğrencilerin üstbilişsel yazma farkındalık düzeylerini olumlu etkilediği görülmektedir. Abstract In today's information age, with the concept of lifelong learning coming to the fore, individuals feel the need to provide and organize their learning in and out of school. The individuals' necessity to provide and regulate their learning has revealed the concept of self-regulated learning. We carried out this study to investigate the effect of education based on the Self-Regulation Strategy Development Model on the writing skills" development of 6th-grade secondary school students. Teaching SRSD consists of six steps used effectively in teaching writing strategies. Following the steps of activating prior knowledge, discussing, modeling, memorizing the strategy, and writing independently enable students to use the strategy independently. During the study, we used a pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental method. The researchers' group consists of 60 students studying at two public secondary schools. The determination of the two branches' participants took place as the experimental and control groups were carried out randomly. We used Metacognitive Writing Strategies Awareness Scale to collect and of research data evaluation. SPSS's twenty-four package program was used in the analysis of the data. In conclusion, self-regulated writing education affects students' metacognitive writing awareness levels positively. Atıf İçin / Please Cite As: Türkben, T. (2022). Öz düzenleme stratejisi gelişimi öğretiminin ortaokul öğrencilerinin üstbilişsel yazma farkındalıklarına etkisi. Manas Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 11(2), 555-571.
... Es importante anotar que la autoevaluación de los textos escritos no es una tarea fácil, en especial para los estudiantes que tienen bajos niveles de desempeño escritural (Andrade y Boulay, 2003;Glaser y Brunstein, 2007;Graham, 2006;Harris et al., 2003;Harris et al., 2010). De ahí la importancia de que esté acompañada de un conjunto de estrategias que le permitan al estudiante tener información clara sobre la tarea y las acciones que puede emprender para evaluarla. ...
... Las rúbricas para evaluar la escritura han sido objeto de investigación. Algunas de las problemáticas que se han planteado en este campo son: la necesidad de la participación de los estudiantes en la elaboración de las rúbricas (Joseph et al., 2020), la relación entre rúbricas y desempeño escritural (De La Paz y Felton, 2010; Glaser y Brunstein, 2007;Kiuhara et al., 2012) y el desarrollo de estrategias que contribuyan a que los criterios y niveles que se indican en las rúbricas favorezcan tanto los procesos de planificación como de ejecución de la tarea y no solo su evaluación final (Sundeen, 2014). ...
Article
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Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio cuyo objetivo fue analizar el impacto del uso de rúbricas de autoevaluación y coevaluación, sobre el desempeño escritural y la percepción acerca de esta estrategia evaluativa en estudiantes universitarios que se forman como docentes. La metodología de la investigación fue analítica con un diseño cuasiexperimental de tipo mixto, de la cual un total de 54 estudiantes participaron en el estudio, divididos en tres grupos: dos experimentales y uno de control. Para el análisis estadístico se empleó el ANOVA de una vía para examinar tanto las condiciones iniciales, como después de la intervención de los tres grupos. Para establecer las diferencias intragrupo y el índice de mejora, se empleó la prueba T de Student para muestras relacionadas. Los resultados, tanto cualitativos como cuantitativos, muestran que el uso de rúbricas de autoevaluación impacta positivamente el desempeño escritural. El análisis de las percepciones sobre las rúbricas de auto y coevaluación indica que estas permiten comprometer a los estudiantes con su propia formación como escritores y adquirir conciencia de la dimensión evaluativa como parte constitutiva del proceso escritural.
... When the literature is examined, it was observed that the number of studies on self-regulated learning skills has increased recently both nationally and internationally. The literature search showed that, studies on direction of learning based on self-regulation focused on writing skills (Almazloum, 2018;Berry & Mason, 2012;Can, 2016;Chalk et al., 2005;De La Paz & Graham, 1997;De La Paz, 1999;De La Paz & Graham, 2002;Eissa, 2009;Fischer, 2002;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Graham & MacArthur, 1988;Mason et al. 2006;Mason & Shriner, 2008;Müldür, 2017;Saddler et al., 2004;Saddler, 2006;Saddler & Asaro, 2007;Sexton et al., 1998;Sperger, 2010;Tolaman, 2017;Tracy et al., 2009;Uygun, 2012;Welch, 1992;Zumbrunn, 2010;Zumbrunn & Bruning, 2013), reading skills (Kayıran, 2014;Mason, 2002;Souvignier & Mokhlesgerami, 2006;Turkben, 2019;Uyar, 2015), listening skills (Mareschal, 2007;Zeng & Goh, 2018) and speaking skills (Aregu, 2013;El-Sakka, 2016;Mahjoob, 2015). An examination of the findings of the studies shows that strategies based on self-regulation are effective in the development of language skills. ...
... According to the findings obtained from the research, in the experimental group where Self-Regulated Strategy Development teaching was implemented, PLEASE and POWER strategies used in the writing of informative texts and the SPACE and W-W-W, What = 2, How = 2 strategies used in writing narrative texts are effective in the development of writing skills. When the literature is examined, it is seen that self-regulated learning activities positively affect the narrative writing skills (Can, 2016;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Harris et al., 2006;Saddler et al., 2004;Saddler, 2006;Saddler & Asaro, 2007;Tracy et al., 2009;Uygun, 2012;Zumbrunn, 2010;Zumbrunn & Bruning, 2013), informative, persuasive and argumentative writing skills (Berry & Mason, 2012;Çağlayan Dilber, 2014;De La Paz, 1999;De La Paz & Graham, 2002;De La Paz & Graham, 1997;Eissa, 2009;Harris et al., 2006;Mason et al., 2006;Mason & Shriner, 2008;Müldür, 2017;Sexton et al., 1998;Sperger, 2010;Uygun, 2012;Welch, 1992). It is seen that the strategies shaped by SRSD are utilized by using different methods, with different working groups and for different purposes. ...
Article
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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of education based on Self-Regulation Strategy Development Model on the writing skills development of 6th grade (middle school) students. In this study, a pretest-post-test, quasi-experimental method with control group was used. The sample of the study consists of 60 students enrolled in two public middle schools affiliated with Aksaray Central Provincial Directorate of National Education. These two schools were determined as experimental and control groups randomly. The implementation of the study, which included two groups designated as experimental and control groups, was completed in 12 weeks, 2 lesson hours per week. In the collection and evaluation of the data, narrative and informative texts written by students, the Attitude Towards Writing Scale (ATWS), the Self-Regulated Writing Scale (SRWS) and the Ranked Scoring Key for the Evaluation of Written Expression (RSKEWE) were used. SPSS 24 program was used to analyze the data. As a result of the study, it was seen that the experimental group students’ written expression skills, writing self-regulation skills and writing attitudes levels were significantly higher compared to the control group students’.
... The Educational Policy Analysis andStrategic Research, V16, N1, 2021 © 2021 INASED 290 SRSD model, which was developed in this direction, was first used in 1982 by Harris and Graham in order to meet the needs of the students with severe learning disabilities. It is seen that this model has been used in teaching of many writing skills thereafter (Adkins, 2005;Albertson & Billingsley, 1997;Almadani, 2013;Asmara, 2016;Ballard & Glynn, 1975;Chalk, Hagan-Burke, & Burke, 2005;Chenard, 2014;De La Paz & Graham, 2002;Delano, 2007;Fischer, 2002;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Graham, 2006;Graham, Harris, & Mason, 2005;Graham, McKeown, Kiuhara, & Harris, 2012;Graham & Perin, 2007;Harris, Graham, & Mason, 2006;Hauth, 2012;Lane et al., 2008;Mason, Harris, & Graham, 2002;Mason, Snyder, Sukhram, & Kedem, 2006;Meyers, 2015;Nashville, 2010;Rogers & Graham, 2008;Rumsey & Ballard, 1985;Schnee, 2010;Shora, 2015;Sperger, 2010;Staal, 2002;Tracy, Reid, & Graham, 2009;Valasa, 2015;Zumbrunn, 2010;Zumbrunn & Bruning, 2012). ...
... In this study, the students in the experimental and control group were evaluated from the perspective of, story writing skills, self-regulation and attitude towards writing by using POW + C-SPACE strategy. The results of this study evaluating the impact of a strategy developed on the basis of SRSD model are in line with the results of studies in literature (Adkins, 2005;Albertson & Billingsley, 1997;Almadani, 2013;Asmara, 2016;Ballard & Glynn, 1975;Chalk et al., 2005;Chenard, 2014;De La Paz & Graham, 2002;Delano, 2007;Fischer, 2002;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Graham, 2006;Graham et al., 2005;Graham & Perin, 2007;Harris et al., 2006;Hauth, 2012;Lane et al., 2008;Mason et al., 2002;Mason et al., 2006;Meyers, 2015;Nashville, 2010;Rogers & Graham, 2008;Rumsey & Ballard, 1985;Schnee, 2010;Shora, 2015;Sperger, 2010;Staal, 2002;Tracy et al., 2009;Valasa, 2015;Zumbrunn, 2010;Zumbrunn & Bruning, 2012). ...
... Sürece dayalı yazma modelleriyle ilgili uluslararası literatürde; yazma eğitiminde süreç temelli yaklaşımın öğrencilere katkılarının (Olson, 2004), hikaye yazma ve planlama stratejisinin hikaye yazma ve öz düzenleme becerisine etkisinin (Tracy, Reid, ve Graham, 2009), öz düzenleme becerilerinin yazma stratejisi öğretimine yönelik etkilerinin (Glaser ve Brunstein, 2007), planlama ve yazmaya yönelik strateji öğretiminin yazma güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin yazma becerisine etkisinin (Saddler, Moran, Graham, ve Harris, 2004), öz düzenleme stratejisi ve yazma sürecinin kompozisyon yazmaya etkisinin (Sexton, Harris, ve Graham, 1998) araştırıldığı çalışmalar yer almaktadır. Sürece dayalı yazma modelleriyle ilgili ulusal literatürde ise, uygulanan modelin öğrencilerin yazılı anlatım becerilerine ve tutumlarına (Erdoğan, 2012;Karatay, 2011), yazılı anlatım ve yaratıcı yazma becerilerine (Sever, 2013), yazım-noktalama ve yazma eğilimine (Sever ve Memiş, 2013), yazma başarısı ve kaygısına (Bayat, 2014), hikâye edici metin yazma ve yazılan metni değerlendirme becerilerine (Özkara, 2007), yazma performanslarına, bağımsız öğrenim seviyelerine (Şahin-Kızıl, 2007) ve akademik başarılarına (Güvercin, 2012) etkilerinin incelendiği görülmektedir. ...
... Buna göre kontrol grubu öğrencilerinin sekiz haftalık süreçte Türkçe Öğretim Programı'na göre gerçekleştirdikleri derslerin hikâye yazma becerilerine katkısı olduğu söylenebilir. Araştırmanın bu sonucu Özkara (2007) ve Öztürk (2007) tarafından gerçekleştirilen çalışmaların sonuçlarıyla benzerlik gösterirken, kontrol grubu öğrencilerinin ön test ve son test puanları arasında belirgin fark çıkmadığı araştırmaların (Glaser ve Brunstein, 2007;Sever, 2013) sonuçlarıyla benzerlik göstermemektedir. Fakat bu çalışmada kontrol grubu öğrencilerinin öntest ve sontest puan ortalamaları arasında anlamlı bir fark çıksa da, sürece yönelik yapılan gözlemler ve kontrol grubundaki öğrencilerin yazma sürecine yönelik görüşleri, çoğu zaman sistematik bir hazırlık süreci olmadan hikâye yazma çalışmalarına başladıklarını ve süreci izlemeye dönük çalışmaların planlı bir şekilde gerçekleştirilmediğini ortaya koymaktadır. ...
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Okuldaki başarının temeli ve çeşitli derslere ilişkin öğrenme ve değerlendirmenin önemli araçlarından biri olan yazma, öğrencilerin kazanmaları ve geliştirmeleri gereken en önemli becerilerdendir. Son yıllarda yazma öğretiminde ürün odaklı çalışma anlayışının yerini, süreç odaklı yazma çalışmalarına bıraktığı görülmektedir. Bu durum, yazma sürecinde; izleme, değerlendirme ve düzeltme çalışmalarını diğer bir ifade ile üstbilişsel becerileri işe koşmayı gerektirmektedir. “Eş zamanlı karma yöntem”in benimsendiği bu çalışmanın nicel boyutunda “yarı deneysel yöntem” kullanılmıştır. Nitel araştırma yöntemi ise nicel verileri nitel verilerle geçerli kılıp genişletmek, verileri desteklemek ve elde edilen verileri çoklu bakış açısıyla derinlemesine incelemek amacıyla kullanılmıştır. Bu araştırmanın amacı, üstbilişsel beceri odaklı süreç temelli yazma yaklaşımının ilkokul dördüncü sınıf öğrencilerinin hikâye edici metin yazma becerilerini ne derecede geliştirdiğini, uygulama süresince öğrencilerin ürünlerinde ve yazma performanslarında nasıl bir değişim olduğunu ortaya koymaktır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Zonguldak ili Ereğli ilçesindeki bir devlet okulunda dördüncü sınıfta okuyan toplam 64 öğrenci oluşturmaktadır. Verilerin toplanması, analizi ve yorumlanmasında nicel ve nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden oluşan karma yöntem kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın uygulama sürecinde, deney grubunda üstbilişsel beceri odaklı süreç temelli, kontrol grubunda ise Türkçe Öğretim Programı’na göre yazma çalışmaları yapılmıştır. Çalışma, deney grubunda sekiz hafta boyunca toplam yirmi sekiz ders saatinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma sonunda, deney ve kontrol gruplarındaki öğrencilerin hikâye edici metin yazma becerilerine ve hikâye edici metin yazma çalışmalarında yazma süreçlerini kullanmalarına ilişkin deney grubu lehine istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark olduğu belirlenmiştir. Deney grubunda çalışma kapsamında öğrencilere kazandırılması hedeflenen üstbilişsel beceriler açısından her öğrencide belirli bir miktar ilerleme olduğu, fakat kontrol grubu öğrencilerinin yazma sonrasında geriye yönelik izleme ve gerektiğinde düzeltme ya da yeni düzenlemeler yapma gibi üstbilişsel becerileri yeterince kullanamadıkları görülmüştür. Bu araştırmada ulaşılan sonuçların ilkokul düzeyinde gerçekleştirilen az sayıdaki süreç temelli yazma literatürüne ve sınıf öğretmenlerinin yazma öğretim süreçlerini zenginleştirmelerine sağlayacağı katkı yanında, çalışmanın yazma öğretiminde üstbilişsel becerileri ön plana çıkarması yönünden de alandaki ilk örnekler arasında olacağı ve sonraki çalışmalara rehberlik yapacağı düşünülmektedir.
... On the other hand, self-regulated learning (SRL), usually referred to as learners' proactive learning process in activating and regulating their metacognition, cognition, motivation and behavior to enhance learning (Zimmerman, 2013), is thereby considered a favourable way of learning (Schunk & Greene, 2018). Its importance has been well recorded across subjects, including first language (L1) reading and writing (Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Souvignier & Mokhlesgerami, 2006). In EFL learning in China, it has also recently surfaced as a popular research topic (Bai & Wang, 2020;Sun & Wang, 2020) with findings demonstrating positive associations between students' use of SRL strategies and English academic achievements (Bai et al., 2014;Yang & Plakans, 2012;Yu et al., 2017). ...
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Emotional research in foreign language learning has bloomed recently, and yet there has been a call for attention to a broader spectrum of emotions experienced by learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Whilst emotions and self-regulated learning (SRL) are both believed to play important roles in EFL learning, little is known about their interplay. To fill the void, the study intends to map out an overall status quo of Chinese university EFL students' academic emotions and SRL strategy use and sophisticated interrelationships between them using structural equation modelling (SEM). Findings showed that the Chinese participants demonstrated a medium level of positive emotions, a low level of anger, a medium level of shame and anxiety, and a low to
... Half of the teachers taught writing and selfregulation strategies (e.g., goal setting, self-assessment, and strategy monitoring) whereas the others (the control group) only taught writing. Students who learned both writing and selfregulation strategies were better able to use their knowledge when planning and revising a story and wrote stories that were more complete and of higher quality than the stories of control students (Glaser & Brunstein, 2007). ...
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Even after spending five to six years sitting in a classroom almost every day for anywhere between four to seven hours, a significant share of students in low- and middle-income countries are still not able to read, write, or do basic arithmetic. What explains this “learning crisis?” A growing body of evidence suggests that poor teaching practices and little to no learning inside the classroom are the main culprits. As such, the learning crisis reflects a teaching crisis. So what can teachers do inside the classroom to tackle these joint crises? This paper systematizes the evidence regarding effective teaching practices in primary school classrooms, with special focus on evidence from low- and middle-income countries. By doing so, the paper provides the theoretical and empirical foundations for the content of the newly developed Teach classroom observation tool. Implications for teacher education and evaluation are also discussed.
... Studies have suggested that mental health problems are significant barriers to learning and academic achievement (Atkins et al., 2003;Catalano et al., 2004). The role of goal orientation on students' achievement has been emphasized in various subject areas (Fuchs et al., 2003;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Howse et al., 2003;Patrick, Ryan & Kaplan, 2007;Pintrich, 2000;Torrance et al., 2007). Achievement motivation is an essential skill for students' academic success and to set their goals. ...
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Mental health among youth is one of a major concern in India. This includes increased risk in poor academic achievement, goal orientation, problem solving and interpersonal skills. Goal orientation helps an individual to fix a target and taking efforts to achieve the same which requires a need and desire for achievement on various facets. Hence, we could assure that goal orientation and achievement motivation could contribute to the success of individuals which in turn help to protect their wellbeing. This study is conducted to explore the relationship among achievement motivation, goal orientation and mental health among youth. 309 students from different schools in Salem city were selected through stratified random sampling, and the data was collected through a survey. Results revealed that mental health of youth had a significant positive correlation with all the dimensions of achievement motivation. Performance approach and performance avoidance of goal orientation had a significant association with the mental health of youth. Structural Equation Modeling ascertained that achievement motivation and goal orientation had a significant influence on the mental health of youth. The major findings and implications are discussed in the article.
... SRL is considered an active process, consisting of "self-generated thoughts, feelings, and actions that are planned and cyclically adapted to the attainment of personal goals" (Zimmerman, 2000, p. 14). This notion of SRL has been extensively examined in the context of students and teachers (Butler et al., 2016;Glaser and Brunstein, 2007). However, a definition of school principals' self-regulation learning is lacking, in particular how they manage and regulate their own learning and its relation to "learning-focused" or "learning-centered" leadership. ...
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Purpose This study explores a conceptual framework that addresses a school principal's self-regulated learning (SPSRL) as well as possible avenues for future conceptualization of, and research into this issue. Design/methodology/approach The conceptual framework of SPSRL is based on an extensive literature review of the research on student’s and teacher’s self-regulated learning models. Findings A novel conceptual and practical SPSRL framework for planning, performing, monitoring and self-reflection is elaborated. Research limitations/implications This novel SPSRL conceptual framework provides school principals with a means to shape and develop processes, strategies and structures to monitor and evaluate their learning, enabling them to react effectively in uncertain and dynamic environments. This framework may open the way to future research into possible contributions of the SPSRL construct with other variables related to principal effectiveness. The suggested framework should be examined empirically in various sociocultural contexts, possibly substantiating its conceptual validity. Originality/value The SPSRL conceptual framework can improve school learning, which might connect the individual (the school principal) and organizational (teachers) learning levels.
... Un enfant correctement autorégulé peut donc être défini comme un enfant dont les processus autorégulateurs suffisent à la poursuite du but sans nécessité d'une hétérorégulation, processus autorégulateurs sous-tendus pour une grande part par les capacités métacognitives. La mesure de l'efficacité des processus autorégulateurs chez un enfant peut quant à elle s'effectuer grâce à des outils tels que celui récemment développé par Whitebread De nombreux auteurs insistent sur l'importance de l'autorégulation dans la production correcte et efficace des stratégies cognitives (Azévédo, 2009 ;Boekaerts & Corno, 2005 ;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007 ;Montague, 2008 ;Zito, Adkins & Gavins, 2007). Un aspect est particulièrement mis en avant dans la littérature : l'autorégulation comprend une étape d'évaluation de l'efficacité de la stratégie produite. ...
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La production correcte d’une stratégie cognitive par un enfant n’est pas toujours suivie des effets bénéfiques attendus : il s’agit d’une « déficience d’utilisation ». Nous présentons une synthèse de deux décennies de recherches, en prenant appui sur les modèles d’acquisition stratégique de Miller (1990) et Siegler (1996) pour discuter du rôle de l’autorégulation dans la survenue de ces déficiences. Ces dernières ont en effet été observées à de nombreuses reprises chez des enfants autorégulés, alors que l’autorégulation devrait permettre à un enfant de remplacer une stratégie non bénéfique par une autre, plus bénéfique. Nous proposons de reconsidérer la nature des processus autorégulateurs impliqués, en intégrant les fonctions exécutives comme composant la part cognitive spécifique de l’autorégulation (Chevalier, 2010). Ainsi des dysfonctionnements exécutifs pourraient être impliqués dans les déficiences d’utilisation, en particulier visant la mémoire de travail. Ces déficiences ne seraient donc plus à considérer sous un angle développemental mais plutôt différentiel, en accord avec des résultats récents (Schneider, Kron-Sperl et Hünnerkopf, 2009).
... The literature on tactics and strategies is mixed. Although individual studies have reported benefits (e.g., Glaser & Brunstein, 2007), larger sets of studies have been less sanguine (hadwin & Winne, 2007;Winne, 2013a). I conjecture what needs greater attention in the classroom and in research are key motivational facets of SRL, efficacy, and volition. ...
Article
The trajectory of scholarship about self-regulated learning (SRL) originates in mid-19th-century writings about learners’ sense of responsibility in self education. Although Descartes's 17th-century writings implied mental activities consistent with metacognition, a central feature of SRL, these were inarticulate until Flavell and colleagues’ studies circa 1970. Since then, research on metacognition and its role in SRL has approximately doubled every decade. Foundations for modeling SRL include Skinner's behaviorism, which acknowledged learners’ choices about reinforcers for behavior, and Bandura's social learning theory, with its construct of agency. Research in the 1980s gathered data about SRL mainly using interviews, self-report questionnaires, and think-aloud protocols. These methods were quickly supplemented by observations of behavior and traces of learning activities tightly coupled to features of SRL. Today, SRL research is prominent across a broad spectrum of educational topics. Its importance will grow with trends toward lifelong learning and self-directed inquiries that survey vast information on the Internet, where students control what and how they will learn. Implications for future research include reconceptualizing “error variance” as arising partially due to SRL and capitalizing on software technologies that massively increase access to data about how and to what effects learners self-regulate learning.
... It could be assumed that the difference arising between the experimental group and the control group is caused by the act of writing, which forms the basis of writing-to-learn activities. The related literature shows that although different models and applications based on writing are used in studies on self-regulation and writing, all such models result in increasing students' success and performance in writing (Çağlayan-Dilber, 2014;Finlayson & McCrudden, 2019;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Reynolds & Perin, 2009;Sperger, 2010;Tracy, Reid & Graham, 2009;Uygun, 2012;Zumbrum, 2010), and develop a positive attitude in students towards writing (Harris, et al., 2002;Uygun, 2012). In addition to being at the centre of the writing-to-learn activities, writing also constitutes the core of whole learning processes and contributes positively to selfregulation skills in writing (Englert, Raphael & Anderson, 1992;Fisher, 2012;Graham, et al., 1991;Harris, Graham & Mason, 2006;Müldür, 2017;Özbay, 2008;Sawyer, Graham & Harris, 1992;Uygun, 2012;Zumbrunn, 2010), generating similar results with this study. ...
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The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of writing-to-learn activities on students’ academic achievement and self-regulation skills in writing. Using the quasi-experimental design, the study was performed involving 64 eighth grade students, who were studying in two different classrooms at the same secondary school. The students in the experimental group were handed out a number of writing-to-learn activities, while those in the control group were taught according to the current curriculum during the application. The academic achievement test, self-regulation scale for writing, and holistic assessment rubric were designated as the required tools for data collection. As a result of the application, the academic achievement and self-regulation skills of the students in the experimental group were found higher than those of the students in the control group. It was also noted that the experimental group showed a development over time to integrate the information they learned, and to present it as a new product with their own expressions after the process of reviewing, planning, sorting and organizing. The students in the experimental group showed a great deal of interest in writing-to-learn activities and were willing to participate in them. It is believed that the writing-to-learn model, which seems to have positive effects on learning processes, may be a desirable option to come up with effective and high-quality teaching methods.
... This study supports previous studies (Berry & Mason, 2012;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Graham & Perin, 2007;Mason et al., 2013), that have validated the positive effects of the TREE+SRSD instructional model on students' argumentative writing skills. In this study, explicit strategy instructed students developed the necessary skills to effectively self-monitor their progress through self-regulation strategies, develop strategic writing behavior (planning, drafting, revising, thinking about audience etc.) and writing awareness. ...
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In the present study, a quasi-experimental pre-post test design was used to assess the effects of an argumentative writing strategy (POW+TREE) on the performance of grade five and six students of Greek origin who were learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in a Greek setting. The Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) cognitive apprenticeship model was utilized to improve the text composition skills of the students. In the experimental group (N=77), participants received instruction on general and genre-specific strategy use for planning and writing argumentative essays, on procedures to apply self-regulation (goal setting, self-monitoring, self- reinforcement, and self-instructions), and on establishing additional skills (vocabulary, grammar-drill instruction, good word choice, interesting openings etc.). The control group (N=100) was supported through a traditional curriculum in writing (focusing on spelling and grammar). Findings of the study showed that strategy instructed students wrote argumentative essays that were schematically stronger, qualitatively better, and longer than those produced by their counterparts in the control group.
... Flower and Hayes (1981) divided writing into three iterative phrases during the writing process: pre-writing, during writing, and post-writing. Selfregulated writers are likely to employ multiple SRL writing strategies (Glaser & Brunstein, 2007). SRL is a multidimensional construct in an L2 writing context that typically involves cognitive and metacognitive strategies, social behaviour strategies, and motivational regulation strategies (Teng & Zhang, 2016). ...
Article
This mixed-method study explored Chinese university students’ orientations towards written corrective feedback (WCF) and their use of self-regulated learning (SRL) writing strategies in online English writing courses during COVID-19. A questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were administered to 311 and 12 students, respectively. Results showed that during COVID-19, students generally held positive attitudes towards online WCF and teachers offered more tutorials and feedback that could be reviewed indefinitely, which created a comfortable learning space for students. Findings demonstrate that students used fewer social behaviour strategies than other strategies and the effectiveness of peer interaction was limited by peers’ relatively low writing proficiency, tendency to give compliments, and the inconveniences of online communication. Students’ feedback-seeking orientation was found to be positively associated with SRL writing strategies; the online interactions between teachers and students in relation to teachers’ feedback motivated students to engage more in their subsequent writing practices. Pedagogical implications are discussed.
... Moreover, self-regulated learning strategies can also improve the quality of writing products since learners have been well reminded to compose their writing products more conscientiously and determine precise writing strategies intelligently suit best for their writing needs. This positive trajectory is in agreement with the finding of a previous study discovered by Glaser and Brunstein (2007). They found that the successful transference of self-regulated learning instructions provided better learning assistances for EFL writing learning processes and allowed them to generate high-quality writing products compared to other learning counterparts who merely received technical writing instructions. ...
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English Education Master Students’ Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Academic Writing Kristian Florensio Wijaya Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta kristianwijaya500@gmail.com Abstract There is a propensity for language teachers to handicap graduate students as independent, competent and strategic academic writers. Therefore, it is easier to discover graduate students struggling intensely to produce and publish qualified academic writing products to targeted journal articles. Due to this ubiquitous fact, self-regulated learning strategies need to be entrenched potently within L2 academic writers to enable them to become more mindful, resourcefulness, autonomous, and proficient academicians who excel in their subject-specific fields. This was a small-scale qualitative study implementing qualitative content analysis to obtain a more obvious portrayal regarding some specific phenomena taken place in one particular circumstance. To fulfill this objectivity, two research instruments were utilized in this study namely the Likert-scale Questionnaire and interview protocols to maintain the robustness of the data gathering processes. 15 English Education Master Students together with 3 selected interviewees were also invited to fill out the questionnaire and participate in the interview activities. In line with the gathered data, the qualitative results revealed that the majority of English Education Master Students have transformed into more life-long and proficient academic L2 writers for they continuously showed greater resilience, efforts, commitment to accomplish various academic writing projects. Keywords: Self-regulated learning strategies, academic writing, qualitative content analysis, academic L2 writers
... Blank, 2000;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Yang et al., 2020) . Downloaded from lrr.modares.ac.ir at 12:06 IRST on Thursday January 21st 2021 EFL learners 12. perception 13. general English 14. English as a Foreign Language 15. zone of proximal development 16. ...
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The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of practicing reflective assessment (RA) strategies in language classroom and to examine EFL learners' perceptions regarding RA. In order to do so, the following research questions and hypotheses were answered: Research questions: 1. Does applying RA strategies impact EFL learners' achievements in General English (GE) classes? 2. Is there any statistically significant difference in post-test scores of EFL learners who practiced RA strategies and who did not? 3. Is there any statistically significant difference in retention-test scores of EFL learners who practiced RA strategies and who did not? 4. What are EFL learners' perceptions regarding the application of RA strategies in language classroom? Research hypotheses: 1. Applying RA strategies does not impact EFL learners' achievements in General English classes. 2. There is not any statistically significant difference in post-test scores of EFL learners who practiced RA strategies and who did not. 3. There is not any statistically significant difference in retention-test scores of EFL learners who practiced RA strategies and who did not. This study followed a mixed-methods design and both quantitative and qualitative data were used.
... Therefore, it is recommended that in EFL learning, instead of incidental learning, explicit learning should be preferred as the primary strategy for vocabulary learning (Staehr, 2008). This remark is in line with several other studies which confirm the benefits of explicit instruction for adult learners (Berry & Mason, 2012;De La Paz, 2005;De La Paz & Graham, 2002;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007). Moreover, Ullman's model of second language acquisition suggests that lexicon is related to declarative memory which depends on explicit instruction (Ullman, 2004). ...
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Language skills depend on the meaning of words and the knowledge of the subject/context. The meanings of words that shape the true understanding of contexts are needed to experience language as a real-life activity. College students in Saudi Arabia struggle to develop desired proficiency in the English language that is required to further advance in their academic endeavours. It has been observed that even the minimum vocabulary level is far to be realised as reality, which consequently has posed a challenge for the various stakeholders to find the most effective strategies for Saudi learners. The present study tries to unfold the basic components which are needed to be in order first before considering the other related factors. In this study, a total of 85 male and female students were asked first appear for the vocabulary test, required to assess if they have achieved their desired levels. Their academic achievement in the specialised vocabulary course and their achievement in the standardised test have been compared with their strategies for language learning. The differences in the responses of the high achievers and the low achievers observed and found that high achievers give importance to all the strategies equally well, whereas the low achievers just focus on meta-cognitive and memory strategies. The results open up new dimensions for the teachers as well as the learners to choose and implement the best practices suited as per their academic and non-academic needs. Besides this, the other stakeholders like material developers, curriculum designers, educators and trainers will also have a macro picture of inside and outside of classrooms so that they could narrow down on the associated elements (motivation, learners’ autonomy, socio-cultural contexts etc.).
... Half of the teachers taught writing and selfregulation strategies (e.g., goal setting, self-assessment, and strategy monitoring) whereas the others (the control group) only taught writing. Students who learned both writing and selfregulation strategies were better able to use their knowledge when planning and revising a story and wrote stories that were more complete and of higher quality than the stories of control students (Glaser & Brunstein, 2007). ...
... 284-286). By teachers' modeling selfregulated strategies and cognitive writing strategies with genre knowledge, struggling learners benefit from SRSD instruction (Glaser & Brunstein, 2007). The study of Chandrasegaran (2013) emphasized the importance of the establishment of a macro-rhetorical goal in writing and awareness among readers. ...
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The growing emphasis on emerging technologies in education has required in-service teachers to develop more technological knowledge. However, little is known about the application of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) on subject matter knowledge in language teaching. This qualitative study examined five writing teachers’ implementation of instructional objectives, instructional strategies, and technologies to teach writing as well as their assessment of learning using the TPACK-Writing perspective. Lesson observations were conducted for each teacher. Adopting a case study design, the observation transcripts were analyzed with a focus on the teachers’ execution of the instructional objectives, instructional strategies, and technologies to teach writing as well as their assessment of learning. The results showed that the complex nature of writing pedagogy with TPACK-Writing as a construct was mediated by cultural factors such as an examination-oriented system and teacher-centered pedagogy. The results also suggested that the application of TPACK-Writing should involve a student-centered approach rather than a teacher-centered approach, which implies the need for teachers to acquire a high level of knowledge of learners and the instructional context to promote effective pedagogy.
... Teachers should also encourage students to set learning goals for themselves, and to persevere in their efforts to reach these goals (e.g., Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007). Evidence has shown that when teachers promote self-regulated learning, including goalsetting, alongside domain-specific skills, students produce higherquality work (e.g., Glaser & Brunstein, 2007). ...
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Monitoring the quality of teaching practices of primary school teachers in low-and-middle-income countries is often hampered by the lack of freely available classroom observation tools that are feasible to administer, validated in their own setting, and can be used as part of national monitoring systems. To address this discrepancy, Teach, an open-access classroom observation tool, was developed to measure the quality of teaching practices of primary school teachers in low-and-middle-income countries. This paper uses data from Punjab, Pakistan to evaluate the validity of Teach. Results show that Teach scores were internally consistent, presented good inter-rater reliability, and provided sufficient information to differentiate low from high-quality teaching practices. Further, higher Teach scores were associated with higher student outcomes.
... Schmidt & Otto, 2010). Direkte Interventionen zielen darauf ab, Veränderungen in einer Zielgruppe selbst zu bewirken (Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Perels, Gürtler & Schmitz, 2005), wohingegen indirekte Interventionen an dem Umfeld der Zielgruppe ansetzen, um Veränderungen zu erzielen (Souvignier & Mokhlesgerami, 2006;Whitebread et al., 2009). Studien zur direkten Förderung des selbstregulierten Lernens lassen sich im Elementarbereich kaum finden (Perels et al., 2009b). ...
... In line with this profile, evidence-based recommendations for learners include teaching writing strategies using SRSD (MacArthur et al., 2014) and modeling text structure knowledge (Welie et al., 2018) as a multicomponent model. Notably, this approach can support students' strategic competence in activating and managing key writing processes (Glaser & Brunstein, 2007) and constructing a structural and mental representation of a text (Teng, 2019b;Tilstra, McMaster, Van den Broek, Kendeou, & Rapp, 2009). These actions can then lead to reading and writing gains. ...
Article
This study examined the effects of adding collaborative modeling of text structure as an additional component of self-regulated strategy development for elementary school 6th-grade students learning English as a second language (ESL). In this study, 34 students receiving a ‘Self-regulated strategy development plus collaborative modeling of text structure’ intervention were compared with 36 students receiving a ‘collaborative modeling of text structure only’ intervention, 38 students receiving a ‘self-regulated strategy development only’ intervention, and 36 students receiving traditional instruction. Several measures (i.e., content comprehension, summarization of main ideas, and essay writing) were administered after the one-month intervention. Results revealed that, compared to traditional instruction, self-regulated strategy development and collaborative modeling of text structure respectively resulted in better comprehension levels and writing performance. The combination of self-regulated strategy development and collaborative modeling of text structure was particularly effective in increasing primary school students’ content comprehension and writing quality. These findings highlight the benefit of coupling self-regulated strategy development and collaborative modeling of text structure for elementary school ESL classroom instruction.
... A great deal of research has been conducted on self-regulated learning due to its importance for student learning (Schunk, 2005). Many studies have highlighted the relationships of self-regulated learning with learning motivation and academic achievement across different grade levels and different subject areas (Duncan & McKeachie, 2005;Ergoz, 2008;Garavalia & Gredler, 2002;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Kitsansas, Sten & Huie, 2009;Ruban & Reis, 2006;Zimmerman, Bandura & Martinez-Pons, 1992). Given the importance of actively engaging students in learning, the current study extends previous studies by examining the relationships of self-regulated learning strategies with students' learning motivation and academic achievement in mathematics. ...
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This study aimed at examining the relationships of self-regulated learning strategies with students’ learning motivation and academic achievement in mathematics. The study employed a descriptive research design. The participants were 238 ninth grade students in the Sultanate of Oman. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was used to assess the participants’ use of self-regulated learning strategies and motivation. Academic achievement was reflected by the total score obtained in mathematics. Results revealed statistically positive relationships of self-regulated learning with intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, task value, control of learning beliefs, self-efficacy and academic achievement. Test anxiety was found to be negatively related to self-regulated learning. The study offers insights on how to develop effective instructional strategies to enhance students' self-regulated learning skills. Keywords: Self-regulation, learning motivation, learning beliefs, academic achievement, learning.
... Further, students were able to use metacognitive learning strategies (MLS) to deal with learning tasks that are structurally similar to training tasks (near transfer; e.g., Glaser & Brunstein, 2007). However, they failed to demonstrate transfer effects on using those strategies for dealing with structurally dissimilar learning tasks (far transfer) outside of direct trainings (e.g., Labuhn et al., 2008). ...
Conference Paper
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Numerous studies demonstrate positive effects of direct training on metacognitive learning strategies (MLS). In direct training, MLS are explicitly taught. Research shows that students are able to use MLS after direct training to deal with learning tasks that are structurally similar to training tasks (near transfer). However, they fail in using MLS for dealing with structurally dissimilar learning tasks (far transfer). Therefore, indirect training additional to direct training could be an option to foster transfer of MLS. In indirect training, the learning environment is designed to help learners transferring learning strategies, wherefore combining direct and indirect training is promising: students get the support to learn and transfer MLS at the same time. To test this assumption, in a cluster randomized controlled study two interventions (N=866) – direct and indirect training combined (EG1) and direct training only (EG2) – were compared with a non-treated control group (CG). Multilevel regression analyses show that EG1 outperforms CG significantly in terms of metacognitive strategy use in near and far transfer tasks, whereas there were no significant differences between EG2 and CG. This result is considered as an argument for the positive effect of combining direct and indirect training to foster transfer of MLS in self-regulated learning.
... In the future, writing researchers may consider using more fine-grained measures of text quality to inspect transcription interventions' effects. Still, it is worth mentioning that the factors within such analytic scales tend to be highly correlated, often leading researchers to combine individual factor and end up with composite measures of writing quality equivalent to holistic scales (e.g., Alves & Limpo, 2015;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007). ...
Article
Transcription can be defined as the externalization of language into written text, which involves spelling and handwriting. There is now a small, but growing body of research demonstrating the importance of transcription in beginning writing. This study aimed to test the effects of transcription training on third graders’ writing skills and motivation. Seventy-seven students receiving transcription training were compared with 89 students receiving drawing training. Within each group, half of the students was given either a composing or a drawing homework assignment. Compared to students in the drawing condition, students who received transcription instruction evidenced greater gains in handwriting and spelling, as well as in the amount and quality of their writing. Although transcription training did not influence self-efficacy, it had a negative impact on motivation to write, resulting in a decrease in intrinsic motivation. Finally, the type of homework assignment (composing or drawing) had virtually no impact on students’ writing skills and motivation. Overall, these findings provided evidence on the key role of transcription in producing good texts. Moreover, they demonstrated the need to enhance the motivational ingredients in transcription interventions.
Article
Our goal in this study is to expand the limited research on writer profiles using the advantageous model-based approach of latent profile analysis and independent tasks to evaluate aspects of individual knowledge, motivation, and cognitive processes that align with Hayes’ (1996) writing framework, which has received empirical support. We address three research questions. First, what latent profiles are observed for late elementary writers using measures aligned with an empirically validated model of writing? Second, do student sociodemographic characteristics—namely grade, gender, race, English learner status, and special education status—influence latent profile membership? Third, how does student performance on narrative, opinion, and informative writing tasks, determined by quality of writing, vary by latent profiles? A five-profile model had the best fit statistics and classified student writers as Globally Weak, At Risk, Average Motivated, Average Unmotivated, and Globally Proficient. Overall, fifth graders, female students, White students, native English speakers, and students without disabilities had greater odds of being in the Globally Proficient group of writers. For all three genres, other latent profiles were significantly inversely related to the average quality of papers written by students who were classified as Globally Proficient; however, the Globally Weak and At Risk writers were not significantly different in their writing quality, and the Average Motivated and Average Unmotivated writers did not significantly differ from each other with respect to quality. These findings indicate upper elementary students exhibit distinct patterns of writing-related strengths and weaknesses that necessitate comprehensive yet differentiated instruction to address skills, knowledge, and motivation to yield desirable outcomes.
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Self-regulation involves the modulation of one’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in the pursuit of long-term goals. Students who face difficulties with self-regulation may experience substantial deficits in their academic achievement. However, research has pointed to a number of effective instructional strategies and interventions which may be particularly beneficial for improving students’ acquisition of academic skills. One such strategy is self-regulation interventions, which are typically comprised of cognitive learning strategies, mnemonic strategies, and/or behavioral management strategies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize and analyze extant research on the impact of self-regulation (as defined in this study) interventions on primary and secondary students’ math, reading, and writing outcomes. Peer-reviewed publications from the last 50 years were identified through a systematic search, which resulted in a total of 46 studies included in the meta-analysis. This systematic review yielded an overall positive effect of self-regulation interventions on academic outcomes, suggesting that self-regulation interventions can lead to improved reading, writing, and math scores for children and adolescents. The increased and sustained development and implementation of self-regulation interventions in school settings may be particularly beneficial for targeting deficits in self-regulation and promoting academic achievement.
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Self-regulated (SRL) writing strategy use is considered a potent method for improving writing performance. Motivational regulation, an underresearched aspect of SRL, has become more recognized in SRL models recently. The present study aims to depict the interplay among SRL writing strategies and English writing performance. It also examined the influences of motivational regulation writing strategies on English writing performance, and whether such relationship would be mediated by other SRL writing strategies. Endeavors were also made to evaluate the moderation effects of gender and major, and the predictive effects of self-efficacy. Teng, L. S. & L. J. Zhang. 2016a. A questionnaire-based validation of multidimensional models of self-regulated learning strategies. Modern Language Journal 100(3). 674–701. Writing Strategies for Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire was administered to 340 university students in China, and their English writing test scores were collected. Structural equation modeling results verified the hypothesized partial mediation model with both direct and indirect paths from motivational regulation strategies to English writing performance. Cognitive and metacognitive strategies both served as mediators while social strategies failed to do so. No moderation effect of gender and major was found. Learners’ writing self-efficacy beliefs predicted their use of SRL writing strategies, with the strongest effects on motivational regulation strategies. Pedagogical implications are drawn.
Article
This study described the features of writing instruction in widely used kindergarten English Language Arts programs and examined their alignment with evidence-based, best-practice guidelines. Three popular curricula were selected for analyses: Reading Wonders, Journeys, and Reading Street. Our coding of teacher manuals focused on instructional provisions for composing, spelling, and handwriting in key instructional sections within each curriculum: (1) genre writing, (2) grammar, and (3) reading instruction. Lessons for coding were sampled from the beginning, middle, and end of each program, comprising 12 weeks of instruction. Results indicated that, although variable across curricula, there were several features of writing instruction that aligned with evidence-based guidelines. All curricula included daily writing lessons and activities, along with provisions for teaching the writing process and basic writing skills (i.e., sentence construction, spelling, handwriting). However, instruction in basic writing skills were often isolated and support for these skills was rarely embedded within the context of children’s own written compositions. In addition, children had relatively less opportunities to independently write their own compositions in genre writing compared to teacher modeling writing or using shared writing. Results of this study could inform efforts to revise or develop curricula to better facilitate the writing development of kindergartners.
Article
Dieser Beitrag hat zum Ziel, im FFP erprobte Reflexionsinstrumente zum selbstregulierten Lernen systematisch vorzustellen und einzuordnen. Dabei werden Perspektiven aufgezeigt, wie diese Instrumente nicht nur im Projektkontext, sondern auch im Regelunterricht Anwendung finden können. Download-Link: https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/plg/pr/2021/00000075/00000006/art00003
Article
Experimental research on strategy instruction for beginning writers has only recently begun. This study investigated the role of self-regulation instruction in Grade 1 strategy learning. In a pretest-post-test quasi-experiment, 120 Grade 1 students participated in a unit of study on personal narrative in one of three conditions: (1) Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD), which included instruction in goal-setting, strategy steps, coping, self-monitoring, and self-reinforcement; (2) strategy instruction only (SO), which focused on the goal and steps of the strategy; (3) a control condition. Students in both strategy conditions, relative to the control, made large, statistically significant gains in text quality, word count, story features, and self-regulation knowledge. The SRSD condition resulted in greater self-regulation knowledge than the SO condition, which resulted in greater knowledge than the control. Pretest text quality did not interact significantly with condition. The effect of instruction on text quality was largely mediated by post-test self-regulation knowledge.
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Many young students experience difficulties mastering writing, and are designated as students struggling with writing. Teacher feedback on writing is an educational tool suited to address this challenge, playing a pivotal role in promoting student proficiency in writing. The current study tests a writing intervention plus teacher feedback, over the course of 12 weeks. A quasi-experimental design with repeated measures was designed to test it. Aims were twofold: (a) identify emerging approach profiles of students struggling with writing to teacher feedback (i.e., perception and reported use of the feedback provided by a teacher), and (b) examine the extent to which different emerging feedback approach profiles are related to the writing quality of students’ compositions and motivational variables (i.e., self-regulation in writing and attitude towards writing). Forty-five students in Grade 3, identified as students struggling with writing, participated in this study. Using a cluster analysis, three profiles were identified as follows: low, medium and high feedback approach profile. Findings showed that the majority of students were able to use the feedback provided by their teacher, perceiving it as useful in improving their writing compositions. Independent of the feedback approach profile, all students evidenced enhanced writing quality during the intervention. Regarding self-regulation in writing and attitude towards writing, no statistically significant differences were found over the intervention. Implications of teacher feedback on writing of students struggling with writing are discussed.
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The Acquired Knowledge series provides veteran academics, like myself, a soapbox from which to brandish their accomplishments, failures, and lessons they presumably learned. It can be foolish and maybe a tad dangerous to offer an old dog a platform from which to bark. But here we are. I will try my best not to be dangerous. I make no promises about folly and banality.Start at the BeginningIn the 1951 movie, Alice in Wonderland, the March Hare and the Mad Hatter give advice about how to tell a story – simply put: “Start at the beginning.” So here we go. (Hopefully the folly meter is not ticking upward yet.)
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The ability to regulate one’s own learning process by applying learning strategies can be seen as a basic requirement for lifelong learning. Accordingly, this ability should be taught in schools. However, research on effects of learning strategy training fails mostly in demonstrating effects on training-unrelated (far transfer) tasks in regular lessons. This dissertation poses the question of transfer processes in the context of learning strategy trainings. Three intervention studies at all-day schools demonstrated near and far transfer as well as, partly, an impovement in the performance quality of cognitive strategies.
Chapter
Trainings stellen eine zentrale Interventionsmethode in der Pädagogischen Psychologie dar. Im vorliegenden Kapitel werden zunächst grundlegende Begrifflichkeiten geklärt. Anschließend werden Trainings zur Förderung kognitiver Grundfertigkeiten vorgestellt. Hier werden insbesondere Trainingsverfahren zur Förderung des induktiven Denkens und zur Förderung der Aufmerksamkeit beschrieben. Danach wird aufgezeigt, welche Möglichkeiten zu einer dauerhaften Veränderung der Motivation bestehen. Als dritter Förderbereich werden schließlich Trainingsverfahren vorgestellt, die kulturelle Grundkompetenzen zum Inhalt haben. Konkret werden ausgewählte Maßnahmen zur Förderung des Leseverständnisses, der Rechtschreibung und zum Schreiben von Texten veranschaulicht. Abgerundet wird das Kapitel durch eine Diskussion von Fragen zur Implementation von pädagogisch-psychologischen Trainingsprogrammen in schulischen Kontexten.
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel beleuchtet theoretische Grundlagen unterrichtlichen Lehrens und Lernens und gibt einen Überblick über wichtige Ergebnisse der Unterrichtsforschung. Dabei wird sowohl auf kognitive als auch auf affektiv-motivationale Merkmale von Schulerfolg Bezug genommen.
Article
The multifaceted nature of writing makes it one of the most challenging school subjects for English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students. Despite its importance and wide attention attracted, primary school students’ unsatisfactory writing performance has been little researched. As an optimal way of learning, self-regulated learning (SRL) has gained surging popularity in various academic disciplines but the field of second language (L2) writing is still underexplored. To fill the gap, the study investigated 291 upper-grade (4th-6th grades) Hong Kong primary students’ use of SRL writing strategies, and explored whether the students’ strategy use varied between genders, and across English writing proficiency groups and grade levels. A three-way MANOVA was performed and results showed that the students’ SRL writing strategy use varied significantly between genders, and across different writing proficiency groups and grade levels. Interaction effects of grade level and gender were also discovered. Important implications are drawn.
Chapter
Das vorliegende Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über selbstreguliertes Lernen und dessen Bedeutung in Bezug auf technologiebasierte Bildungsmedien. Es wird dargelegt, dass selbstreguliertes Lernen die effektive Nutzung technologiebasierter Bildungsmedien unterstützen kann, da der Lernende die Anforderungen durch die Anwendung geeigneter kognitiver, metakognitiver und motivationaler Lernstrategien systematisieren und strukturieren kann. Darüber hinaus wird erläutert, wie technologiebasierte Bildungsmedien genutzt werden können, um vor allem metakognitive SRL-Strategien zeitgemäß zu fördern.
Conference Paper
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Als Ziel und bildungspolitischer Auftrag von Schule und dem darin stattfindenden Unterricht spielt das selbstregulierte Lernen (SRL) eine herausragende Rolle (KMK, 2009). Zur Förderung des SRL haben sich Lernstrategietrainings bewährt, insbesondere dann, wenn dabei kognitive und metakognitive Lernstrategien zusammen trainiert werden (z.B. Stebner et al., 2015). Metakognitive Lernstrategien helfen Lernenden, die kognitiven Lernstrategien mit hoher Qualität anzuwenden (Klauer & Leutner, 2012). Sie sind prinzipiell auf jede kognitive Lernstrategie anwendbar und im Gegensatz zu kognitiven Lernstrategien situations- und aufgabenunabhängig sowie transferierbar. Die Implementation von Lernstrategietrainings in den regulären Fachunterricht stellt eine große Herausforderung dar. So mangelt es auf der einen Seite Schulen häufig an theorieund evidenzbasierten Grundlagen und Ressourcen seitens der Lehrkräfte (Souvignier & Behrmann, 2017). Auf der anderen Seite scheitert die pädagogisch-psychologische Forschung daran, Effekte von Lernstrategietrainings auf die Bearbeitung von Lernaufgaben des regulären Fachunterrichts nachzuweisen (u.a. Labuhn et al., 2008). Bisherige Forschung zeigt, dass Schülerinnen und Schüler (SuS) die erlernten kognitiven und metakognitiven Strategien auf Lernaufgaben anwenden, die den Trainingsaufgaben strukturell ähnlich sind (naher Transfer; z.B. Glaser & Brunstein, 2007). Empirische Befunde zum erfolgreichen Transfer insbesondere metakognitiver Lernstrategien auf die Bearbeitung strukturell unähnlicher Lernaufgaben des regulären Fachunterrichts (ferner Transfer) sind hingegen rar. Eine Möglichkeit, sowohl den nahen als auch fernen Transfer metakognitiver Lernstrategien zu unterstützen, könnte in der Implementation eines Konzeptes bestehen, welches direkte und indirekte Trainings kombiniert (u.a. Paris & Paris, 2001). Um den Effekt eines solchen kombinierten Trainings auf den fernen Transfer metakognitiver Lernstrategien zu untersuchen, erhielten 178 SuS in der Experimentalgruppe über ein Schulhalbjahr hinweg zeitgleich ein direktes Lernstrategietraining außerhalb des Unterrichts sowie ein indirektes Training durch einen lernstrategieförderlich adaptierten Deutschunterricht. 91 SuS der Kontrollgruppe erhielten weder ein direktes noch ein indirektes Training. Die Experimentalgruppe lernte im direkten Training, kognitive und metakognitive Strategien beim Lernen durch Experimentieren anzuwenden. Im indirekten Training wurden sie angeregt, die im direkten Training erlernten metakognitiven Strategien auf kognitive Strategien des Deutschunterrichts zu transferieren. Durch den Einsatz eines 9 Multistrategietests (MST; Stebner et al., 2015) wurde der spontane Abruf sowie die beabsichtigte Anwendung der metakognitiven Strategien beim Bearbeiten einer nahen- und einer fernen Transferaufgabe erfasst. Es wurden univariate Varianzanalysen mit Messwiederholung mit dem within subject-Faktor Messzeitpunkt (prä/post), dem between subject-Faktor Gruppe (Experimental- /Kontrollgruppe) und der Anzahl der Nennungen metakognitiver Lernstrategien in der nahen und fernen Transferaufgabe als abhängige Variable berechnet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen einen Vorteil der Experimentalgruppe beim Lösen der nahen Transferaufgabe hinsichtlich der metakognitiven Strategien. Es zeigt sich ein Haupteffekt des Messzeitpunktes (F(1,185)=3.95, p<.005, ηp²=.02), ein Haupteffekt der Gruppe (F(1,185)=9.92, p<.001, ηp²=.05) sowie ein Interaktionseffekt von Messzeitpunkt und Gruppe (F(1,185)=9.58, p<.005, ηp²=.05). Zudem zeigte sich zum Post-Messzeitpunkt ein signifikanter Gruppenunterschied zugunsten der Experimentalgruppe (t(185)=5.38, p<.001, d=0.63). Bei der fernen Transferaufgabe zeigt sich ein Haupteffekt des Messzeitpunkts (F(1,155)=4.97, p<.001, ηp²=.03), allerdings kein Haupteffekt der Gruppe (F(1,155)<1), dafür aber ein Interaktionseffekt von Messzeitpunkt und Gruppe (F(1,155)=6.57, p<.001, ηp²=.04). Zum Post-Messzeitpunkt zeigte sich ein signifikanter Gruppenunterschied (t(155)=2.06, p=.041, d=0.31) zugunsten der Experimentalgruppe. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass eine Kombination aus direktem und indirektem Strategietraining nicht nur den nahen, sondern insbesondere auch den fernen Transfer metakognitiver Lernstrategien in den Fachunterricht unterstützt. Die Ergebnisse werden auf der Tagung mit Blick auf die aktuelle SRL-Forschung und schulpraktischer Implikationen diskutiert. Dabei wird unter anderem die Messung von Metakognition in quasi-experimentellen Untersuchungsdesigns in den Blick genommen sowie die Wirksamkeit von Lehrkräftefortbildungen als notwendige Voraussetzung für den Erfolg schulischer Strategietrainings diskutiert.
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Les recherches montrent qu’un enseignement explicite des connaissances et habiletés métacognitives accroit la qualité des écrits produits par les élèves. Après avoir décrit l’origine métacognitive des difficultés en production de texte, cet article propose un état de l’art des recherches menées sur les entraînements à l’autorégulation pour améliorer la rédaction. À l’issue de ce travail de synthèse, des recommandations sont proposées aux enseignants pour accompagner leurs élèves sur ces aspects.
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111 With some pride I hereby introduce the 10 volume in the Studies of Writing book series. This volume aims to be a tool-book for writing research. In my opinion, the editors and authors of this volume succeeded in this endeavor. Four guiding questions are answered in all chapters on online-techniques. How to ... The key to such a book is providing insight in the decisions researchers make when developing 'tools and techniques'; such information is not found in jour­ nal articles and in the best case hidden in technical reports. This book provides read­ ers with detailed information about the ins and outs of various online techniques. When to ... Another contribution of this tool-book is to provide insight into when the 'tool' can be used, in other words, to relate the tool or technique to the theoretical claims about the writing process or cognitive processes underlying writing processes. Theory, methodology, tools and techniques, handling data and interpretation form a coherent unit. When not to ... There is no cow without a spot' (Dutch: er is geen koe zonder vlekje) is the literal translation of a Dutch expression. Techniques/tools have their limitations, and their problems: in applying them, and/or handling or interpreting the data they produce. In a book like this, researchers took the opportunity to provide readers with a look behind the curtains, in the process of research. Scientific, critical reflection is one of the strong features of this book.
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In this article, we illustrate the theoretical and empirical basis of cognitive strategy instruction and compare this basis to major principles of constructivism. In particular, we address the recent argument that cognitive strategy instruction precludes active construction of knowledge; and we discuss the nature of good cognitive strategy instruction and its contribution to the education of students with learning problems. Illustrations of self-instructional and other cognitive strategy instruction models are presented in the areas of reading comprehension, written language, and memory. Other issues are discussed, including maintenance, generalization, and teacher implementation of strategy instructional approaches. We conclude that both, teachers and students are constructing important new knowledge during strategy instruction, and that cognitive strategy instruction is a viable and exciting direction in special education research and practice.
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Seventy 8th-grade students (including talented writers, those with average ability, and students in need of special education services) participated in an integrated social studies and language arts unit designed to promote historical understandings and argumentative writing skills. The historical reasoning instruction lasted 12 days, and the writing instruction lasted 10 days. Students applied historical inquiry strategies when reading documents related to westward expansion and learned to plan argumentative essays related to each historical event. Results indicate that in comparison to 62 students in a control group who did not receive either form of instruction, students who demonstrated mastery of the target strategies during instruction wrote historically more accurate and more persuasive essays regardless of their initial learning profile. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined the role of executive control in the revising problems of 8th graders with writing and learning difficulties. The contribution of executive control was examined by providing students with executive support in carrying out the revising process. Students learned to use a routine that ensured that the individual elements involved in revising were coordinated and occurred in a regular way. Compared with revising under normal conditions, executive support made the process of revising easier for students and improved their revising behavior. They revised more often, produced more meaning-preserving revisions that improved text, and revised larger segments of text more frequently when using the executive routine. Executive support also had a greater impact on the overall quality of students' text than did normal revising. Students' difficulties with revising were not due solely to problems with executive control because they also experienced difficulties with the separate elements involved in revising. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Expository writing is an important skill in the upper-elementary and secondary grades. Yet few studies have examined the effects of interventions designed to increase students' expository writing abilities and their ability to generalize their knowledge to write expository texts using novel text structures. The present study examined the effects of an intervention that attempted to improve students' expository writing abilities through an instructional emphasis on teacher and student dialogues about expository writing strategies, text structure processes, and self-regulated learning. The findings suggested that the dialogic instruction was effective (a) in promoting students' expository writing abilities on two text structures taught during the intervention (explanation and comparison/contrast) and (b) in leading to improved abilities on a near transfer activity, in which students wrote using a text structure not taught during the intervention. Although students in the control group exhibited some pretest-posttest gains on specific text structures, they were not successful in using their knowledge to write about student-selected topics and text structures. The results support the importance of instruction that makes the writing processes and strategies visible to students through teacher-student and student-student dialogues.
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Although the topic of academic studying has been neglected historically, researchers interested in academic self-regulation have undertaken a program of research with important implications for understanding how academic studying can be optimized. In this article, I present a conceptualization of this topic in terms of 6 underlying dimensions that students can self-regulate using specific processes. Extensive anecdotal evidence is described indicating that similar self-regulatory processes are used by experts in such diverse disciplines as music, sports, and professional writing. These descriptions reveal that self-regulatory processes are not only important during initial development of a skill but also during subsequent performance of it in naturalistic settings. Finally, research on the beneficial effects of self-regulated studying is recounted on academic motivation as well as achievement, and a cyclical self-regulatory model for study skill instruction in regular classrooms is presented.
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The effects of goal setting and self-monitoring during self-regulated practice on the acquisition of a complex motoric skill were studied with 90 high school girls. It was hypothesized that girls who shifted goals developmentally from process to outcome goals would surpass classmates who adhered to only process goals who, in turn, would exceed classmates who used only outcome goals in posttest dart-throwing skill, self-reactions, self-efficacy perceptions, and intrinsic interest in the game. Support for all hypotheses derived from the developmental model was found. The girls' self-reactions to dart-throwing outcomes and self-efficacy perceptions about dart skill were highly correlated with their intrinsic interest in the game. It was also found that self-recording, a formal form of self-monitoring, enhanced dart-throwing skill, self-efficacy, and self-reaction beliefs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Mastering sentence-construction skills is essential to learning to write. Limited sentence-construction skills may hinder a writer's ability to translate ideas into text. It may also inhibit or interfere with other composing processes, as developing writers must devote considerable cognitive effort to sentence construction. The authors examined whether instruction designed to improve sentence-construction skills was beneficial for more and less skilled 4th-grade writers. In comparison with peers receiving grammar instruction, students in the experimental treatment condition became more adept at combining simpler sentences into more complex sentences. For the experimental students, the sentence-combining skills produced improved story writing as well as the use of these skills when revising. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Extends previous research on components of effective strategy instruction operationalized in an approach referred to as self-regulated strategy development (SRSD). Comparisons were made among learning-disabled students in 4 conditions (SRSD, SRSD without goal setting and self-monitoring, direct teaching, and practice control) at posttest, generalization, and 2 maintenance probes. Normally achieving (NA) peers constituted a social validation condition. Full SRSD resulted in significantly greater schematic structure scores at generalization as compared with the other instructional conditions. At posttest, both SRSD conditions resulted in significantly greater schematic structure scores as compared with the practice control condition. Comparisons with NA peers indicated that all instructional conditions had a meaningful effect. No differences among conditions were found for self-efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The viability of self-instructional strategy training among learning disabled (LD) students exhibiting composition deficiencies was investigated. Furthermore, the theoretically proposed incremental effects of explicit self-regulation procedures were examined in terms of writing performance measures at posttest, maintenance, and generalization, and in terms of Ss' self-efficacy. Ss were 22 LD and 11 normally achieving students in the 5th and 6th grades. Results indicated that self-instructional strategy training produced meaningful and lasting effects on Ss' composition skills and a significantly heightened sense of self-efficacy. Explicit self-regulation procedures did not significantly augment strategy-instruction effects for either writing performance or self-efficacy. Composition performance after instruction among LD Ss did not differ significantly in terms of story grammar elements from that of a contrast group of normally achieving, competent writers. However, normally achieving students' compositions were longer and received significantly higher quality ratings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Typically, models of self-regulation include motivation in terms of goals. Motivation is proposed to fluctuate according to how much individuals value goals and expect to attain them. Missing from these models is the motivation that arises from the process of goal-pursuit. We suggest that an important aspect of self-regulation is monitoring and regulating our motivation, not just our progress toward goals. Although we can regulate motivation by enhancing the value or expectancy of attaining the outcome, we suggest that regulating the interest experience can be just as, if not more, powerful. We first present our model, which integrates self-regulation of interest within the goal-striving process. We then briefly review existing evidence, distinguishing between two broad classes of potential interest-enhancing strategies: intrapersonal and interpersonal. For each class of strategies we note what is known about developmental and individual differences in whether and how these kinds of strategies are used. We also discuss implications, including the potential trade-offs between regulating interest and performance, and how recognizing the role of the interest experience may shed new light on earlier research in domains such as close relationships, psychiatric disorders, and females' choice to drop out of math and science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Writing is a very demanding task, requiring the orchestration of a variety of cognitive resources. For developing writers, it can be especially demanding, as they have not yet mastered important writing processes, skills, and knowledge involved in planning, drafting, and revising text. In the present study, middle school students were directly taught strategies that facilitated the execution of each of these processes. They were also taught the knowledge and skills needed to carry out these strategies. In comparison to peers in the control condition, students in the experimental treatment condition produced essays that were longer, contained more mature vocabulary, and were qualitatively better. These gains were evident immediately following instruction and on a short-term maintenance probe administered 1 month later. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Writing development involves changes that occur in children’s strategic behavior, knowledge, and motivation. The authors examined the effectiveness of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD), a strategy instructional model designed to promote development in each of these areas. Instruction focused on planning and writing stories and persuasive essays. The addition of a peer support component to SRSD instruction aimed at facilitating maintenance and generalization effects was also examined. SRSD had a positive impact on the writing performance and knowledge of struggling second-grade writers attending urban schools serving a high percentage of low-income families. In comparison with children in the Writers’ Workshop condition, SRSD-instructed students were more knowledgeable about writing and evidenced stronger performance in the two instructed genres (story and persuasive writing) as well as two uninstructed genres (personal narrative and informative writing). Moreover, the peer support component augmented SRSD instruction by enhancing specific aspects of students’ performance in both the instructed and uninstructed genres.
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Two instructional studies directed at the comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities of seventh grade poor comprehenders are reported. The four study activities were summarizing (self-review), questioning, clarifying, and predicting. The training method was that of reciprocal teaching, where the tutor and students took turns leading a dialogue centered on pertinent features of the text. In Study 1, a comparison between the reciprocal teaching method and a second intervention modeled on typical classroom practice resulted in greater gains and maintenance over time for the reciprocal procedure. Reciprocal teaching, with an adult model guiding the student to interact with the text in more sophisticated ways, led to a significant improvement in the quality of the summaries and questions. It also led to sizable gains on criterion tests of comprehension, reliable maintenance over time, generalization to classroom comprehension tests, transfer to novel tasks that tapped the trained skills of summarizing, questioning, and clarifying, and improvement in standardized comprehension scores. Many of these results were replicated in Study 2. In contrast to Study 1, which was conducted by an experimenter, Study 2 examined group interventions conducted by volunteer teachers with their existing reading groups.
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The dual-task paradigm recently played a major role in understanding the role of working memory in writing. By reviewing recent findings in this field of research, this article highlights how the use of the dual-task technique allowed studying processing and short-term storage functions of working memory involved in writing. With respect to processing functions of working memory (namely, attentional and executive functions), studies investigated resources allocation, step-by-step management and parallel coordination of the writing processes. With respect to short-term storage in working memory, experiments mainly attempted to test Kellogg's (1996) proposals on the relationship between the writing processes and the slave systems of working memory. It is concluded that the dual-task technique revealed fruitful in understanding the relationship between writing and working memory.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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Writing a text requires the coordination of multiple high-level composition processes in working memory, including planning, language generation, and reviewing, in addition to low-level motor transcription. Here, interference in reaction time (RT) for detecting auditory probes was used to measure the attentional demands of (1) copying in longhand a prepared text (transcription), (2) composing a text and pausing handwriting for longer than 250 msec (composition), and (3) composing and currently handwriting (transcription + composition). Greater interference in the transcription + composition condition than in the transcription condition implies that high-level processes are activated concurrently with motor execution, resulting in higher attentional demands. This difference was observed for adults who wrote in standard cursive, but not for children and not for adults who used an unpracticed uppercase script. Greater interference in the composition condition than in the transcription condition implies that high-level processes demand more attention than do motor processes. This difference was observed only when adults wrote with a practiced script. With motor execution being relatively automatic, adults were able to attend fully to the high-level processes required in mature, effective composition. One reason that children fail to engage in such high-level processes is that motor processes deplete available attention.
Article
The purpose of this invited article is to provide an example of the evolution of programmatic research in learning disabilities. We first note the four strands of writing research in which we have been involved since the early 1980s, and then address the theoretical and pedagogical groundings of our research in Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD). Over 20 studies involving SRSD have been conducted to date. One of these studies is briefly described, followed by a closer examination of how this study and other previous research led to two subsequent studies. We conclude with an overview of the many research questions and directions that remain in the area of writing, strategies instruction, and the development of self-regulation.
Article
The purpose of this article is to describe downward and upward extensions of Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) in reading, which was originally developed for Grades 2-6. Extensions have occurred for kindergarten, first grade, and high school. We begin by describing our rationale for the development of PALS. Then we provide an overview of the Grades 2-6 PALS program and illustrate why additional PALS activities were required to address younger and older students' developmental needs. Finally, we describe the PALS extensions.
Article
It is proposed that the development of writing competence depends on high levels of self-regulation and the mastery of low-level transcription skills. Predictions consistent with each of these claims are identified and evaluated. Although the available data are incomplete and many key findings require further replication, the accumulated evidence generally supports both of these propositions.
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This article surveys writing research and attempts to sketch a principled account of how multiple sources of knowledge, stored in long-term memory, are coordinated during writing within the constraints of working memory. The concept of long-term working memory is applied to the development of writing expertise. Based on research reviewed, it is speculated that lack of fluent language generation processes constrains novice writers within short-term working memory capacity, whereas fluent encoding and extensive knowledge allow skilled writers to take advantage of long-term memory resources via long-term working memory.
Article
Becoming an adept writer involves more than knowledge of vocabulary and grammar, it depends on high levels of personal regulation because writing activities are usually self-planned, self-initiated, and self-sustained. We present a social cognitive model of writing composed of three fundamental forms of self-regulation: environmental, behavioral, and covert or personal. Each of these triadic forms of self-regulation interact reciprocally via a cyclic feedback loop through which writers self-monitor and self-react to feedback about the effectiveness of specific self-regulatory techniques or processes. Well known writers’ personal descriptions of ten major self-regulatory techniques are recounted, and empirical studies demonstrating the effectiveness of these self-regulatory techniques are discussed. We conclude that writing self-regulation is a complex system of interdependent processes that are closely linked to an underlying sense of self-efficacy, and we discuss implications of the proposed model of self-regulatory processes and self-beliefs for guiding future research and developing innovative writing instruction.
Article
Views of revision and its role in writing have changed dramatically over the last two decades. This article first presents a historical perspective on revision and suggests a contemporary definition of revision. Next, it reviews research methods for examining revision. The evolving methods mirror the recent reconceptualization of revision by enabling investigation of the following: meaningful revision activity, not just editorial actions; the revision process as well as the revision products; and revision as it occurs at several points in writing. Findings from research on revision are synthesized, conclusions about the results are given, and limitations of the research are examined.
Article
Used 192 3rd graders to determine whether (a) training children to compare different parts of text improves detection of text errors and (b) self-controlled training of comparison produces more durable use of the strategy. 24 Ss were assigned to each of 8 conditions: 3 comparison-processing training conditions, 2 minimal-instruction conditions, 1 passive training condition, and 2 control conditions. Ss heard expository passages, some containing explicit errors, and were asked to judge passage sensibility. Results indicate that Ss taught to use a self-instructional routine specifying comparison of the 2 most recently presented sentences with each other and with the rest of the passage monitored comprehension immediately following training and 1 wk later better than did Ss given minimal training. Teaching the 2 types of comparison without self-instruction produced only short-term benefits relative to minimal training alternatives. Results are consistent with E. M. Markman's (see record 1980-03008-001) coactivation hypothesis and with metacognitive theoretical assumptions about how to produce strategy use. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors assessed the contribution of self-regulated learning strategies (SRL), when combined with problem-solving transfer instruction (L. S. Fuchs et al., 2003), on 3rd-graders' mathematical problem solving. SRL incorporated goal setting and self-evaluation. Problem-solving transfer instruction taught problem-solution methods, the meaning of transfer, and 4 superficial-problem features that change a problem without altering its type or solution; it also prompted metacognitive awareness to transfer. The authors contrasted the effectiveness of transfer plus SRL to the transfer treatment alone and to teacher-designed instruction. Twenty-four 3rd-grade teachers, with 395 students, were assigned randomly to conditions. Treatments were conducted for 16 weeks. Students were pre- and posttested on problem-solving tests and responded to a posttreatment questionnaire tapping self-regulation processes. SRL positively affected performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This book takes a multidisciplinary approach to writing research. The authors describe their current thinking and data in such a way that readers in psychology, English, education, and linguistics will find it readable and stimulating. It should serve as a resource book of theory, tools and techniques, and applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Preparing a written outline during prewriting and composing a rough 1st draft are strategies that may ease attentional overload and consequently enhance writing performance. The present research examined how these strategies affect the efficiency of the writing process and the quality of the written product. The processing time and cognitive effort given to planning ideas, translating ideas into text, and reviewing ideas and text were monitored by using directed retrospection and comparing secondary-task reaction times. The results of Exp 1 indicated that preparing a written outline, compared with not doing so, led to higher quality documents as indexed by ratings of judges. Composing a rough draft, as opposed to a polished draft, had no beneficial effect on writing quality. Exp 2 showed that a mental outline improved the quality of the documents as much as a written outline, indicating that the written outline was not serving as an external memory aid. Also, both mental and written outlines eased attentional overload by allowing the writer to focus processing time on the single process of translating ideas into text. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Designed a metacognitive intervention program to remediate the failures of 42 4th-grade boys in using metacognitive skills to aid their reading comprehension. The program consisted of 2 components: story grammar training, designed to increase comprehension monitoring; and attribution training, designed to increase awareness of effort in efficient reading. Ss were assigned to 3 groups: 1 group received both components and the other 2 groups each received one component alone. 14 skilled 4th-grade male readers served as a contrast group. Maintenance was assessed through free and probed recall; generalization was assessed through a metareading test and an error detection and correction task. Results indicate that strategy training produced dramatic gains in comprehension. Only Ss receiving attribution training alone showed poorer performance than skilled readers. Partial support was obtained for generalization on the metareading assessment. It is concluded that strategy training improved poor readers' comprehension by providing them with metacognitive skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The self-regulation perspective is currently well received in the industrial and organisational psychology literature. Theoretical and empirical work span processes ranging from organisation entry to exit and reentry. Key self-regulation constructs and interventions in work contexts are reviewed with a focus on construct and internal validity. Some constructs, such as self-efficacy and goal commitment, have received substantial psychometric attention and seem important targets for interventions. Nonetheless, potentially unwarranted assumptions remain regarding these constructs. Other constructs, particularly feedback and discrepancy, have acquired substantially different meanings within the self-regulation literature that inhibit understanding and communication among scholars and practitioners. Interventions based on self-regulatory principles have been developed, and rigorous tests of these interventions have been conducted. These interventions were found to influence a range of organisationally relevant outcomes such as increasing performance and reducing absenteeism. Unfortunately, studies of comprehensive interventions are rare and often lacked controls, making it difficult to draw conclusions regarding what aspects of the interventions are causally relevant. Discussion focuses on the gaps in the field's knowledge and understanding regarding self-regulatory processes in organisational settings and how the field might attempt to fill those gaps.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine how a combination of motivational and instructional variables can be best utilized in an intervention program to improve students' emotional and cognitive experiences during argument writing. One hundred and seventy-seven students at the junior intermediate level participated. The study involved a pre-test, intervention, post-test design with two forms of intervention. The basic program given to all students included instructions on argument writing and incorporated strong motivational features. The second form of intervention provided students with an additional motivational component consisting of extended collaborative writing activities. In addition, we examined the relation between students' general interest in writing and their genre-specific liking and self-efficacy of writing. More specifically, we focused on the relation between interest and self-efficacy, two motivational factors relevant to writing: an Interest, Liking and Self-efficacy Questionnaire was administered pre- and post-intervention. The intervention programs resulted in a significant overall improvement in the quality of children's argument writing. The collaborative writing experience was especially effective for boys. The responses to the questionnaires indicated that children's genre-specific liking and self-efficacy of writing are closely associated and that both of these factors are also associated with their general interest in writing.
Article
Writing is a complex task. Its development depends in large part on changes that occur in children’s strategic behavior, knowledge, and motivation. In the present study, the effectiveness of an instructional model, Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD), designed to foster development in each of these areas, was examined. Adding a peer support component to SRSD instruction to facilitate maintenance and generalization was also examined. Struggling, third grade writers, the majority of whom were minority students attending schools that served primarily low-income families, received SRSD instruction focused primarily on learning writing strategies and knowledge for planning and composing stories and persuasive essays. These students wrote longer, more complete, and qualitatively better papers for both of these genres than peers in the comparison condition (Writers’ Workshop). These effects were maintained over time for story writing and generalized to a third uninstructed genre, informative writing. SRSD instruction boosted students’ knowledge about writing as well. The peer support component augmented SRSD instruction by increasing students’ knowledge of planning and enhancing generalization to informative and narrative writing. In contrast, self-efficacy for writing was not influenced by either SRSD condition (with or without peer support).
Article
The nature of good information processing is outlined as determined by intact neurology, information stored in long-term memory, and general cognitive tendencies, attitudes, and styles. Educators can promote the development of good information processing by promoting what is in long-term memory. This can be accomplished by teaching important literary, scientific, and cultural knowledge; teaching strategies; motivating the acquisition and use of important conceptual knowledge and strategies; and encouraging the general tendencies supporting good information processing. Good information processing can be produced by years of appropriate educational input. Good information processors cannot be produced by short-term interventions.
Article
A total of 38 problem learners comprising adolescents with learning disabilities and low achievers participated in this study. Of these, 20 were untrained control participants; the remainder were trained to plan, write, and revise opinion essays. Trainees were randomly divided into pairs and taught to collaboratively use interactive dialogues to plan and revise their essays (but they wrote their essays separately). The results from multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) and effect sizes indicated that trainees improved significantly from pretest to posttest in clarity and cogency of written opinion essays, and maintained such gains. Additional analyses indicated that they surpassed the untrained control group. Questionnaire data indicated trainees improved in self-efficacy of writing only. The same finding held true in comparison with untrained participants. The discussion integrates the trainees' performance data with the questionnaire data and considers the research implications and limitations of the study.
Article
This study examined the contributions of instruction in goal setting and self-instruction, separately and combined, on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of a reading comprehension strategy by fourth-through sixth-grade students with learning disabilities. A previously validated strategy involving the use of story structure to analyze and remember story content was taught to 47 students with learning disabilities using the self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) model. Comparisons were made among students with learning disabilities in four conditions (strategy instruction, strategy instruction plus goal setting, strategy instruction plus self-instruction, and strategy instruction plus goal setting and self-instruction). Result indicated that instruction in the reading strategy produced meaningful, lasting, and generalizable effects on students' story comprehension skills. Furthermore, the comprehension performance of the students with learning disabilities after strategy instruction was indistinguishable from that of a social comparison group of normally achieving students. Explicit instruction in goal setting and self-instruction, however, did not augment the comprehension performance of students with learning disabilities.
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