Article

An Analysis of Learned Helplessness: Continuous Changes in Performance, Strategy, and Achievement Cognitions Following Failure

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Abstract

Helpless children show marked performance decrements under failure, whereas mastery-oriented children often show enhanced performance. Current theories emphasize differences in the nature of the attributions following failure as determinants of response to failure. Two studies with 130 5th-grade children explored helpless vs mastery-oriented differences in the nature, timing, and relative frequency of a variety of achievement-related cognitions by continuously monitoring verbalizations following failure. Results reveal that helpless children made the expected attributions for failure to lack of ability; mastery-oriented children made surprisingly few attributions but instead engaged in self-monitoring and self-instructions. That is, helpless children focused on the cause of failure, whereas the mastery-oriented children focused on remedies for failure. These differences were accompanied by striking differences in strategy change under failure. The results suggest that in addition to the nature of the attribution one makes, the timing or even occurrence of attributions may be a critical individual difference. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... En el ámbito de las creencias sobre autoeficacia (ver tabla 4), se destaca que los estudiantes de nivel de desempeño alto son capaces de recordar y describir más experiencias que dan cuenta de cómo se han adaptado a situaciones de búsqueda de información difíciles o insatisfactorias, en este sentido, tienen una orientación 7 Área temÁtica 04. Procesos de aPrendizaje y educación hacia el dominio, es decir, adoptan los retos y se sienten energizados por los reveses (Diener y Dweck, 1978), esto quiere decir que saben que tienen el control sobre los resultados de sus procesos de búsqueda y tratamiento de información. Lo anterior también ocurre en los estudiantes con nivel de desempeño medio, pues empiezan a reconocer que los resultados en sus tareas tienen más relación con sus decisiones que con factores externos, aunque la mención de situaciones que ejemplifican lo anterior es menor. ...
... En el nivel de desempeño bajo se identificó una orientación hacia el desamparo (Diener y Dweck, 1978), en donde los estudiantes manifiestan cierto pesimismo sobre sus habilidades para buscar y/o comprender información, de ahí que se autoevalúan con calificaciones bajas. Esto es consistente con las declaraciones sobre el proceso que despliegan para buscar, seleccionar y usar información, en este sentido, se decantan por seleccionar recursos que presentan información sintetizada, puntual y de fácil lectura, además, debido a la falta de pericia para procesar la información y generar argumentos propios, señalan dificultades persistentes en la elaboración de ensayos (ver tabla 4). ...
... De acuerdo con los hallazgos, los estudiantes con un nivel de desempeño alto en el aprendizaje de la competencia informativa se caracterizan por tener una mayor autodeterminación en su motivación (Ryan y Deci, 2000), en este sentido, afirman que al buscar información y elaborar sus tareas lo hacen lo mejor posible porque es consistente con sus creencias y la imagen que tienen de sí mismos (disciplinados, comprometidos, organizados), en coherencia con lo anterior, declaran tener una orientación hacia el dominio (Diener y Dweck, 1978), lo cual se expresa en mayor entusiasmo e implicación en los retos y dificultades que emergen durante el proceso de búsqueda y uso de información académica. ...
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El objetivo de esta investigación fue indagar los tipos de motivación y creencias sobre autoeficacia que dan cuenta del progreso en el aprendizaje de la competencia informativa en estudiantes universitarios. Para lograr lo anterior, se desplegó una metodología cualitativa que consideró la aplicación de entrevistas semiestructuradas a una muestra intencional de seis estudiantes representativos de tres niveles de desempeño en la competencia informativa: bajo, medio y alto. Los participantes cursan el séptimo semestre de la licenciatura en Ciencias de la Comunicación en una Institución de Educación Superior de carácter privado, ubicada en la capital del estado de Oaxaca, México. A partir de los hallazgos se identificó que los estudiantes con nivel de desempeño alto declaran tener mayor autodeterminación en su motivación y una orientación hacia el dominio, lo cual se expresa en entusiasmo e implicación por los retos y dificultades que emergen durante el proceso de búsqueda y uso de información académica, por su parte, los estudiantes con nivel de desempeño medio y bajo se caracterizan por poca autodeterminación en su motivación, de ahí que ésta se basa principalmente en incentivos del ambiente o en evitar consecuencias negativas. En el caso de los estudiantes con nivel de desempeño bajo se identificó una orientación motivacional de desamparo que se manifiesta en pesimismo sobre las propias habilidades para buscar y/o comprender información para elaborar ensayos Palabras clave: Alfabetización informacional, aprendizaje basado en competencias, desempeño del estudiante, motivación, autoeficacia.
... However, both private and public institutions should establish training space for technologyassisted (Rosenberg et al., 2003, Marsh et al., 2001 resources keeping in mind that, not all students are prepared and aware of the use of those applications. Still, not all professors (Machtmes & Asher, 2000, Diener & Dweck, 1978 have the online teaching experience and it should be improved for cases such as quarantine, where physical classes are forbidden. Online instructions could overcome those impediments (Hughes et al., 2008, Zimmerman, 2012 with courses to gain technological knowledge. ...
... Thus, to stimulate the best performance of students (O'Brien, 1997), change their attitudes (Kharbanda, 2006) and also, increase learning activity (Machetes & Asher, 2000), it is necessary to develop their personal maturity. The encouragement of learning by the teacher is important (Diener & Dweck, 1978, Hughes et al., 2008, Del Prette et al., 1998 as long as the student is willing to acquire knowledge in all areas of his education. ...
... Different researchers (Diener & Dweck, 1978, Hughes et al., 2008 already tested students' academic skills and reported an association between poor grades, low effort, and little incentive, resulting in academic performance failure. These results are similar to the present study, after encouraging an online teaching tool as support, difficulties encountered during the study were highlighted, students who did not have access to the distance learning platform obtained worse grades than the group with access (Table 4). ...
Article
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Literature seeks to provide a new methodological education approach in health professions, but none consider evaluate student's ideal preferences. The aim of this study is to understand what the preferences of distance learning in higher education are. The study has assessed online resources, the primary objective was to provide information about the types of teaching tools. The secondary objective was to integrate technological advances in the Medical School of Speech Therapy. The outcomes have been further discussed under measurements of an observational protocol, testing the effectiveness of these resources on the qualifications of undergraduate Orthodontics students at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Summarizing the preferences, an online form was applied in Brazilian Institutions. Based on the 533 evaluations, a distance learning platform was developed to assist the daily study process, containing educational videos, a discussion forum, questionnaires for the increased learning activity, and individual feedback reports. Overall, 88 undergraduate Speech Therapy students at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro were recruited, eventually, 34 fully participated. They were randomly allocated into two groups to perform a face-to-face test: (A) without and (B) with access to the platform. The data were analyzed using the t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact test. The parameter of educational videos had the highest frequency of all responses. After the interactive experience of a platform, group B had a higher average (6.45) beyond group A (5.44). At the end of the research, it was possible to state that the distance learning approach was effective as a method to enhance teaching and gain technological knowledge.
... Task-oriented motivation is particularly significant during sports competitions when a difficult situation occurs. Studies have shown that people with a task-oriented approach, in spite of the difficulties they face in solving a problem, will continue the previously applied tactics and are more effective than those characterised by having a personal approach, who usually give up and report a willingness to switch activities [8,9]. The solutions applied by people with a task-oriented approach seem to be a more beneficial way of coping with stress in a difficult situation. ...
... The results from the current study showed that the higher the level of task-oriented motivation, the higher the effectiveness of performance. These findings corroborate earlier findings by Diener and Dweck [8,9]. ...
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Background: Athletes should be distinguished by their capacity to deal with stress effectively. Motivated soccer players will employ stress-coping strategies that are linked to their ability to perform at a high level. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between a player's specific goal orientation, coping in sports, and the effectiveness of play during competition. Methods: The study enrolled 122 male elite soccer players at the championship level who were between the ages of 16 and 19. All participants completed the Polish version of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Polish version of the Coping Inventory for Competitive Sport Questionnaire, the CISS questionnaire, and Szwarc's observation sheet for evaluating soccer performance. Results: The results showed that the task-based stress-coping mode partially mediated the relationship between task motivation and the observed effectiveness of players in soccer. Conclusion: From an applied perspective, the data on the relationship between selected mental factors and soccer performance point to a possible direction of work for players aspiring to the highest level of performance.
... Dweck und Leggett (1988) schlagen in ihrer ursprünglichen Arbeit einen kausalen Pfad von impliziten Intelligenztheorien als relativ stabilem Trait zu akademischen Leistungen vor, wobei Lernzielorientierungen und Selbstregulation als Mediatoren fungieren. Empirische Befunde zeigen, dass sich Individuen mit einer Sicht auf ihre Intelligenz als veränderbar an Lernzielen orientieren, um ihre Kompetenzen zu erweitern; sie zeigen Persistenz und adaptive Selbstregulationsstrategien bei Herausforderungen und reagieren adaptiv auf Rückschläge, da diese als Lerngelegenheiten wahrgenommen werden (Blackwell et al., 2007;Diener & Dweck, 1978;Hong et al., 1999). Somit scheinen veränderbare Intelligenztheorien einerseits behaviorale Selbstregulation top-down über Lernzielorientierungen verbunden mit der Wahl herausfordernder Aufgaben und andererseits bottom-up über einen adaptiveren Umgang mit Herausforderungen während der Aufgabenbearbeitung zu begünstigen . ...
... Mindsets (also called implicit theories) Bset in motion a coherent system of beliefs, attributions, and attitudes toward challenges^ (Gunderson et al. 2018, p. 397). For example, children with a growth mindset believe that traits are malleable, and they therefore adopt a mastery goal orientation to gain knowledge or skills, persist when they encounter challenging tasks, rebound better from occasional failures, and show better strategies after setbacks (Blackwell et al. 2007;Diener and Dweck 1978;Hong et al. 1999;Schroderetal.2017). In contrast, children with a fixed mindset believe that traits are stable, and they therefore adopt a performance goal orientation to demonstrate their abilities rather than put effort into improving abilities and are thus more likely to withdraw when challenges arise. ...
Article
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Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht Selbstkonzepte über die Höhe und Veränderbarkeit von Fähigkeiten und deren Zusammenhänge mit behavioraler Selbstregulation bei 147 Kindergartenkindern (M = 6.47 Jahre, SD = 0.39 Jahre). Behaviorale Selbstregulation als Fähigkeit, die Aufmerksamkeit zu lenken, Impulse zu hemmen und kognitiv flexibel zu bleiben, wird als einer der zentralen Prädiktoren für eine erfolgreiche Anpassung an Schule und Leben beschrieben (McClelland et al., 2019; Moffitt et al., 2011). Durch adaptierte und neu entwickelte Messinstrumente für die Altersgruppe der fünf- bis siebenjährigen Kindergartenkinder wird der theoretisch angenommene Zusammenhang zwischen der Wahrnehmung eigener Fähigkeiten und der Regulation des Verhaltens anhand dreier zentraler Selbstkonzepte erforscht: implizite Intelligenztheorien in Artikel 1, ähigkeitsselbstkonzepte in Artikel 2 und implizite Willenstheorien in Artikel 3. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass schon bei Kindergartenkindern Selbstkonzepte über die Veränderbarkeit von Intelligenz und Willenskraft messbar und von verwandten Konstrukten wie der Lernzielorientierung abgrenzbar sind. Eine Sicht auf Intelligenz als veränderbar (vs. stabil) wie auch eine Sicht auf Willenskraft als nicht limitiert (vs. limitiert) ist bereits im Kindergartenalter mit besserer behavioraler Selbstregulation assoziiert. Der Zusammenhang wird teilweise durch eine stärkere Lernzielorientierung vermittelt. Eine nicht limitierte Willenstheorie ist zudem vor allem für Kinder mit tiefen und mittleren akademischen Fähigkeiten mit besserer behavioraler Selbstregulation verbunden. Zur Klärung der Zusammenhänge zwischen Selbstkonzepten über die Höhe von Fähigkeiten und behavioraler Selbstregulation muss die Interaktion mit akademischen Fähigkeiten miteinbezogen werden. Je nach Fähigkeitsniveau der Kinder zeigen sich unterschiedliche nichtlineare Zusammenhänge mit behaviorale Selbstregulation. So ist eine Passung zwischen Fähigkeitsselbstkonzept und akademischen Fähigkeiten für Kinder auf mittlerem Fähigkeitsniveau am optimalsten, bei Kindern auf tiefem Fähigkeitsniveau ist dagegen eine leicht positive Abweichung günstiger und für Kinder auf hohem Fähigkeitsniveau ist eine leicht negative Abweichung am optimalsten für behaviorale Selbstregulation. Zusammenfassend zeigt die vorliegende Arbeit die Relevanz von Selbstkonzepten im Kindergartenalter für die Regulation des Verhaltens auf und eröffnet durch die neu entwickelten Instrumente sowie die Verbindung unterschiedlicher Forschungsfelder in den Bereichen Metakognition, Motivation, Selbstregulation und Pädagogik neue Wege für Forschung und Praxis.
... Essentially learnedhelplessness is when a student believes that success and failure are outside their control, whereby external reinforcement responsibility is to blame, not effort. Diener and Dweck (1978) define learned-helplessness as "the perceived inability to surmount failure" (p. 451). ...
... There was a strong correlation between student IAR scores and their responsibility for failure. In a two-part follow-up study of 70 fifth-grade students and 60 fifth-grade students, respectively, Diener and Dweck (1978) found that students categorized as learned-helplessness by an IAR scale focused on causes of failure. In contrast the mastery-oriented category of students concentrated on finding solutions to the presented problems. ...
... Previous studies have shown that learners who encounter failure in their learning tasks exhibit different reactions and behaviors. Researchers have explained that this is caused by the varying achievement goals among learners [52,53]. Therefore, concerning the process of learning, Dweck and Elliott [54] conducted their study by proposing two-goal orientations-learning goal orientation and performance goal orientation. ...
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The constant improvement of an enterprise’s competitive advantage is essential for its sustainable operation. Simultaneously, the persistent and effective learning methods of organizational members lead to the accumulation of learning results and knowledge, which are important intangible assets, as well as the key to establishing a company’s competitive advantage. Many enterprises have utilized various resources (such as building systems and purchasing software) to facilitate employee learning. However, the employees’ learning outcomes may not necessarily meet these enterprises’ expectations. As advocated in many studies, e-learning is not merely a new trend—it also plays an essential role in the learning and training process that organizational members undergo. However, throughout the learning process, what are the factors that cause different e-learning outcomes? The goal orientation theory in educational psychology has provided a reasonable framework for explaining and describing the differences in employees’ post-learning behaviors. This study focused on employees from Taiwanese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and their participation in enterprise resource planning (ERP)-based e-learning. The employees’ goal orientations and how they indirectly (with learning satisfaction as a mediator) impact the employees’ learning outcomes were examined and deduced. A questionnaire was administered to 405 employees from different SMEs who have had the experience of using an ERP-based e-learning platform. According to the structural equation model analysis results, the employees’ master goal orientation and performance-approach orientation (avoidance orientation) will exert an indirect positive (negative) influence on learning outcomes through learning satisfaction as a mediator. Lastly, this study interpreted the empirical results together with their academic and managerial implications, and proposed some recommendations for subsequent research.
... In this regard, Dweck and Leggett (1988) argue that a person's implicit theory of intelligence -the foundational beliefs about intelligence -is a significant predictor of positive life outcomes. Dweck and colleagues built on these ideas and proposed the theory of mindset (Diener & Dweck, 1978;Dweck, 1999;Dweck & Leggett, 1988). ...
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This article reports on a qualitative study that evaluated first-year students’ lived experiences of attending a 12-week student support programme focused on fostering mindsets. Participants included 545 first year Engineering students enrolled for academic studies at a South African university. All participants completed qualitative narrative sketches depicting their experiences. A random sample of 300 students’ narrative sketches was included as data in the qualitative study. The data were analysed using thematic analysis, and Dweck’s theory on mindsets served as the theoretical lens through which the data were interpreted. The results indicate that the majority of students experienced significant personal growth from attending the student support programme. Additionally, the findings point to the relevance and importance of offering student support programmes focused on exploring mindsets to first-year students. The results of this exploratory study suggest that mindset theory should be considered as an essential component when advising first-year South African Engineering students. Furthermore, we make a case for the relevance of positive psychology-based development programmes for first-year students.
... In an organization, a learning goal orientation may motivate employees to participate in training programs to acquire knowledge and skills relevant to their job setting (Button et al., 1996). Applying similar logics, we suppose that once an acquiring firm has an R&D goal orientation, they will thrive in their search for resources and capabilities that can have an impact on their R&D, and participate in technology-related tasks, even though challenging, during the integration process to achieve their goal (Button et al., 1996;Diener & Dweck, 1978). ...
Article
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Pharmaceutical firms spend billions of dollars to develop the next breakthrough drug and to maintain their market shares. We investigate how pharmaceutical firms use mergers and acquisitions to boost their innovation performance which has been found to result in better performance outcomes. Adding to the recent research on mergers and acquisitions, we found that firms that are explicit with their R&D goal orientation from the beginning of the acquisition journey are more successful in their innovation endeavours than firms with other goal orientation. Further, the firms’ prior acquisition experience appears to aid their innovation performance. However, we found that target size can affect the post-acquisition innovation performance but has diminishing returns as target size increases. Ultimately, our findings suggest that having an explicit R&D goal orientation is really important for a healthy innovation pipeline for pharmaceutical firms.
... Attribution theory proposed that people's explanations for a success or a failure (their attributions) can shape their reactions to that event (Weiner & Kukla, 1970), with attributions of failure to lack of ability leading to less persistent responses to setbacks than attributions to more readily controllable factors, such as strategy or effort (see Weiner, 1985). Research by Diener and Dweck (1978) and Dweck and Reppucci (1973) suggested that students of similar ability could differ in their tendency to show these different attributions and responses. Later, achievement goal theory was developed to answer the question of why students with roughly equal ability might show different attributions and responses to a failure situation (Elliott & Dweck, 1988). ...
Article
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The growth mindset is the belief that intellectual ability can be developed. This article seeks to answer recent questions about growth mindset, such as: Does a growth mindset predict student outcomes? Do growth mindset interventions work, and work reliably? Are the effect sizes meaningful enough to merit attention? And can teachers successfully instill a growth mindset in students? After exploring the important lessons learned from these questions, the article concludes that large-scale studies, including preregistered replications and studies conducted by third parties (such as international governmental agencies), justify confidence in growth mindset research. Mindset effects, however, are meaningfully heterogeneous across individuals and contexts. The article describes three recent advances that have helped the field to learn from this heterogeneity: standardized measures and interventions, studies designed specifically to identify where growth mindset interventions do not work (and why), and a conceptual framework for anticipating and interpreting moderation effects. The next generation of mindset research can build on these advances, for example by beginning to understand and perhaps change classroom contexts in ways that can make interventions more effective. Throughout, the authors reflect on lessons that can enrich metascientific perspectives on replication and generalization.
... Over recent decades, several groups of researchers have used attribution theory as a theoretical foundation for their study of academic attainment (Diener & Dweck, 1978;Dweck, 1975) and behaviour (Blunt Bugental, Collins, Collins, & Chaney, 1978;Elliott, 1996;Johnston, Patenaude, & Inman, 1992). Many studies have sought to form an evidence base around how different individuals attribute challenging behaviour in the classroom. ...
Article
The negative impact of challenging behaviour within the primary school classroom is widely acknowledged, with research indicating that the attributions held by school staff can affect their approach to behaviour management, as well as their overall motivation and confidence in supporting challenging behaviour. The present study aimed to explore the causal attributions made by school staff for challenging behaviour observed in pupils aged 4-11. This study implemented a non-experimental, fixed design and utilised a survey strategy to elicit the views of primary school teachers and teaching assistants (TAs). The first stage involved the development of the survey measure, which was updated from a previous attribution questionnaire (Miller et al., 2000, 2002) through the use of focus groups and piloting procedures. This was then distributed both in paper and online form to school staff across the local authority (LA). The final sample taken forward for analysis included 195 teachers and 153 TAs. Data were analysed using factor analysis, which led to the extraction of a 5-factor model for teachers and 4-factor model for TAs. Similarities and differences are noted within the models, with both populations perceiving factors relating to difficult home circumstances to be the most important in terms of influencing challenging behaviour. Teachers also assigned a high level of importance to negativity within the school environment and ineffective classroom management strategies, while TAs perceived this to be the least important factor within their model. Both participant groups indicated a self-serving bias in their attribution patterns, although this appeared to be more prominent among TAs. Overall, the attributions of TAs within the present study seem to align more closely with the attributions made by teachers in previous studies. However, present teacher attributions appear to be variable, providing some support for previous studies, but also indicating new attributional patterns. Methodological limitations are addressed and the implications of this study are outlined. These include the need for professionals to acknowledge the similarities and differences between the attribution patterns demonstrated by teachers and TAs, as well as schools ensuring that resources are targeted in a way that responds to these views. Finally, implications for future research are discussed.
... Moreover, following moments of failure, children with a growth mindset engage in solution-oriented instruction, self-monitoring, self-motivation, and utilization of more strategies than children with a fixed mindset. Accordingly, children with a growth mindset are reported to be more likely to show task improvement following failure, while children with a fixed mindset respond to failure with reduced performance (Diener & Dweck, 1978, 1980. Despite these differences, mindsets are not believed to be related to overall ability level because children with both fixed and growth mindsets experience the same rate of success up until the moment of failure (Dweck & Leggett, 1988;Schroder et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose Research comparing different biofeedback types could lead to individualized treatments for those with residual speech errors. This study examines within-treatment response to ultrasound and visual-acoustic biofeedback, as well as generalization to untrained words, for errors affecting the American English rhotic /ɹ/. We investigated whether some children demonstrated greater improvement in /ɹ/ during ultrasound or visual-acoustic biofeedback. Each participant received both biofeedback types. Individual predictors of treatment response (i.e., age, auditory-perceptual skill, oral somatosensory skill, and growth mindset) were also explored. Method Seven children ages 9–16 years with residual rhotic errors participated in 10 treatment visits. Each visit consisted of two conditions: 45 min of ultrasound biofeedback and 45 min of visual-acoustic biofeedback. The order of biofeedback conditions was randomized within a single-case experimental design. Acquisition of /ɹ/ was evaluated through acoustic measurements (normalized F3–F2 difference) of selected nonbiofeedback productions during practice. Generalization of /ɹ/ was evaluated through acoustic measurements and perceptual ratings of pretreatment/posttreatment probes. Results Five participants demonstrated acquisition of practiced words during the combined treatment package. Three participants demonstrated a clinically significant degree of generalization to untreated words on posttreatment probes. Randomization tests indicated one participant demonstrated a significant advantage for visual-acoustic over ultrasound biofeedback. Participants' auditory-perceptual acuity on an /ɹ/−/w/ identification task was identified as a possible correlate of generalization following treatment. Conclusions Most participants did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in acoustic productions between the ultrasound and visual-acoustic conditions, but one participant showed greater improvement in /ɹ/ during visual-acoustic biofeedback. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14881101
... In a growth mindset-based scenario, a student is more likely to attribute their poor performance-on a calculus test or any other situation that measures personal or professional mastery-to a lack of effort because they know that learning requires effort (Kaufman & Duckworth, 2017) and deliberate practice (Ericsson et al., 1993). By contrast, in a fixed mindset scenario, a student is more likely to attribute their poor performance to their lack of innate ability, which then orients the student away from effortful learning and toward developing a helpless learner response (Diener & Dweck, 1978;. ...
Article
The current study investigated whether a brief refutation text intervention could change college students’ misconceptions about the malleability of their intelligence and abilities. Students from a 2-year college and a 4-year university in a large urban city in the Northeastern United States participated in experimental and control conditions. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance demonstrated a significant overall model with a medium effect size (ηp² = 0.11) for increased growth mindset and decreased fixed mindset for students in the experimental condition. A follow-up χ² analysis for a dichotomous variable of fixed/growth mindset demonstrated a 3% increase from pre- to posttest (from 229 students to 236) of students believing in growth mindset. The results demonstrate that a refutation text intervention is effective in promoting growth mindset in undergraduate college students during a brief mindset intervention. This study extends research from a European secondary school context to a US college context. Highlights • College students can change their perception of their intelligence after engaging in a refutation text intervention. • Refutation texts are powerful intervention materials for increasing college students' growth mindset. • A refutation text intervention teaching about growth mindset has now been shown to work across cultures and developmental ages. • Brief, potent interventions using refutation texts should be considered as adaptive introductory programming for students new to college.
... Students with an entity perspective interpret poor performance as evidence of low cognitive ability and thus attribute potential failures to an internal, stable, and largely uncontrollable cause. Setbacks can therefore trigger avoidance behaviors and a sense of helplessness (Diener & Dweck, 1978;Hong et al., 1999), as well as declines in self-esteem (Robins & Pals, 2002) and achievement (Blackwell et al., 2007;Chen & Pajares, 2010). In contrast, students who endorse an incremental theory of ability are more likely to attribute failure to external or controllable causes and to believe in the utility of investing effort. ...
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Self-handicapping is a maladaptive strategy that students employ to protect their self-image when they fear or anticipate academic failure. Instead of increasing their effort, students may harm their chances of success by procrastinating, strategically withdrawing effort, or engaging in destructive behaviors like drug abuse, so that potential failure can be attributed to these handicaps rather than to stable personal characteristics (e.g., low intelligence). A large body of research has focused on potential antecedents of students’ self-handicapping, but the literature is fragmented and the evidence is often mixed. Thus, we know little about which factors have the highest potential to trigger habitual self-handicapping and to explain interindividual differences in such behaviors. This meta-analysis is the first to synthesize available evidence across a broad range of potential antecedents of academic self-handicapping reported in 159 studies and 194 independent samples (N = 81,630). The strongest associations with habitual self-handicapping were found for the personality traits conscientiousness (r = −.40) and neuroticism (r = .38) as well as stable trait-like factors such as general self-esteem (r = −.34) and fear of failure (r = .39). Rather malleable factors, such as personal achievement goals (rs = −.19 to .27), showed comparatively smaller effects. Self-handicapping assessment (scale and reliability) significantly moderated most of the investigated associations, thereby implying higher internal validities for some measures compared with others. The reported findings provide important insights into mechanisms of and possible starting points for interventions against self-handicapping in the academic domain. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)
... The reformulated learned helplessness model (Abramson et al., 1978), drawing upon attribution theory (Heider, 1958;Jones & Davis, 1965;Kelley, 1967), generated a large body of research demonstrating helplessness deficits linked to causal attributions, as well as research that refined the methods of measuring causal attributions about outcomes (Anderson & Deuser, 1991;Deuser & Anderson, 1995;Dweck & Reppucci, 1973;McAuley et al., 1992;Peterson & Seligman, 1984;Tennen & Eller, 1977;Weiner, 1985Weiner, , 2018, and research that identified "helpless oriented" and "mastery oriented" patterns of cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to achievement situations that are challenging (Cain & Dweck, 1995;Diener & Dweck, 1978Dweck, 1975). ...
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The present field experiment investigated the effects of accurate and non-accurate performance feedback on causal attributions, success expectancy, performance, and persistence on a motor task. Forty-six male middle-schoolers were randomly assigned to a Contingent (accurate) feedback, Non-contingent (non-accurate) feedback, or Control (no feedback) group and completed a challenging motor task. An initial treatment phase provided either accurate contingent feedback or yoked non-contingent feedback during the task, and measured task performance, attributions about performance, and success expectancy about future performance. A subsequent testing phase (same task) used the same measures and added a measure of motivation (persistence). Compared to the Contingent and Control groups, Noncontingent outcome feedback during the initial treatment phase led to more personally uncontrollable attributions, lower success expectancy, poorer performance, and lower persistence in the subsequent test phase. Despite a high rate of failure in the motor task for both feedback groups in the treatment phase, the Contingent group—getting accurate feedback about performance—had a higher sense of personal control and expectancy of success than the Non-contingent feedback group initially, and maintained these perceptions in the subsequent test phase where they also had better performance and higher levels of persistence than the Non-contingent group. Non-contingent feedback in an initial motor task appears to induce helplessness deficits in subsequent task performance and persistence. In contrast, providing accurate (contingent) feedback about achieved performance appears to protect against performance and motivational losses.
... The extreme reward sensitivity of the adolescent brain, particularly toward social reward cues such as the existence of peers or the awareness of others (Somerville, 2013), means that self-control tasks are particularly suitable for the study of the effects of achievement goals on self-regulation. In the original achievement goal experiments, young children who were oriented toward a performance goal displayed a helpless pattern of responses in the form of negative emotional reactions, the use of ineffective strategies, premature withdrawal from the task, and weaker performance when faced with the prospect of failure and unfavorable judgments of their ability by others (e.g., Diener & Dweck, 1978). If adopting performance-approach or performanceavoidance goals activates concerns about being evaluated by others, worries about performing poorly, or other thoughts unrelated to the task at hand, adolescent performance in tasks that require attentional or inhibitory control will rapidly fall as a sign of emotional and cognitive depletion (Dickhäuser et al., 2011). ...
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Recent research has shown that achievement goals differ in their effects on working memory capacity and the metacognitive judgment of learning as part of the self-regulatory process. To extend this line of inquiry, we examined the effects of achievement goals on self-control, arguably the most critical subset of self-regulation. In three experiments, adolescent and early-adult learners were randomly assigned to mastery goal, performance-approach goal, and performance-avoidance goal conditions and performed self-control tasks in ego-depleting contexts. Students in the mastery goal condition demonstrated significantly better performance than students in the performance-approach goal condition on a task that required attentional control (Experiment 1) and inhibitory control after negative feedback (Experiments 2 and 3). The performance of students in the performance-avoidance goal condition did not differ significantly from that of students in the mastery goal or the performance-approach goal conditions. Planned-comparison ANCOVAs nonetheless revealed that, across all three experiments, the self-control performance of the students in the mastery goal condition was significantly better than that of the students in the two performance goal conditions combined. Mediation analysis further suggested that performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals evoked more task-irrelevant thoughts than mastery goals did, which subsequently interrupted students’ self-control performance (Experiment 3). We discuss the implications of the mechanisms underlying motivational influences on self-control for adolescents, who experience frequent self-regulation failures in learning contexts.
... Task orientation refers to persistence in approaching learning tasks, with the goal of understanding them without being discouraged by challenges (Laitinen et al., 2017; for original conceptualizations, see Diener & Dweck, 1978). Task orientation reflects both the emotional attunement to learning and how to cope with learning demands. ...
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The intertwining of peer and teacher emotional support patterns for enhancing at-risk students' multi-perspective academic competencies remains scarcely mapped. The multi-level analysis in the present study uncovers emotional support trajectories within teacher–dyad and dyadic interaction contexts among at-risk elementary students over a three-semester computer-supported intervention. A cluster analysis was conducted for all students (n = 318), where most intervention students had cumulated risks in socio-motivational and reading competencies. The time spent by 12 dyads within the two interaction contexts was analyzed from a vast amount of video data. The results suggested that simply allocating support time may be insufficient and its quality should be scrutinized. An in-depth video analysis of four dyads, illustrated with interaction excerpts and summary figures, indicated that teachers differed in their ability to calibrate their emotional support dynamically. The dyadic interactions of at-risk students were mostly on-task and neutral or positive. The intertwining of teacher–dyad and dyadic emotional support indicated that mechanisms positively contributed to enhancing multi-perspective academic competencies, although some risks were noted. Acknowledging the emotional states of others and successfully regulating one's own emotions were critical. Thus, infusing support for emotional competence and regulation strategies into both teacher and basic education is recommended.
... Ce sont deux dimensions essentielles du FAS car une estime positive des compétences académiques est porteuse de bien-être (Bücker et al., 2018 ;Tian et al., 2016). En outre, le sentiment de compétence de l'enfant est un facteur de protection devant l'écueil inverse de l'impuissance apprise (ex., Diener & Dweck, 1978). Le troisième facteur isole la perception globale qu'a l'enfant de l'école et semble en cela, lié aux trois besoins psychologiques fondamentaux à la fois (besoin de compétence, d'autonomie, de relation). ...
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Résumé Introduction L’échelle des Sentiments Sur l’École (SSE), traduite et enrichie du Feelings about School (FAS : Valeski & Stipek, 2001), permet de disposer d’un outil d’évaluation efficient et écologique de l’épanouissement du jeune élève en zone francophone. L’échelle se fonde sur la théorie des processus auto-systémiques, soit sur la satisfaction des besoins psychologiques fondamentaux de l’élève : se sentir compétent, autonome et en relation avec autrui. Dans sa version originale, le FAS distingue quatre dimensions du vécu de l’élève : sa relation avec son enseignant (F1), ses compétences en littératie (F2), son appréhension globale de l’école (F3) et ses compétences en mathématiques (F4). Objectifs Notre validation du SSE auprès de 494 enfants remplit trois objectifs : s’assurer de la fiabilité de notre traduction du FAS, tester sa validité de construit sur une cohorte incluant des individus plus âgés (6 à 11 ans) que lors de validation du FAS et l’enrichir d’une dimension sur le sentiment de compétence à l’égard de la pratique artistique. Méthode Une analyse factorielle exploratoire (AFE), une analyse factorielle confirmatoire (AFC) puis une ANOVA ont été conduites. Résultats L’AFE a fait apparaître les cinq facteurs attendus (c.-à-d., les facteurs originels du FAS et le facteur additionnel relatif à l’art). L’AFC a permis de confirmer la fiabilité du SSE. L’ANOVA a révélé un score plus faible au SSE chez les élèves plus âgés (c.-à-d., CM2). Discussion Prometteur en terme d’applicabilité, cet outil est destiné aux chercheurs ou cliniciens afin d’appréhender les multiples facettes de l’épanouissement de l’enfant scolarisé.
... Where it is not already happening, the ensuing discussion suggests the ITE primary English curriculum should include active opportunities for students to write. Otherwise, the combination of prescriptive commercial programs (Bloom & VanSlyke-Briggs, 2019); narrowly framed writing curricula (Olivant, 2015), and poorly designed, high-stakes tests of writing (Perlman, 2018) may lead to 'learned helplessness' (Diener & Dweck, 1978) across the profession. ...
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For over a decade, there has been growing concern about declining ‘standards’ of school students’ writing (Gardner, 2018; Wyatt-Smith & Jackson, 2020). Teachers’ own writing experiences and writer identities are important considerations in developing teacher preparedness and skill in the teaching of writing. It cannot be assumed that pre-service teachers entering university have the pre-requisite skills and experience to effectively teach writing. This study investigated the pre-entry writing practices of first year Primary and Early Childhood Education (ECE) BEd students at one Australian university. Findings show they most frequently wrote informal, digital texts. It is suggested a lack of experience of writing extended texts, required in the primary English curriculum, may contribute to the decline in school students’ achievement in writing, when assessed against national standard benchmarks (Gardner, 2018; Wyatt-Smith & Jackson, 2020). International studies suggest the teaching of writing has not been addressed well in initial teacher education (ITE) courses (Brindle et al., 2016; Rietdijk, Janssen, van Weijen, van den Bergh & Rijlaarsdam, 2017; Wyatt-Smith & Jackson, 2020). This study supports Wyatt-Smith and Jackson’s (2020) view that greater attention should be given to the teaching of writing in teacher education courses in order to produce the next generation of ‘teacher-writers’ capable of improving the quality of writing in primary schools.
... Early research on academic performance and achievement behavior by Diener and Dweck (1978) showed that many students exhibited a pattern of learned helplessness. These individuals regarded intelligence as fixed and the leading cause of success, while effort was not considered a cause of success or failure. ...
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The learned helplessness model of the Impostor Phenomenon is an exploratory approach to explain the Impostor Phenomenon by linking the constructs of growth mindset, learned helplessness, grit, thought-action fusion, and defensive pessimism. In this study, we (a) confirmatorily tested the factor structure of the English IPP30, (b) examined the instrument's nomological validity, and (c) exploratorily formulated a path model to explain the effects of learned helplessness on the Impostor Phenomenon. The sample consisted of n = 376 persons (46% female). The CFI indicated the bifactorial model of the English IPP30 as best-fitting, while the subscale correlations suggested the instrument's nomological validity. The exploratory path model showed sufficient goodness of fit. It proclaims a labeling as talented that decreases the growth mindset expression, which negatively correlates with learned helplessness. In addition, the model states learned helplessness as a central model component associated with grit, thought-action fusion, and finally, the Impostor Phenomenon.
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Growth mindset continues to be a popular topic of conversation in the field of education and Physical Education (PE). However, despite the existence of various schemes for delivering curriculum PE, there are limited studies analysing how they seek to directly develop children’s mindsets. This study analyses the process taken for one of these frameworks, Real PE, to be implemented within a school to develop their growth mindset culture, drawing upon the theories of key educational thinkers. The study is based upon the authors’ experiences as PE Subject Leader and member of the school Senior Leadership Team (SLT) within a single-form entry primary school in Leicestershire, United Kingdom; testimonials from other schools who utilise Real PE and existing literature on the effectiveness of growth mindset. Implementing a growth mindset culture is not straightforward; although important, it is not solely about intelligence and praising effort, nor a battle of fixed versus growth mindsets as within PE, mixed mindsets exist, and, the fixed mindset should be legitimised. Therefore, a long-term, rigorous approach to change considering policies, individual beliefs, training needs, strategies and feedback methods needs to be developed. This study adds to the growing conversation about growth mindset and seeks to support other school settings considering embedding mindset culture within their school setting and PE provision.
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The COVID‐19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on small businesses and non‐profit organizations worldwide, resulting in rising stress and worry for many small business owners. While stress is typically considered to be harmful to health and well‐being, recent work suggests that improving one’s mindset about the benefits of stress can help one to respond to stress more effectively. In the current study, we use a pre‐ and post‐intervention design and latent change score analysis to examine the impact of changing one’s stress mindset on changes in personal growth, engagement, and health among small business owners—via changes in coping behaviors. Further, we examine how the perceived likelihood of needing to permanently close one’s business may strengthen the effects of changing one’s stress mindset on changes in approach and avoidance coping, and subsequent outcomes. In doing so, we begin to uncover the theoretical mechanisms underlying how having a stress‐is‐enhancing mindset can bring about changes in personal growth, engagement, and health. We also incorporate qualitative data to better contextualize the stress and coping‐related attitudes and behaviors of small business owners during the pandemic. This work has significant practical implications for small business owners and others experiencing work‐related stressors.
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The goal of the current manuscript is to embed the theory of mindsets about malleability in workplace contexts. We first define fixed-growth mindsets and the methods that have to date been used to study them. We then briefly review the domains in which mindsets have been documented to shape outcomes meaningfully, linking each to exciting research questions that we hope will soon be studied in workplace contexts. We also highlight some of the fascinating, new questions scholars can study by considering how mindsets might shape outcomes across a diversity of workplaces (e.g., the workforce of low wage and vulnerable populations). We further propose that studying mindsets in workplace contexts can develop mindset theory. We first ask whether workplace contexts provide opportunities to test for moderation on mindset expression. Second, we see opportunity for studying moderation of mindset processes – evaluating whether the psychological processes through which mindsets shape outcomes may differ based on contextual factors that vary across workplaces. We argue that investigating these possibilities will advance both the theory of mindsets about malleability and the study of human flourishing in the workplace. We invite scholars to join us in this endeavour.
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A new parent-report measure was used to examine parents’ person and process responses to children’s math performance. Twice over a year from 2017-2020, American parents (N = 546; 80% mothers, 20% other caregivers; 62% white, 21% Black, 17% other) reported their responses and math beliefs; their children’s (Mage = 7.48 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) math adjustment was also assessed. Factor analyses indicated parents’ person and process responses to children’s math success and failure represent 4 distinct, albeit related, responses. Person (vs. process) responses were less common and less likely to accompany views of math ability as malleable and failure as constructive (|r|s = .16-.23). The more parents used person responses, the poorer children’s later math adjustment (|β|s = .06-.16).
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Social learning constructs which provide discrete yet complimentary views of the etiology of reactive depression have been advanced in the psychological literature. These viewpoints which include learned helplessness, social skill deficits, and coercive reinforcement patterns offer major implications for classroom practice. This article reviews the literature pertaining to learning theory explanations of reactive depression. Implications for classroom management and future research are provided.
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Beliefs about the malleability of attributes, also known as mindsets, have been studied for decades in social-personality psychology and education. Here, I review the many applications of mindset theory to clinical psychology and psychotherapy. First, I review social psychological and cognitive neuroscience evidence that mindsets and mindset-related messages are, to a large extent, focused on emotional tolerance. Specifically, the growth mindset, or the belief that attributes are malleable, encourages confronting and tolerating anxiety, frustration, and disappointment in healthy and adaptive ways that promote resilience, whereas the fixed mindset and related messages discourage the experience of these emotions and often leads to helplessness. Second, I review the emerging research on the anxiety mindset and discuss its relevance to clinical work. A model is proposed illustrating connections between mindsets, emotion regulation strategies, treatment preferences, and outcomes. Case examples are used to illustrate practical applications. I conclude that mindsets can inform psychotherapy, research, and public policy.
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Too often, students fall short of their potential. Although structural and cognitive factors can contribute to this underperformance, how students subjectively construe themselves and their educational contexts can also play significant roles. Social-psychological interventions can increase student motivation, resilience, and achievement by altering these construals. To provide general recommendations for their implementation, we focus on interventions that address common student concerns, which stem from maladaptive beliefs that (a) intelligence cannot be improved; (b) some academic topics are uninteresting and personally irrelevant; (c) learning is an unplanned, passive activity; and (d) others think that “people like me” do not have the potential for success. These interventions tend to be relatively brief, easily implemented, highly scalable, and low in cost, time, and labor. Through a partnership of psychological scientists and practitioners, these carefully contextualized, theory-driven interventions can help students achieve their potential.
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This study looked into the associations between parents’ implicit theories of intelligence, children’s cognitive aptitude, and children’s tendency to opt for mastery-oriented responses to challenging achievement situations. All child participants ( N = 59, 31 girls; 6;3 – 7;2 years) were individually assessed for cognitive aptitude and mastery orientation, while one of their parents (46 mothers) completed a questionnaire on entity versus incremental beliefs about intelligence. Correlation analyses indicated a statistically significant negative association between parental endorsement of the incremental theory and children’s cognitive aptitude ( r = −.29), as well as between parental endorsement of the entity theory and children’s mastery orientation ( r = −.28). Moreover, two significant canonical functions emerged, one of which was defined by higher parental endorsement of the entity theory along with higher cognitive aptitude and lower mastery orientation of the child, while the second entailed higher parental endorsement of the incremental theory, lower cognitive aptitude of the child, and again, the child’s lower mastery orientation. While confirming the theoretically proposed negative association between parents’ entity beliefs and children’s mastery orientation, the present results challenge a unidimensional conception of implicit theories of intelligence and their assumed independence of cognitive aptitude; moreover, they stimulate several interpretations regarding the psychological mechanisms surrounding children’s lower mastery orientation.
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This study examined the relationship between goal orientation, conception of learning, and learning behavior. The sample was 340 fourth-grade university students from the School of Integrated Arts and Sciences of a Japanese public university. We examined three models and to compare their validities by using covariance structure analysis. Results indicated that goal orientation may be a predictor of conception of learning. Focusing on the subordinate structures of goal orientation, conception of learning, and learning behavior, we clarified the causal relationship among the three. As a result, the following three possibilities were suggested: (1) Learning goal orientation leads to a conception of learning that promotes adaptive learning behavior and does not lead to a conception of learning that suppresses adaptive learning behavior. (2) Performance-approach goal orientation leads to a conception of learning that suppresses adaptive learning behavior. (3) Performance-avoidance goal orientation leads to a conception of learning that both promotes and suppresses adaptive learning behavior.
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In this study, we proposed recommendation phrases to promote autonomous English learning according to motivation types by employing self-determination theory to study groups of learners. Participants were classified according to their relationship to motivation stage and human needs. A positive correlation between human psychological needs and motivation stage was found. In addition, the recommendation phrases based on that model were confirmed to increase English learning motivation values.
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Industrial production is still widely sustained by human operators. However, the design of human–machine interaction often does not foster the motivation to learn more about their machine or system. This may decrease operators’ ability to flexibly adjust their decision making and problem-solving skills to the current production context. Motivation to learn could be attained by a motivating socio-technical design of assistance systems, but suitable and context-specific design strategies are lacking. In the present study, a systematic literature review of motivation theories in education, at the workplace, and in system design was carried out. The resulting 16 theories were integrated into a conceptual model of motivating assistance system design in industrial production. In this model, learning motivation results from the satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, which in turn is mediated through the design of the system (including interface, task, and behavior). Moreover, this process is subject to moderating influences from job characteristics, personal variables, and factors concerning the respective work domain. Strategies for motivational design are derived from the model, and an example from the discrete processing industry is used to illustrate how the model could be applied to design assistance systems in this domain. Finally, the procedures for theory selection and model development are discussed, theoretical and practical implications are derived, and alternative strategies of instilling motivation are considered.
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Financial self‐efficacy, or the perceived ability to succeed in managing one's personal financial affairs, is fundamental to effective consumer financial decision‐making. However, little is known about how to improve consumers’ financial self‐efficacy and which consumers are more or less responsive to potential policy interventions. We address these questions through an experimental study among U.S. consumers. We find that asking consumers to recall and analyze successful (unsuccessful) experiences regarding the management of their personal finances is associated with higher (lower) financial self‐efficacy. We provide insight into the underlying process of this effect through moderation and mediation analyses. In particular, we show that the effect of a recall and analyze intervention utilizing a successful previous experience is more pronounced for consumers with a more optimistic personality. Finally, consumers who develop greater financial self‐efficacy as a result of the intervention display more self‐control, leading to a higher financial planning propensity and actual planning.
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Mental health problems are frequent obstacles in medical students’ careers as doctors. Given that previous studies overlook the mediation of stress perception, the current study expanded previous goal orientation researches by addressing an unexplored mechanism. This study aims to examine the mediational roles of stress perception (perceived stressors and stress-related cognition) on the relationship between achievement goal orientation and depression in medical students. A total of 1,015 Chinese 2-year medical students completed a multi-section questionnaire. Hypotheses were examined by structural equation modeling. The findings suggest that performance-avoidance goal orientation and perceived stressors both demonstrated direct facilitative effects on depression, whereas stress-related cognition demonstrated direct obstructive effects on depression. Both perceived stressors and stress-related cognition mediated the relationship between achievement goal orientation and depression. The findings spark a new perspective on motivational intervention that assist students in adopting mastery-approaching strategy as well as ways of coping with stressful academic situations. Identifying students with achievement goal orientation and providing them with the appropriate supportive services may help them to manage stress and mitigate or prevent depression.
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This study aims to investigate whether and how a learning-from-error climate is associated with work-related flow experiences by employees. Drawing on the tenets of Job Demands-Resources theory, we propose that this relationship is mediated by a work-related growth mindset. The study tests a mediation model by conducting structural equations modelling. Data were gathered in two waves from 159 employees within a Dutch financial organization. Results demonstrate that work-related mindset significantly mediates the relationship between a learning-from-error climate and work-related flow. In this study, we address the call for studies that empirically assess the influence of organizational climate on work-related flow in a multiwave study design. Specifically, we highlight the relevance of understanding how individual dispositions can shape the effects of a learning-from-error climate on work-related flow.
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Implicit theories refer to beliefs that individuals hold regarding the malleabilities of human traits or abilities. There are two types of implicit theories: “incremental theory” (the belief that traits or abilities can substantially change through effort and time) and “entity theory” (the belief that traits or abilities are relatively unchanging). Outside the field of marketing, it has been argued that individuals who believe in incremental theory show different tendencies in thinking and behavior compared to those who believe in entity theory. In recent years, there has been a gradual increase in research exploring the influences of implicit theories on consumer behavior. There are three main streams in consumer research: (1) influences of implicit theories on self-perception, (2) influences of implicit theories on product evaluation, and (3) influences of implicit theories on product choice. This paper reviews the representative literature in these research streams and presents future research topics in the final chapter.
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Combining management research with infectious disease epidemiology, we propose a new perspective on mental disorders in a business context. We suggest that—similar to infectious diseases—clinical diagnoses of depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders can spread epidemically across the boundaries of organizations via social contagion. We propose a framework for assessing the patterns of disease transmission, with employee mobility as the driver of contagion across organizations. We empirically test the proposed mental disorder transmission patterns by observing more than 250,000 employees and more than 17,000 Danish firms over a period of 12 years. Our findings reveal that when organizations hire employees from other, unhealthy organizations (those with a high prevalence of mental disorders), they “implant” depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders into their workforces. Employees leaving unhealthy organizations act as “carriers” of these disorders regardless of whether they themselves have received a formal diagnosis of a mental disorder. The effect is especially pronounced if the newcomer holds a managerial position.
Thesis
Cette thèse a pour but d’une part de démontrer l’impact d’interventions favorisant une mentalité malléable (« growth mindset intervention ») sur une population d’étudiants à l’université, et d’autre part de développer un modèle synthétique regroupant à la fois des facteurs de bien-être (stress et stratégies de coping) et d’accomplissement (motivation, buts d’accomplissement, réussite académique) permettant d’expliquer le bon ajustement ou non d’étudiants entrant à l’université. Plus spécifiquement, nous avons fait l’hypothèse que les individus possédant une mentalité de croissance (conception malléable d’attributs internes comme l’intelligence – opposé à une mentalité fixiste, Dweck & Legget, 1988) vont favoriser une régulation autonome (accomplir une tâche comme apprendre ses cours car cela a une signification importante, ou apporte une satisfaction intrinsèque – opposé à une régulation contrôlée, Deci & Ryan, 2002). Se faisant, les étudiants adoptent davantage de buts de « maîtrise-approche » (aborder leurs études avec un objectif d’apprentissage – opposé aux buts de « performance-évitement », Bargh et al., 2010) et de stratégies de coping proactives (réinterprétation positive des événements stressants comme des défis à surmonter et efforts continus fournis pour accomplir une tâche, Greenglass, 2002). Nous souhaitions donc développer une intervention visant à inciter cette mentalité de croissance. Nous avons pu modéliser statistiquement l’articulation théorique des facteurs en jeu, ainsi qu’obtenir certains effets de l’intervention growth mindset au sein de 3 études expérimentales. Les résultats obtenus ont été confirmés par différentes méta-analyses et analyses multi-niveaux. Une analyse factorielle confirmatoire a aussi été réalisée afin de valider la mesure de coping proactif utilisée dans ces travaux. Des analyses exploratoires révèlent par ailleurs le rôle central de la mentalité (malléable vs. fixe) présente dans l’environnement académique sur l’articulation des variables en jeu. Les résultats obtenus pour l’intervention, ainsi que la pertinence du modèle théorique établi sont discutés au vu de la littérature actuelle sur le phénomène de growth mindset (c.f. méta-analyse Sisk, 2018).
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Im ersten Teil des Beitrags beschäftigen wir uns mit Mythen darüber, was arme Menschen im Vergleich zu wohlhabenderen Menschen in Bezug auf Bildung unterscheidet. So wird z. B. angenommen, dass arme Menschen sich nicht für die Bildung ihrer Kinder interessieren oder Bildung generell weniger Wert beimessen. Diese Mythen sind Teil eines übergreifenden Mythos einer ‚Kultur der Armut‘ (Gorski, 2017), das versucht, Probleme von armen Menschen auf deren eigene moralische und intellektuelle Defizite zu schieben und damit die eigene Mitverantwortung ignoriert. Im zweiten Teil des Beitrags wenden wir uns dem soziale Unterschiede legitimierenden Mythos von Meritokratie zu – dass jeder das bekommt, was ihm oder ihr auf Basis der gezeigten Leistung zusteht. In meritokratischen (Schul-) Systemen wird Schulerfolg oder -versagen auf Unterschiede in Anstrengungen und Fähigkeiten attribuiert und nicht auf zugrundeliegende soziale Unterschiede. Eng verbunden damit ist der Mythos, das Intelligenz und schulische Fähigkeiten fix und unveränderbar sind. Wir enden mit Empfehlungen wie diesen Mythen begegnet werden kann.
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The employee flexibility desired in changing and uncertain business environments is amplified in small business settings. How can small business leaders facilitate the employee flexibility needed in this context? In the present study, we proposed that mastery goal-oriented leaders who are concerned with learning and competence development would create a work climate that promoted employee flexibility in their firms. We tested our hypotheses with multi-wave, multi-level data collected from leaders and employees in 141 small accounting firms in Norway. Findings revealed that leaders’ mastery goal orientation (MGO) was positively related to employee flexibility through a work climate that encouraged learning and development (a mastery climate). Yet, we also found that leaders’ MGO was negatively related to employee flexibility through a work climate that emphasized the expectations to be adaptive and flexible (an adaptability climate). Taken together, our study suggests that leaders’ mastery goal orientation may fuel employee flexibility when encouraging flexible-related behavior yet backfire when they signal that the same behavior is expected.
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This study examined (1) whether a growth mindset of intelligence (GMI) could reduce counterproductive workplace behavior (CWB) and (2) the mediating role of occupational stress. At Time 1 (the initial time point), the growth-mindset levels of 450 employees were measured. At Time 2, 352 participants (Mage = 34.52, SDage = 9.53) completed a set of questionnaires about occupational stress that inquired into job pressure and extent of organizational support and both interpersonal and organizational CWB. The results indicated that GMI is negatively related to organizational CWB, and this relationship is significantly mediated by job pressure. This study highlighted the value of improving employees' GMI to reduce CWB. Practitioner points • Counterproductive workplace behavior (CWB) influences on organization and its members. • We show the influence of Growth mindset of intelligence (GMI) on reducing organizational CWB through job pressure. • To reduce individuals' CWB, practitioners are advised to consider implementing intervention programs that foster an incremental theory of intelligence. • Organizations are advised to evaluate candidates' implicit theories of intelligence in the personnel selection.
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In this study, the effect of work domain goal orientations on the psychological well-being of educators has been examined. In the field of research, firstly, conducted with the application of a questionnaire on 248 teachers and academicians, an adaptation of the study of the Work Domain Goal Orientations Scale was carried out. EFA and CFA were applied on the scale data of Work Domain Goal Orientations consisting of 4 dimensions as mastery orientation (approach/avoidance) and performance orientation (approach/avoidance), to provide the criterion validity the relationships with the motivation sources of need for achievement and need for cognition were examined. According to the research findings, the need for cognition has higher and significant relationships with the dimensions of mastery orientation. However, while the need for cognition explains the psychological well-being significantly and positively, the need for achievement has no significant effect on psychological well-being. Finally, the mastery approach dimension on psychological well-being was relatively high compared to other dimensions. These findings have shown that educators with the high need for cognition, in the effort to develop their skills even if they are hard, and in the struggle to learn new knowledge/skills, and to do these only to increase their personal development have higher psychological well-being.
Article
Associations between implicit theories of personality, perceived social competence, and attributions to explain positive and negative outcomes in social tasks were examined in a study of 103 fifth‐ and sixth‐grade girls and boys. Consistent with the basic model formulated by Dweck and Leggett (1988), it was hypothesized that having an entity, rather than an incremental, perspective would vary as a function of the degree to which children had a positive view of their social competence. The results showed that an entity theory of personality was associated with emphasis on the importance of personal characteristics and task difficulty following social failure, whereas an incremental theory was associated with emphasis on the importance of task ease following social success. High scores on the positive perceived social competence measure were associated with emphasis on the importance of personal characteristics, effort and task ease following social success and the importance of personal characteristics, luck and task difficulty following social failure. Preadolescents with an entity theory of personality were less likely to make attributions of personal characteristics and task difficulty to social failure if they had a positive view of their social competence. Preadolescents with an incremental theory of personality were not likely to make these attributions about social failure regardless of whether they viewed their social competencies as positive. These findings indicate that the association between entity and incremental views and social attributions needs to be considered in conjunction with perceptions of the self. They provided support for Deck and Leggett's (1988) model.
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Background Although various hypotheses have been offered to explain the racial achievement gap between White and Black students, conventional theories that focus on the quality of schools, teachers, or a child's home environment are unsatisfactory. Instead, the available evidence points to a new theory. Purpose The purpose of the study was to evaluate the new theory against this evidence and to compare the explanatory capacity of this theory with the explanatory capacity of three conventional theories of the racial achievement gap. Sample/Design/Analysis Analyses of data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of the Kindergarten Class of 1998 (ECLS-K) were combined with results from studies that suggest how the hypothesized mechanism operates to maintain and perpetuate differences in achievement that exist at entry into kindergarten, plus results from randomized experiments that test hypothesized theoretical relationships. Results The results suggest a pattern of puzzling empirical results that are difficult to reconcile except in terms of the new theory. Conclusion The evidence points away from conventional theories regarding the achievement gap and toward the new theory.
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This study explored whether participation in a high school STEM game design enrichment program influenced students’ discussions of their project goals and success. In our sample, seven students participated in the game design program, while ten received traditional instruction. Post-interviews were conducted using a semi-structured protocol in order to capture students’ lived experience in a rich, meaningful way. Transcripts were qualitatively coded by two researchers. Connections between codes were analyzed using epistemic network analysis. Based on experience grouping, we investigated whether there was a difference in how students discussed 1) their projects? and 2) their success? Our findings revealed that students who received traditional instruction discussed performance goals, while game design participants discussed learning goals. Game design participants also discussed persistence in relationship to their success; the traditionally instructed students did not attribute their success to persistence. Overall, our combined results indicate that students who received traditional instruction were performance-oriented, while game design participants were mastery-oriented. Designing STEM games is one potential method for helping students develop the mastery orientation that they need for success in future STEM careers and for their future in general.
Article
Drawing on social learning theory, the authors hypothesized that leader humility would have an indirect effect on employee creativity through employees’ belief in the malleability of creativity (a growth creative mindset). They further hypothesized that this indirect effect would be particularly pronounced in research-and-development-related work teams. They tested these hypotheses in a survey study of 476 Chinese employees. The results support both hypotheses: employees’ perception of team leaders’ humility was positively related to employees’ growth creative mindset, which in turn was positively associated with employee creativity. In addition, this indirect effect was stronger in research-and-development-related teams than in other teams. This study provides a new explanation of the link between leader humility and employee creativity through a growth creative mindset. The practical implications are discussed.
Article
In the course of two experimentss groups of kindergarten, second, fourth, sixth grade and college students received several discrimination problems. Each trial with feedback was followed by a series of blank trials, which served as a probe for S's hypothesis. Ss responded systematically during the blank trials on about 90% of the probes. Beginning at the second grade they typically showed characteristic hypothesis-testing behavior, viz., keeping confirmed hypotheses, rejecting those disconfirmed, etc.
Article
Attempted to demonstrate the effects of low expectancy of reinforcement and low expectancy for control of reinforcement on performance in an achievement situation. 20 male and 20 female 5th graders were given pretest successes (soluble WISC-type block designs) by 1 adult (success E), and failures (insoluble block designs) by another (failure E), with trials from each being randomly interspersed. In the test phase, all problems were soluble. A number of Ss failed to complete problems administered by the failure E when her problems became soluble, even though they had shortly before solved almost identical problems from the success E and continued to perform well on the success E's problems. The Ss who showed the largest performance decrements were those who took less personal responsibility for the outcomes of their actions (as measured by preexperimental Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Scale scores) and who, when they did accept responsibility, attributed success and failure to presence or absence of ability rather than to expenditure of effort. Those Ss who persisted in the face of prolonged failure placed more emphasis on the role of effort in determining the outcome of their behavior; moreover, males displayed this characteristic to a greater extent than females. Implications of the results for strategies of behavior change are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated whether altering attributions for failure would enable learned helpless children to deal more effectively with failure in an experimental problem solving situation. 12 8-13 yr olds with extreme reactions to failure were identified by school personnel and were given intensive, relatively long-term experience with 1 of 2 training procedures. It was hypothesized that a procedure which taught the helpless children to take responsibility for failure and to attribute it to lack of effort would result in unimpaired performance following failure in the criterion situation, but that a procedure which provided success experiences only (as in many programmed learning and behavior modification programs) would lead to changes of a lesser magnitude. Results reveal that following training, Ss in the Success Only treatment continued to evidence a severe deterioration in performance after failure, while Ss in the Attribution Retraining treatment maintained or improved their performance. In addition, Ss in the latter condition showed an increase in the degree to which they emphasized insufficient motivation versus ability as a determinant of failure. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined M. Levine, P. Miller, and C. Steinmeyer's (see pa, vol. 41:6638) finding that in 2-response simultaneous-discrimination problems, the correct hypothesis (h+) and the other hypothesis (h-) on the relevant dimension failed to occur prior to the criterion run of correct responses. 2 possible explanations for the suppression of h- were studied: (a) early in the problem the whole relevant dimension may be missing from s's h set, and (b) s samples in a locally consistent fashion. 24 undergraduates were presented with 3 values on a dimension to permit distinguishing between the 2 theoretical alternatives. Results indicate that both omission of the relevant dimension and local consistency contributed to the observed presolution suppression of h-. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Predicted that sex differences in learned helplessness (attributions of failure to uncontrollable factors) and the impaired performance associated with it would be agent specific. Two experiments were conducted with 105 female and 111 male 4th and 5th graders. Among girls, failure feedback from adults led to little improvement in performance on a series of digit-letter substitution problems, but failure from peers led to immediate and sustained improvement. Among boys, however, failure feedback from adults led to rapid improvement, but failure from peers led to no improvement over trials. Moreover, girls' and boys' attributions for failure varied systematically with the agent of evaluation. (34 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
DOGS GIVEN INESCAPABLE SHOCK IN A PAVLOVIAN HARNESS LATER GIVE UP AND PASSIVELY ACCEPT TRAUMATIC SHOCK IN SHUTTLEBOX ESCAPE/AVOIDANCE TRAINING. A THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THIS PHENOMENON WAS PRESENTED. AS PREDICTED, THE FAILURE TO ESCAPE WAS ALLEVIATED BY REPEATEDLY COMPELLING THE DOG TO MAKE THE RESPONSE WHICH TERMINATED SHOCK. MALADAPTIVE PASSIVE BEHAVIOR IN THE FACE OF TRAUMA MAY BE RELATED TO MALADAPTIVE PASSIVE BEHAVIOR IN HUMANS. THE IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUMENTAL CONTROL OVER AVERSIVE EVENTS IN THE CAUSE, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT OF SUCH BEHAVIORS WAS DISCUSSED. (18 REF.)
Article
Adult human Ss received 4-dimensional discrimination problems with intermittent reinforcement, i.e., E said "right" or "wrong" only after every 5th response. The S's hypothesis (H) was inferred from his pattern of choices during the non-reinforced trials. There were 2 major effects of right and wrong upon S's Hs: (1) right produced retention and wrong produced rejection of the H manifested, and (2) the size of the H set from which S sampled was reduced with each successive outcome. Right was more effective in this respect than wrong. An information-processing theory is presented to account for these results.
Article
ADULT HUMAN SS RECEIVED 2-CHOICE DISCRIMINATION PROBLEMS WITH SETS OF BLANK TRIALS (E SAID NOTHING) INTERSPERSED AMONG OUTCOME TRIALS (E SAID "RIGHT" OR "WRONG"). THE S'S HYPOTHESIS (H) WAS INFERRED FROM HIS PATTERN OF CHOICES DURING EACH SET OF BLANK TRIALS. THE BACKWARDS LEARNING CURVE (PERCENTAGE CORRECT ON EACH OUTCOME TRIAL BEFORE THE LAST ERROR) SHOWED NOT ONLY STATIONARITY BUT PERFORMANCE SUPPRESSION. THE PROBABILITY OF A CORRECT RESPONSE WAS LESS THAN .4. THE NONE-TO-ALL THEOREM, THAT THE CORRECT H NEVER OCCURS BEFORE THE LAST ERROR AND ALWAYS OCCURS FOLLOWING IT, WAS CONFIRMED IN 2 EXPERIMENTS. IT WAS ALSO SHOWN THAT H THEORY PREDICTS THE PERFORMANCE SUPPRESSION.