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Authoritative Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment Across Varied Ecological Niches

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Abstract

Examined whether the positive relation between authoritative parenting and adolescent adjustment is moderated by the ecological context in which adolescents live. A socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of approximately 10,000 high school students completed measures concerning their family background; their parents' behavior; and 4 indicators of adjustment: school performance, self-reliance, psychological distress, and delinquency. The Ss were grouped into 16 ecological niches defined by ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and family structure, and analyses were conducted within each niche to contrast the adjustment scores of adolescents from authoritative vs nonauthoritative homes. Analyses indicate that the positive correlates of authoritative parenting transcend ethnicity, SES, and family structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... The aim of this as the best parental socialization style. The authoritative style was defined as the parenting method capable of generating the most optimal outcomes [21,[26][27][28][29]. This parenting style was found to be associated with different indicators of children's psychological well-being, such as higher optimism, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and happiness [30]. ...
... Overall, to protect against deviance in adolescence, parental strictness is constantly identified as a protective factor according to classical studies from middle-class European American families [21,[26][27][28][29]. Those adolescents with parents who are strict, and also warm (i.e., authoritative), benefit in terms of protection against maladjustment and problems. ...
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Although parental socialization has an influence on child development, current research is questioning which combination of parental strictness and warmth acts as protective or risk factors, especially during adolescence when the child is more vulnerable. The sample was 2125 participants, 58.7% female, divided into four age groups: adolescents (28.57%), young adults (28.38%), middle- aged adults (23.95%), and older adults (19.11%). The families were classified into four parenting styles: neglectful, indulgent, authoritative, and authoritarian according to their warmth and strictness scores. The psychosocial adjustment was measured by children’s scores on academic/professional self-concept, self-esteem, delinquency during adolescence, and benevolence values. A MANOVA 4 × 2 × 4 was applied with parenting styles, sex, and age group as independent variables. The results showed that, for adolescents and adult children, only parenting styles characterized by warmth (i.e., indulgent, and authoritative) were found to factor against delinquency during adolescence and benefit greater academic/professional self-concept, self-esteem, and benevolence values, while parenting without warmth (i.e., authoritarian, and neglectful) were identified as risk factors. Contrary to classical research, the present findings seriously question the universal benefits of strict parenting as the only optimal strategy to protect not only against delinquency, but also to foster an adequate self and the internalization of social values.
... Such items representing control portray a very directive, over-controlling approach when higher scores on the Likert scale such as 3 or 4 were selected. However, when another measure known as the parenting style index (PSI; 4-point Likert scale, from "1 = Strongly agree" to "4 = Strongly disagree") was used [26], the items describing control were not as dictatorial as they were in the PCS. For example, in the PSI there are three dimensions to Authoritative Parenting, namely Firm Control (e.g. ...
... "I can count on (them) to help me out if I have some kind of problem"); Psychological Autonomy (e.g. reversed scored, "How often do your parents tell you that their ideas are correct and that you should not question them?") [26]. Therefore, the exact definition of strictness that made up part of the Authoritative parenting construct differed depending on whether the PCS or the PSI was used. ...
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Background and objectives Schema therapy (ST) has become a mainstream therapy for the treatment of psychopathology and has been validated through a series of large scale, international randomized control trials. Among other things, schema therapy emphasizes the meeting of core emotional needs in children by primary caregivers as these unmet needs continue to adversely affect their lives into adulthood. An early intervention parenting program has been developed to help parents meet these core emotional needs in order to prevent the development of psychopathology in the first place. The program, Good Enough Parenting, is equally focused on reducing problems and strengthening parenting practices, regardless of where the child is on the “disordered to well-being continuum”. This study aims to explore “patient experience” by users of this program. Best clinical research guidelines advocate that participants should be used as collaborators rather than pure recipients; this process should predate large scale trials. Design An exploratory qualitative study with 55 parent-participants of Good Enough Parenting was conducted. Methods One-to-one interviews were conducted with participants, using critical incident technique and guided by semi-structured interview schedule, to explore their experiences with the program. Transcripts were then analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Coding showed a high degree of inter-rater reliability (kappa value of 0.78). The themes that emerged were Cultivating Awareness of Parents’ Own Schemas, Cultivating Intentionality, Working through Developmental Issues, Responses to Challenges at Home, Performing Multiple Roles, and the Learning Process. Participants overwhelmingly reported satisfaction within these key themes. Conclusions The results support the development of the program and the choice of “participant reported outcome measures” for use in subsequent randomized controlled trials.
... Parental behavioral control and parental warmth are considered to be two key dimensions of parenting attitudes. Many researchers have proposed that parental psychological control and parental behavioral control should be considered separately to better understand the effects of parenting styles (Barber 1996(Barber , 2002Baumrind 1989;Darling and Steinberg 1993;Schaefer 1965;Steinberg et al. 1991) on clinical and developmental outcomes. The present study, thus, investigates the interactions among parental psychological control, parental warmth, and parental behavioral control in regard to predicting emotional-abuse victimization. ...
... Parenting Styles Scale is one of the most commonly used scales to measure parenting behaviors and attitudes dimensions in Turkey. The PSS was developed by Sümer and Güngör (1999) based on Steinberg et al. (1991) and using the dimensions and classification methods of Maccoby and Martin (1983). The authors report that the scale measures parental warmth and parental control dimensions (Güngör 2008;Sümer and Güngör 1999). ...
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The present study investigated the effects parental psychological control, warmth, and behavioral control have on emotional-abuse victimization in romantic relationships. Two hundred and thirty university students who had been in a romantic relationship for at least six months completed the Parenting Styles Questionnaire, the Earlier Abuse Experience Information Form, and the Emotional Abuse Questionnaire. Moderation analysis indicated that the three-way interaction between mother’s psychological control, warmth, and behavioral control in regard to emotional abuse was significant. More specifically, mother’s psychological control predicted emotional-abuse victimization when warmth was both moderate and high while behavioral control was low. These findings indicate that, when parents do not provide sufficient behavioral control and monitoring of inappropriate behaviors during childhood, parental warmth exacerbates the negative effects psychological control has on emotional-abuse victimization in the romantic relationships of late adolescents. The present study significantly contributes to developing an understanding of how perceived childhood experiences of parental psychological control and parental attitudes are transferred to late adolescence and consequently could be a risk factor for adolescents’ experiences of emotional abuse in their romantic relationships.
... A number of models exist on parenting style. These include responsiveness and unresponsiveness (Freud, 1933), democratic and autocratic (Baldwin, 1948), restrictive and permissive (Becker, 1964), authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and negligent (Baumrind1967, 1971(Baumrind1967, , 1991, indulgent, authoritarian, authoritative and uninvolved (Maccoby & Martin, 1983),acceptance/involvement, firm control, and psychological autonomy granting (Steinberg, Mounts, Lamborn, & Dornbusch, 1991), autonomy granting, demandingness and responsiveness (Lefebevre, 2004), warmth, rejection, structure, chaos, autonomy and support, and coercion (Skinner, Johnson, & Snyder, 2005), indifference, abuse and over control (Black Dog Institute, 2016).Implicit in the models, parental behavior mainly involves two related issues (responsiveness and demandingness). Parental responsiveness refers to the extents to which parents intentionally foster individuality, self-regulation and selfassertion by being attuned, supportive and acquiescent to children special needs Social Science Research, 2016, vol 3, 1-29 © Author(s) www.unizikssr.org and demands. ...
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Childhood experience is widely documented to influence behaviour in later stages of development, and parents in its generic sense are at the centre of the experience. This study examined whether parenting styles differ in their influence on enterprise potential, and what influence gender has on experience of parenting styles and on degree of enterprise potential of adolescents. Two hundred and eleven undergraduates of a State-owned university in south-south Nigeria participated in the study. The sample comprised of 101 males and 110 females, with mean age of 21 years and a standard deviation of 2.37. The design of the study was cross-sectional and data were collected through self-report measure. Data analyses revealed significant parenting style difference in enterprise potential among adolescents F(2,178) = 2.97,p< .05). No significant gender difference in experience of authoritative t(103) = .64, p > .05, authoritarian t(47) = .42, p > .05 and permissive t(55) = .43, p > .05 parenting styles of adolescents were observed. Also, no significant gender difference in enterprise potential was observed t(209) = .26, p> .05). Based on the results It was concluded that the authoritative parenting style has the most significant influence on the enterprise potential of Nigerian adolescents.
... To reduce the number of models, and because parent-child dyadic differences were not of primary interest in this study, a mean of mother and father responses (α = 0.77) was created. Psychometrics of the original factor structure across multiple contexts are reported elsewhere (Steinberg et al. 1991). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many young adults’ lives educationally, economically, and personally. This study investigated associations between COVID-19-related disruption and perception of increases in internalising symptoms among young adults and whether these associations were moderated by earlier measures of adolescent positivity and future orientation and parental psychological control. Participants included 1329 adolescents at Time 1, and 810 of those participants as young adults (M age = 20, 50.4% female) at Time 2 from 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Drawing from a larger longitudinal study of adolescent risk taking and young adult competence, this study controlled for earlier levels of internalising symptoms during adolescence in examining these associations. Higher levels of adolescent positivity and future orientation as well as parent psychological control during late adolescence helped protect young adults from sharper perceived increases in anxiety and depression during the first nine months of widespread pandemic lockdowns in all nine countries. Findings are discussed in terms of how families in the 21st century can foster greater resilience during and after adolescence when faced with community-wide stressors, and the results provide new information about how psychological control may play a protective role during times of significant community-wide threats to personal health and welfare.
... Children raised in households high in warmth and acceptance have consistently been found to show more optimal adjustment, across a variety of cultures and family structures (Chen et al., 2000;Davidov & Grusec, 2006;Fine et al., 1993;Khaleque & Rohner, 2002). Findings regarding parental warmth fit into broader parenting frameworks, wherein the combination of high warmth and the setting of clear, consistent boundaries is related to the most optimal child outcomes and positive family functioning (Baumrind, 1971;Maccoby & Martin, 1982;Steinberg et al., 2006;Steinberg et al., 1991). ...
Thesis
Egg donation is an increasingly common form of fertility treatment offered to women who are unable to conceive using their own eggs. Identity-release egg donation is the primary treatment method available to prospective parents seeking treatment with donated eggs in the UK. In families formed through identity-release egg donation, mother and child lack a genetic link. The child is also legally entitled to access the donor’s identity when they reach adulthood. Despite identity-release egg donation being available in the UK since 2005, no studies have yet examined family functioning in families formed this way when children are in early childhood. The aim of this thesis was first, to examine the effect of the absence of a genetic link between mother and child and, second, to examine mothers’ perspectives on identity-release donation and the possibility of future donor-child contact. Data were obtained from a sample of 72 families who had conceived using in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and egg donation and a comparison group of 50 families who had conceived through IVF using their own gametes. Eighty-nine percent of the families were heterosexual, two-parent families and the average age of the children (45% female) at the time of data collection was 5.6 years. Standardised interview, questionnaire and observational measures were used to collect data from mothers, father and children about parents’ psychological wellbeing, the quality of the parent-child relationship and children’s adjustment. Data regarding mothers’ thoughts and feelings about identity-release egg donation and future donor-child contact were obtained via semi-structured interview. Egg donation families were found to be functioning well in terms of parents’ psychological health, the quality of the parent-child relationship and child adjustment, with few differences found between family types. However, egg donation mothers were found to report more parenting stress and less social support than IVF mothers, and egg donation fathers were found to have poorer psychological health compared to IVF fathers. Differences in fathers’ psychological health were generally associated with egg donation fathers’ older age or being a parent of twins rather than family type per se. Egg donation mothers and fathers were found to express more negative representations of the parent- child relationship than IVF parents; however, no group differences were found between observed parent-child interaction quality, with parents and children in both groups demonstrating good relationship functioning at the behavioural level. Egg donation children were found to be rated as higher in externalising problems by their parents than IVF children. Most of the variance in children’s externalising scores was explained by family process variables and was not explained by family type. Egg donation mothers were found to express considerable ambivalence about their use of identity-release egg donation. Thematic analysis of egg donation mothers’ interviews revealed a broad range of perspectives, from viewing the prospect of future donor-child contact as threatening to the security of their position as the child’s mother, to viewing identity-release an opportunity to be embraced for the benefit of the child. Mothers’ narratives revealed complex and often contradictory perspectives, and demonstrated mothers’ use of multiple strategies in order to make sense of and manage their feelings about identity-release egg donation.
... nos/as e as famílias sobre reconhecimento e gestão de emoções, estratégias de parentalidade "autoritativa" (e.g. Steinberg, 1990;Simons et al., 2005) e como proceder em situações concretas de "crise". Também prestámos informações relevantes para a tomada de decisões conscientes no domínio do percurso escolar (quer decisões micro e a curto-prazo como, p. ex., "o que dizer quando voltar para a escola amanhã" ou "como poderá justificar as faltas", quer decisões mais fundamentais com impacto de longo-prazo, como, p. ex., "se devo mudar o meu filho de curso ou de escola"). ...
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O livro aborda em pormenor a implementação e avaliação do projeto “Um Cerco Educativo-Alternativo” (1-CEA). Este projeto utilizou a metodologia de trabalho educativo de rua (social street work), enquadrada no âmbito da prevenção desenvolvimental e comunitária em criminologia e ciências da educação, para intervir sobre o absentismo escolar e promover a interculturalidade na escola, trabalhando, sobretudo, com crianças e jovens ciganas/os. Este handbook foi concebido pela equipa do projeto “Um Cerco Educativo-Alternativo”, visando: sistematizar o conteúdo do projeto; relatar as suas principais experiências; e, divulgar as principais metodologias e resultados com vista à replicação do modelo em realidades similares. O livro inaugura a coleção "Projetos e Práticas de Inovação Social" do Observatório das Comunidades Ciganas. A Coleção Projetos e Práticas de Inovação Social tem como objetivo dar a conhecer projetos que, pelas suas temáticas, características e resultados, possibilitem uma determinada mudança social em contexto e que, simultaneamente, sejam inspiradores de realidades que apresentem constrangimentos similares, potenciando uma maior humanização dos atores e dos contextos.
... respectively) but not in Black families (r = .05). However, parental warmth and hostility have shown similar associations with conduct problems and delinquency across White, Black, and Latino families in several other studies (Pezzella et al., 2016;Querido et al., 2002;Steinberg et al., 1991;Yildirim & Roopnarine, 2015). Lansford and colleagues (2018) provided an explanation for the inconsistency in the findings regarding potential cultural differences in the associations between parenting and child adjustment. ...
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Article
Parental warmth and hostility are two key dimensions of parenting for child development, but the differential effects of these parenting dimensions on child prosocial and antisocial development has not been adequately investigated. The current study hypothesized that parental warmth would be uniquely related to child callous-unemotional traits and prosocial behavior, whereas parental hostility would be uniquely related to child delinquency and aggression. These hypotheses were investigated in a diverse sample of 1,216 adolescent males (13 to 17 years old, 46% Latino, 37% Black) with justice-system involvement in the 5 years following their first arrest. Hybrid models estimated within- and between-individual associations over time, while controlling for the overlap between parental warmth and hostility and between child prosocial and antisocial outcomes. Results indicated that maternal warmth showed consistent associations with callous-unemotional traits and prosocial behavior over time, whereas maternal hostility showed consistent associations with delinquency and aggression over time. Further, the findings were similar across racial and ethnic groups. Implications for developmental models of antisocial behavior, particularly for those including the role of callous-unemotional traits, are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Parents with progressive views follow a child-centered approach to help children think independently and voice their opinions. Authoritarian attitudes direct parents to strictly discipline their children to allow them to adhere to authorities and obedience (Bornstein et al. 2011;Steinberg et al. 1991). ...
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Muslim life on the individual, family, and community levels continues to revolve around fundamental spiritual principles, themes, and values with corresponding meanings that impact purpose of life and even lifestyle. Muslim parents pursue ways and means to nurture their children’s spirituality, strengthen their moral resilience, and shape their identity as effective members of society. This theoretical study explores Islamic insights into spiritual parenting, addressing questions around what defines spiritual parenting and constitutes its core tenets, characteristics and approaches, and principles and guidelines used by Muslims to raise spiritual children. This study identifies a rich Islamic conceptualization and theoretical approach to holistic spiritual parenting that engages with modernity and allows room for adaptation, creativity, and intercultural experience. Further empirical research is needed to shed light on the current dynamics of Muslim spiritual parenting, parents’ struggles, accommodations, adaptations, as well as caregiver resistance in practices of spiritual parenting, which would help us better understand the needs and challenges facing Muslim families today and further enrich our understanding of comparative and cross-cultural parenting in multicultural societies.
... Survey of the literature suggests that parenting style affects a wide range of children's outcome. For example, compared to non-authoritative parenting style, authoritative parenting style foster psychological competence and educational attainment, and reduce internal distress and problem behavior (Baumrind, 1989(Baumrind, , 1991Bornstein and Bornstein, 2007;Dornbusch et al., 1987;Kim and Rohner, 2002;Lamborn et al., 1991;Steinberg et al., 1989;Steinberg et al., 1991;Steinberg et al., 1992;Steinberg et al., 1994). Uninvolved parenting style is found to have the worst impacts in terms of social competence, educational attainment, and psychological adjustment (Baumrind, 1991;Lamborn et al., 1991;Pittman and Chase-Lansdale, 2001;Weiss and Schwarz, 1996). ...
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This paper is an attempt to investigate whether parenting style has any causal impact on children's adult labor market outcomes. Most of the parenting style literature overlooks such investigation due to lack of suitable data that permit linking childhood events to outcomes in adult years. I take advantage of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to fill that gap. Logit and OLS are used as empirical strategies. Findings suggest that parenting style is an important determinant of labor market outcomes. Among four categories of parenting style, authoritative parenting style (AVPS) is found to be the most beneficial.
... Educational and developmental psychologists have long been interested in the relation between parenting styles and children's academic achievement [11]. Over the decades, researchers have proposed various frameworks of parenting styles (e.g., [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]) which have generally considered two fundamental components: a supportive component and a controlling component [20]. These components are tightly aligned with Self-Determination Theory (SDT; [21]), which posits that humans have three core psychological needs; specifically, that of autonomy, competence, and belonging. ...
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Article
Previous research has shown that math homework help of higher-math-anxious parents impedes children’s math learning and facilitates the development of math anxiety. In the present study, we explored a possible explanation for this phenomenon by examining the relations between parents’ math anxiety, their math homework-helping styles (i.e., autonomy- and controlling-supportive), and their child’s math achievement. Parents of children ages 11 to 14 completed an online survey. Using path analysis, we examined the relations among parental factors (i.e., math anxiety, math ability, and homework-helping styles) and child math achievement. Parents’ math anxiety was positively related to both autonomy-supportive and controlling-supportive math homework-helping styles. Notably, controlling-supportive style partially mediated the relation between parents’ math anxiety and their children’s math achievement. Thus, it is possible that the use of a controlling-supportive math homework-helping style may explain why the homework help offered by higher-math-anxious parents is detrimental to their children’s math learning. Identifying negative relations between parent factors and children’s math outcomes is crucial for developing evidence-based math learning interventions.
... Research revealed that different parenting behaviors are linked with different parenting styles that play an important contribution to their children's ability, development, or any form of psychopathology (McKee et al., 2008), academic achievement (Lamborn et al., 1991), social competence, self-reliance (Steinberg 1990), academic achievement (Steinberg et al., 1989), substance use (Baumrind 1991), peer group selection (Brown et al., 1993). Child modeling behavior and emotional control is affected by these parenting styles (Lorber and Egeland, 2011). ...
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Article
Since parents play an important role for healthy personality development during the developmental period in a child's life, the present study was an attempt to see whether there is any relationship between different parenting styles and aggressive behavior among high school children. In order to collect data, two questionnaires along with Personal Information Form (PIF) were administered on participants who were selected through convenience and purposive sampling techniques from ten schools of different areas of Dhaka city. Results showed authoritarian parenting style (r =.397, p <.01), permissive parenting style (r = .204, p < .05) and uninvolved (r = .298, p < .01) parenting style were significantly and positively correlated with children's aggressive behavior. Results also revealed that authoritarian parenting style, which alone explained 15.8% of variance in child aggressive behavior, was the strongest predictor (β = .316, p < .01) of children aggressive behavior. R-square indicated that the four variables (e.g., authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved parenting styles) can explain 24.9% of variance in children's aggressive behavior. So, the findings of the study noted that aggressive behavior in children is significantly related to parenting style. Therefore, the study suggests that every parent should become aware about their own child rearing style and concern authority should arrange training for this issue so that parents can maintain appropriate parenting style for overcoming their children's aggression which ultimately will be helpful not only for children and parents but also for other authority who works for children's betterment.
... Research revealed that different parenting behaviors are linked with different parenting styles that play an important contribution to their children's ability, development, or any form of psychopathology (McKee et al., 2008), academic achievement (Lamborn et al., 1991), social competence, self-reliance (Steinberg 1990), academic achievement (Steinberg et al., 1989), substance use (Baumrind 1991), peer group selection (Brown et al., 1993). Child modeling behavior and emotional control is affected by these parenting styles (Lorber and Egeland, 2011). ...
Full-text available
Article
Since parents play an important role for healthy personality development during the developmental period in a child's life, the present study was an attempt to see whether there is any relationship between different parenting styles and aggressive behavior among high school children. In order to collect data, two questionnaires along with Personal Information Form (PIF) were administered on participants who were selected through convenience and purposive sampling techniques from ten schools of different areas of Dhaka city. Results showed authoritarian parenting style (r =.397, p <.01), permissive parenting style (r = .204, p < .05) and uninvolved (r = .298, p < .01) parenting style were significantly and positively correlated with children's aggressive behavior. Results also revealed that authoritarian parenting style, which alone explained 15.8% of variance in child aggressive behavior, was the strongest predictor (β = .316, p < .01) of children aggressive behavior. R-square indicated that the four variables (e.g., authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved parenting styles) can explain 24.9% of variance in children's aggressive behavior. So, the findings of the study noted that aggressive behavior in children is significantly related to parenting style. Therefore, the study suggests that every parent should become aware about their own child rearing style and concern authority should arrange training for this issue so that parents can maintain appropriate parenting style for overcoming their children's aggression which ultimately will be helpful not only for children and parents but also for other authority who works for children's betterment.
... Many examines have demonstrated the association between the nature of children's relations with their primary caregivers to maladaptive behaviors and emotional rigours (Steinberg et al., 1991;Garber, Robinson, & Valentiner, 1997;Kerr & Stattin, 2000;Pettit et al., 2001;Rubin & Burgess, 2002;Üstün, Yılmaz & Kırbaş, 2007). Likewise, in a meta-analysis of Fearon et al., it was found that insecure attachment was significantly connected with externalizing behaviors in 69 investigations (Fearon et al., 2010). ...
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The aim of the study is to gain an understanding of the quality of parent-child attachment relationship on the tendency to violence on high school adolescents with disciplinary penalties due to violence in Turkey. The sample group was composed of 145 volunteer adolescents aged 14-18 years from 8 different high schools in Istanbul. There are 43 adolescents who receive disciplinary penalties by the disciplinary boards of their schools for physical and verbal violence and 102 adolescents who not receive disciplinary penalties at all. Parental Acceptance /Rejection Scale, Violence Tendency Scale, Inventory of Experiences in Close Relationships and Personal Information Form were used to the collect the data. Results indicated that the perception of neglect/ indifference which adolescents with disciplinary penalties receive from, only, their mothers has been found higher. There is a negative correlation between the avoidant attachment and the feeling of harming others in relation to adolescents' patterns of violence and attachment patterns. In addition, adolescents' feelings of warmth/ affection perceived from their mothers and fathers reduce anxious attachment while feelings of indifference/ neglect of adolescents increase the anxious attachment. The results emphasized the importance of perceived parental rejection and attachment style established in childhood on the tendency to violence in adolescence. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye'de şiddet nedeniyle disiplin cezası alan ergenlerin, şiddete eğiliminde ebeveyn-çocuk bağlanma ilişkisinin niteliğini incelemektir. Çalışmanın örneklem grubu, İstanbul'daki 8 farklı liseden 14-18 yaş arası 145 gönüllü ergenden oluşmaktadır. Fiziksel ve sözlü şiddet nedeniyle okullarının disiplin kurulları tarafından disiplin cezası alan 43 ergen ve hiç disiplin cezası almayan 102 ergen bulunmaktadır. Verilerin toplanmasında Ebeveyn Kabul/Red Ölçeği, Şiddet Eğilimi Ölçeği, Yakın İlişkilerde Yaşantılar Envanteri ve Kişisel Bilgi Formu kullanılmıştır. Sonuçlar disiplin cezası alan ergenlerin, yalnız annelerinden aldıkları ihmal/kayıtsızlık algısının daha yüksek olduğunu göstermiştir. Ergenlerin şiddet ve bağlanma paternleriyle ilgili olarak, kaçıngan bağlanma ve başkalarına zarar verme düşüncesi arasında negatif bir korelasyon bulunmuştur. Ayrıca ergenlerin, annelerinden ve babalarından algıladıkları sıcaklık/şefkat hisleri kaygılı bağlanmayı azaltırken, ergenlerin kayıtsızlık/ihmal hisleri ise kaygılı bağlanmayı artırmaktadır. Çalışmadan elde edilen bulgular, çocuklukta algılanan ebeveyn reddinin ve ebeveynle kurulan bağlanma stilinin, ergenlik dönemindeki şiddet eğilimine olan önemini vurgulamıştır.
... Mental health problems have been associated with an assortment of social and psychological processes in one's family of origin. These include parental conflict and affection, (1)(2)(3)(4)(5) emotional detachment from parents, (6,7) parenting style, (8,9) time spent with family, (10) family cohesion (11) and perceived family support. (12)(13)(14)(15) Low socioeconomic status of the family and exposure to social stress have also been found to be correlated with poorer mental health. ...
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The family unit plays a crucial role in patients with mental illness. Mental health problems have been associated with an assortment of dysfunctional social and psychological processes in one’s family of origin, yet families are now expected to be responsible for the care of the patient with mental illness. There are many short- and long-term benefits of engaging the families in the care of patients with mental illness. However, the implementation of family engagement in patients with mental illness is fraught with challenges. The primary care provider possesses several distinctive characteristics that lend an advantage to successfully engaging the families of patients with mental illness, such as better accessibility, better rapport, and being associated with less stigma. Primary care providers could engage the family in various ways, ranging from basic functions such as psychoeducation and supporting the family’s needs, to more specialised interventions such as family assessment and family therapy.
... "Emotional dysregulation" seems to relate to instability, inconsistency, as well as rejection-considered the opposite of acceptance which is synonymous with supportiveness-while the other hostility dimension relates less to mercurial overreactivity and more to severity or harshness of punishment (Huver et al., 2010). This may also relate to the comparative concept of psychological control, discussed in adolescent literature (Steinberg et al., 1991). While these two subscales are highly correlated, this distinction may increase the clinical utility of this measure by identifying what to target in a parenting intervention. ...
Article
Parenting is a critical mechanism contributing to child and adolescent development and outcomes. The Multidimensional Assessment of Parenting Scale (MAPS) is a new measure that aims to address gaps in the literature on existing self-report parenting measures. Research to date on the MAPS includes essential steps of scale development and validation; however, replicating scale dimensionality and examining differential item functioning (DIF) based on child age and a parent or child gender is a critical next step. The current study included 1,790 mothers and fathers of sons and daughters, spanning childhood to adolescence in the United States. Item response theory (IRT) confirmed initial factor-analytic work revealing positive and negative dimensions; however, the best-fitting multidimensional model included six nested dimensions from the original seven. A few notable items displayed DIF based on child age and parent gender; however, DIF based on child gender had minimal impact on the overall score. Future directions, clinical implications, and recommendations are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... This parenting categorization resulted in considerably unbalanced group sizes, with the vast majority classified as authoritative, forcing us to use only two groups of parenting (that is, authoritative and non-authoritative, which includes permissive and authoritarian parenting). Although parents who use demandingness (that is, authoritarian) and parents who do not use demandingness (that is, permissive) are essentially different in their styles, classifying them as non-authoritative parents is theoretically logical and has been operationally utilized in previous studies for various comparison-based purposes against authoritative parents (Steinberg et al., 1991;Zuquetto et al., 2019). To test the research hypotheses, we conducted a multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) for the differences in these scales' scores by parenting style and sport type (displayed in Table 2). ...
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The aim of the current compendium on the psychology of sport, performance, and ethics was to assemble both theoretical and applied research from experts within the field of sport psychology, sociology, performance, and exercise. Twelve articles, written by researchers from Brazil, China, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Taiwan, and the United States, were divided into four chapters. The first chapter, “Decision-Making Challenges in Dynamic Sporting Environments” holds four articles: Gershgoren et al. introduce the chapter Perceived Performance in Team Sports Questionnaire to capture the team members’ perception of their team’s performance. Samuel et al.’s case study adopted an intrinsic mixed-methods methodology to investigate the implementation of the video assistant (soccer) referee system within the Israeli Premier League context. Johansen and Erikstad investigated elite referees’ positioning in the field of play (distance, angle, and insight) when making correct and erroneous decisions in potential penalty situations. Finally, Del Campo and Martin assessed the effects of manipulating video speeds on visual behavior and decision accuracy of 10 amateur football assistant referees when watching video sequences of 24 possible offside actions.
... The children having an insecure attachment with their mothers have low self-regulation skills (Kochanska et al., 2009). A lot of studies carried out in this issue show that self-regulation skills are affected by mother and child attachment, the attitudes of the mother to the child, stress, depression and anxiety level of the mother and parent attitudes (Enlow, Kitts, Blood, Bizarro, Hofmeister & Wright, 2011;Kochanska et al., 2009;Maccoby, 1992;Steinberg et al., 1991). Eisenberg (2005) expressed that the parents not having enough self-regulation skill today exhibit negative behaviours towards their children and they expect their children to behave as an adult. ...
... This parenting categorization resulted in considerably unbalanced group sizes, with the vast majority classified as authoritative, forcing us to use only two groups of parenting (that is, authoritative and non-authoritative, which includes permissive and authoritarian parenting). Although parents who use demandingness (that is, authoritarian) and parents who do not use demandingness (that is, permissive) are essentially different in their styles, classifying them as non-authoritative parents is theoretically logical and has been operationally utilized in previous studies for various comparison-based purposes against authoritative parents (Steinberg et al., 1991;Zuquetto et al., 2019). To test the research hypotheses, we conducted a multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) for the differences in these scales' scores by parenting style and sport type (displayed in Table 2). ...
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Given the great importance of morality and values in modern sports, especially among young athletes, in this pilot study, we sought to broaden the exploration of the factors that may play role in these contexts, which have not been widely researched to date. Accordingly, the study tested the relationships between sport type (team or individual) and parenting styles (authoritative vs. non-authoritative), and moral decision-making in sport and sport values among 110 adolescent athletes whose age ranges from 11 to 22 (M = 16.04, SD = 2.86). The findings indicated that participants with authoritative parents, as compared to those with non-authoritative parents, are significantly less accepting of cheating in sport, while they also tend more to keep winning in proportion and hold significantly stronger moral values toward sports. Moreover, participants whose main sport is a team sport type tend to accept more cheating and gamesmanship than participants whose main sport is an individualistic sport type. While no differences were recorded between these groups in moral values, team athletes tend to value status in sport more than individual athletes, while the latter tend to value competence regarding their sport. The implications of the findings are discussed in light of no interaction between the effects of parenting styles and sport type on moral and sport values.
... No theories were found that addressed why practices for parenting pre-teen children of Generation Z vary across cultural contexts. For instance, both Dornbusch et al. (1987) and Steinberg et al. (1991), using different approaches to the measurement of authoritative parenting, have found that the association between authoritativeness and school performance is much stronger among European and Hispanic-American adolescents than among Asian-American and Black adolescents. Before concluding that authoritative parenting or, for that matter, any other parenting practice is more or less effective in different cultural contexts, nurses need to know more about the goals toward which parents socialize their children, and parents' beliefs about parenting and the nature of children, which may be critical determinants of parents' practices. ...
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The purpose of this scoping review is to provide a timely update of available research describing parents’ perspectives of parenting pre-teen children of Generation Z (born 1997 through 2012). The databases of Ovid MEDLINE, CIHAHL, SCOPUS, Web of Science, JUSTOR, and PsyINFO were searched using a combination of key words for manuscripts published in English. A limited collection of scientific literature documented experiences of parents, practices of parenting, styles of parenting, and interventions that influence parenting of Generation Z pre-teen children among various groups of parents. Although an emerging body of literature on parenting pre-teen children of Generation Z was identified, future research should consider systematic sample selection to further explore the roles of cultural and psychosocial factors that influence parents’ perspectives of parenting “digital natives” in homes around the world.
... In other words, while it is useful for the person it has benefit to others) quotes from Taylor Ltya and Shelley, 1991).According to Sullivan (1975), in the social adjustment subject, the individual's relationship with others is proposed. In this matter the motives and wishes conflict with the requirements of the Construction group appears) quoted in Steinberg, 1992). ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the Five Big personality factors, identity Styles, identity commitment with thesocial adjustment ofstudents.Participants in this study consisted of 300 studentsinthe Faculty of Humanities University BOJNURD the 2012-2013 school year. For assessment of theinvestigation's variables respectively NEO's personality test (NEOPI-R), berzonsky's Identity style questionnaire (ISI) (Revised Questionnaire of White ISI-6G) and California's Social adjustment Scale (CPI) were used. The study resultsshowed that between the extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and responsiveness to students' social adjustment there is a significant positive correlation and by increasing the amount of the personality factors. the students'social adjustment also rises but between the factor neuroticism with socialadjustment of students, there is negatively meaningful relationship that by increasein the amount of the neuroticism personality factors, social adjustment of students also decreases. Also between the Informational and normative identity styles andsocial adjustment of students, there is a significant positive correlation, by their increase, levels of student’s social adjustment will increase. But for the identity ofthe diffused/ avoidant with social adjustment of students there is a significant negative relationship and by increasing this style the students' social adjustmentalso decreases. With the increasing amount of identity commitment, students willalso increase the level of social adjustm.
... To prevent Internet addiction and the subsequent development of other psychopathologies among children, it is crucial to explore how parents influence children's development, and how they can be helpful in risk identification in this context [35][36][37]. Many studies have indicated that parenting styles have important influences on child psychopathology and youth Internet dependency [35,[38][39][40][41][42]. ...
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The Internet has experienced a rapid increase in use globally. Specifically, more than 90% of Hong Kong’s citizens use the Internet, and 70% of children in the age group of 6–17 years have daily access to it. However, internet addiction could pose serious social and health issues. Therefore, conducting research to investigate its causes and risk factors is fundamental. The current study examined the relationship between worry and Internet addiction among children in Hong Kong and investigated the moderating effect of the permissive parenting style on such a relationship. The participants consisted of 227 fourth- and fifth-grade students (120 males, 52.9%) with a mean age of 9.55 (standard deviation (SD) = 0.58) in Hong Kong. Each participant was asked to complete the questionnaires, including the Internet Addiction Test for Internet addiction, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children for worry, and the Parental Authority Questionnaire for the permissive parenting style. The results indicated that worry was related to greater Internet addiction among children. Furthermore, there was a moderating effect of the permissive parenting style such that the positive association between worry and Internet addiction was stronger when the permissive parenting style was higher. Our findings imply that parenting styles are influential in the prevention of Internet addiction.
... Some researchers, especially in Middle Eastern and Eastern countries, found positive impacts for the authoritarian parenting style on children's outcomes [80,[85][86][87]. Most Western research, however, showed negative influences when parents adopt authoritarian styles in rearing their children [88][89][90][91][92]. The current study shows that at least during school years it might be good to have an authoritarian father style to ensure high levels of students' academic self-efficacy beliefs. ...
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The present study examined the predictive role of students' perceptions of parenting styles on their academic efficacy beliefs. This relationship was examined using two large sets of national data that were collected from school and university students to see how the relationship between parenting styles and academic efficacy beliefs may or may not vary across life stages. The sample included 1431 school students and 1119 university students cross the Sultanate of Oman. The participants responded to the Arabic version of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) and to the Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES) constructed by the researchers. Using linear regression model for each sample, the results showed that the amount of variance in school students' academic self-efficacy beliefs explained by parenting styles (R 2 adjusted = 0.21) was higher than the amount of variance explained for the university sample (R 2 adjusted = 0.10). The researchers concluded that the effects of parenting styles on students' self-efficacy beliefs decrease as children grow up.
... Authoritative parents are considered as the cross-culturally favorable parenting style in various contexts of child development (Pinquart and Kauser 2018), which is attributable to their parental virtues of being highly demanding and responsive. In terms of parental practice, authoritative parents consolidate behavioral control along with providing warm and support, while granting psychological autonomy (Baumrind 1966;Maccoby and Martin 1983;Steinberg 1990). In contrast, authoritarian parents are more likely to exert a coercive type of power (Baumrind 2012), to maintain emotional distance, and to employ strict control over the child, with lesser tolerance of negotiations over rules. ...
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Parenting is a broad construct that comprises stable and durable attitudes and behaviors regarding child-rearing. Since mothers and fathers play different roles in the family, parenting styles and practices in childhood and adolescence may differ depending on the parents' and adolescents' gender. While gender differences in parenting are theoretically warranted, the research literature in this field is considerably limited and lacking conclusive information dealing with this question. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to aggregate and synthesize the available research studies containing significant findings on the differences between mothers and fathers in parenting styles and practices. For that purpose, we conducted a systematic search of the PsycInfo, Scopus, Eric, and Web of Science databases, covering literature published from 1990 to 2020. The search was restricted to peer-reviewed studies in English alone. Our findings reveal that mothers as compared to fathers are perceived as more accepting, responsive, and supportive, as well as more behaviorally controlling, demanding, and autonomy granting than fathers. Accordingly, in the studies comparing parents on the constructs of overall parenting styles, mothers were predominantly more authoritative than fathers, and fathers were mostly more authoritarian than mothers (based on both parent and descendant reports). These parental differences established by research from over 15 countries around the globe seem to apply similarly for male and female descendants, while principally not varying by their age.
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Introduction Classical research mainly conducted with European-American families has identified the combination of warmth and strictness (authoritative style) as the parenting always associated with the highest scores on developmental outcomes. Additionally, despite the benefits of empathy for prosocial behaviors and protection against antisocial behaviors, most research has considered the contribution of specific practices (e.g., reasoning or power assertion), but not so much the parenting styles. Similarly, family studies tend to study the relationship between parenting and global self-perceptions (self-esteem), but not so much those of each dimension (self-concept). Methods In the present study, 600 Spanish adolescents from 12 to 17 years old ( M = 15.25, SD = 2.01) were classified within one of the four household typologies (i.e., authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, or neglectful). Adolescent developmental outcomes were cognitive empathy (adopting perspectives and emotional understanding), emotional empathy (empathic stress and empathic happiness), and self-concept (academic, social, emotional, family and physical). Results The results showed that the indulgent parenting (warmth but not strictness) was related to equal or even better empathy and self-concept than the authoritative style (warmth and strictness), whereas non-warm parenting (authoritarian and neglectful) was consistently associated with poor results. Discussion Overall, the present findings seriously question that parental strictness combined with parental warmth (authoritative style) is always the parenting style related to the greatest outcomes. By contrast, it seems that reasoning, warmth and involvement, without strictness (indulgent parenting) help adolescents to achieve a good orientation toward others in terms of cognitive and affective empathy and a good self-evaluation in terms of self-concept.
Chapter
Childcare decisions made by biological parents and extended families in Haiti must be understood in the context of Haiti’s uniquely complicated and tumultuous history and modern-day conditions of extreme deprivation. Haitian parenting and child care choices are fundamentally shaped by the culturally and historically conditioned norm of fluid family structures and the use of harsher approaches in normative parenting practices. These are separate from cases of abuse in childcare as necessary adaptations to harsh living conditions. We argue that Haitian parenting, although qualitatively different from accepted normative parenting approaches in Western industrialized democracies, has in many ways evolved in ingenious and exceptional ways to protect children in a climate that is harshly unfavorable to positive outcomes for children, regardless of the parenting approaches employed. Our argument and analysis of parenting excludes extreme abusive parenting and mistreatment that is often promoted by alcoholism or mental health problems. Rather, our focus is on normative and typical Haitian parenting. For those concerned with improving outcomes for Haitian children and families, we hope to provide a deeper and more nuanced understanding of how and why Haitian parenting and childcare practices are as they are. This culturally and historically grounded knowledge should advance two goals for those desiring to support Haitian parents and caregivers. The first highlights unique assets in extended and fluid family structures in Haiti that can be leveraged and the second clarifies ways in which understanding the context and environment in which caregivers make decisions about discipline is needed to diminish violence against Haitian children.KeywordsHaitianParentingChildcareFluid familiesViolence
Chapter
Internet use around the world has grown exponentially in the last two decades. Among the multiple risks of the Internet, technological addiction is particularly worrying among minors and adolescents. Technological addictions have been defined as “non-chemical (behavioural) addictions which involve human-machine interaction”. Different variables involved in technological addictions are analysed, pointing out the role that family and cultural contexts play in this phenomenon. Parental style has been associated with technological addictions in samples from Western countries. However few studies have investigated the relation of parenting with technological addictions in non-Western cultures. This chapter pays attention to variations between Western and non-Western cultures in adolescent’s technological addictions. Finally, an attempt is made to identify parental practices that can act as protective and risk factors for technological addictions.KeywordsParentingTechnological addictionsDigital eraAdolescenceCultural differences
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Parenting styles provide the emotional climate for interaction between parents and children and have a significant impact on the family’s quality of life. School performance is considered as the adolescents’ capacity to interact effectively with the school environment by getting the general point average of their grades in the four quarters of School Year 2018-2019. This paper examined the effects of parenting styles on self-esteem and school performance among the Senior High students of Tubigon, Bohol, Philippines. The study utilized the descriptive normative survey method of research in gathering data through the use of a standardized survey tool in getting the parenting styles and self-esteem of the respondents. Data mining or desk review was conducted in securing the academic performance of the Senior High School of Tubigon, Bohol. Data were processed using averaging, Freeman Halton Test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Chi-Square. The majority of the 400 respondents yielded similar results in the four parenting styles, first is authoritative in both mothers (52.5 percent) and fathers (46.5 percent). It is followed by the permissive, father (21.5 percent), and mother (17.8 percent). It is followed by ambivalent parenting with fathers (18.8 percent) and mothers (17 percent). The majority (75.5 percent) of the respondents have high self-esteem. Almost a fourth (24.5 percent) had average self-esteem, and no one reflected low self-esteem. Nearly half (45.8 percent) of the total number of respondents had satisfactory school performance, more than a third (36 percent) had an outstanding rating, above a tenth (14 percent) had Very Satisfactory, and very few reflected Fairly Satisfactory (4.3 percent) results. The result of the Freeman-Halton test revealed that there is no statistically significant association between the fathers’ and mothers’ parenting styles and the age groups of the respondents. The Chi-square test revealed that the parenting styles of both the father (X2=7.717, df=3, p<0.10) and the mother (X2 =7.683, df=3, p<0.05) are statistically associated with the sex of the respondents. As to the relationship between self-esteem and academic performance, chi-square revealed a significant result. There is strong evidence of a difference (p-value < 0.05) between the mean ranks of at least one pair of the indicated categories. There is strong evidence that suggests that parenting styles have some bearing on how students perform at school.
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Based on the survey data of 4,462 undergraduate students in Zhejiang Province, mainland China, this study investigated the influence of parenting styles on emotion regulation and the mediating role of student-faculty interaction. The study found that: (1) Male students scored significantly higher than female students on emotion regulation, overprotective parenting style and student-faculty interaction. (2) Parenting style has a direct positive effect on emotion regulation, and warm parenting style has a much greater effect on emotion regulation than overprotective parenting style. (3) The mediating effect of student-faculty interaction in the relationship between parenting style and emotion regulation holds true, with the mediating effect of academic student-faculty interaction being much higher than that of social student-faculty interaction. (4) The influence of warm parenting style on emotion regulation relies more on the direct effect, while the influence of overprotective parenting style on emotion regulation relies more on the mediating effect of student-faculty interaction.
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of family relationships and internalizing problems on psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected from 404 Polish children and early adolescents aged 8-13 using standardized instruments to assess the quality of family relationships (i.e., control, support), internalizing problems, and psychosocial adjustment (problem behavior versus prosocial behavior). The findings confirmed positive and negative associations between the quality of family relationships, internalizing problems, problem behavior, and prosocial behavior. Gender differences were also found; girls received more support within family relationships and scored higher in prosocial behavior, whereas boys received more control within family relationships. Regression analyses have shown that control within family relationships and internalizing problems were positive predictors of problem behavior. On the other hand, control within the family relationships was a negative predictor of prosocial behavior. In the final step, four mediation models were tested to check whether internalizing problems would mediate the relationship between family relationships and the child's behavior. Possible future research directions are discussed.
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The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between the environmental awareness levels of university students and parenting styles and to analyze the environmental awareness levels of students according to the sociodemographic variables of the research. The sample of the study conducted in the academic year of 2019-2020 is students (N=314) at Karabuk University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences. Environmental Awareness Scale, Child Rearing Styles Scale-Mother and Father Forms, and Sociodemographic Form were used in the research. In correlation analysis, (1) a low negative level statistically significant relationship was obtained among the environmental awareness levels of the participants and the parental strict control of the father (r(314) = -.115, p<.05); (2) a low positive level statistically significant relationship was obtained among the environmental awareness levels of the participants and the parental involvement of the father (r(314) = .171, p<.01). A statistically significant difference was observed in the environmental awareness of the students in favor of the permissive/indulgent style to the father's parenting style and the rearing styles of parents with the same rearing style. The difference analysis on sociodemographic variables of the research reveals that there is a statistically significant difference in environmental awareness scores in favor of female participants and in favor of undergraduate education between high school and undergraduate groups in father's education level groups.
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Self-adjustment is one of the social skills that individuals urgently need. Self-adjustment helps individuals build social relationships positively with others, groups, and their environment. This study aimed to explore the factors that influence self-adjustment, both internal and external factors. Participants in this study were 116 grade XI high school students in Yogyakarta selected with proportional random sampling. The instruments in this study were the self-adjustment scale, problem-focused coping scale, emotional-focused coping scale, authoritarian parenting style scale, authoritative parenting style scale, and permissive parenting style scale. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the data. The findings indicate highly significant relationships between coping strategies, parenting style, and self-adjustment. Afterward, the result shows that every parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting style) and both coping strategies (problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping) contributed to self-adjustment. For practical implications, any programs designed to promote positive self-adjustment among adolescents may focus on internal factors, such as coping strategy and parenting style as external factors.
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School bullying is a major diachronic problem of modern society and in recent years it presents considerable intensification, attracting scientific and research attention. The present research studies the victimization due to school bullying of children with disabilities. The aim of the research is to investigate whether the maternal attachment of people with disabilities such as blindness, deafness and motor disability and also of those without disabilities is linked to their victimization or bullying behavior in school, and to highlight the impact of specific demographic characteristics on the possible underlying relationship between maternal attachment and victimization for them. Further, the objectives of the present research include the appraisal of a comparison between individuals with and without disabilities. The research was conducted through a quantitative survey in Greece, to 170 individuals aged between 10 and 21 years of age, with blindness (N=36), deafness (N=38), physical disability (N=50) and without disability (N=50). The results revealed differences between participants with and without disabilities with regard to the type of attachment they have developed with their mothers and to their experiences as victims or offenders of school bullying. The results also demonstrate that there is a correlation between maternal attachment and school bullying behaviors and for certain disability groups mother care and / or mother protection is a predicting factor of these behaviors. Abstrakt: Mobbing in der Schule ist ein großes diachrones Problem der modernen Gesellschaft und hat in den letzten Jahren eine erhebliche Zunahme erfahren, was die Aufmerksamkeit von Wissenschaft und Forschung auf sich zieht. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die Viktimisierung von Kindern mit Behinderungen durch Mobbing in der Schule. Ziel der Forschung ist es, zu untersuchen, ob die mütterliche Bindung von Menschen mit Behinderungen wie Blindheit, Taubheit und motorischen Behinderungen sowie von Menschen ohne Behinderungen mit ihrem Viktimisierungs-oder Mobbingverhalten in der Schule zusammenhängt, und den Einfluss spezifischer demografischer Merkmale aufzuzeigen über die mögliche zugrunde liegende Beziehung zwischen mütterlicher Bindung und Viktimisierung für sie. Zu den Zielen der vorliegenden Forschung gehört auch die Bewertung eines Vergleichs zwischen Menschen mit und ohne Behinderungen. Die Studie wurde im Rahmen einer quantitativen Umfrage in Griechenland an 170 Personen im Alter zwischen 10 und 21 Jahren mit Blindheit (N=36), Taubheit (N=38), körperlicher Behinderung (N=50) und ohne Behinderung durchgeführt (N=50). Die Ergebnisse zeigten Unterschiede zwischen Teilnehmenden mit und ohne Behinderung hinsichtlich der Art der Bindung, die sie zu ihren Müttern entwickelt haben, und ihrer Erfahrungen als Opfer oder Täter von Mobbing in der Schule. Die Ergebnisse zeigen auch, dass es einen Zusammenhang zwischen mütterlicher Bindung und Mobbing-Verhalten in der Schule gibt und für bestimmte Behindertengruppen die Mutterfürsorge und/oder der Mutterschutz ein Vorhersagefaktor für dieses Verhalten sind.
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Background: The transition to adulthood is a period of increased risk for emergent psychopathology; emerging adults with a childhood maltreatment history are at risk for poor outcomes. Method: Using a multi-measure, transdisciplinary, cross-sectional design, this study tested whether participant-reported positive parenting, a potential resilience-promoting factor, moderated the association between clinician-rated PTSD symptom severity and a transdiagnostic maladjustment biomarker, fear-potentiated startle (FPS), in a sample of 66 emerging adults ( M years = 18.83, SD = 0.89) with a maltreatment history. We hypothesized that characteristics of effective parenting would moderate the relation between PTSD symptoms and FPS. Results: Results indicated that elevated PTSD, as measured by the CAPS, was associated with a more severe startle reaction. The magnitude of the increase in startle reactivity was moderated by parenting such that those with more positive parenting (Accepting [relative to rejecting]: b = −0.42, p < .001; Psychologically-controlling [relative to autonomy-promoting]: b = 2.96, p = .004) had significantly less reactivity across the task at higher levels of PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: Emerging adults with childhood maltreatment histories, high levels of PTSD symptoms, and who perceive present-day high-quality caregiver support may cope better with novel stressors relative to youth lacking that support, potentially translating to better psychological outcomes.
Article
This paper studies parental beliefs about the returns to two factors affecting the development and long-term outcomes of children: (i) parenting styles defined by warmth and control parents employ in raising children, and (ii) neighborhood quality. Based on a representative sample of 2,119 parents in the United States, I show that parents perceive large returns to the warmth dimension of parenting as well as neighborhood quality, and document that they perceive parenting to compensate for the lack of a good environment. I introduce a measurement error correction to show that perceived returns relate to parents’ actual parenting behavior and families’ neighborhood choices, but document that beliefs are unlikely to explain existing socioeconomic differences.
Article
The purpose of this study was to develop and test a model to predict educational aspirations of Canadian adolescents. Participants were a national sample of 4,034 students from grades 8–13 (2,037 males, 1,973 females). Results of a modified structural model included three sets of influences: a) a background factor comprised of parental occupation and education; b) a family involvement factor consisting of parental personal and school-based involvement with adolescents; and c) a personal factor with school marks, school and course perceptions, extracurricular reading and parental educational expectations as indicator measures. Educational aspirations was the main outcome variable. Results indicated that the personal factor had a strong direct influence on educational aspirations (β = 1.17, p < .001, R2 = .76). The effects of the background and family involvement factors on educational aspirations were mediated through the personal factor. Additional analyses performed in order to test the relationships obtained in the model, revealed several significant interactions amongst the three predictor factors and educational aspirations. The findings emphasize the importance of efforts to enhance the educational aspirations of adolescents through targeted change of modifiable environmental and personal factors.
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The Influence of Perception of Parenting Educational Styles on Young People's Vocational Exploration Abstract Vocational exploration is a process that involves a person’s ability to collect, analyze, and interpret information about him/herself and about the academic and professional world (Pinto, 2010; Taveira, 1997). This process is influenced by the life contexts in which the person is inserted, namely, the family, the peer groups, and the academic, economic, political, social, and cultural situation (Almeida, 2011). According to the literature (e.g., Faria, Taveira, & Pinto, 2007; Pinto & Soares, 2000), parents are one of the most important reference groups for the children, having the ability to influence their beliefs, behaviors, and reactions about the vocational exploration process. Among the different variables associated with parent-child interactions, parenting educational styles seem to constitute a dimension of parental behavior with the ability to influence the behavior of young people (Barbosa-Ducharne, Cruz, Large & Martin, 2006). This study aims to examine the influence of parenting educational style perception on the vocational exploration of youth. We present an exploratory study aimed to compare the results in terms of beliefs, behaviors, and reactions associated with the vocational exploration process in adolescents whose parents have educational styles more or less responsive and demanding. Participants were 296 students, 109 (36.82%) girls and 187 (63.18%) boys, aged between 15 and 23 years (M=3.17; DP=1.45). These young people are attending the 10th, 11th, and 12th years of regular and professional educational institutions in the district of Leiria. We used the Career Exploration Survey (CES; Stumpf, Colarelli & Hartman, 1983; adapt. by Taveira, 1997) and the Parental Style Questionnaire (QEEP; Lamborn, Mounts, Steinberg & Dornbusch, 1991; adapt. by Ducharne Barbosa, Cruz, Large & Martin, 2006), to evaluate the vocational exploration process, and the parenting educational styles, respectively. Results indicate that girls understand their parents as adopting a style of education with more demanding. They also have more self and environment instrumental beliefs and more self-exploratory behaviors. Students from the 12th grade and students from professional schools understand their parents as being more responsive. Students from the 11th grade are those who have more certainty about the effectiveness of their exploratory behavior, and also a greater satisfaction with the quantity and quality of the exploration process. A more demanding style of education seems to positively influence the beliefs and behaviors of vocational exploration. Implications are drawn for the vocational intervention process with youth. Keywords: vocational exploration, parenting educational styles, influence, adolescents.
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In this research, to what extent the perceived parenthood style of emerging adults who are involved in a romantic relationship (flirt, dating, engagement) with the opposite gender at least 6 months in Turkey between the ages of 19-26 directly and via personality traits predict relationship satisfaction is studied. The data of the study was gathered from 417 emerging adults. Data was evaluated implementing independent sampling t-test, Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Bootstrap based on Regression according to the objectives of this study. In this study, when the research variables were examined according to gender, differences in emotional instability dimension and relationship satisfaction. According to the results in the relationship between acceptance perceived from the mother and relationship satisfaction in emerging adulthood, the mediation effect of emotional instability is revealed to be statistically important. Also, in the relationship between acceptance perceived from the father and relationship satisfaction in emerging adulthood, the mediation effects of emotional instability and openness to experience are seen to be statistically important. The direct and total effect of strict supervision and control on relationship satisfaction are seen to be statistically unimportant and that the personality features are not mediating in this relationship.
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ABSTRACT Proposed study seeks to investigate the relationship between authoritarian parents (parental criticism) and self-esteem of university undergraduates. It was hypothesized that i) Parental criticism (Father) will predict self-esteem in university students, ii) Parental criticism (mother) will predict self-esteem among university students, iii) There will be a gender difference on the variable of parental criticism, iv) There will be a gender difference in self-esteem among university students. For this purpose, a sample of 123 students (54 males & 69 females) from a private university was taken through convenient sampling. The age range of the sample fall between 18-24 years. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale which was given by Rosenberg in1965, Parental Authority Questionnaire given by John Buri in 1991 and Self-Developed Demographic form were used for data collection. Results showed that there is a significant role of parental criticism from both parents (father & mother) on the prediction of self-esteem (R2 = .203, F (1,121) = .000, p<.05) and (R2 = .101, F (1,121) = .000, p<.05) respectively. Moreover, there is a significance gender difference seen on the variable of authoritarian parents (critical parents) [t (121) =.000, p<0.05]. However, insignificant gender difference is seen on the variable of self-esteem [t (121) =.531, p>.05 & t (121) =.581, p>.05]. For the analysis of the results, regression, t-test and Pearson correlation were used. This study will help to bridge the gap of knowledge by educating parents regarding detrimental impact of parental criticism on the self-esteem of their offspring. Key words: Authoritarian parents, critical parents, self-esteem, parenting styles, university students.
Article
Relationships between parents’ cultural values and their children’s creativity were examined. A total of 333 Korean students (163 boys and 170 girls) with their parents (101 fathers and 232 mothers) participated in this study. Parents’ cultural values were measured by the EWPS-B, and children’s creativity was measured by the TTCT and the RIBS. The results showed that parents’ overemphasis on Asian cultural values, especially social conformity and unquestioned authority, negatively related to their children’s creativity. The results also showed that fathers’ overemphasis on cultural values predicted children’s creativity differently from, and more negatively than, mothers’ overemphasis.
Article
The relationship between bullying at school and cultural value orientation constitutes one of the most interesting topics in the international literature during the recent years. Media in Western countries, where individualist cultural values prevail, present collectivist societies as less sensitive towards individual freedom and individual needs. For this reason, they postulate that phenomena such as peer violence and bullying at school are more frequent and more intense in societies where individuals are subordinated to the coercion and expectations of the group. Some recent studies confirm the above rationale and attribute it to the authoritarian parental style that such societies adopt. however, some other studies support the idea that collectivism is a cultural orientation that aims to prevent individuals from getting involved in violent actions against the powerless. Power distance, a cultural dimension referring to the way that power is allocated among people, with either individualist or collectivist cultural values, seems to be the key for the clarification of this issue. Both individualism and collectivism can have a horizontal and a vertical dimension of power distance. horizontal power distance fosters equality and cooperation, whereas vertical power distance underlines hierarchy and submission to the directives of authority. The current paper aims to explore the relationship between the above variables presentingfindings from empirical research.
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In the last decades, consensus from laymen, scholars, and policy-makers has emphasized the role of child-parent relationships to promote child’s development and positive well-being. Parenting style was claimed as one of the crucial factors for the child’s positive adjustment. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles and child’s difficulties. The mediational role of parent’s perception of a difficult child on the above mentioned relation was taken into account. The study was carried out on a sample of 459 couples including mothers (n = 459) and fathers (n = 459) of children aged 2 to 10 years old who filled in the Parenting Styles & Dimensions Questionnaire short version, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and the Parenting Stress Index-short form. Main findings indicated that authoritative style was associated with less child’s maladjustment, while the authoritarian one showed the opposite association. These relationships were partially mediated by the perception of a difficult child, which partially explained the link between parenting style and child’s problems. Above and beyond the role of parent’s perception as a difficult child, parenting styles had an important effect on child’s difficulties. Future studies should replicate these results with other samples, use the spouse version of the parenting styles, control the effect of socio-economic status and other variables related to family functioning, as well as to consider the child’s perception regarding parents’ parenting style.
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