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The Development of the Academic Performance Rating Scale


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Investigated the normative and psychometric properties of a recently developed teacher checklist, the Academic Performance Rating Scale (APRS). Ss were 493 6–22 yr old urban elementary school children. The APRS was developed to assess teacher judgments of academic performance to identify the presence of academic skills deficits in students with disruptive behavior disorders and to continuously monitor changes in these skills associated with treatment. In a principal components analysis, a 3-factor solution was found for the APRS. All subscales were internally consistent, possessed adequate test-retest reliability, and shared variance with criterion measures of children's academic achievement, weekly classroom academic performance, and behavior. The total APRS score and all 3 subscales discriminated between children with and without classroom behavior problems according to teacher ratings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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School Psychology Review
Volume 20, No. 2,1991, pp. 284-300
George J. DuPaul Mark D. Rapport
University of Massachusetts University of Hawaii
Medical Center at Mama
Lucy M. Perriello
University of Massachusetts Medical Center
Abstract= This study investigated the normative and psychometric properties of
a recently developed teacher checklist, the Academic Pet=fomnance Rating Scale
(APRS), in a large sample of urban elementary school children. This instrument
was developed to assess teacher judgments of academic performance to identify
the presence of academic skills deficits in students with disruptive behavior
disorders and to continuously monitor changes in these skills associated with
treatment. A principal components analysis was conducted wherein a three-factor
solution was found for the APRS. All subscales were found to be internally
consistent, to possess adequate test-retest reliability, and to share variance with
criterion measures of children’s academic achievement, weekly classroom
academic performance, and behavior. The total APRS score and all three subscales
also were found to discriminate between children with and without classroom
behavior problems according to teacher ratings.
The academic performance and ad-
justment of school-aged children has come
under scrutiny over the past decade due
to concerns about increasing rates of
failure and poor standardized test scores
(Children’s Defense Fund, 1988; National
Commission on Excellence in Education,
1983). Reports indicate that relatively
large percentages of children (i.e., 20-30%)
experience academic difficulties during
their elementary school years (Glidewell
& Swallow, 1969; Rubin & Balow, 1978),
and these rates are even higher among
students with disruptive behavior dis-
orders (Cantwell & Satterfield, 1978;
Kazdin, 1986). Further, the results of
available longitudinal studies suggest that
youngsters with disruptive behavior
disorders and concurrent academic per-
formance dficulties are at higher risk for
poor long-term outcome (e.g., Weiss &
Hechtman, 1986).
These fmdings have direct implica-
tions for the assessment of the classroom
functioning of students with behavior
disorders. Specifically, it has become
increasingly important to screen for
possible academic skills deficits in this
population and monitor changes in aca-
demic performance associated with thera-
peutic interventions. Frequently, tradi-
tional measures of academic achievement
(e.g., standardized psychoeducational
batteries) are used as integral parts of the
diagnostic process and for long-term
assessment of academic success. Several
This project was supported in part by BRSG Grant SO7 RR05712 awarded to the first author by the Biomedical
Research Support Grant Program, Division of Research Resources, National Institutes of Health. A portion
of these results was presented at the annual convention of the National Association of School Psychologists,
April, 1990, in San Francisco, CA
The authors extend their appreciation to Craig Edelbrock and three anonymous reviewers for their helpful
comments on an earlier draft of this article and to Russ Barkley, Terri Shelton, Kenneth Fletcher, Gary
Stoner, and the teachers and principals of the Worcester MA Public Schools for their invaluable contributions
to this study.
Address all correspondence to George J. DuPaul, Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts
Medical Center, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655.
Academic Performance Rating Scale
factors limit the usefulness of norm-
referenced achievement tests for these
purposes, such as (a) a failure to sample
the curriculum in use adequately, (b) the
use of a limited number of items to sample
various skills, (c) the use of response
formats that do not require the student
to perform the behavior (e.g., writing) of
interest, (d) an insensitivity to small
changes in student performance, and (e)
limited contribution to decisions about
programmatic interventions (Marston,
1989; Shapiro, 1989).
Given the limitations of traditional
achievement tests, more direct measure-
ment methods have been utilized to screen
for academic skills deficits and monitor
intervention effects (Shapiro, 1989; Sha-
piro & Kratochwill, 1988.) Several meth-
ods are available to achieve these pur-
poses, including curriculum-based
measurement (Shinn, 1989), direct obser-
vations of classroom behavior (Shapiro &
Kratochwill, 1988), and calculation of
product completion and accuracy rates
(Rapport, DuPaul, Stoner, & Jones, 1986).
These behavioral assessment techniques
involve direct sampling of academic
behavior and have demonstrated sensitiv-
ity to the presence of skills deficits and
to treatment-induced change in such
performance (Shapiro, 1989).
In addition to these direct assessment
methods, teacher judgments of students’
achievement have been found to be quite
accurate in identifying children in need
of academic support services (Gresham,
Reschly, & Carey, 1987; Hoge, 1983). For
example, Gresham and colleagues (1987)
collected brief ratings from teachers
regarding the academic status of a large
sample of schoolchildren. These ratings
were highly accurate in classifying stu-
dents as learning disabled or non-handi-
capped and were significantly correlated
with student performance on two norm-
referenced aptitude and achievement
tests. In fact, teacher judgments were as
accurate in discriminating between these
two groups as the combination of the
standardized tests.
Although teacher judgments may be
subject to inherent biases (e.g., confirming
previous classification decisions), they
possess several advantages for both
screening and identification purposes.
Teachers are able to observe student
performance on a more comprehensive
sample of academic content than could
be included on a standardized achieve-
ment test. Thus their judgments provide
a more representative sample of the
domain of interest in academic assess-
ment (Gresham et al., 1987). Such judg-
ments also provide unique data regarding
the “teachability” (e.g., ability to succeed
in a regular education classroom) of
students (Gerber & Semmel, 1984). Fi-
nally, obtaining teacher input about a
student’s academic performance can
provide social validity data in support of
classification and treatment-monitoring
decisions. At the present time, however,
teachers typically are not asked for this
information in a systematic fashion, and
when available, such input is considered
to be highly suspect data (Gresham et al.,
Teacher rating scales are important
components of a multimodal assessment
battery used in the evaluation of the
diagnostic status and effects of treatment
on children with disruptive behavior
disorders (Barkley, 1988; Rapport, 1987).
Given that functioning in a variety of
behavioral domains (e.g., following rules,
academic achievement) across divergent
settings is often affected in children with
such disorders, it is important to include
information from multiple sources across
home and school environments. Unfortu-
nately, most of the available teacher rating
scales specifically target the frequency of
problem behaviors, with few, if any, items
related directly to academic performance.
Thus, the dearth of items targeting teacher
judgments of academic performance is a
major disadvantage of these measures
when screening for skills deficits or mon-
itoring of academic progress is a focus of
the assessment.
To address the exclusivity of the focus
on problem behaviors by most teacher
questionnaires, a small number of rating
scales have been developed in recent years
that include items related to academic
acquisition and classroom performance
variables. Among these are the Children’s
School Psychology Review, 7997, Vol. 20, No. 2
Behavior Rating &ale (Neeper & Lahey,
1986), Classroom Adjustment Ratings
Scale (Lorion, Cowen, & Caldwell, 1975),
Health Resources Inventory (Gesten,
1976), the Social Skills
Rating System
(Gresham & Elliott, 1990), the Teacher-
mild Rating Scale (Hightower et al.,
1986), and the WaZlCimneZZ Scale of
social Chphnceand SchoolAdjustment
(Walker & McConnell, 1988). These scales
have been developed primarily as screen-
ing and problem identification instru-
ments and all have demonstrated relia-
bility and validity for these purposes.
Although all of these questionnaires are
psychometrically sound, each scale pos-
sesses one or more of the following
characteristics that limit its utility for both
screening and progress monitoring of
academic skills deficits. These factors
include (a) items worded at too general
a level (e.g., “Produces work of acceptable
quality given her/his skills level”) to allow
targeting of academic completion and
accuracy rates across subject areas, (b)
a failure to establish validity with respect
to criterion-based measures of academic
success, and (c) requirements for comple-
tion (e.g., large number of items) that
detract from their appeal as instruments
that may be used repeatedly or on a weekly
basis for brief periods.
The need for a brief rating scale that
could be used to identify the presence of
academic skills deficits in students with
disruptive behavior disorders and to
monitor continuously changes in those
skills associated with treatment was
instrumental in the development of the
Academic Performance Rating Scale
(APRS). The APRS was designed to obtain
teacher perceptions of specific aspects
(e.g., completion and accuracy of work in
various subject areas) of a student’s
academic achievement in the context of
a multimodal evaluation paradigm which
would include more direct assessment
techniques (e.g., curriculum-based mea-
surement, behavioral observations). Be-
fore investigating the usefulness of this
measure for the above purposes, its
psychometric properties and technical
adequacy must be established. Thus, this
study describes the initial development of
the APRS and reports on its basic psy-
chometric properties with respect to
factor structure, internal consistency,
test-retest reliability, and criterion-related
validity. In addition, normative data by
gender across elementary school grade
levels were collected.
Subjects were children enrolled in the
first through sixth grades from 45 public
schools in Worcester, Massachusetts. This
system is an urban, lower middle-class
school district with a 28.5% minority
(African-American, Asian-American, and
Hispanic) population. Complete teacher
ratings were obtained for 493 children
(251 boys and 242 girls), which were
included in factor analytic and normative
data analyses. Children ranged in age from
to 12
years of age (M = 8.9; SD = 1.8).
A two-factor index of socioeconomic
status (Hollingshead, 1975) was obtained
with the relative percentages of subjects
in each class as follows: I (upper), 12.3%;
II (upper middle), 7.1%; III (middle),
45.5%; IV (lower middle), 26.3% and V
(lower), 8.8%.
A subsample of 50 children, 22 girls
and 28 boys, was randomly selected from
the above sample to participate in a study
of the validity of the APRS. Children at
all grade levels participated, with the
relative distribution of subjects across
grades as follows: first, 19%; second, 16%;
third, 17%; fourth, 17%; fifth, 13.5%; and
sixth, 17.5%. The relative distribution of
subjects across socioeconomic strata was
equivalent to that obtained in the original
The primary classroom teacher of
each participant completed two brief
measures: the APRS and Attention/‘h$i-
tit-Hperact+vity Disorder {ADHD] Rat-
ing Scale (DuPaul, in press). In addition,
teachers of the children participating in
the validity study completed the Abbre-
viated Canners Teacher Rating Scale
Academic Performance Rating Scale 287
(ACTRS); (Goyette, Conners, & Ulrich,
The APRS is a 19-item scale that
was developed to reflect teachers’ percep-
tions of children’s academic performance
and abilities in classroom settings (see
Appendix A). Thirty items were initially
generated based on suggestions provided
by several classroom teachers, school
psychologists, and clinical child psychol-
ogists. Of the original 30 items, 19 were
retained based on feedback from a sep-
arate group of classroom teachers, prin-
cipals, and school and child psychologists,
regarding item content validity, clarity,
and importance. The final version in-
cluded items directed towards work
performance in various subject areas (e.g.,
“Estimate the percentage of written math
work completed relative to classmates”),
academic success (e.g., “What is the quality
of this child’s reading skills?“), behavioral
control in academic situations (e.g., “How
often does the child begin written work
prior to understanding the directions?“),
and attention to assignments (e.g., “How
often is the child able to pay attention
without you prompting him/her?“). Two
additional items were included to assess
the frequency of staring episodes and
social withdrawal. Although the latter are
only tangentially related to the afore-
mentioned constructs, they were included
because “overfocused” attention (Kins-
bourne & Swanson, 1979) and reduced
social responding (Whalen, Henker, &
Granger, 1989) are emergent symptoms
associated with psychostimulant treat-
ment. Teachers answered each item using
a 1 (never or poor) to 5 (very often or
excellent) Likert scale format. Seven APRS
items (i.e., nos. 12,13,15- 19) were reverse-
keyed in scoring so that a higher total
score corresponded with a positive aca-
demic status.
ADHD Rating Scale.
The ADHD Rat-
ing Scale consists of 14 items directly
adapted from the ADHD symptom list in
the most recent edition of the Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
(DSM-III-R; American Psychiatric Associ-
ation, 1987). Teachers indicated the
frequency of each symptom on a 1 (not
at all) to 4 (very much) Likert scale with
higher scores indicative of greater ADHD-
related behavior. This scale has been
found to have adequate internal consis-
tency and test-retest reliability, and to
correlate with criterion measures of
classroom performance (DuPaul, in
The ACTRS (or Hyperactivity
Index) is a lo-item rating scale designed
to assess teacher perceptions of psycho-
pathology (e.g., hyperactivity, poor con-
duct, inattention) and is a widely used
index for identifying children at-risk for
ADHD and other disruptive behavior
disorders. It has adequate psychometric
properties and is highly sensitive to the
effects of psychopharmacological inter-
ventions (Barkley, 1988; Rapport, in
Observational measures.
participating in the validity study were
observed unobtrusively in their regular
classrooms by a research assistant who
was blind to obtained teacher rating scale
scores. Observations were conducted
during a time when each child was
completing independent seatwork (e.g.,
math worksheet, phonics workbook).
Observations were conducted for 20 min
with on-task behavior recorded for 60
consecutive intervals. Each interval was
divided into 15 s of observation followed
by 5 s for recording. A child’s behavior was
recorded as on or off-task in the same
manner as employed by Rapport and
colleagues (1982). A child was considered
off-task if (s)he exhibited visual nonatten-
tion to written work or the teacher for
more than 2 consecutive seconds within
each 15 s observation interval, unless the
child was engaged in another task-
appropriate behavior (e.g., sharpening a
pencil). The observer was situated in a
part of the classroom that avoided direct
eye contact with the target child, but at
a distance that allowed easy determina-
tion of on-task behavior. This measure was
included as a partial index of academic
engaged time which has been shown to
be significantly related to academic
achievement (Rosenshine, 1981).
288 School Psychology Review, 7997, Vol. 20, No. 2
Academic efficiency score.
seatwork was assigned by each child’s
classroom teacher at a level consistent
with the teacher’s perceptions of the
child’s ability level with the stipulation
that the assignment be gradeable in terms
of percentage completed and percentage
accurate. Assignments were graded after
the observation period by the research
assistant and teacher, the latter of whom
served as the reliability observer for
academic measures. An academic effi-
ciency score (AES) was calculated in a
manner identical to that employed by
Rapport and colleagues (1986) whereby
the number of items’ completed correctly
by the child was divided by the number
of items assigned to the class multiplied
by 100. This statistic represents the mean
weekly percentage of academic assign-
ments completed correctly relative to
classmates and was used as the class-
room-based criterion measure of aca-
demic performance.
Published norm-referenced achieve-
ment test scores.
The results of school-
based norm-referenced achievement tests
(i.e., Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills;
CTB/McGraw-Hill, 1982) were obtained
from the school records of each student
in the validity sample. These tests are
administered routinely on a group basis
in the fall or spring of each school year.
National percentile scores from the most
recent administration (i.e., within the past
year) of this test were recorded for
Mathematics, Reading, and Language
Regular education teachers from 300
classrooms for grades 1 through 6 were
asked to complete the APRS and ADHD
rating scales with regard to the perfor-
mance of two children in their class.
Teachers from elementary schools in all
parts of the city of Worcester participated
(ie., a return rate of 93.5%) resulting in
a sample that included children from all
socio-economic strata. Teachers were
instructed by one of the authors on which
students to assess (i.e., one boy and girl
randomly selected from class roster), to
complete APRS ratings according to each
child’s academic performance during the
previous week, and that responses on the
ADHD scale were to reflect the child’s
usual behavior over the year. Teacher
ratings for the large sample (N= 487) were
obtained within a l-month period in the
early spring, to ensure familiarity with the
student’s behavior.
A subsample of 50 children was
selected randomly from the larger sample
and parent consent for participation in
the validity study was procured. Teacher
ratings for this subsample were obtained
within a 3-month period in the late winter
and early spring. Teacher ratings on the
APRS were randomly obtained for half of
the sample participating in the validity
study (n = 25) on a second occasion, 2
weeks after the original administration of
this scale, to assess test-retest reliability.
Ratings reflected children’s academic
performance over the previous week The
research assistant completed the behav-
ioral observations and collected AES data
on 3 separate days (i.e., a total of 60 min
of observation) during the same week that
APRS, ADHD, and ACIRS ratings were
completed. Means (across the 3 observa-
tion days) for percentage on-task and AES
scores were used in the data analyses.
Interobserver reliability.
The research
assistant was trained by the first author
to an interobserver reliability of 90% or
greater prior to conducting live observa-
tions using videotapes of children com-
pleting independent work. Reliability
coefficients for on-task percentage were
calculated by dividing agreements by
agreements plus disagreements and mul-
tiplying by 100%. Interobserver reliability
also was assessed weekly throughout the
data collection phase of the study using
videotapes of 10 individual children (who
were participants in the validity study)
completing academic work during one of
the observation sessions. Interobserver
reliability was consistently above 80% with
a mean of 90% for all children. A mean
Kappa coefficient (Cohen, 1960) of .74 was
obtained for all observations to indicate
reliability beyond chance levels. Following
Academic Performance Rating Scale 289
each observation period, the teacher and
assistant independently calculated the
amount of work completed by the student
relative to classmates and the percentage
of items completed correctly. Interrater
reliability for these measures was consis-
tently above 96% with a mean reliability
of 99%.
Several analyses will be presented to
explicate the psychometric properties of
the APRS. First, the factor structure of this
instrument was determined to aid in the
construction of subscales. Second, the
internal consistency and stability of APRS
scores were examined. Next, gender and
grade comparisons were conducted to
identify the effects these variables may
have on APRS ratings as well as to provide
normative data. Finally, the concurrent
validity of the APRS was evaluated by
calculating correlation coefficients be-
tween rating scale scores and the criterion
Factor Structure of the APRS
The APRS was factor analyzed using
a principal components analysis followed
by a normalized varimax rotation with
iterations (Bernstein, 1988). As shown in
Table 1, three components with eigen-
values greater than unity were extracted,
accounting for approximately 68% of the
variance: Academic Success (7 items),
Impulse Control (3 items), and Academic
Productivity (12 items). The factor struc-
ture replicated across halved random
subsamples (i.e., n = 242 and 246, respec-
tively). Congruence coefficients (Harman,
1976) between similar components
ranged from 84 to .98 with a mean of .92,
indicating a high degree of similarity in
factor structure across subsamples. Items
with loadings of 60 or greater on a specific
component were retained to keep the
number of complex items (i.e., those with
significant loadings on more than one
factor) to a minimum. In subsequent
analyses, factor (subscale) scores were
calculated in an unweighted fashion with
complex items included on more than one
subscale (e.g., items 3-6 included on both
the Academic Success and Academic
Productivity subscales).
Given that the APRS was designed to
evaluate the unitary construct of aca-
demic performance, it was expected that
the derived factors would be highly
correlated. This hypothesis was confirmed
as the intercorrelations among Academic
Success and Impulse Control, Academic
Success and Academic Productivity, and
Impulse Control and Academic Produc-
tivity were .69, .88, and .63, respectively.
Despite the high degree of overlap between
the Academic Success and Productivity
components (Le., items reflecting accu-
racy and consistency of work correlated
with both), examination of the factor
loadings revealed some important differ-
ences (see Table 1). Specifically, the
Academic Success factor appears related
to classroom performance outcomes, such
as the quality of a child’s academic
achievement, ability to learn material
quickly, and recall skills. Alternatively, the
Academic Productivity factor is asso-
ciated with behaviors that are important
in the pocess of achieving classroom
success, including completion of work,
following instructions accurately, and
ability to work independently in a timely
Internal Consistency
Reliability of the AIRS
Coefficient alphas were calculated to
determine the internal consistency of the
APRS and its subscales. The results of
these analyses demonstrated adequate
internal consistencies for the Total APRS
(.96), as well as for the Academic Success
(.94) and Academic Productivity (.94)
subscales. The internal consistency of the
Impulse Control subscale was weaker
(.72). Subsequently, the total sample was
randomly subdivided (i.e., n = 242 and 246,
respectively) into two independent sub-
samples. Coefficient alphas were calcu-
lated for all APRS scores within each
subsample with results nearly identical to
the above obtained.
Test-retest reliability data were ob-
tained for a subsample of 26 children
School Psychology Review, 7997, Vol. 20, No. 2
Factor Structure of the Academic Performance Rating Scale
Scale Item Academic Impulse
Success Control Academic
I. Math work completed
2. language Arts completed
3. Math work accuracy
4. Language Arts accuracy
5. Consistency of work
6. Follows group instructions
7. Follows small-group instructions
8. Learns material quickly
9. Neatness of handwriting
10. Quality of reading
11. Quality of speaking
12. Careless work completion
13. Time to complete work
14. Attention without prompts
15. Requires assistance
16. Begins work carelessly
17. Recall difficulties
18. Stares excessively
19. Social withdrawal
Estimate of % variance
Note: Underlined values indicate items included in the factor named in the column head.
(with both genders and all grades repre-
sented) across a 2-week interval as
described previously. The reliability coef-
ficients were uniformly high for the Total
APRS Score (.95), and Academic Success
(.91), Impulse Control (.88), and Aca-
demic Productivity (.93) subscales. Since
rating scale scores can sometimes %n-
prove” simply as a function of repeated
administrations (Barkley, 1988), the two
mean scores for each scale were compared
using separate t-tests for correlated
measures. Scores for each APRS scale were
found to be equivalent across administra-
tions with t-test results, as follows: Total
APRS Score (t( 24) = 1.24, N.S.), Academic
Success (t( 24) = 1.31, N.S.), Academic
Productivity (t(24) = 1.32, N.S.), and
Impulse Control (t(24) = .15, N.S.).
Gender and Grade Comparisons
Teacher ratings on the APRS were
broken down by gender and grade level
to (a) assess the effects of these variables
on APRS ratings and (b) provide norma-
tive comparison data. The means and
standard deviations across grade levels for
APRS total and subscale scores are
presented for girls and boys in Table 2.
A 2 (Gender) x 6 (Grade) multivariate
analysis of variance (MANOVA) was
conducted employing APRS scores as the
dependent variables. Significant multivar-
iate effects were obtained for the main
effect of Gender (Wilk’s Lambda = .95; fl4,
472) = 6.20, p < .OOl) and the interaction
between Gender and Grade (Wilk’s
Lambda = .93; F(20,1566) = 1.61,~ < .95).
Separate 2 x 6 univariate analyses of
Academic Performance Rating Scale
Means and Standard Deviations for the APRS by Grade and Gender
Grade Total
Score Academic
Success Impulse
Control Academic
Grade1 (n =82)
Girls (n = 40)
Boys(n=42) 67.02 (16.27) 23.92 (7.37) 9.76 (2.49) 44.68 (10.91)
71.95 (16.09) 26.86 (6.18) 10.67 (2.82) 46.48 (11.24)
Girls (n = 46)
Boys(n =45)
Grade 3 (n = 92)
Girls (n = 43)
Boys (n =49)
Grade4(n =79)
12.33) 26.61 (5.55) 10.15 (2.70) 47.85
14.86) 25.24 (6.15) 9.56 (2.72) 44.30
14.43) 25.07 (6.07 10.86 (2.65) 47.88
16.96) 25.26 (6.53) 9.27 (2.67) 45.61
Girls (n = 38) 67.79 (18.69) 24.08 (7.56) 10.36 (2.91) 44.26
Boys (n=41) 69.77 (15.83) 25.35 (6.50) 9.83 (2.77) 45.71
Girls (n = 44) 73.02 (14.10) 26.11 (6.01) 10.76 (2.34) 48.36
Boys(n =35) 63.68 (18.04) 23.14 (7.31) 8.69 (2.82) 42.40 (12.47)
Grade6(n =70)
Girls (n = 31)
Boys (n =39) 74.10 (14.45) 26.59 (6.26) 10.79 (2.25) 48.77 ( 9.13)
65.24 (12.39) 23.75 (5.90) 9.05 (2.35) 43.59 ( 8.19)
Note: Standard deviations are in parentheses.
variance (ANOVAs) were conducted sub-
sequently for each of the APRS scores to
determine the source of obtained multiv-
ariate effects. A main effect for Gender
was obtained for the APRS Total score
(fll, 476) = 6.37,
< .05), Impulse Control
(F(1, 475) = 16.79,
< .OOl), and Aca-
demic Productivity (fll, 475) = 6.95,
p <
.05) subscale scores. For each of these
scores, girls obtained higher ratings than
boys, indicating greater teacher-rated
academic productivity and behavioral
functioning among girls. No main effect
for Gender was obtained on Academic
Success subscale scores. Finally, a signif-
icant interaction between Gender and
Grade was obtained for the APRS Total
score (F(5,476) = 2.68,
< .05), Academic
Success (F(5, 475) = 2.63,
< .05), and
Impulse Control (e&475) = 3.59,
p <
subscale scores. All other main and
interaction effects were nonsignificant.
Simple effects tests were conducted
to elucidate Gender effects within each
Grade level for those variables where a
significant interaction was obtained.
Relatively similar results were obtained
across APRS scores. Gender effects were
found only within grades 6 (fll, 475) =
< .Ol) and 6 (fly, 475) = 6.61,
< .05) for the APRS total score. Alterna-
tively, gender differences on the Academic
Success subscale were obtained solely
within grades 1 (F(1,475) = 4.24,
p < .05)
and 5 (F(1, 475) = 4.14,
p < .05).
results indicate that girls in the first and
f&h grades were rated as more academ-
ically competent than boys. Significant
differences between boys and girls in
Impulse Control scores were also found
within grades 3 (fll, 475) = 8.73,
p <
5 (F(1,475) = 12.24,~ < .OOl), and 6 (F(I,
475) = 8.06,
< .Ol) with girls judged to
exhibit greater behavioral control in these
three grades. All other simple effects tests
were nonsignificant.
School Psychology Review, 7997, Vol. 20, No. 2
Correlations Between APRS Scores
Criterion Measures
Measures Total Academic
Score Success Impulse
Control Academic
ADHD Ratings
On Task Percentage
CTBS Reading
CTBS Language
9.43’” 0.49”” ,.&4***
-.72*** 0.59”’ -.61*** 0.72”“”
.29* .22 .24 .31*
.53*** .26 .41** .57***
.48*** .62*** .28 .39**
.53*** .62*** .34* 44’”
.53*** .61*** .41** .45**
‘Abbreviated Conners Teacher Rating Scale.
bCorrelations are based on N = 50 with degrees of freedom = 48.
‘Academic Efficiency Score.
"pC.05 **p<.o1 -p < .ool
Note: National percentile scores were used for all Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) subscales.
Relationships Among APRS Scores
and Criterion Measures
The relationships among all APRS
scores and several criterion measures
were examined to determine the concur-
rent validity of the APRS. Criterion
measures included two teacher rating
scales (ACTRS, ADHD Rating Scale), direct
observations of on-task behavior, percent-
age of academic assignments completed
correctly @ES), and norm-referenced
achievement test scores (CTBS reading,
math, and language). Pearson product-
moment correlations among these mea-
sures are presented in Table 3. Overall, the
absolute values of obtained correlation
coefficients ranged from .22 to .72 with
24 out of 28 coefficients achieving statis-
tical significance. Further, the APRS Total
Score and Academic Productivity subscale
were found to share greater than 36% of
the variance with the AES, ACTRS, and
ADHD Rating Scale. The Academic Success
subscale shared an average of 38% of the
variance of CTBS scores. Weaker correla-
tions were obtained between APRS scores
and direct observations of on-task behav-
ior with only an average of 7.2% of the
latter’s variance accounted for.
Divergent Validity of the APRS
Correlation coefficients between
APRS scores and criterion measures were
calculated with ACTRS ratings partialled
out to statistically control for variance
attributable to teacher ratings of problem
behavior (see Table 4). Significant rela-
tionships remained between APRS aca-
demic dimensions (i.e., Total Score, Aca-
demic Success, and Academic Pro-
ductivity subscales) and performance
measures such as AES and achievement
test scores. As expected, partialling out
ACTRS scores reduced the correlations
between the Impulse Control subscale and
criterion measures to nonsignificant
levels. None of the partial correlations
with ADHD ratings and on-task percent-
age were statistically significant, indicat-
ing that these criterion measures were
more related to teacher perceptions of a
child’s behavioral control than to his or
her academic performance. The Academic
Success subscale continued to share 26%
or greater of the variance of CTBS scores
when ACIDS scores were partialled out.
In addition, the Total APRS score and the
Academic Productivity subscale shared 9%
of the variance with AES beyond that
accounted for by teacher ratings of
problem behavior.