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Treating and Preventing Alcohol, Nicotine, and Drug Abuse Through Transcendental Meditation:

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Abstract

Contends that the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program provides a holistic, natural, and effective treatment that impacts social, environmental, physiological, psychological, and spiritual factors that can influence addictive behavior. The problem of substance dependence and the limitations of current drug treatment approaches are described. A theoretical framework, the Vedic psychology of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, and supporting research for understanding how TM may be used to address the multiple causes of addiction are provided. A qualitative review and statistical meta-analysis of 19 studies summarize the effects of TM on alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use and compare the outcomes of TM with relaxation and standard treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... (Maharishi 1966, pp. 124-125) In order to test the theory of improved human behaviour as a result of applying Maharishi Vedic Science, research has focused on a range of lifestyle choices, including findings which confirm decreased need for anti-depressants (3:247), decreased use of cigarettes (Alexander et al. 1994;1:80, 1:84, 2:150, 2:153, 2:161, 2:162, 2:163, 3:239, 3:247, 3:276, 3:280, 3:287, 5:399), decreased use of alcohol (Alexander et al. 1994;1:73, 1:80, 1:83, 1:84, 1:85, 1:95, 2:126, 2:150, 2:153, 2:162, 2:163, 3:239, 3:247, 3:282, 3:287, 4:313, 5:399), increased intrinsic unifying ability, directedness and spirituality (5:395), increased moral reasoning and moral maturity (1:91, 3:265, 3:270, 4:309) and reduced use of nonprescribed drugs (Alexander et al. 1994;1:73, 1:79, 1:80, 1:81, 1:82, 1:84, 1:85, 1:86, 1:89, 1:90, 1:95, 2:153, 2:161, 2:162, 2:163, 3:239, 3:247, 3:277, 3:282, 3:287). Moreover, research has identified a distinct correlation between high EEG coherence and both high levels of principled moral reasoning and a unified, "cosmic" perspective on life (3:223). ...
... (Maharishi 1966, pp. 124-125) In order to test the theory of improved human behaviour as a result of applying Maharishi Vedic Science, research has focused on a range of lifestyle choices, including findings which confirm decreased need for anti-depressants (3:247), decreased use of cigarettes (Alexander et al. 1994;1:80, 1:84, 2:150, 2:153, 2:161, 2:162, 2:163, 3:239, 3:247, 3:276, 3:280, 3:287, 5:399), decreased use of alcohol (Alexander et al. 1994;1:73, 1:80, 1:83, 1:84, 1:85, 1:95, 2:126, 2:150, 2:153, 2:162, 2:163, 3:239, 3:247, 3:282, 3:287, 4:313, 5:399), increased intrinsic unifying ability, directedness and spirituality (5:395), increased moral reasoning and moral maturity (1:91, 3:265, 3:270, 4:309) and reduced use of nonprescribed drugs (Alexander et al. 1994;1:73, 1:79, 1:80, 1:81, 1:82, 1:84, 1:85, 1:86, 1:89, 1:90, 1:95, 2:153, 2:161, 2:162, 2:163, 3:239, 3:247, 3:277, 3:282, 3:287). Moreover, research has identified a distinct correlation between high EEG coherence and both high levels of principled moral reasoning and a unified, "cosmic" perspective on life (3:223). ...
... (Maharishi 1966, pp. 124-125) In order to test the theory of improved human behaviour as a result of applying Maharishi Vedic Science, research has focused on a range of lifestyle choices, including findings which confirm decreased need for anti-depressants (3:247), decreased use of cigarettes (Alexander et al. 1994;1:80, 1:84, 2:150, 2:153, 2:161, 2:162, 2:163, 3:239, 3:247, 3:276, 3:280, 3:287, 5:399), decreased use of alcohol (Alexander et al. 1994;1:73, 1:80, 1:83, 1:84, 1:85, 1:95, 2:126, 2:150, 2:153, 2:162, 2:163, 3:239, 3:247, 3:282, 3:287, 4:313, 5:399), increased intrinsic unifying ability, directedness and spirituality (5:395), increased moral reasoning and moral maturity (1:91, 3:265, 3:270, 4:309) and reduced use of nonprescribed drugs (Alexander et al. 1994;1:73, 1:79, 1:80, 1:81, 1:82, 1:84, 1:85, 1:86, 1:89, 1:90, 1:95, 2:153, 2:161, 2:162, 2:163, 3:239, 3:247, 3:277, 3:282, 3:287). Moreover, research has identified a distinct correlation between high EEG coherence and both high levels of principled moral reasoning and a unified, "cosmic" perspective on life (3:223). ...
Article
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The Jain tradition of ecological awareness and sustainability has been well documented over the last 25 years, although its roots lie deep in Indian history, specifically in texts such as the Tattvārtha Sūtra and Ācārāṇga Sūtra. This traditional body of knowledge includes a long-standing theory and practice of personal, social and environmental sustainability, addressing such views as the interconnectedness of humans and the laws of nature, the interdependence of everything in the universe, the responsibility of humans to conserve and preserve natural resources, the avoidance of wanton and unnecessary waste generation, and a general aversion to mistreating or abusing the environment. These views encapsulate the lifestyles of some ten million people, including both mendicants and laity. Similarly, Maharishi Vedic Science, the systematic exploration and practical application of the Veda and Vedic Literature as taught by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, makes a compelling case for establishing the unity of human life with nature and for promoting actions which guarantee both the protection of nature and protection by it. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the principles of sustainability in Jainism and the corresponding viewpoint of Maharishi Vedic Science, including supporting scientific evidence of its application, and to posit their contribution to a sustainable world future.
... The first empirical studies on meditation and substance abuse came from practitioners of the transcendental meditation (TM) technique (Benson, 1975;Marcus, 1974). As of 1994, there have been over 30 studies investigating the effectiveness of TM as a treatment for alcohol and drug problems (Alexander et al., 1994), with all of these studies demonstrating some positive effect of TM in reducing alcohol and drug use (see Alexander et al., 1994 for a review). Over 25 years ago, Marlatt and Marques (1977) began using meditation as an intervention for high-risk drinkers with anecdotal success. ...
... The first empirical studies on meditation and substance abuse came from practitioners of the transcendental meditation (TM) technique (Benson, 1975;Marcus, 1974). As of 1994, there have been over 30 studies investigating the effectiveness of TM as a treatment for alcohol and drug problems (Alexander et al., 1994), with all of these studies demonstrating some positive effect of TM in reducing alcohol and drug use (see Alexander et al., 1994 for a review). Over 25 years ago, Marlatt and Marques (1977) began using meditation as an intervention for high-risk drinkers with anecdotal success. ...
Chapter
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From a consumer choice perspective (Marlatt & Witkiewitz, 2002), the development of less theistic, more tolerant, and non-stigmatizing alternatives to the current substance abuse treatment systems is warranted. In this chapter we provide an introduction to an alternative spirituality-based treatment, Vipassana meditation. This form of treatment may fill the treatment gap for those who would benefit from a spirituality-based approach but do not wish to participate in AA. First we review the concepts of spirituality, meditation and mindfulness, followed by an overview to the process of Vipassana meditation. The link between spirituality, mindfulness, and addiction is discussed, with a particular emphasis on the cognitive, behavioral, and neurobiological mechanisms that may be affected by mindfulness. We then describe preliminary data from two empirical studies investigating the psychological functioning and substance use of incarcerated and non-incarcerated participants following a 10-day Vipassana course.
... This paper reviews evidence supporting the use of alternative healing approaches based in ASC as adjuncts to substance abuse programs. It reviews the rationale for addressing addiction in the context of ASC (McPeake et al., 1991;Metzner, 1994;Miller, 1998a); presents principal aspects of the application of ethnomedical healing practices to substance abuse rehabilitation derived from cross-cultural reviews (Jilek, 1994;Heggenhougen, 1997); assesses some studies and meta-analyses that provided evidence of the effectiveness of an ASC (transcendental meditation) in substance abuse rehabilitation (Gelderloos et al., 1991;Alexander et al., 1994;O'Connell and Alexander, 1994;Walton and Levitsky, 1994); and summarizes material that illustrates the potential of shamanic therapies for addressing substance abuse (Lex and Schor, 1977;Miller, 1998a;Rioux, 1996;Smith, 1994Smith, , 2000Winkelman, 2000). ...
... Several researchers (Gelderloos et al., 1991;O'Connell, 1991;Alexander et al., 1994) have provided reviews and meta-analyses of the benefits of transcendental meditation (TM) in treating substance abuse. TM influences both psychological factors underlying addictive behaviors and the disposing physiological processes involved in maintaining addiction (Walton and Levitsky, 1994). ...
Article
Analysis of the relationship of altered states of consciousness (ASC) to culture and human psychobiology provides guidance for new approaches for addressing substance abuse and dependence. While Western cultures have a long history of repressing ASC, cross-cultural research illustrates the ubiquitous human drive to alter consciousness and the near universality of institutionalized healing practices based on ASC. These may reflect adaptive mechanisms that do not operate in contemporary societies as they did in the human past. Effectiveness of ASC procedures in treating substance dependence is found in ethnomedical treatments of addiction, the addiction literature, Alcoholics Anonymous, and the physiological effects of shamanistic practices. A review of shamanic therapeutic mechanisms illustrates their applicability to addressing the psychodynamics of drug addiction. The utility of natural ASC practices to reduce substance dependence problems is illustrated by clinical research on the treatment of drug dependence through the use of meditative practice and models of their psychobiological dynamics. Shamanistic practices induce the relaxation response, enhance theta-wave production, and stimulate endogenous opioid and serotonergic mechanisms and their mood elevating effects. Directions of a shamanic based ASC therapy for drug dependence are suggested.
... A large number of other psychological studies have shown many different improvements such as reduced depression, increased intelligence, and increased self-actualization. In addition, studies have shown reduced cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and substance abuse, lower prison recidivism, increased productivity, and improved work and personal relationships in business [62][63][64]. These studies include a wide variety of conditions, which include both reacting to and coping with different types and amounts of stress. ...
... Is it possible to develop optimal functioning of human homeostatic processes? Further studies on TM may give us an understanding of how this one simple habit can simultaneously improve so many areas of our health, including decreasing certain negative habits such as addiction to cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs (see Figure 1) [63]. ...
Article
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In our increasingly stressed world, especially with the COVID-19 pandemic, the activation of the threat network in everyday situations can adversely affect our mental and physical health. Neurophysiological response to these threats/challenges depends on the type of challenge and the individual’s neuroadaptability. Neuroadaptability is defined as the ability of the nervous system to alter responsiveness over time to reoccurring stimuli. Neuroadaptability differs from neuroplasticity, which is more inclusive and refers to the ability of the nervous system to change and learn from any experience. We examine neuroadaptability and how it affects health from the perspective of modern medicine and Ayurveda.
... The findings showed that the experienced yoga meditators exhibited higher activity at higher frequencies (beta and particularly gamma) within all experimental conditions and that this effect was significantly enhanced during yoga meditation [2]. Moreover, numerous studies have investigated transcendental meditation (TM) (Hindu meditation) and its positive effects [3]. As a result of such scientific evidence, people of different beliefs have begun to learn various types of meditation in academic institutions. ...
... The results are summarized in Table III and are divided into three categories. The first category consists of all subjects with precursor emotions of either fear or sadness (negative valence) whose emotions changed to either happiness or calmness (positive emotions) after listening to the music for one or more tracks; this group includes subjects (1,2,3,4,5,6,11,12,13,14,16,18,19,22, and 23). For example, subject 1 initially exhibited sadness, and his emotion transformed to calmness for tracks 1 and 3 and happiness for track 2. The second category consists of those subjects with a negative precursor emotion (fear or sadness) whose emotions remained in the negative quadrants after listening to the music tracks; this group consist of subjects (4, 17, 20, 24, and 25). ...
... Several earlier studies have independently corroborated these notions. It has been shown that self-esteem as well as the sense of control and determination improved after meditation.[10] Reduction in crime rate after transcendental meditation (TM) supported the effect of a calm state of mind on social health.[11] ...
Article
Academic excellence is essential to provide opportunities for students to work together to improve their understanding of concepts in their academic core. Academic excellence helps students to teach problem-solving and collaborative learning strategies. The objective of this study was to assess Guna (personality traits) in students undergoing Yoga Instructor's Course (YIC). In all, 68 YIC students with a mean age of 28.03 ± 9.38 years participated in this single group pre-post study. The Personality Inventory data were collected before (pre) and after (post) the YIC. Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16. The data analysis showed 11.33% decrease (P < 0.01) in Tamas Guna (dull personality trait), 0.68% decrease (P =0.819) in Rajas Guna (violent personality trait), and 10.34% increase (P <0.01) in Sattva Guna (balanced personality trait) scores. This study suggests that YIC can result in the improvement of Sattva Guna (balance personality trait) among students, thus paving the way for their academic excellence.
... Research in the field of personality and behavior documents improved productivity, increased job satisfaction, and improved work relationships in employment settings; reduced anxiety; better recovery from stress; reduced substance dependence; and increased self-actualization (Alexander et al., , 1993(Alexander et al., , 1994Brooks & Scarano, 1985;Eppley et al., 1989;Frew, 1974). ...
Article
The founding and enduring purpose of Maharishi University of Management (Maharishi International University from 1971 to 1995) is expressed in its first catalog: "to achieve the highest ideal of education and solve the age-old problems of mankind in this generation." The highest ideal of education, as conceived by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, is the development of higher consciousness—the spontaneous display of the full potential of the individual. Maharishi regards the age- old problems of mankind as arising directly from lack of knowledge and experience of higher consciousness; in Maharishi's words, the cause of suffering in any society throughout the ages is that "the field of knowledge is weak." Education in other campuses has not provided knowledge of the unlimited intelligence and organizing power innate in human awareness and physiology. Even more critically, it has not provided the means to awaken this knowledge and organizing power in every individual, so that thinking and action are increasingly progressive, life-nourishing, and fulfilling. This is what Maharishi University of Management provides—knowledge and experience of consciousness are its distinction. In these 25 years the University has educated thousands of students in a broad range of disciplines and professions, maintaining high standards of scholarship, research, and academic performance. Scientific studies document the special qualities of intelligence, creativity, and self- actualization developed in the students. Follow-up studies show the remarkable achievements of the graduates. Extensive scientific research attests to the unique effectiveness of its educational system, whose foundation is the knowledge and experience of consciousness. Theme of this Introduction: 25 Years of Progress in Maharishi's Science of Consciousness
... Furthermore, extensive research has shown that there is an even more powerful influence of harmony and coherence generated in the whole society when the Transcendental Meditation technique and the advanced TM-Sidhi program, including Yogic Flying, is practiced in a group equal to, or exceeding, the square root of 1% of the population. Many of these studies have been published in independent refereed journals such as Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly (8), The Journal of Offender Rehabilitation (9), Criminal Justice and Behavior (10), and the Journal of Conflict Resolution (11) to name but a few. ...
Article
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Consciousness-Based education offers, in addition to the study of traditional academic disciplines, technologies of consciousness, including the Transcendental Meditation technique, that unlock the hidden reserves of the brain. Extensive scientific research, together with direct application in hundreds of schools and colleges worldwide, confirms that students receiving a Consciousness-Based education exhibit increased receptivity, creativity, and intelligence, together with reduced stress and anxiety. The result is superior academic outcomes, better health, and improved social behavior.
... For example, studies have shown that mindfulness meditation can foster the production of antibodies. 17 In addition, meta-analytic evidence indicates that transcendental meditation is beneficial for treating substance abuse 18 and helpful for reducing increased blood pressure. 19 Finally, a meta-analysis on meditation has reported medium effect sizes for stress-related constructs, such as anxiety. ...
Article
Objectives: In line with the growing interest in integrated health care approaches, both nonindigenous (e.g., Western) and indigenous people are participating in healing ceremonies. However, little is known about the potential health-related benefit of healing ceremonies. Thus, the current study sought to close this gap in the literature by exploring the effect of healing ceremonies on participant's self-rated quality of life. Design: Data were gathered at three time points (T1: 4 weeks before ceremony; T2: 2 days before ceremony; T3: 4 weeks after ceremony). Participants: 25 persons with various diseases participated in the healing ceremony. Interventions: A 6-hour healing ceremony was conducted. Outcome measures: Mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual quality of life were assessed. Results: Participation in a healing ceremony increased mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual quality of life. Conclusions: As part of integrative health care, healing ceremonies are potentially useful for fostering participants' quality of life.
... A more recent RCT, however, found that decreases in total cholesterol and lipoproteins in the TM group were not statistically significant, possibly due to a floor effect due to normal levels at baseline in addition to a 60% statin usage [49]. [43] reported that TM was more effective than standard rehabilitation programs and other selfdevelopment techniques, in reducing the tobacco use. As there is no attempt to change health habits in the course of TM instruction, this shift to more positive lifestyle choice is spontaneous -possibly related to the increased brain integration [44] and normalisation of the neurochemistry with regular TM practice [45]. ...
Article
Objectives: Despite advances in modern medicine, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Australia and globally. In a recently published scientific statement on alternative methods to lower blood pressure (BP), the American Heart Association (AHA) reported that the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique may be considered in clinical practice to lower BP. The AHA statement also reported research that TM may reduce heart attack, stroke and death in CVD patients. This article reviews the background and associated evidence for these effects. Design and methods: Meta-analyses, systematic reviews and controlled clinical studies on the effects of TM technique on cardiovascular disease and its risk factors were reviewed and the outcomes synthesised. Results: Clinical trials indicate that the TM technique has a positive impact on pathophysiological mechanisms of CVD; risk factors for CVD including hypertension, psychosocial stress and smoking; surrogate markers for CVD; and CVD clinical events. Conclusions: The wide range of effects of TM practice on cardiovascular health suggests that the TM technique may be considered in clinical applications for both the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
... Unlike mindfulness meditation, whose goal is awareness and acceptance of the whole field of consciousness, TM consists of repeating a mantra silently to oneself. It has been suggested that TM could be a treatment for drug and alcohol addiction (e.g., Alexander, Robinson, & Rainforth 1994), but few of the studies have been randomized controlled trials (Hawkins, 2003). In contrast to TM research in prison, studies examining mindfulness meditation in prison have been limited. ...
Article
By some estimates, more than half of inmates held in jails and prisons in the United States have a substance use disorder. Treatments involving the teaching of meditation and other contemplative practices have been developed for a variety of physical and mental disorders, including drug and alcohol addiction. At the same time, an expanding volunteer movement across the country has been bringing meditation and yoga into jails and prisons. This review first examines the experimental research on one such approach-mindfulness meditation as a treatment for drug and alcohol addiction, as well as the research on mindfulness in incarcerated settings. We argue that to make a substantial impact on recidivism, such programs must mirror volunteer programs which emphasize interdependency and non-duality between the "helper" and the "helped," and the building of meditation communities both inside and outside of prison. © The Author(s) 2015.
... Wyniki wielu badań sugerują, że medytacja (mindfulness, jak i transcendentalna) obniża skłonność do agresywnych zachowań, redukuje impulsywność i sztywność poznawczą. Świadczą o tym wyniki badań na więźniach, u których stosowanie medytacji transcedentalnej istotnie obniżyło ponowne dokonywanie przestępstw w okresie do 6 lat po opuszczeniu ośrodka penitencjarnego (Alexander, Robinson i Rainforth, 1994). Badania z wykorzystaniem funkcjonalnego rezonansu magnetycznego (fMRI) osób, które deklarowały palenie co najmniej 10 papierosów dziennie, wykazały, że stosowanie podstawowych technik midfulness podczas wizualizacji przedmiotu pożądania (papierosa) zmniejsza zarówno deklaratywną potrzebę, jak i aktywność neuronalną obszarów przedniego zakrętu kory obręczy (anterior cingulate cortex -ACC) (Westbrook i in., 2011). ...
... Over the last 40 years, these researchers have produced several hundred published studies that examine Transcendental Meditation, prolonged practice of which is said to lead to non-symbolic experiences (Badawi, Wallace, Orme-Johnson, & Rouzere, 1984;Farrow & Hebert, 1982;Travis & Wallace, 1997). Several reviews of this work covering some of its major themes are available (e.g., Alexander, Rainforth, & Gelderloos, 1991;Alexander, Robinson, & Rainforth, 1994;Anderson, Liu, & Kryscio, 2008;Calderon et al., 1999;Hawkins, 2003). ...
Thesis
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Non-symbolic experiences have been reported for millennia and generally attributed to spiritual and religious contexts, although atheists and agnostics also report them. Popular terms for them include: nondual awareness, enlightenment, mystical experiences , peak experiences, transcendental experience , the peace that passeth understanding, unity consciousness, union with God, and so forth. Most are temporary, but some individuals report a persistent form of them. Some scholars have argued that these experiences represent advanced stages of human development and placed them atop existing levels in various domains of developmental psychology such as cognitive or ego development. There is little evidence for this view. Moreover, several problems with it are pointed out in the present work. The primary goal of this study is to test the above taxonomy by comparing ego development and Mysticism Scale measurements from a diverse population of individuals who report persistent non-symbolic experience. This investigation first hypothesized that individuals who report persistent non-symbolic experience would exhibit a range of psychological developmental levels, specifically tested here as a composite, ego development, using the Washington University Sentence Completion Test (WUSCT). Second, it hypothesized that individuals who report persistent non-symbolic experience would score higher on Hood's Mysticism Scale than those who do not report such experiences. Third, it hypothesized the absence of a simple or linear relationship between scores on the WUSCT and Mysticism Scale for those who report non-symbolic experience. These hypotheses were examined in 36 adults (F=9, M=27) reporting persistent non-symbolic experience. The first hypothesis was supported: ego development stages ranged from 5 (Loevinger and Cook-Greuter's "Self Aware" stage) to 10 (Cook-Greuter's "Unitive" stage). The second hypothesis was also supported: average and median Mysticism Scale scores notably exceeded those reported in studies of other populations. The third hypothesis could not be adequately tested because the Mysticism Scale score distribution was strongly skewed upwards, making most statistical comparisons unworkable. Overall, this study provides the first strong evidence that persistent non-symbolic experience does not represent higher levels of ego development.
... Alienation among non-meditators will be significantly higher than the meditators. 3. Normlessness, the lack of commitment to shared social conventions of behavior (hence widespread deviance, distrust, unrestrained individual competition, and the like), 4. Cultural estrangement, the sense of removal from established values in society (as, for example, in intellectual or student rebellions against conventional institutions), 5. Self-estrangement, perhaps the most difficult to define and in a sense the master theme, the understanding that in one way or another the individual is out of touch with himself. ...
Research
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Alienation feeling among Meditators and and non-meditators
... TM's effect in addiction treatment also involves spiritual factors (Alexander, Robinson, and Rainforth 1994), such as a kind of "loss of soul" that involves subtle aspects of one's personal existence that provide connectedness with others. TM affects addiction by integrating the individual-"body, mind, spirit, social interaction, and environment" (18). ...
Article
Transcendental Meditation, as taught by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, is a simple technique practised for 15-20 minutes twice daily, sitting comfortably with eyes closed. It can be learned easily by anyone regardless of age, educational background, or culture. The technique is effortless and requires no belief, nor any change in lifestyle or diet. Over five million people have learned Transcendental Meditation (TM) around the world over the past 50 years. Instruction involves a standard seven-step course taught by qualified teachers who have undergone an extensive and systematic training programme, ensuring quality and consistency in instruction worldwide. Scientific research on Transcendental Meditation comprises more than 600 studies
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Change blindness engenders an inability to detect changes made to a visual scene and has negative implications for areas such as road safety and eye-witness memory. Therefore, it’s important to find ways of reducing change blindness to create a safer society. One way this might be achieved is through the practice of meditation. Regular practice of meditation may reduce the effects of change blindness by expanding a practitioner’s consciousness and brain potential over time. This study compared the influence of practitioner experience and medi- tation style- Transcendental Meditation (TM) or Mindfulness-based Meditation (MBM), on change blindness susceptibility. Forty-six participants (30 female and 16 male) with a com- bined mean age of 42 years old, were assigned to two experimental groups depending on the pre-existing meditation style they practiced. Both groups completed an identical experimen- tal task known as a flicker-paradigm where they had to identify changes made to various images. A two-way independent ANOVA revealed a significant effect of meditation style and experience on change-detection reaction times- (F(1,42) =7.22, p < 0.05, = .147), with long-term transcendental meditation practitioners recording faster reaction times (mean = 5927.73, SD = 606.92) on average than long-term mindfulness-based practitioners (mean = 10949.92 SD = 984.72). These results support the contention that long-term practice of transcendental meditation is more effective at reducing change blindness than long-term practice of mindfulness-based meditation.
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This paper explores, theoretically and empirically, some relationships between self-development and leadership development. A theory about consciousness and leadership practices will be presented drawing from both modern science and the oldest texts on consciousness, the Vedas. Empirically, in a small, preliminary eight-month pretest-posttest control group study in one company, 24 subjects who learned a standard self-development technique, Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation, grew more in their expression of leadership behaviors, measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory, and expressed in individual and group interviews (0.05 and 0.01 significance).
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The system of education at Maharishi University of Management (MUM) provides a model for management educators seeking to understand and teach spirituality. It locates transcendental consciousness—“pure spirituality”—at the basis of the universe and the human mind, experienced through the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program. Disciplines are taught as expressions of one unified field of consciousness. This integrated approach develops students who express “applied spirituality”— acting for the positive transformation of the quality of life for all. Research on educational outcomes at MUM gives evidence of cognitive, affective, and moral development in students. The authors offer suggestions for educators at other institutions.
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Despite the high cost of occupational stress, few studies have empirically documented effective methods for alleviating stress and promoting employee development. This three-month prospective study evaluated the effects of the Transcendental meditation (TM) technique on stress reduction, health and employee development in two settings in the automotive industry: a large manufacturing plant of a Fortune 100 corporation, and a small distribution sales company. Employees who learned TM were compared to controls similar in worksite, job position, demographic, and pretest characteristics. Regular meditators improved significantly more than controls (with irregular meditators scoring in between) on multiple measures of stress and employee development, including: reduced physiological arousal (measured by skin conductance levels) during and outside TM practice; decreased trait anxiety, job tension, insomnia and fatigue, cigarette and hard liquor use; improved general health (and fewer health complaints); and enhanced employee effectiveness, job satisfaction, and work/personal relationships. Principal components analysis identified three factors underlying this wide range of improvements through TM: “occupational coherence,” “physiological settledness,” and “job and life satisfaction.” The “effect size” of TM in reducing skin conductance, trait anxiety, alcohol/cigarette use, and in enhancing personal development (relative to the control condition) in these business settings was substantially larger than for other forms of meditation and relaxation reported in four previous statistical meta-analyses.
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Objectives: To document and explain Yoga's effects on acupuncture meridian energies. To understand mechanisms behind Yoga's efficacy by testing links between yoga and traditional Chinese medicine. Materials and Methods: The study compared two groups of yoga practitioners: Novice and experienced. Novices consisted of 33 volunteers from a Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (S-VYASA) yoga instructor training module and the experienced practitioners were 20 resident SVYASA students. The intervention was 3 weeks of a yoga training program, new for the novices, but the lifestyle of the experienced group, who were therefore assessed only once. Novices were assessed on day 2 and 23 of their program at SVYASA's Yoga Medicine Hospital, making their data a pre-post, self-as-control, prospective study. Main outcome measures were mean acumeridian energy levels assessed by AcuGraph3 measures of electrodermal resistance at acupoints; additionally, gender differences, standard deviations (SDs) of all measures, and comparison of post and experienced group data. Results: Averaged energy levels significantly improved in all 24 meridians (maximum P = 0.032, 4-P < 0.01, and 19-P < 0.001). Females improved more than males (P < 0.05), both ending at similar levels to experienced practitioners, whose SDs were lower than novices on 19/24 meridians (mean F = 3.715, P = 0.0022), and 4/5 average variables. Conclusions: AcuGraph3 electrodermal measures contain substantial information, P << 0.00001. Yoga-lifestyle practice can increase and balance acumeridian energies; long-term practice decreases group SD's. These three suggest reasons why yoga practice impacts health: One, increased prana levels are important; two and three, improved physiological regulation is the key. Further studies relating traditional Indian and Chinese medical systems are needed.
Article
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Clarifying constructs, methods, and measures for systematic research can advance knowledge about spirituality in organizations. In this paper, we define constructs of pure spirituality, applied spirituality, and spiritual development. We survey research methods for exploring spirituality in organizations – including not only objective studies but also subjective experience for personal growth. We consider five indications of spirituality – health, happiness, wisdom, success, and fulfillment – and identify research instruments for each based on measures used in prior studies of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. Research is seen as valuable for assessing the practical applications of spirituality for the individual, organization, and society.
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This paper juxtaposes Asian spiritual narratives on meditation alongside medical and scientific narratives that emphasize meditation's efficacy in mitigating distress and increasing well-being. After proposing a working definition of meditation that enables it usefully to be distinguished from categories of similar practices such as prayer, I examine meditation's role in Mind/Body medicine in the West. Here, I survey a number of scientific studies of meditation, including the work of Dr. Herbert Benson and his colleagues who examine a meditational variant they call the ‘Relaxation Response', to examine the breadth of efficacy claims made on behalf of the complex and multidimensional grouping of diverse practices we have come to as ‘meditation'. Among other positive outcomes, meditation has been credited with reducing blood pressure, anxiety, addiction, and stress, while Relaxation Response has been shown to decrease sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, metabolism, pain, anxiety, depression, hostility, and stress. I conclude the paper by suggesting that findings from cognitive neuroscience on the subject of visual imagery can be used to elucidate genres of meditative practice that focus on internal visualization sequences, and I use practices from the Rnying ma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism to illustrate why certain integral aspects of meditation forever will remain beyond scientific grasp.
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There is little empirical data published on the spirituality and religiousness of persons entering treatment for alcohol problems, particularly in comparison to a national sample. The frequency of life-changing spiritual and religious experiences in this treatment population is also unknown, although there is much speculation and a few qualitative studies on the role that such experiences may play in recovery. This study surveyed 90 patients entering treatment for alcohol problems and found that 54.4% at some time in their lives, had a life-changing spiritual or religious experience, compared to 39.1% in a large national survey. This study's sample also rated their spirituality higher than their religiousness, and higher than did the national sample. About a third, 32.2%, had no religious preference, compared to 13.8% in the national sample. Having had life-changing spiritual or religious experiences was associated with greater use of positive religious coping, some daily spiritual experiences, and higher self-ratings of one's self as spiritual and religious. Such experiences were not associated with patterns of alcohol use at treatment entry, demographic variables (sex, age, ethnicity, education, employment, or marital status), or AA involvement, including number of meetings attended in last year and in one's life-time. This study begins to elucidate the extent of spirituality and religiousness in those seeking treatment for alcohol problems and the role of life-changing spiritual and religious experiences in their recovery, which would appear to be more common than suggested by assumptions of spiritual alienation among alcoholics.
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This study examines the relationships among spirituality, religiosity, and drug use among incarcerated males. Data were collected from 661 male prison inmates from four Kentucky State Correctional facilities. Spiritual well-being was measured using a modified version of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS), and religiosity was measured by worship attendance in the year prior to incarceration. In general, spirituality and religiosity were found to be negatively related to alcohol and drug use, and differed across several individual characteristics that were included in the analysis. Given the relationship between spiritual well-being and religiosity to individual characteristics, such as age and race reported in this study, it is suggested that individual characteristics be considered when examining spirituality and drug use patterns.
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Training in meditation is being introduced into corporations worldwide, yet analyses of programs are rare. Case studies document the experiences of members of three top management teams who learned the Transcendental Meditation program in corporate-supported programs and suggest a new trend in management development: Con-sciousness-Based Management Development. This approach, which allows managers to access inner latent capacities, appears to meet criteria described in the literature for an effective management and team development program. The comprehensive changes reported are said to result from unfolding the organizing power of Natural Law in the awareness of the manager.
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This chapter examines the clinical research and programmatic interventions addressing the influence of religiousness and spirituality on substance use, abuse, and recovery. Harmful substance use targeted in this chapter includes alcohol, drugs of abuse, and tobacco. Following our review and summary of what is known about the relationship between spiritual and religious factors and problematic substance use, abuse/dependence, and recovery, we provide recommendations for future intervention and clinical/research investigation in this growing field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this chapter, we present an integrative behavioral approach for survivors of trauma. Our treatment of trauma survivors is guided by a fundamental principle of a contextual behavioral approach: Behavior is best understood in terms of its function rather than its form. Given the variety of clinical presentations observed in trauma survivors, understanding the behaviors in context provides the most useful opportunity for case conceptualization. We take a pragmatic approach to treatment planning that is based on an analysis of the client's strengths and vulnerabilities. We believe that a functional analysis of client problems is essential in planning treatment for trauma survivors. Conversely, we believe that it is equally true that ignoring a client's history, including a history of trauma, is not only potentially invalidating but also inadequate, in that important etiological variables may be overlooked. We examine both distal and proximal variables in the case conceptualization process. We balance both the trauma history and current stressors in forming a contextual conceptualization of the case. Additionally, we attend to issues involving the therapeutic relationship, including validation, at all stages of the treatment process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This paper reviews over 100 publications of Charles N. (“Skip”) Alexander. Skip theoretically showed that the four higher states of consciousness described by Maharishi's Vedic psychology logically extend the developmental sequence delineated by 20th century psychology. His empirical research found that the Transcendental Meditation® technique provides the direct experience of transcendental consciousness (the first higher state, which is the silent basis of the mind) and that this practice accelerates development in children, “unfreezes” development in prison inmates, advances ego development in adults, increases productivity in businesses, decreases blood pressure, increases longevity, effectively treats substance abuse, and reduces prison recidivism. Skip and colleagues were the first to discover the EEG signature of cosmic consciousness (the second higher state), and he showed that developmental advances in individuals impact the larger society via a common field of collective consciousness, including decreasing armed conflicts and improving the quality of life.
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The nature of the human person has been a subject of fascination since ancient times. We desire to understand ourselves and our place in the world, and at times we also look at broader human questions: Why am I here? What is the meaning or purpose of my life? Why do people suffer? This book is about two of the most important ways that people have attempted to answer these kinds of questions—religion and psychology. Especially over the past century, there has been a fascinating interchange of views between psychologists and religious practitioners about questions of daily life and broader meaning. In this book, we will seek to understand this complex and constantly changing dialogue and its implication for our understanding of the human person (cf. Henking, 2000). We will begin our quest in this chapter with a look at the basic concepts of religion, spirituality, and psychology, as well as some history of the dialogue between them.
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Anecdotal reports suggest that Transcendental Meditation (TM) may be helpful for some children and young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In this perspective piece, we present six carefully evaluated individuals with diagnosed ASDs, who appear to have benefitted from TM, and offer some thoughts as to how this technique might help such individuals.
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Faith-based beliefs are associated with and considered to be a vital component in enhancing the efficacy of substance abuse treatment and recovery. However, relatively little empirical information has been accumulated on the temporal stability of individuals' use of faith and its importance before and following initiation of the therapeutic process. The current study examined persistence in turning to faith across time as a predictor of substance use, criminal behavior, and perceived addiction severity in a sample of 500 Kentucky Drug Court participants. Results suggest that when modeling variance in faith, which persists across the two-year span of Drug Court involvement as a latent construct, greater persistence in one's faith predicts decreases in substance use frequency measured at the final 24-month interview. The latent faith construct was marginally related to differences in 24-month criminal behavior and was not associated with perceptions of addiction severity. Results are discussed for substance abuse treatment needs and recovery.
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Vulnerable women living in poverty in Uganda, who are primarily single, illiterate mothers, face high levels of physical and psychological stress. Our study assessed the impact of the Transcendental Meditation® (TM®) technique on self-efficacy, perceived stress, and mental and physical quality of life of these women. This single-blind controlled study involved eighty-one women who were assigned to either practice of the Transcendental Meditation program (n = 42) or wait-list (delayed start) control group (n = 39). Participants learned the Transcendental Meditation program over five sessions, then practiced at home for twenty minutes twice a day, and attended twice monthly group meetings over a three-month period. The primary outcome measure was self-efficacy using the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). Perceived stress using Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and physical and mental quality of life using subscales of the Medical Outcomes Survey (MOS, HIV version) were secondary outcome measures. Significant improvements were shown in self-efficacy (p < .001), perceived stress (p < .010), and mental and physical well-being (p < .010). Compliance with TM home practice was > 88%. This is the first controlled study to demonstrate the effect of TM in the daily lives of mothers living in impoverished conditions. Further questionnaires were administered to participants at 8 months and at 36 months with questions about changes they may have experienced in their daily life since starting TM. “Yes”, “No” self-reported answers suggested that the women experienced improved health, improved relationships with others, and increased employment rates. These findings taken as a whole have important implications for developing self-efficacy, improving mental and physical quality of life, and reducing stress in the lives of these vulnerable women.
Conference Paper
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Our crisis as Arabs and Muslims today that we become dependant on other people and nations; mainly after we had abandoned and left our noble Qur’an and what it holds of great wisdom of the Al’aalameen’s Lord. As a consequence, the most danger outcome of that abandoned is deprivation of thinking and meditation and all what is associated with them of unlimited benefits and goods. As a whole it is of great faithful, thoughtful and behavioral significance; inevitably reflected with good and welfare on the individual, family, group and society; educationally, politically, economically, socially, security and health. For that, this scientific review on thinking and meditation and its greatness as a Qur’anic immortal call was prepared; based on miracle contents of the Qur’anic text, and all that was emphasized and proved through current scientific research with referring to its scientific outcomes and conclusions; no way to refute or overcome.
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Background A common alternative treatment for substance abuse is auricular acupuncture. The aim of the study was to evaluate the short and long-term effect of auricular acupuncture on anxiety, sleep, drug use and addiction treatment utilization in adults with substance abuse. Method Of the patients included, 280 adults with substance abuse and psychiatric comorbidity, 80 were randomly assigned to auricular acupuncture according to the NADA protocol, 80 to auricular acupuncture according to a local protocol (LP), and 120 to relaxation (controls). The primary outcomes anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI) and insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index; ISI) were measured at baseline and at follow-ups 5 weeks and 3 months after the baseline assessment. Secondary outcomes were drug use and addiction service utilization. Complete datasets regarding BAI/ISI were obtained from 37/34 subjects in the NADA group, 28/28 in the LP group and 36/35 controls. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Analysis of Variance, Kruskal Wallis, Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance, Eta square (η2), and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests. Results Participants in NADA, LP and control group improved significantly on the ISI and BAI. There was no significant difference in change over time between the three groups in any of the primary (effect size: BAI, η2 = 0.03, ISI, η2 = 0.05) or secondary outcomes. Neither of the two acupuncture treatments resulted in differences in sleep, anxiety or drug use from the control group at 5 weeks or 3 months. Conclusion No evidence was found that acupuncture as delivered in this study is more effective than relaxation for problems with anxiety, sleep or substance use or in reducing the need for further addiction treatment in patients with substance use problems and comorbid psychiatric disorders. The substantial attrition at follow-up is a main limitation of the study. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT02604706 (retrospectively registered).
Chapter
Contemporary solutions to the problem of violence at the individual level usually involve punitive social control mechanisms. As a humane alternative, meditation programs within correctional institutions are experiencing growth and greater acceptance in North America. A handful of scholarly and anecdotal studies report reduced violence, aggression, and anger and increased self-awareness and hopefulness among inmates who take up meditation and contemplative practices (Phillips, 2008; Parkum & Stultz, 2000). In this chapter we explore the mechanisms of reducing violence and aggression and combating recidivism through meditation programs and practices. We situate this phenomenon within a larger socio-cultural framework that considers the gender-specific subjectivities of a majority male correctional population.
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The Quiet Time program provides a 15-min period at the beginning and end of the school day where students may practice Transcendental Meditation (TM) or another quiet activity such as reading silently to oneself. This study examined the impact of participating in Quiet Time on ninth-grade students (n = 141) by comparing their outcomes to those of a group of ninth-grade students (n = 53) attending a school that did not participate in Quiet Time. Students in both groups completed an assessment battery in early October 2012, shortly after which treatment students learned TM, and again in May 2013. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the differences between the treatment and comparison groups. Results indicated that students who participated in Quiet Time scored significantly lower on anxiety (p < 0.05) and higher on resilience (p < 0.05) at follow-up than comparison group students. Within the treatment group, students who spent more time meditating also had higher resilience scores and higher instruction time. After participating in Quiet Time, students self-reported increases in their sleep, happiness, and self-confidence.
Chapter
The term complementary and alternative therapy (CAM) describes an array of treatments that serve as an adjunct to standard medicine practices but also serve as systems of intervention on their own. Many of these approaches promote a holistic view of medicine, positing that psychological or emotional experiences have an interactive relationship with physical experiences, and a growing body of research supports this link (see Astin, Shapiro, Eisenberg, & Forys, 2003; Cohen & Herbert, 1996; Pelletier, 1992). This is not limited to links between physical conditions and an individual's current mental state, as there is also mounting evidence to suggest that early traumatic experience and ongoing life stress can combine to affect the course of clinical disorders (Barreau et al., 2007). In this chapter we present a description of popular CAM approaches, their clinical applications, and a brief summary of supporting research. Our review includes approaches originating from Western and Eastern cultural traditions, as well as herbal remedies, lifestyle modifications, tactile therapies, movement therapies, and psychological (mind–body) therapies. Suggestions for future research are provided.Keywords:complementary and alternative medicine;mind-body;integrative medicine
Article
Faith-based beliefs are associated with and considered to be a vital component in enhancing the efficacy of substance abuse treatment and recovery. However, relatively little empirical information has been accumulated on the temporal stability of individuals' use of faith and its importance before and following initiation of the therapeutic process. The current study examined persistence in turning to faith across time as a predictor of substance use, criminal behavior, and perceived addiction severity in a sample of 500 Kentucky Drug Court participants. Results suggest that when modeling variance in faith, which persists across the two-year span of Drug Court involvement as a latent construct, greater persistence in one's faith predicts decreases in substance use frequency measured at the final 24-month interview. The latent faith construct was marginally related to differences in 24-month criminal behavior and was not associated with perceptions of addiction severity. Results are discussed for substance abuse treatment needs and recovery.
Article
This article explores adverse and unintended consequences (AUCs) of setting-based public health interventions to prevent illicit drug use, including the mechanisms leading to these AUCs. Additionally, the reporting of AUCs in systematic reviews was assessed. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of reviews and searched four big databases were searched. We included systematic reviews concerned with setting-based interventions to prevent illicit drug use. We used AMSTAR 2 to rate the overall confidence of the results presented in the reviews. Data on study characteristics, types and mechanisms of AUCs were extracted. An a priori categorisation of consequences drew on the WHO-INTEGRATE framework, and the categorisation of mechanisms on the Behaviour Change Wheel. For reviews reporting AUCs, the same information was also retrieved from relevant primary studies. Findings were synthesised narratively and in tables. Finally, we included 72 reviews, of which 18 reported on AUCs. From these, 11 primary studies were identified. Most of the reviews and primary studies were conducted in educational settings. The most prevalent AUCs reported in systematic reviews and primary studies were paradoxical health effects (i.e. increase of drug use). Potential mechanisms discussed primarily focussed on the change though social norms and practices. Changes of knowledge and perception were also mentioned. Concluding, the identified reviews and primary studies paid insufficient attention to AUCs of public health interventions to prevent illicit drug use. Where reported, it was mostly as an afterthought and narrowly framed as health related. No mentions of potential broader social consequences were found.
Chapter
Die notwendige Effizienzsteigerung in modernen westlichen Gesundheitssystemen, sowohl im medizinisch-therapeutischen als auch im ökonomischen Bereich, erfordert ganzheitliche medizinische Konzepte, speziell auf dem Gebiet der Prävention und der Behandlung chronischer Erkrankungen. Die vedische Medizin in ihrer ursprünglichen Form als Teil der vedischen Wissenschaft beinhaltet das ganzheitliche theoretische und praktische Wissen über die grundlegenden Gesetzmäßigkeiten und Prozesse zur Aufrechterhaltung und Wiederherstellung von Gesundheit. So wie das Erbgut auf materieller Ebene den Speicher der Informationen über die Funktionsabläufe in den Zellen des Organismus darstellt, ist der Veda die Informationszentrale des gesamten Universums auf der transzendenten Ebene des Bewusstseins.
Article
Objective: This study examined whether studying in a Consciousness-Based Education institution influenced college students' mental and physical health. Participants and methods: Undergraduate college students (n = 321) completed the Duke Health Profile, assessing 11 areas of mental and physical health, both as entering freshmen (2008-2014) and at graduation. The archived data was analyzed from 2019 to 2020. Results: Using ANOVA for all 11 subscales revealed significant increases in physical, mental, and general health, self-esteem (P < .001), perceived health (P < .017); and significant decreases in anxiety, depression, and anxiety-depression (P < .001). There were no significant group effects on pain, disability, or social health. Conclusions: Consciousness-Based Education was found to buffer the effects of stress on mental and physical health in college students. Consciousness-Based Education's influence in lowering anxiety and depression while improving self-esteem and general health presents an effective tool for educators and administrators to consider in assisting students combating the stress of college life.
Article
To have a successful marriage, couples need to develop the ability to accept the unchangeable and change what can be changed. This realistic premise is at the heart of integrative couple therapy, the 1st approach to embrace both techniques for fostering acceptance and techniques for fostering change. The book offers . . . clinical detail on how to develop a formulation encompassing the couple's disparate conflict areas, enhance intimacy through acceptance, build tolerance for difference, and improve communication and problem-solving. The clinical implications of diversity in gender, culture, ethnicity, class, and sexual orientation are taken into account, as are issues related to domestic violence, infidelity, depression, and drug and alcohol addiction. Integrative couple therapy creates a context in which partners can accept in each other what cannot be changed, change what they can, and compassionately, realistically recognize the difference. [This book is intended] for every marital therapy student and practitioner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article reviews 24 studies on the benefits of Transcendental Meditation (TM) in treating and preventing misuse of chemical substances. Studies cover noninstitutionalized users, participants in treatment programs, and prisoners with histories of heavy use. All the studies showed positive effects of the TM program. Some of the survey-type studies were unable to exclude the possibility of self-selection or responder biases. However, longitudinal, random-assignment studies with objective measures also showed positive results. Taken together, these and other studies indicate the program simultaneously addresses several factors underlying chemical dependence, providing not only immediate relief from distress but also long-range improvements in well-being, self-esteem, personal empowerment, and other areas of psychophysiological health.
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A structured model inpatient treatment program for multiple-diagnosed treatment-resistant adolescents is described. The chemical dependence disease model of Predisposition+Drug+Enabling System=Disease provides the fundamental theoretical approach. This model is elaborated and used similarly for psychiatric disorders, with examples presented. The role of psychiatric evaluation for pharmacological interventions is outlined. The psychotherapeutic treatment focuses on a commitment to abstinence as the goal. A "psychology of commitment" is described using a reframing of traditional psychotherapeutic approaches. This approach is used in conjunction with the first five steps of Alcoholics Anonymous as an empowering therapeutic model. The role of defenses, denial, confrontation, and cognitive distortions is described. The value of this approach as a neutral ground for discussion using concepts from traditional Freudian therapy, self-psychology, cognitive and learning therapies, and rational emotive therapy is elaborated.
Article
In this article, the authors describe a two-stage values clarification/therapy procedure presently being utilized within the BASIC-ISs, a multidimensional psychospiritual treatment program for individuals suffering from alcoholism, drug addiction, bulimia, and related disorders. A description of the research leading to the development of the procedures includes a review of the literature on the values of alcoholics/addicts, data on differences between value rankings of the normal population, alcoholics/addicts in treatment and successfully recovering AA members, and research findings indicating a significant relationship between value/behavior consistency and self-concept. The procedural description includes a step-by- step description of the methodology, as well as a clinical case study. Sample forms for utilization by clinicians are provided in the appendices.
Article
This paper describes research studies on the application of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program to corrections and crime prevention. Physiological and psychological laboratory studies of the TM program that bear on inmate rehabilitation are briefly reviewed, followed by consideration of applied studies. Research projects in eight correctional settings are narratively and quantitatively reviewed. They indicate that regular practice of the TM program leads to positive changes in health, personality development, and behavior among inmates. Evidence of reduced recidivism among inmates instructed in the TM program is also indicated. Implications of the research for some correctional issues are also discussed.
Article
The authors surveyed the frequency of alcohol use in individuals identified as practitioners of Transcendental Meditation (N equals 126) and a matched control group (N equals 90). No control subjects reported discontinuation of beer and wine use; 40 percent of subjects who had meditated for more than 2 years reported discontinuation within the first 6 months. After 25-39 months of meditation, this figure increased to 60 percent. In addition, 54 percent of this group, versus 1 percent of the control group, had stopped drinking hard liquor. The authors suggest that meditation could be an effective preventive tool in the area of alcohol abuse.
Article
This article reviews published 16PF research on drug users. It also compares the 16PF scores of a new sample of nonusers with scores of matched groups of heavy, chronic users of cocaine, amphetamine, opiates, and barbiturates/sedative hypnotics, as well as combined groups of stimulant users, depressant users, and a combined group of users of all substances. No significant differences were found among drug user groups, but the profile of the nonuser group was distinctive. K-Means Cluster Analyses, as well as Cattell's Similarity and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients, were used to compare profiles of these new samples with the 19 groups described in an earlier meta-analysis of published 16PF studies. Data from the new samples did not cluster with data from other published research, although certain specific similarities appeared in more detailed correlational analyses. Methodological problems are discussed, and it is recommended that in future studies drug user groups be more carefully selected and defined, sample descriptions be more thorough and complete, complete profile information be routinely provided, and efforts be made to explore the utility of the Cattell CAQ in studies of drug users/misusers.
Article
A paired sample of 48 subjects, matched in sex, marital status, residence, and socioeconomic status, was divided into two groups, drug users and drug abusers. Each subject was interviewed about his motivation for drug use. His responses were taped, transcribed, and coded. Analysis showed that drug users were more likely to use drugs for recreational purposes, while drug abusers used drugs to cope with an external locus of control, a low self-concept, feeling of disillusion, and personal stresses. Both groups used drugs to escape, seek personal identity, and rebel against authority. The discussion emphasized that drug users and abusers have different motivations for drug-taking and must be considered as two distinct groups.
Article
17 married women who had received instruction in the Transcendental Meditation program were compared to 17 controls (matched for length of marriage, age, and neighborhood) on Locke's Marital Adjustment Inventory. Interviewees did not know the study was related to meditation or that they were contacted because they were meditators. Subjects in the Transcendental Meditation group showed significantly greater marital satisfaction than controls: for only those reporting regular practice the effect was stronger. The Transcendental Meditation program may be preventive of marital discord.