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Real-time communication during play: Analysis of team-mates’ talk and interaction

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... Rule changes in 2016 were designed to increase the match speed by providing playing 'advantage' and reducing the number of timeouts [18]. Such rules and the discrete skill set required [19], demand a unique set of physical qualities and mental skills from the players, particularly at the elite level [18,[20][21][22]. ...
... Five studies (38%) focused on motor learning and decision making [21,[154][155][156][157]. Other studies investigated a range of psychological skills or interventions [7,22,[158][159][160][161][162][163], including communication [22], anxiety [158], stressors, [159], behaviour [160], team cohesion [161], and imagery [7]. The cohorts investigated ranged from club to elite and international, with six studies (46%) [154-157, 159, 160] investigating international level athletes of a range of ages (U17 to open Notes on the clinical and practical relevance and research priority for each topic, based on the potential impact, are also provided Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
... Five studies (38%) focused on motor learning and decision making [21,[154][155][156][157]. Other studies investigated a range of psychological skills or interventions [7,22,[158][159][160][161][162][163], including communication [22], anxiety [158], stressors, [159], behaviour [160], team cohesion [161], and imagery [7]. The cohorts investigated ranged from club to elite and international, with six studies (46%) [154-157, 159, 160] investigating international level athletes of a range of ages (U17 to open Notes on the clinical and practical relevance and research priority for each topic, based on the potential impact, are also provided Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
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Background Netball is the one of the most popular women’s sports in the world. Since gaining professional status in 2008 there has been a rapid growth in research in the applied sports science and medicine of the sport. A scoping review of the area would provide practitioners and researchers with an overview of the current scientific literature to support on-court performance, player welfare and reduce injury. Objective The primary objective was to identify the current research on the applied sports science and medicine of netball. Additionally, the article provides a brief summary of the research in each topic of sports science and medicine in netball and identifies gaps in the current research. Methods Systematic searches of PubMed, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE and CINAHL were undertaken from earliest record to Dec 2020 and reference lists were manually searched. The PRISMA-ScR protocol was followed. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they investigated netball as a sport or the applied sport science and medicine of netball athletes. Results 962 studies were identified in the initial search, 150 of which met the inclusion criteria. Injury was the most highly investigated sport science and medicine topic ( n = 45), followed by physical qualities ( n = 37), match characteristics ( n = 24), biomechanics ( n = 15), psychology ( n = 13), fatigue and recovery ( n = 9), training load ( n = 4) and nutrition ( n = 3). A range of cohorts were used from school to elite and international standards. All cohorts were female netballers, except for one study. A rapid growth in studies over recent years was demonstrated with 65% of studies published in the last decade. There still remains gaps in the literature, with a low evidence base for nutrition, training load and fatigue and recovery. Conclusion This scoping review summarises the current evidence base and key findings that can be used in practice to enhance the applied sport science and medical support to netball athletes across a range of playing standards, and support the growth of the sport. It is evident that netball as a sport is still under-researched.
... Previous methods of measuring ITC in sporting teams have recorded the verbal communication of players (Lausic et al., 2009;LeCouteur and Feo, 2011). For instance, in tennis doubles matches, situations of verbal communications were recorded during breaks between points, and in netball, verbal ITC was recorded from the side of the court for the four defensive positions (Lausic et al., 2009;LeCouteur and Feo, 2011). ...
... Previous methods of measuring ITC in sporting teams have recorded the verbal communication of players (Lausic et al., 2009;LeCouteur and Feo, 2011). For instance, in tennis doubles matches, situations of verbal communications were recorded during breaks between points, and in netball, verbal ITC was recorded from the side of the court for the four defensive positions (Lausic et al., 2009;LeCouteur and Feo, 2011). A limitation related to recording verbal ITC is that it does not measure the nonverbal communication exchanged between team members or how beneficial the received communication was to playing performance. ...
... This result indicates, that similar to the passing networks, these playing positions provide the majority of beneficial ITC to other team members. It has been suggested that increased ITC is optimal in defensive phases of play (LeCouteur and Feo, 2011;Mclean et al., 2018c), as such central defensive and central defensive midfielder positions may be ideally positioned tactically on the field to share information with the other players. A further explanation is that team members at an elite level share general team knowledge regarding the teams' playing philosophy and strategies, and team members who interact more regularly than others will share more specific knowledge about each other's tasks (Cannon-Bowers et al., 1995). ...
Article
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Determining the connectivity of team members in sport provides important information on team functioning. In soccer, teams that are highly connected via passing have been shown to be more successful compared to teams less connected via passing. In addition to passing connectivity, players are connected with each other via intra-team communication (ITC) through verbal instruction, and nonverbal cues. Despite ITC being a known component of effective teamwork to enhance strategy, efficiency, motivation and concentration, ITC of individual playing positions has not previously been measured during soccer games, nor has it been associated with passing connections in a performance context. In this study, the received ITC that was perceived to be beneficial to performance during 22 competitive professional soccer matches was measured, in conjunction with the passing connections between team members. In total, 526 ITC ratings were collected and analysed, and a total of 7,693 passes were analysed. From the ITC and passing measures, a player connectivity index (PCI) representing the coupling of ITC and passing, was developed to determine the overall connectivity of the individual playing positions. Social network analysis (SNA) centrality metrics were used to determine the connectivity of the playing positions. There were significant (p < .05) main effects between playing positions for beneficial ITC, passing, and the PCI for centrality metrics, indicating that different playing positions interact with other team members differently. Pairwise comparisons indicated significant differences between individual playing positions for ITC, passing and the PCI. The two central defenders and the two central defensive midfielders had the highest mean values for ITC, passing, and the PCI compared to the other playing positions. The current findings suggest that central defenders and central defensive midfielders are positioned tactically to be highly involved in the build-up of passing moves, and to deliver beneficial task related information to team members. These findings have implications for performance analysis, coaches, and for talent identification.
... Over three matches of a dyadic video game, we explored changes in performance, communication patterns, core affect (arousal and pleasantness levels), efficacy beliefs, attentional states, and cardiovascular responses. As team coordination and other team processes develop over time and as a sense of team evolves, teammates communicate better and show more positive affect, efficacy beliefs, and functional joint attentional patterns; and less physiological stress (see Boulton and Cole 2016;Filho et al. 2015aFilho et al. , b, 2016Filho et al. , 2017Filho 2019;LeCouteur and Feo 2011;Mohammed et al. 2010;Stone et al. 2019). Accordingly, over the three matches, we expected to observe improvements in performance, communication patterns, positive core affect, and efficacy beliefs, and a decrease in attentional levels and cardiovascular responses. ...
... We suggest that this increase is because teammates were not allowed to communicate, which likely decreased coordination and increased frustration, ultimately leading to instrumental aggression in the video game play (see the frustration-aggression hypothesis in Berkowitz 1989). Although the amount of spoken communication tends to decrease over time, language evolved in the natural world to allow for improved team coordination and super-efficiency, as research across domains has consistently shown (Anderson and Franks 2001; Boulton and Cole 2016;Duarte et al. 2012;LeCouteur and Feo 2011;Westli et al. 2010). ...
... overall coordination efficiency gains(Boulton and Cole 2016;LeCouteur and Feo 2011;Westli et al. 2010). Moreover, the observed increase in pleasantness is in line with previous research showing that core pleasantness levels fluctuate greatly over time in both individual and group tasks(di Fronso et al. 2020). ...
Article
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To advance knowledge on the psychophysiological markers of “coordination cost” in team settings, we explored differences in meta-communication patterns (i.e., silence, speaking, listening, and overlap), perceived psychological states (i.e., core affect, attention, efficacy beliefs), heart rate variability (i.e., RMSSD), and brain rhythms (i.e., alpha, beta and theta absolute power) across three studies involving 48 male dyads (Mage = 21.30; SD = 2.03). Skilled participants cooperatively played three consecutive FIFA-17 (Xbox) games in a dyad against the computer, or competed against the computer in a solo condition and a dyad condition. We observed that playing in a team, in contrast to playing alone, was associated with higher alpha peak and global efficiency in the brain and, at the same time, led to an increase in focused attention as evidenced by participants’ higher theta activity in the frontal lobe. Moreover, we observed that overtime participants’ brain dynamics moved towards a state of “neural-efficiency”, characterized by increased theta and beta activity in the frontal lobe, and high alpha activity across the whole brain. Our findings advance the literature by demonstrating that (1) the notion of coordination cost can be captured at the neural level in the initial stages of team development; (2) by decreasing the costs of switching between tasks, teamwork increases both individuals’ attentional focus and global neural efficiency; and (3) communication dynamics become more proficient and individuals’ brain patterns change towards neural efficiency over time, likely due to team learning and decreases in intra-team conflict.
... Sullivan and Feltz (2003) suggest that effective methods communication is one of the most important aspects of intra-team interaction. One such example of communication methods being linked to a positive team performance that is suggested by LeCouteur and Feo (2011) is that mistakes that occur can be reduced by having effective communication between members of a team. For example, if team members possess effective methods of communication it will prove easier to coordinate players when trying to defend a free kick. ...
... ication does not just focus on the content of a message but also the effect the message has their team member receiving it. This would be because if the defenders are able to use effective methods of communication when they are moving towards the opposition goal, they will all understand when they should perform their own specific role effectively.LeCouteur and Feo (2011) argue that effective methods of communication between team members can reduce mistakes that could occur during performance. However, if their methods of communication were not effective, they would not be able to perform efficiently together. This scenario would also show that team members would be able to If team members were able to u ...
... They would begin to understand what this shout meant and they would be able to all work together when this shout was made.This demonstrates that improvements to the defender's understanding of each other is facilitated by their methods of communication, leading to more coordinated performance.Sullivan and Feltz (2003) also emphasised the importance of effective communication methods between team members and team members being able to produce an effective team performance. However, participants in the current study suggested that over time, their methods of communication became more efficient as their understanding of each other improved, the more they performed together.This could be because according toLeCouteur and Feo (2011) players are speaking to each other during specific situations, suggesting instructions to help to establish and understand what role they should take to allow a coordinated performance with fewer errors. In relation to the example involving the defensive line who had developed an understanding of the shout of 'come on everybody, let's push this line further up', as they performed more often together, their methods of communication would become more efficient as their understanding of each other improved. ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this programme of research was to investigate the existence and development of shared understanding between football dyads through quantitative and qualitative research methods. Research has considered the importance of shared understanding between team members (Williamson and Cox 2014, Gershgoren et al. 2016) but rarely dyads within teams (i.e. Blickensderfer et al. 2010). Study One attempted to establish the existence of shared understanding between twenty football dyads. Study Two explored the levels of shared understanding displayed by forty-five defensive football dyads in game situations that had either a clear correct course of action or when there was no clear correct course of action. Through an interview-based approach, Study Three investigated potential factors that could contribute to the development of shared understanding between football dyads, based on the suggestions of twelve football players. Through these different methods, the three studies have provided evidence to support the existence and development of shared understanding between football dyads. The main findings of the thesis (a) shared understanding exists between dyads who have experience performing together, (b) when dyads are in a situation where there is a clear and correct option available, they are more likely to choose the same option based on their own individual experience, (c) when dyads are in a situation where there is no clear and correct option available, they are more likely to pick the same option based on their experience performing together, (d) experience performing together, having an efficient relationship with their partner, effective communication methods between one another and the role of the coach facilitated the development of shared understanding between dyads and (e) these factors facilitate an effective shared mental model between dyads.
... The first part, attempted to show that there is less verbal communication for the more experienced teams that including application in coaching (Eccles & Tenenbaum, 2004). However, the research has shown that the higher abilities of the team and the more teammates used verbal communication to create coordination (Lausic et al 2009, Feo & Lecouteur, 2010Poizat et al., 2009. This present study has attempted to take place itself in this two parts research. ...
... According to Carron & Hausenblas (1998) the communication seems to be crucial in team sport. However there is ignorance to understand how communicate to achieve success between the players (Feo & Lecouteur, 2010). With the help of new recording system, there were som investigations of the coordination from visual and vocal activity (Feo & Lecouteur, 2010). ...
... However there is ignorance to understand how communicate to achieve success between the players (Feo & Lecouteur, 2010). With the help of new recording system, there were som investigations of the coordination from visual and vocal activity (Feo & Lecouteur, 2010). In this previous study, they had investigated the defence communication in netball. ...
Thesis
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The aims of this study were to analyze team functioning in doubles tennis teams and to find some links between verbal communication, implicit coordination and performance. The first step consisted to investigate the previous experiment carried out around shared knowledge, shared expectations and implicit coordination. Secondly, the goal was study the patterns of verbal communication used between the points. Then, on objective was to find link between verbal commu- nication, team level and implicit coordination. For this study, 18 pairs participated to play tennis matches during 25 minutes, recorded with cameras and microphones. In addition, each participant has completed one questionnaire about team familiarity, task experience and shared expectations. The results have shown correlation between task expe- rience, team familiarity and shared expectations. Another part showed the importance of verbal communication in high level, the team communicated more when the teams played in high level of expertise. However in high level of expertise when team members shared a low team familiarity score, they used more communication than expert team with high score of team familiarity. Another result showed a difference in terms of communication quality because an expert teams used more uncertainty action statements than novice team, probably to shared knowledge. Novice team players focused on their own skills. This study showed a high correlation between, communication, implicit coordination and team level. Key words: team functioning, verbal communication, implicit coordination, shared knowledge, shared expectations.
... In its most direct form it has been the basis for the modern discipline of conversation analysis (henceforth CA), a highly technical methodology which has to date been applied in a wide range of domains, and particularly to " institutional " brands of talk (such as those immanent in judicial and medical interaction), including making some inroads in the study of talk in sport [13]. Like the ethnomethodology [14] by which Sacks himself was influenced, CA provides a strong and sustained focus on the unfolding of meaning in situated examples of action, with a view to ultimately describing " architecture of intersubjectivity " [15], the very structures of interaction. Studies in CA primarily address the tacit communicative competences which underpin the production of orderly conversational exchange, the practical kinds of interactional work to which utterances are put and the way that these utterances are designed with respect to the sequences of talk in which they occur. ...
... Furthermore, my capacity to retain and apply extensive high-level tactical information will not, in and of itself, necessarily motivate the players, inspire them or win their trust. The real-world impact of specialised knowledge – or indeed any knowledge – is always, therefore, to some extent contingent upon a broader set of practical and vividly social skills, not least those involved in contextual interpretation and linguistic communication [9, 14, 19], and there can be little dispute that the primary manner in which expert knowledge in coaching is contextually transferred in coaching is through the use of language, both spoken and written. Below, one method for verbally performing expertise is discussed from a discursive psychological perspective, with a particular view to highlighting how the character of authoritative knowledge as-produced is always indivisibly bound to the social context of its production. ...
... Something in the style of this utterance may well be familiar to many coaches and soccer players alike: The coach here, as described in the broad model above, orients to the potentially contentious nature of making a " big claim " about the weakness of his team's performance (lines 4 and 5) by alluding specifically to his time served as a coach (around twenty years) which is longer than some of the players, in this instance, had been alive and certainly longer than any of them had been seriously involved in soccer. In doing so, he both: 1. Attends locally to his own accountability [14] for making such a strong claim. He makes explicitly available that he is the longest-serving football person, and inferably therefore the person with the greatest authority to make such claims – in short, he insulates the criticism against possible challenge on the grounds of experience. ...
Article
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For twenty five years the discursive psychological perspective has been at the vanguard of innovative research in social psychology, producing high-detail systematic analyses of dynamic, constructive language use in a wide range of practical settings. To date, it has found applications in the study of medical communication, racism, political discourse, emotion and accounts of success and failure in sport, to highlight but a few. Its lack of headway in the specific study of coaching is perhaps, therefore, somewhat surprising given the transparently task-focused character of many naturally-occurring verbal activities in the domain. This paper draws on salient literature and two brief case studies in illustrating some of the ways that the perspective can inform an approach to coaching interaction that does not draw on ontologically-problematic cognitivist assumptions regarding the relationship between thought and action. A foundational argument is then made for greater engagement with Discursive Psychology within the broader realm of coaching science.
... In sport teams, division of labor is displayed through specific positional responsibilities (e.g., quarterback, wide receiver) and formal or informal roles determined by ability, experience, or team functions (Benson, Surya, & Eys, 2014). Communication systems provide a foundation for executing basic actions in practices or games and disseminating information to achieve coordination of the team (Bourbousson, Poizat, Saury, & Seve, 2010;Eccles & Tran, 2012;LeCouteur & Feo, 2011). Effective communication is also crucial to team dynamics as it develops shared knowledge (Eccles & Tenenbaum, 2004), decreases role ambiguity (Cunningham & Eys, 2007), increases athlete satisfaction and retention (Onağ & Tepeci, 2014), and improves task cohesion (Smith, Arthur, Hardy, Callow, & Williams, 2013;Sullivan & Gee, 2007). ...
... Intrateam communication has been described as "information exchange occurring through verbal and non-verbal means" (Eys, Surya, & Benson, 2017, p. 218). However, few studies have accounted for nonverbal interactions, which are challenging to capture yet important to successful team performance (LeCouteur & Feo, 2011). ...
Article
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORT COMMUNICATION (IN PRESS). Performance excellence is a core value among athletic teams. A team’s intra-organizational network has been considered an important determinant of team performance. However, the role of sport team captains is often overlooked in lieu of the coaching staff. The purpose of this case study is to explore the relationship between team captains’ intrateam ego network and team performance indicators. The researchers video recorded the intrateam communication of four collegiate football team captains over the course of nine practices and collected secondary data pertaining to team performance. Analysis of the coded interactions revealed significant positive relationships between captains’ ego network and the previous week’s team performance, with a non-significant correlation with the subsequent week’s team performance. Analysis exploring the relationships between captains’ ego network and other team performance indicators provide some support for the impact of intrateam communication on team performance. Implications for coaches and future directions for research are presented.
... Additionally, communication is known to be a critical factor in predicting team efficacy between athletes and coaches [37]. Positive communication during competitions contributed to increased team performance [38]; whereas, negative communication was an obstruction for teams [39]. Moreover, the coach-athlete relationship as a psychological construct reflects social interpersonal nature and interaction within sport teams [40], and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship is directly and indirectly linked to collective efficacy [40][41][42]. ...
... The coach-athlete relationship is an important factor that determines team cohesion, team efficacy, and team success (team performance). According to Jowett et al. [38], the interpersonal factor was divided into the coach-athlete relationship and team cohesion. Additionally, they reported that the coach-athlete relationship had more influence on team efficacy than team cohesion. ...
Article
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Researchers have been interested in the topic of aggression in sports, and research shows it may not only hinder team success but also cause serious injuries (e.g., career-ending injuries) to athletes. Previous studies found that variables (e.g., communication, coaches, and efficacy) increased or decreased aggression in athletes; however, no studies have been conducted to investigate a model including these variables and aggression. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to simultaneously examine the relationships among communication, coach–athlete relationship, team efficacy, and aggression in team sports. After 294 collegiate athletes playing in team sports completed the battery of questionnaires, the data were analyzed for descriptive statistics and the structural equation modeling. The bootstrapping method was utilized to test the mediation effects. The results showed that communication was positively related to the coach–athlete relationship and team efficacy. The coach–athlete relationship was positively related to team efficacy which was negatively related to aggression. The bootstrapping results indicated a significant indirect effect from communication to aggression through coach–athlete relationship and team efficacy. The current study suggests that coaches should improve their communication skills to help athletes to have positive perceptions in the relationships with their coaches, to increase team efficacy, and to reduce aggressive behaviors.
... While many theoretical framework have been initiated to study team coordination (e.g., Ethnomethodology for team communication on the field, LeCouteur and Feo, 2011 Natural Decision Making approach to team sports, Macquet, 2009), three theoretical frameworks for team coordination investigation have been identified as the most fruitful to date, which are the social-cognitive-, the ecological dynamics-, and the enactivist-approaches to team coordination (see Araújo and Bourbousson, 2016). In short, the social-cognitive framework considers team coordination unfold in real-time thanks to shared knowledge in teams. ...
... Thus, our purpose is to defend the individual regulation performed by members in the real-time of their spatiotemporal team coordination as a promising way of advancing the research in next years. Interestingly, a reorganization of the research in such a direction could help develop existing but few-developed alternative theoretical frameworks (i.e., not only the three main identified above), as are the ones that focalize on how each individual faces the complexity of team behavior settings (e.g., Natural Decision Making approach to team sports, Macquet, 2009;Bossard and Kermarrec, 2011) or those concerned with on-the-field social interaction (e.g., Ethnomethodology for team communication on the field, LeCouteur and Feo, 2011). The following section illustrates an innovative way of advancing the research in this line. ...
Article
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Sport teams spend a lot of time and money to compile the best team in order to increase the chance to win. In this light, Lopez et al. (2017) analyzed how often the best team won across different team sports. Interestingly, they showed that team successes (e.g., in baseball, ice-hockey) were very little explained through team intrinsic value or potential alone. Such results came corroborate Eccles and Tenenbaum claim, when suggesting that an expert team is more than a team of experts (Eccles and Tenenbaum, 2004). Research on team sports, especially when aiming to understand team performance, has thus attempted to overlook the focus on intrinsic value of sport teams (as captured by individual talents’ level), because of not accounting for “team togetherness” enough. Historically, improving team training and team building has been targeted by the research, mainly driven by group dynamics constructs such as cohesion, leadership, and collective efficacy that were selected to investigate team togetherness. Other works investigated team learning practices (e.g., verbalization and debate-of-idea) as a part of the process of improving team intrinsic value during training, while moderate effects have been highlighted on effective team performance during games (Chow et al., 2007). More recently, real-time teamwork has been suggested a good candidate to explain on-the-field team successes (Eccles, 2010). Teamwork was defined as a main team process that make the team function effectively (McEwan and Beauchamp, 2014). Teamwork investigation thus promises to understand team performance variability resulting from team members’ coordinated movements. In team sport, the most fruitful research on team performance in recent years addressed team coordination processes to better understand effective on-the-field teamwork (see Araújo and Bourbousson, 2016). Team coordination is defined as the process of arranging individual movement of team members into a patterned collective behavior. Team coordination implies individual players adjustments, thus needing a theory of how individual cognitions can merge and act together.
... However, minimal research exists on how ITC during actual competitive matches is related to performance (Lausic et al. 2009;McLean et al. 2017b). The research investigating ITC during competitive sporting matches has used video and audio recordings, and post-match self-confronting interviews to determine the ITC and its effect on task performance (Lausic et al. 2009(Lausic et al. , 2015LeCouteur and Feo 2011). For example, in doubles tennis, winning teams exchanged twice as many verbal messages, consisting of more task related, and homogenous statements, compared to losing teams (Lausic et al. 2009). ...
... Although the specific types of communication were not measured in the current study, the strong positive relationship between ACOM and BCOM indicates that the more communication that was received, the greater the amount of communication beneficial to performance was received. Given that the team consisted of highly specialised, elite level players with more than 250 individual national team appearances, it would be expected that communication would be primarily aimed at enhancing performance in competitive matches (LeCouteur and Feo 2011). Future studies could determine whether differences exist in the ITC between different levels of competition. ...
Article
Background: Effective intra-team communication (ITC) is an important component for optimal team performance. Methods: In this study, an intra-team communication tool (ITCT) was used for players to report the amount of communication (ACOM) received, and the amount of perceived benefit to performance of that communication (BCOM). The ITCT was used to understand how a professional football team is connected, by ITC and passing, and the relationship between ITC and passing, using social network analysis (SNA). Results: The results indicated that the team was highly connected and cohesive for ITC, but less so for passing. In matches won compared to lost, passing connections were lower and ITC connections were higher. There were negative correlations between ITC and passing for the mean sociometric status values. For the SNA metrics, network edges were higher in matches won compared to drawn for BCOM. Cohesion was lower in drawn compared to won matches for BCOM, and lower compared to matches won and lost for passing. SMS was higher in matches won compared to lost for ACOM and BCOM, but was higher in matches lost compared to won for passing. Conclusions: The results could indicate that in matches when possession was increased, and ITC decreased, the team may coordinate implicitly, by relying on pre-existing knowledge of practiced playing structures. Whereas, in matches with low possession, increased levels of ITC may be required, due to the uncertainty associated with defending. However, further research is needed to confirm the current explanations of the results. This study has implications for the design of training practice.
... Although both of these aforementioned studies also found that winning teams engaged in more frequent communication exchanges (16,30), other researchers (31) noted that effective task-oriented communication is perhaps more dependent on how and when athletes communicate, rather than the frequency in which they communicate. Notably, with a sample of elite netball players, efforts to coordinate defensive efforts were more successful when Team Communication team members communicated pertinent details about location and/or movement requirements in their exchanges (31). Collectively, studying intra-team communication at the behavioral level of analysis has provided a more fine-grained depiction of the relationship between interpersonal communication exchanges and proximal performance outcomes. ...
... In some cases, survey-based methods were used to gain an understanding of the perceptions athletes hold regarding the quality and quantity of communication exchanges (5,11,12,25). In other cases, researchers used observational strategies to determine effective communication patterns (16,30,31). Overall, it is encouraging to see this variety in methods and there are many opportunities for future research to explore communication Team Communication patterns as they evolve across the competitive season (i.e., less reliance on cross-sectional studies) and links to other important variables within the sport group environment (e.g., coordination, conflict resolution, other teamwork components, role perceptions, quality of peer leadership). ...
Chapter
Intra-team communication is a fundamental process that underpins many important components within sport group dynamics. The frequency, types, and quality of communication among team members can influence the transmission and clarity of role expectations, the degree to which group members are coordinated, and ultimately both individual and group performance. As a result, communication is frequently targeted for intervention within team-building protocols, with a focus on facilitating task effectiveness and strong interpersonal bonds. Recent advances also afford athletes greater opportunities to communicate with their teammates (i.e., social media), as well as allowing researchers to use creative tools to assess the communication practices in sport teams.
... Another area that is need methodological development in team cognition in sports research is nonverbal communication. Previous research has shown that athletes communicates in many difference ways including using gestures, gaze direction, movement, body orientation and touch [34]. For example, in netball, verbal directives given by teammates are accompanied by gestures 12.5 % of the time and failures in taking into account the different orientation of a teammate when making a gesture accounts for a high proportion of communication problems [34]. ...
... Previous research has shown that athletes communicates in many difference ways including using gestures, gaze direction, movement, body orientation and touch [34]. For example, in netball, verbal directives given by teammates are accompanied by gestures 12.5 % of the time and failures in taking into account the different orientation of a teammate when making a gesture accounts for a high proportion of communication problems [34]. In basketball, it has been shown that the rate at which NBA teammates touch each other during play is directly related to their level of cooperation and on-court performance [35]. ...
Chapter
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Team cognition is beginning to be realized as an important facet of team sports. As we continue to articulate the role of team cognition during team sports, we need to understand how to measure team cognition. In this paper, we present multiple knowledge elicitation methods to measure team cognition. We also propose new elicitation methods that account for the dynamic nature of team sports.
... In our study, the video-based field study served to highlight behaviors that had become almost " invisible " to the players because of their embodiment. Among these behaviors not systematically described in the interviews, somedlike looks, positioning and movements in the playing space, and getting back into playdseemed to have a particular role in the processes of coordination between partners (e.g., Hutchins & Palen, 1997; LeCouteur & Feo, 2011). Although the actions related to getting back into play are relatively specific to interactions in The end of the set is going to be difficult ...
... Other meanings attributed to the behaviors occurring during breaks between points were more linked to sharing a culture and had been progressively incorporated through past experience. The recurrence of certain behaviors during these breaks seemed to suggest implicit rules acting on the interactions between the two partners (e.g., LeCouteur & Feo, 2011). A set of shared meanings may have been progressively embodied in these behaviors to the point where they became " invisible " to the eyes of those performing them (e.g., displaying neutral behavior after one's partner made a mistake). ...
Article
Objectives This study sought to determine whether combining first- and third-person methodologies would provide insight into team coordination.Design and methodsWe studied the activity of a table tennis doubles team during an official match. We collected and processed the verbal data according to a procedure defined for course-of-experience analysis, but we also included a video-based field study of the partners' interactions during the breaks between points. We then conducted a joint analysis of the two players' lived experience and behaviors during these short breaks.ResultsThe results showed both the difficulties and the empirical richness of this approach. For example, the joint analysis of first- and third-person data on doubles table tennis revealed how the players' behaviors during the short breaks between points had a key role in shaping the understanding shared by the two partners.Conclusions The combination of first- and third-person data seems to be a promising approach for improving our understanding of the coordination processes in sports teams. In our study, the joint analysis of these data enabled us to describe in great detail how the respective behaviors of the partners contributed to the dynamics of constructing/deconstructing shared understanding between them.
... The assumption guiding this work has been that a better understanding of team cognition would provide insight into the " expert team " as more than a mere " team of experts " (Eccles & Tenenbaum, 2004) and team performance as more than the sum of individual performances. In sport science, although investigations into team cognition are multiplying, this type of research is conducted within a variety of theoretical frameworks (e.g., Bourbousson, S` eve, & McGarry, 2010; Lausic, Tennenbaum, Eccles, Jeong, & Johnson, 2009; LeCouteur & Feo, 2010). Team cognition research has focused on the cognitive processes that underlie team coordination. ...
... These authors again noted the need for a mutual orientation of coordinating teammates in order to build a situated shared understanding. To illustrate, the performance of homogeneous sport science teams was also assumed to be directly influenced by (a) a high degree of knowledge sharedness (e.g., Eccles & Tenenbaum, 2004); this ensures shared understanding and shared expectations related to unfolding events; (b) a certain degree of awareness sharedness (e.g., shared perception and co-orientation), even when teammates do not completely share the same perceptions, a certain minimum agreement about what is important is necessary so that all members can count on the others (e.g., LeCouteur & Feo, 2010); and (c) a high degree of concern sharedness 1 among teammates, if this is not the case, the team will be less coordinated because of the differing involvements of individual members (e.g., Reimer, Park, & Hinsz, 2006) leading to a lack of shared understanding. In light of these assumptions, previous works of Bourbousson and co-workers explored the first two assumptions. ...
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This case study investigated team cognition in basketball. The focus was on how concerns in a real match situation were shared among teammates and how the sharedness evolved. The activity of five basketball players (M age = 17.60, SD = 0.89) was studied. The data were collected and processed according to a procedure defined for course-of-action analysis (Theureau, 2003). The results indicated that the instances when all the teammates shared the same typical concern were relatively rare, but temporal analysis revealed two kinds of convergence phenomena (simultaneous and progressive). In conclusion, shared understanding emerged within this team as essentially “local sharing of understanding”.
... Multimodal communication constitutes a key component constituting the interpersonal coordination of players. 5) Interpersonal coordination in sport has recently attracted studies from different theoretical perspectives: social-cognitive, enactive, and ecological dynamics (see Araujo and Bourbousson 6 for a review). This paper approaches interpersonal coordination from a pragmatic approach, avoiding circumscribing cognition to the internal 'mental processing' of subjects and being respectful of the inner local configuration of players as occurring during the game. ...
Article
This paper presents a cognitive ethnography on the variability of interpersonal coordination in defense against direct screens during basketball games. We collected data through observation of ten games of Estudiantes U18 Team during the 2014/2015 season in Madrid. We filmed the game and showed clips of specific direct screens to players while conducting semi-structured interviews. We analyzed the video and the discourse qualitatively following grounded theory principles. We identified three categories expressing variability: failure, partial repair, and functional variation. Even though communication was quoted by the interviewed players as a key element in their decision-making, other contextual elements – related to framing and joint attention- affected the degree of variation and success. Based on these findings, the paper offers some recommendations for coaching the tactical behaviour of defense against direct screens.
... So we need an intensive and ongoing communication. This is supported by research conducted by [10] which states that: it is important to maintain high frequency in communication in the field to be able to motivate team members, organize and coordinate their movements during play. ...
... For instance, Senécal, Loughead, and Bloom (2008) found that youth basketball teams who participated in a team goal setting intervention showed greater perceptions of cohesion at the conclusion of their seasons compared to teams who did not set team goals. As a second example, in an analysis of on-court communication among elite junior netball players, LeCouteur and Feo (2011) demonstrated that teams were not necessarily more successful when they engaged in a higher quantity of communication. Rather, the key aspect of communication appeared to be the quality of the communication patterns between teammates, such as being specific in terms of the exact behavior (e.g., "cover the shooter" versus "take him") or precise location (e.g., "watch baseline" versus "watch your side") that was required to successfully execute a team strategy. ...
... Results showed that winning teams exchanged messages more frequently and with greater reliability than losing teams. Similarly, LeCouteur and Feo (2011) used conversation analysis to investigate netball players' interactions during defensive plays. They found that successful defense was associated with higher frequency of talk-matched movement. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between nonverbal communication and team success in real-time professional volleyball games. The sample included the top four and bottom four teams from the Turkish Men’s Volleyball 1st League from the 2016–2017 season. The development of a coding scheme for nonverbal behaviours (NVBs) was informed by the extant literature and interviews with volleyball experts (n = 5). Video recordings of 24 matches were analysed under three conditions for each team (a win, a loss, and a tie-break game). The findings indicated that successful teams displayed a greater amount of NVBs in total, and used significantly more instructional and supportive NVBs than their less successful counterparts. In addition, successful teams demonstrated more frequent use of instructional NVBs during the games that they won, more supportive behaviours when they lost, and both of these behaviours during tie-break games. Results from the present study highlight the different uses of NVBs between successful and less successful professional volleyball teams, which has both theoretical and practical implications. Keywords: nonverbal communication; team success; volleyball; behavioural observation
... Task-irrelevant communications are positive or negative messages with no bearing on performance. The few studies about in game communication in team sports (Hanin, 1992;Lausic et al., 2009;LeCouteur and Feo, 2011) have shown that there exist specific patterns around the flow of play, that the content is usually task-focused. Additionally, messages have typically a length of one or two words and may be repetitive. ...
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One of the psychological mechanisms that contribute to effective and efficient team actions is team cognition, defined either as shared knowledge states about game situations, teammates’ skills, and action probabilities or direct communication processes in the team action itself. Particularly in interactive team sports (e.g., football), characterized by highly complex, dynamic, and uncertain situations, sharing a common understanding concerning potential future actions and how to coordinate these actions may be an advantage. Otherwise, team members must communicate their thoughts and ideas on the fly, which might be impossible due to time pressure, cognitive costs or noisy environments. This study examined if shared knowledge and verbal communication change through collective training. Forty-six under-18 and under-21 youth football players performed a football task in teams of two. The task consisted of passing and running elements common in football. After a training phase, and before two testing phases, players evaluated their actions and the actions of their assigned teammate regarding action type, location, and timing. Out of these evaluations, two indices of common understanding were computed. Furthermore, verbal communication during the task was video-and audio-recorded. Data analysis showed that shared knowledge considerably increased over time and with practice. Simultaneously, overall verbal communication and verbal communication consisting of orienting information was significantly reduced. Additionally, there was a tendency for a correlation that when shared knowledge increased, orienting verbal communication decreased. Overall, the players used orienting communications the most (77%). The study revealed that shared knowledge states and verbal communication change through collective training and that there might be a relation between the level of shared knowledge and the use of orienting verbal communication. Further studies in and off the field are needed to disentangle the complex interplay of team cognitions.
... ELAN was designed for the classification of movement and provides the transcription of narratives and interactions. Specific training episodes of instructing are taken as instances of communicative situations by applying Conversation Analysis (CA) (Broth & Mondada, 2013;Goodwin, 2012;Heath & Luff, 2012;LeCouteur & Feo, 2011;Sacks et al., 1978). CA takes a theoretical stance towards considering turn-taking as an indicator of the mutual comprehension of what is being communicated. ...
Article
How do expert trainers and athletes instruct and attend to new moves? The objective of this paper is to analize communication patterns in sports settings. We propose a pragmatic view on cognition through an integrated theoretical model. We claim that communication modalities cannot be reduced to individual minds but must be understood as distributed cognitive mechanisms among different individuals and resources. We compare two case studies, an aikido session in the USA and Olympic synchronized swimming training in Spain with a video‐aided cognitive ethnography and Conversation Analysis. By exploring these specific events we have a better understanding how athletes attend to instructions by using multiple modalities. Our findings show how trainers and athletes communicate augmented information that is not available in a self‐exploratory performance. They rely on augmented information through speech, but also gesture, marking, direction of gaze and body posture. Moreover, the skills of trainers and trainees include embodied and epistemic actions. They share visual assumptions on which are the right moves. Distributed attention is at the roots of these shared and embodied skills. Distributed attention is a type of distributed cognition in sports trainings.
... There is mixed evidence regarding the relationship between score status 310 and frequency of communication. In a study of netball, researchers found that more frequent 311 on-court talk was associated with less-successful outcomes ( LeCouteur & Feo, 2011). ...
Article
Objectives: This study sought to explore highly-skilled soccer players’ perceptions of how contextual factors influence their decision making during matches. Design: A qualitative design was used in which individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight professional male soccer players aged between 18 and 22 years. Method: An interview schedule was designed to explore the perceived influence of a range of situational factors on decision making during matches. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed via an inductive thematic analysis. Results: Seven themes were identified from the data. The four dynamic contextual themes were: (a) personal performance, (b) score status, (c) momentum, and (d) external/coach instructions. The three static contextual themes were: (a) match importance, (b) personal pressures, and (c) preparation. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of considering the dynamic and static context within which highly-skilled soccer players make decisions.
... However, there exists great potential in applying systematic observation to the study of athlete behavior in youth sport [17]. Several studies have examined observed athlete behavior in relation to performance outcomes (e.g., [18][19]), while others have recently begun to explore how observed athlete behavior is associated with PYD outcomes in different sport contexts. In their study on social status (i.e., connection) and athlete behavior among competitive adolescent volleyball players, Vierimaa and Côté [20] found that lower status athletes less frequently engaged in interactions with their teammates and coaches than their higher status peers. ...
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Objectives Competence, confidence, connection, and character are regarded as outcomes of positive youth development (PYD) in sport. However, the specific athlete behaviors associated with different PYD profiles are not well understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between athletes’ observed behavior during sport competitions and their perceptions of PYD outcomes. Design Cross-sectional study with systematic behavioral observation. Method Sixty-seven youth athletes were observed during basketball games near the end of their season, and the content of their behavior was systematically coded. Athletes also completed measures of the 4 Cs (competence, confidence connection, and character). A person-centered analysis approach was used to examine the relationship between PYD profiles and observed behavior. Results A cluster analysis identified two homogenous groups of athletes characterized by relatively high and low perceptions of confidence, connection, and character. A MANCOVA revealed that after controlling for gender and years of playing experience, the high Cs group engaged in more frequent sport communication with their coaches. Conclusions Results re-affirm the critical role that coaches play in the developmental experiences of young athletes, and highlight the importance of contextual factors of the youth sport environment.
... Ronglan [1] has described the same situation in handball and emphasized the role of happiness and livelihood during the match in increasing group efficacy and building up team standards. The results of a research by LeCouteur and Feo [29] reveal that intimate relations among players during the match act as a significant factor in match creativity and weak and unemotional relations play an essential role in team collapse. Future research can indicate if strong and intimate relations can influence group efficacy. ...
Article
Aim: The aim of the present study was to explore collective efficacy sources in the experiences of elite handball players of Iran national team. Method: a qualitative phenomenological design was adopted. The sample under investigation included the handball players of Iran national team in 2014 who were selected through purposive and snowball sampling technique. The participants were: 8 men and 4 women, voluntarily took part in the study. To collect data, semi-structured interviews were used. Result: The results of the study were divided in two main dimensions, namely team’s internal sources and team’s external sources. The internal sources included reliable characteristics of the coach, in-team interactions, team’s achievements, and team cohesion. The external sources included financial and psychosocial supports. Conclusion: The research findings, on one side, were similar to other studies and, on the other side, were complementary and special. Thus, it is recommended that the researchers pay more attention to the issue of collective efficacy sources in Iran national handball team. Keywords: Collective efficacy sources; phenomenology; qualitative research; semi-structured interviews; thematic analysis
... Distracting noises, distance and rule restrictions can prevent teams from being directed by external feedback. In such cases, more distributed or decentralized communication channels become important (Pedersen and Cooke, 2006;LeCouteur and Feo, 2011;Passos et al., 2011;Seiler, 2014). In the competitive setting of many team sports, a high physical workload and, most importantly, time constraints impede communication-based action regulation via closed feedback loops (Cannon- Bowers and Bowers, 2006). ...
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Interpersonal coordination is a key factor in team performance. In interactive team sports, the limited predictability of a constantly changing context makes coordination challenging. Approaches that highlight the support provided by environmental information and theories of shared mental models provide potential explanations of how interpersonal coordination can nonetheless be established. In this article, we first outline the main assumptions of these approaches and consider criticisms that have been raised with regard to each. The aim of this article is to define a theoretical perspective that integrates the coordination mechanisms of the two approaches. In doing so, we borrow from a theoretical outline of group action. According to this outline, group action based on a priori shared mental models is an example of how interpersonal coordination is established from the top down. Interpersonal coordination in reaction to the perception of affordances represents the bottom-up component of group action. Both components are inextricably involved in the coordination of interactive sports teams. We further elaborate on the theoretical outline to integrate a third, constructivist approach. Integrating this third approach helps to explain interpersonal coordination in game situations for which no shared mental models are established and game situations that remain ambiguous in terms of perceived affordances. The article describes how hierarchical, sequential, and complex dimensions of action organization are important aspects of this constructivist perspective and how mental models may be involved. A basketball example is used to illustrate how top-down, bottom-up and constructivist processes may be simultaneously involved in enabling interpersonal coordination. Finally, we present the implications for research and practice.
... Yelling "I got it" or "mine" is an essential part of baseball that players are taught from an early age (Delmonico, 1996). Furthermore, non-verbal communication (e.g., pointing or waving) is also commonly used in baseball (Delmonico, 1996) and has been shown to be critical for team coordination in other sports (e.g., LeCouteur and Feo, 2011). A second limitation of the current paradigm that should be addressed in the future is that the views seen by the players were static and were not yoked to their own head and body movements. ...
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A novel joint decision making paradigm for assessing team coordination was developed and tested using baseball infielders. Balls launched onto an infield at different trajectories were filmed using four video cameras that were each placed at one of the typical positions of the four infielders. Each participant viewed temporally occluded videos for one of the four positions and were asked to say either " ball " if they would attempt to field it or the name of the bag that they would cover. The evaluation of two experienced coaches was used to assign a group coordination score for each trajectory and group decision times were calculated. Thirty groups of 4 current college baseball players were: (i) teammates (players from same team/view from own position), (ii) non-teammates (players from different teams/view from own position), or (iii) scrambled teammates (players from same team/view not from own position). Teammates performed significantly better (i.e., faster and more coordinated decisions) than the other two groups, whereas scrambled teammates performed significantly better than non-teammates. These findings suggest that team coordination is achieved through both experience with one's teammates' responses to particular events (e.g., a ball hit up the middle) and one's own general action capabilities (e.g., running speed). The sensitivity of our joint decision making paradigm to group makeup provides support for its use as a method for studying team coordination.
... To do so, they adjusted their activity to the actions of the opponent ball carrier and his proximal opponent. In support of the results of other studies in the sports sciences (Bourbousson et al., 2010;Millar et al., 2013;R'Kiouak et al., 2016), they raise questions about the assumption of the need for mutual awareness to achieve team coordination (e.g., Reimer et al., 2006;LeCouteur and Feo, 2011). Our findings indeed show that the players were so absorbed in what they were doing that they paid no attention to their teammates; interpersonal regulation processes were therefore not the focus of the adaptations actively made by the players in these instants: the focus was instead on the opponent ball carrier's actions. ...
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This study examined how individual team members adjust their activity to the needs for collective behavior. To do so, we used an enactive phenomenological approach and explored how soccer players’ lived experiences were linked to the active regulation of team coordination during eight offensive transition situations. These situations were defined by the shift from defensive to offensive play following a change in ball possession. We collected phenomenological data, which were processed in four steps. First, we reconstructed the diachronic and synchronic dynamics of the players’ lived experiences across these situations in order to identify the units of their activity. Second, we connected each player’s units of activity side-by-side in chronological order in order to identify the collective units. Each connection was viewed as a collective regulation mode corresponding to which and how individual units were linked at a given moment. Third, we clustered each collective unit using the related objectives within three modes of regulation ‒ local (L), global (G), and mixed (M). Fourth, we compared the occurrences of these modes in relation to the observable key moments in the situations in order to identify typical patterns. The results indicated four patterns of collective regulation modes. Two distinct patterns were identified without ball possession: reorganize the play formation (G and M) and adapt to the actions of putting pressure on the ball carrier (M). Once the ball was recovered, two additional patterns emerged: be available to get the ball out of the recovery zone (L) and shoot for the goal (L and M). These results suggest that team coordination is a fluctuating phenomenon that can be described through the more or less predictable chaining between these patterns. They also highlight that team coordination is supported by several modes of regulation, including our proposal of a new mode of interpersonal regulation. We conclude that future research should investigate the effect of training on the enaction of this mode in competition.
... This line of investigation was taken up by LeCouteur and Feo (2011), who applied CA to the study of real-time competitive performance in a netball match involving elite players. Responding to a request from coaches, the researchers focused on the nature of on-court communication during defensive play. ...
... While there exists a corpus of EMCA research exploring the organization of social action within sporting activities (e.g., Allen-Collinson 2006; Button and Sharrock 2013;Coates 1999;Fele 2008;Girton 1986;Hockey and Allen-Collinson 2013;Kew 1986;LeCouteur and Feo 2011;Macbeth 2012;Meyer and Wedelstaedt 2016;Tolmie and Rouncefield 2013), sports coaching has not yet received sustained or programmatic attention from ethnomethodologists or conversation analysts. Recently, however, sports sociologists have begun to identify the promise of EMCA for addressing coaching questions. ...
Article
Focusing on video recordings of coaching sessions in the context of basketball and powerlifting, this paper investigates how the sports coaching process unfolds as situated interactions. The work of sports coaching is pervasively oriented toward teaching athletes the correct forms of motion and play. Correction then is one of the central constitutive practices of sports training sessions. In this paper, we draw on a collection of instances of correction demonstrations from powerlifting and basketball to describe their order. We demonstrate the three phases of these demonstrations: arranging bodies and gaze for visual access, presenting the error visually, and proposing a correction with an embodied demonstration. Findings underscore the management of shared visual access in multi-party correction demonstrations. In demonstrating how multiple bodies may be involved in embodied reenactments of a correctable problem, and demonstrating that it is seeing an error, more than reenactment per se, that is necessary for correction activities, the study extends existing understandings both of sports coaching processes and of instructional correction in embodied activities.
... We encourage researchers to consider alternate measures of communal behaviour that may be more suitable, such as using wireless microphones to record verbal interactions (cf. LeCouteur & Feo, 2011). More broadly, we acknowledge that we did not fully explore the range of impression construction strategies (e.g., the behavioural signatures) that individuals may have utilised within the basketball activity. ...
Article
Individuals adopt self-presentation motives in sport settings to shape others' perceptions of the self. However, the effectiveness of different types of motives in shaping favourable evaluations has not been explored. We examined pathways from 2 × 2 self-presentation motives to others' evaluative perceptions via task behaviour. Participants (N = 112) reported their self-presentation motives immediately prior to a basketball game, had their behaviours (i.e., shots, time spent on the sideline) recorded via video during the game, then completed agentic (e.g., competent) and communal (e.g., supportive) ratings of their teammates following the game. Structural equation modeling revealed positive pathways from acquisitive motives to behaviour (i.e., acquisitive agency) and favourable evaluations (i.e., acquisitive-agency and -communion). Negative pathways were observed from protective communion to behaviour and others' evaluations. The findings indicate that different types of self-presentation motives may differ in their impression management effectiveness and may either promote or suppress task behaviour.
... Given the exploratory nature of the present study and logistical difficulties inherent to recording athletes' verbalizations in a scattered informal setting, a simple coding system was developed for the collection of interactive behavior data. This coding system was informed by previous observational coding systems designed for peer interactive behavior in sport [28] and developmental psychology [29], adapted to the constraints of the current data collection. Athletes' verbal interactive behavior was classified within two general categories: private and public. ...
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Athlete-driven informal sport play represents an important context for athlete development. However, in contrast to coach-driven organized sport, little is known about the interpersonal processes driving development in this context. The present study was an exploratory descriptive analysis of the interactive peer behaviors occurring in an informal sport play setting and their relationship to athlete psychological characteristics. Thirty young athletes (<25 years old, Mage = 19.84) participating in informal mixed-age volleyball, soccer, and basketball sessions at a community recreation center were observed and their interactive behavior coded. Participants also completed questionnaire measures of psychological characteristics (competence, confidence, character). Descriptive analyses examined the interaction patterns of young athletes in these contexts. Multiple regression analyses were then conducted to examine the relationships between peer interactive behavior and athlete psychological characteristics. Results point to the social nature of participation in informal sport play contexts and the critical relationship between athlete competence and peer interaction tendencies. This study presents an initial exploration of peer interactive behavior in informal, mixed-age sport play contexts, but continued future research is needed to better understand the developmental processes and implications of participation in these important contexts.
... In dance, corrections can involve the choreographer's vocalizations communicating form or 'quality', (Kirsh et al, 2009), informal comments and gazes by fellow dancers during trainings , hands-on adjustments or marking the movement with the body (Muntanyola & Kirsh, 2010). In sports, there have been less effective examples of correction-use: exceptions are Finlay & Faulkner (2002) and LeCouteur & Feo (2011), where verbal communication is weighted against other forms of communication. ...
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This paper is an empirically based contribution on the communication of corrections in synchronized swimming. Our claim is that marking is a socially organized skill that can be found in sports corrections. Through video-aided ethnographic work, which includes observation and interviewing the Spanish Olympic team for four months, we captured standardized communication patterns. Conversation Analysis allows us to locate the pathways of communication modalities in real professional trainings. We analyzed the video of the training sessions with ELAN software for micro-interactions. Our results show that the modalities of speech, marking, gesture and gaze appear in synchronized swimming. There is an epistemological asymmetry between the trainer and the swimmers as experts from different domains. Still, we found instances of distributed marking in gaze behavior. Moreover, marking for others in synchronized swimming is a modality that goes beyond individual reflexivity and recall. Corrections in sports training are a product of socially managed turn taking. Keywords: Ethnography, Conversation Analysis, Distributed Cognition, Marking, Multimodality, ELAN, Sports
... In doing so, this paper extends the past DP research that has explored eating disorders in sport settings by demonstrating how these discursive practices are reproduced in naturally occurring interactions that occur within an elite sport setting. The extant body of DP-based research in sport has drawn on varying approaches to analysis, ranging from CA (LeCouteur and Feo 2011) to that more informed by discourse analysis (McGannon and Spence 2012) and post-structuralism (McGannon and Spence 2010). The present paper draws on a 'synthetic' approach to analysis (Wetherell 1998). ...
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Prevalence of disordered eating is higher in athlete populations than in the general population. This paper explores the socio-cultural context within which athletes are vulnerable to poor health behaviours and potentially poor mental health. Within sport settings, dominant ideals of body regulation and self-surveillance are normalised and leave athletes vulnerable to eating disorders. This paper explores how such ideals and understandings around the body are reproduced within the sporting environment during everyday interactions and how body regulatory practices come to be normalised. This paper draws on discursive psychology, informed by conversation analysis, to examine the news delivery sequences of 40 interactions occurring between elite athletes and sport staff during routine practices of body composition testing taking place in an Australian sport institute network. Through the news delivery sequences of body composition testing scores, practices of body regulation come to be normalised by both athletes and sport staff. Moreover, athletes are positioned as needing continually to improve, thus, (re)producing dominant notions of body regulation as requiring athletes’ self-discipline and surveillance. Discursive practices occurring in sport settings can leave athletes at increased risk of developing unhealthy eating and exercising behaviours and disordered eating. Implications for practice for sport staff are discussed.
... The understanding of how players make decision in order to act as a team has become the central concern in sport sciences in recent years. As a complex phenomenon, team sports have been approached in different perspectives, for example team cognition (Bourbousson, Poizat, Saury, & Sève, 2010Eccles & Tenenbaum, 2004;Lecouteur & Feo, 2010) and, of further interest, ecological dynamics (Araú jo, Davids, Bennett, Button, & Chapman, 2004; Araú jo, Davids, & Hristovski, 2006;Davids, Araú jo, & Shuttleworth, 2005;McGarry, 2005). ...
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Abstract This study investigated compound spatial and temporal measures of interpersonal interactions purported to constrain the emergence of affordances for passing direction in the team sport of futsal. For this purpose, attacker-defender interactions in 37 sequences of play from a futsal competition in which 24 male professional players participated (M=30.04 years, SD=4.10) were filmed and analysed using TACTO software. Relative angle data were used as measures to study coordination tendencies that emerged between players during performance. Results showed that the direction for a pass emerged from relative angles between: (1) the vector from a ball carrier to ball receiver and the vector from the ball carrier to the nearest defender (70°) (p<0.01) and (2) the vector from a ball carrier to ball receiver and the vector from the ball carrier to a ball receiver's nearest defender (31°) (p < 0.01). Furthermore, passing direction was also constrained by temporal information from the emergence of both angles, since the pass was performed to attacker-defender dyads with the highest velocities of these angles (p < 0.05). Results suggested that decisions on selecting the direction of a pass in the team sport of futsal emerged at critical values of these key compound motion measures.
... Athletes' behaviours associated with the display of pride after a successful penalty kick were associated with the team's eventual success, and findings highlighted the importance of social interactions between teammates during competitions. These findings support research suggesting that body language and non-verbal communication is important for interactions between athletes and their teammates, opponents, and coaches (Le Couteur & Feo, 2011;Manley et al., 2008), yet there is little research examining athletes' perceptions of interpersonal emotion regulation within teams. ...
Article
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine emotional self-regulation and interpersonal emotion regulation within a team of competitive athletes. Design: Instrumental case study approach (Stake, 1995). Method: Data collection involved multiple semi-structured interviews with all four members of a female high-performance curling team, as well as observation of team meetings, practices, and games over the entire season. Results: Analyses produced the main themes of emotional self regulation (body language and selfcensorship) and interpersonal emotional regulation (providing positive and/or technical feedback, humour, cueing teammates about their emotions, prosocial actions and indirect actions). We also identified factors influencing emotional regulation (length of time together, team dynamics/cohesion, context, social norms and team roles, and seeking support outside the team). Conclusions: Athletes were aware of and took into account social and contextual factors (e.g., social norms and role on team) when regulating emotions in a team context, and they also identified challenges associated with emotional regulation within the team. Findings highlight the complex interplay between athletes’ emotions, emotional expression, and self-regulation to achieve multiple goals (e.g., positive performances, positive social relationships), as well as the importance of examining interpersonal processes related to emotion and emotion regulation within team sports.
... Nevertheless, communication has been found to positively influence sport performance. For example, LeCouteur and Feo (2011) found that intense communication during play is crucial for a successful performance. In contrast, less frequent and negative communication has been suggested as being a predictor of a collective collapse (Apitzsch, 2009). ...
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Collective efficacy can be defined as a group's shared confidence that they will successfully achieve their goal. We examined which behaviours and events are perceived as sources of collective efficacy beliefs in a volleyball context. In Study 1, volleyball coaches from the highest volleyball leagues (n = 33) in Belgium indicated the most important sources of collective efficacy. This list was then adapted based on the literature and on feedback given by an expert focus group, resulting in a 40-item questionnaire. In Study 2, coaches and players from all levels of volleyball in Belgium (n = 2365) rated each of these sources on their predictive value for collective efficacy. A principal component analysis revealed that the 40 sources could be divided into eight internally consistent factors. Positive supportive communication (e.g. enthusiasm after making a point) was identified as the factor most predictive for positive collective efficacy beliefs. The factor referring to the negative emotional reactions of players (e.g. discouraging body language) was the most predictive for negative collective efficacy beliefs. These findings offer a starting point for the design of continuous measurements of collective efficacy through observation.
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Shared understanding can be defined as two or more people thinking similarly in specific situations. Team members who share similar thoughts are positively related to an effective performance. Within team sports like football, shared understanding between team members facilitates a more coordinated performance. For example, shared understanding between team members is crucial to defending an opposition corner kick, with each team member requiring an understanding of all team roles and likely actions, rather than just their own. Williamson, Cox, Gershgoren et al. emphasise the importance of shared understanding that underpins a team's ability to perform effectively together. This would give the team the best chance of defending the corner (e.g. performing effectively together) and not conceding a goal. Having shared understanding between team members is an important component of an effective team; however, shared understanding between team members is not instantaneous. Due to its complex nature, there are several factors that contribute to the development of shared understanding between team members, with some of these being considered previously in different team sports - such as tennis doubles, field hockey and basketball. The focus of this study is therefore to outline how the different contributing factors interact to develop shared understanding between team members within football.
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Research exploring the processes and effects of parent-child social interaction in youth sport has been limited by an overreliance on retrospective questionnaire and interview-based designs. The purpose of the current study was to examine the naturally occurring parent-child interactions which unfold during the pre-competition car journey within British tennis. Specifically, the research questions focused on identifying the parental communicative practices that enabled (or limited) affiliative conversations about children’s upcoming tennis performance. Audio and video recordings were made of 13 parent-child dyads resulting in 4 h 45 min of parent-child interactions. These recordings were transcribed using the Jefferson (2004) system for capturing the production, pace, and organisation of social interaction. Conversation analysis revealed that children resisted or disengaged from the interaction when parents positioned themselves as having authority over, and entitlement to know about, the child’s upcoming performance. This positioning was achieved through giving instructions or advice about the child’s performance and through asking ‘test’ questions to which they already knew the answer. However, asking ‘wh-questions’ that enabled children to talk about their own areas to focus on, lead to extended sequences of affiliative talk. From an applied perspective, these findings highlight the importance of asking genuinely open questions that construct the child as having ownership of their tennis development and performances.
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Research in sport and skill acquisition is monopolized by psychology-based analysis, not taking into account explanations about cognition coming from the social sciences. In social activities such as sports, cognitive processes cannot be reduced to individual minds and must be understood as part of the complex and dense embedded interactional work that participants maintain through embodied interaction. Such A praxeological view of cognition can be developed through ethnomethodology’s (EM) research program. The general aim of this chapter is to develop the social dimension of the embodied cognition in sport. To do so we provide an ethnomethodological respecification of some cognition-related topics through the empirical analysis of specific cases in sport settings. We use the EM approach as a remedy for some of the pitfalls and limitations regarding the social dimension of cognition presented by the main paradigms for analyzing skill acquisition and sport performance: information processing and ecological dynamics. Regarding these two paradigms, EM is much more critically opposed to information processing than it is to ecological dynamics. An EM research program can improve the ecological approach by developing a more well-rounded analysis of the social dimension.
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This article provides an empirically grounded account of what happens when more persons than one talk at once in conversation. It undertakes to specify when such occurrences are problematic for the participants, and for the organization of interaction; what the features of such overlapping talk are; and what constraints an account of overlapping talk should meet. It describes the practices employed by participants to deal with such simultaneous talk, and how they form an organization of practices which is related to the turn-taking organization previously described by Sacks et al. 1974. This constitutes a previously unexplicated component of that turn-taking organization, and one that provides solutions to underspecified features of the previous account.
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Examines social psychological perspectives on communication in sport, based on observations of top Soviet teams. The PACE (performance, anxiety, communication, enhancement) model is proposed as a general framework for integrating research findings in sport psychology. Communication profiles of different games, rate and direction of communication, and factors determining the dynamics of player contacts are described. Process and outcome oriented criteria of optimal communication are described, and strategies for optimizing player communication are suggested. It is maintained that social psychology in sport could benefit from the study of real-life communicative behavior in competition and training. The sport setting is particularly suited to generating theories, models, and practical procedures for enhancing performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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* We wish to acknowledge the help, through discussion and/or through bringing relevant data to our attention, of Jo Ann Goldberg, Anita Pomerantz, and Alene Terasaki at the University of California, Irvine, and of Françoise Brun-Cottan, Irene Daden, and Louise Kerr at the University of California, Los Angeles. Harvey Sacks was killed in an automobile accident while this paper was undergoing final revision. 1. Bolinger ([1953] 1965:248) writes: 'What speakers avoid doing is as important as what they do. Self-correction of speech and writing, and the correction of others in conversation ("I can't understand what you say"), in classrooms, and over editorial desks is an unending business, one that determines the outlines of our speech just as acceptances determine its mass. Correction, the border beyond which we say "no" to an expression, is to language what a seacoast is to a map. Up to now, linguistic scientists have ignored it because they could see in it nothing more than the hankerings of pedants after a standard that is arbitrary, prejudiced and personal. But it goes deeper. Its motive is intelligibility, and in spite of the occasional aberrations that have distracted investigators from the central facts, it is systematic enough to be scientifically described.' Not much has been made of the distinction—in part, perhaps, because the disciplines have used it to divide up their work, self-correction being occasionally discussed by linguists (since it regularly occurs within the sentence?), e.g. Hockett...
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Many scholars of language have accepted a view of grammar as a clearly delineated and internally coherent structure which is best understood as a self-contained system. The contributors to this volume propose a very different way of approaching and understanding grammar, taking it as part of a broader range of systems which underlie the organisation of social life and emphasising its role in the use of language in everyday interaction and cognition. Taking as their starting-point the position that the very integrity of grammar is bound up with its place in the larger schemes of the organisation of human conduct, particularly with social interaction, their essays explore a rich variety of linkages between interaction and grammar.
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The authors argue for an integrated approach in which verbal and nonverbal messages are studied as inseparable phenomena when they occur together. Addressed are assumptions of various forms of this type of research, potential relationships of quantitative and qualitative studies, current trends found in the investigations included in this special issue, and recommendations for further work.
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Background: It is clear that much of the success of health-care provision depends on the quality of interactions between health professionals and patients. For instance, it is widely recognized that patients are more likely to take medication effectively if they have been involved in discussions about treatment options, and understand and support the decision about what is prescribed (patient concordance). Hence, patient participation is important for the success of medical outcomes. The key is to explore how communicative choices made by health professionals impact on the quality of interactions in general, and of patient participation in particular. However, to date there has not been an appropriate method for investigating this connection or impact. Objective: To outline the perspective and method of Conversation Analysis (CA). Developed within sociology and linguistics, CA offers a rigorous method (applicable to large data sets) to the study of interaction in health settings. Strategy: The method of CA is illustrated through a review of CA studies of doctor-patient interactions. Two such studies, one from the US and the other from Finland, are reviewed, in order to show how CA can be applied to identifying both forms of patient participation, and the interactional conditions which provide opportunities for patient participation. These studies focus principally on the medical examination and diagnostic stages of the consultation. Further research will examine the forms and conditions of patient participation in decision-making.
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The authors examined precisely when and how listeners insert their responses into a speaker's narrative. A collaborative theory would predict a relationship between the speaker's acts and the listener's responses, and the authors proposed that speaker gaze coordinated this collaboration. The listener typically looks more at the speaker than the reverse, but at key points while speaking the speaker seeks a response by looking at the listener, creating a brief period of mutual gaze called here a gaze window. The listener was very likely to respond with “mhm,” a nod, or other reaction during this period, after which the speaker quickly looked away and continued speaking. This model was tested with 9 dyads in which 1 person was telling a close-call story to the other. The results confirmed the model for each dyad, demonstrating both collaboration in dialogue at the microlevel and a high degree of integration and coordination of audible and visible acts, in this case, speech and gaze.
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It is increasingly recognised that whilst CSCW has led to a number of impressive technological developments, examples of successful applications remain few. In part, this may be due to our relative ignorance of the organisation of real world, cooperative activity. Focusing on share trading in a securities house in the City of London, we explore the interactional organisation of particular tasks and the ways in which dealers interweave individual and collaborative activity. These observations suggest ways in which we might reconsider a number of central concepts in CSCW and begin to draw design implications from naturalistic studies of work and interaction.
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The concept of awareness has become ofincreasing importance to both social andtechnical research in CSCW. The concept remainshowever relatively unexplored, and we stillhave little understanding of the ways in whichpeople produce and sustain `awareness' in andthrough social interaction with others. In thispaper, we focus on a particular aspect ofawareness, the ways in which participantsdesign activities to have others unobtrusivelynotice and discover, actions and events, whichmight otherwise pass unnoticed. We consider forexample how participants render visibleselective aspects of their activities, how theyencourage others to notice features of thelocal milieu, and how they encourage others tobecome sensitive to particular events. We drawexamples from different workplaces, primarilycentres of coordination; organisationalenvironments which rest upon the participants'abilities to delicately interweave a complexarray of highly contingent, yet interdependentactivities.
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Verbal and nonverbal communication is a critical mediator of performance in team sports and yet there is little extant research in sports that involves direct measures of communication. Our study explored communication within NCAA Division I female tennis doubles teams. Video and audio recordings of players during doubles tennis matches captured the communications that took place between and during points. These recordings were coded and sequential analysis computed using the Discussion Analysis Tool software (Jeong, 2003). Results indicated that most communications were emotional (i.e., > 50%) or action statements (i.e., > 25%). Winning teams exhibited significantly different communication sequences than losing teams. In particular winning teams had a more homogeneous model of communication, which perhaps makes message interpretation more reliable. Finally, winning teams exchanged twice as many messages as losing teams.
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To introduce some features of the perspective of discursive psychology that may be useful for studying interaction in a range of medical settings. Discursive psychology considers the way psychological words and displays play a practical part in the activities that are performed in particular settings. It offers a way of understanding the role of psychological issues that is distinct from, and is sometimes obscured by, traditional social cognitive approaches. The approach is illustrated by the example of crying on a child protection helpline. The way crying is built from different elements, the way these elements are organised, and the way they are receipted are all highlighted. Crying is both performing and potentially disrupting actions. The virtues of high quality transcription, and of understanding the way crying is situated in the turn organisations of conversation, are demonstrated. Discursive psychology involves particular ways of considering reliability and validity. The broader potential for such an approach in medical settings is discussed.
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Bringing together thirteen original papers by leading American and British researchers, this volume reflects fresh developments in the increasingly influential field of conversation analysis. It begins by outlining the theoretical and methodological foundations of the field and goes on to develop some of the main themes that have emerged from topical empirical research. These include the organisation of preference, topic, non-vocal activities, and apparently spontaneous responses such as laughter and applause. The collection represents the most comprehensive statement yet to be published on this type of research.
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This paper draws on insights and practices of ethnomethodology and conversation analysis to explore routine talk-in-interaction in the airline cockpit; that is, the place of pilots’ talk as they establish what is going on around them, what they are doing, who is doing what, when they have completed what they are doing, and what they are to do next. I am interested in features of talk as pilots develop and demonstrate to one another their situated and moment-to-moment understandings in order to perform and complete the tasks necessary to fly their plane. In particular, I examine how pilots coordinate their talk and non-talk activities with split-second precision. This paper shows how pilots precisely coordinate their talk with the placement and movement of their hands as they use various cockpit controls and displays. This precise coordination may be particularly germane in the sequentially task-oriented setting of the airline cockpit, and possibly other sociotechnical workplace settings. Such coordination contributes to what the pilots can ‘know’, moment-to-moment, about the progress of their flight and their conduct of it. The outcome of a precise coordination of talk and non-talk activity is a synchronisation of the pilots’ conduct of a task, and the progress of the flight, as these are represented in talk and as they really are. This paper goes a little way towards an understanding of what it is to be, accountably and recognisably, an airline pilot, and shows how every airline flight is simultaneously and necessarily both a technological triumph and an interactional accomplishment.
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Both experimental and anecdotal data suggest that athletes of various ages, abilities, ethnic backgrounds, and gender desire open two-way communication with their coaches (Chelladurai, 1980; Danielson, Zelhart, & Drake 1975; Hendry, 1969; Masimo, 1980). In this paper we describe how performance profiling procedures (Butler, 1989) may be used with teams to create a more open atmosphere for coach/athlete communication and to facilitate team goal setting. Specifically, a case study with a Division I women's volleyball team is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this procedure in profiling individual athletes, the team, and the coach. Profiles were conducted 1 week into the practice season, at the midpoint of the competitive season, and at the end of the competitive season. Significant improvements were made on one or more characteristics by each athlete, the team, and the coach. As a result of participating in this process, both the athletes and the coach agreed that there was a more open atmosphere for communication. And, the athletes expressed sincere appreciation for the increased input they had in determining the nature of their training program and their goals for competition.
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The authors argue for an integrated approach in which verbal and nonverbal messages are studied as inseparable phenomena when they occur together. Addressed are assumptions of various forms of this type of research, potential relationships of quantitative and qualitative studies, current trends found in the investigations included in this special issue, and recommendations for further work.
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Research has been equivocal with respect to sex differences in communication. Although the bulk of the literature suggests that any differences are small to moderate, several characteristics of sport teams suggest that male and female athletes may communicate differently. A sample of 299 athletes (150 female and 148 male) completed the Scale for Effective Communication in Team Sports. Multivariate Analyses of Variance revealed no significant differences between male and female athletes. The researcher concluded that there are no differences between male and female athletes with respect to the frequency of communication of these sports‐specific resources. Considering that the sample and operational definition were selected to maximize the probability of sex differences in communication, this study further supports that males and females communicate similarly.
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This paper uses as its starting point a distinction made by Harvey Sacks between ‘claiming’ and ‘exhibiting’ understanding. In doing so, it explores some of the practices of producing and assessing claims and exhibits of understanding within discussions between student dentists and their supervisors. These are particularly interesting settings as the training episodes are not solely relevant to the work of formal education, but have consequence for the care of real patients attending the clinics. The paper focuses on the local, interactional resources that the supervisors draw on to assess understanding, resources that are not simply tied to the content of students’ talk, but that also relate to the timing of the production of that talk and to the bodily conduct that accompanies it. The analysis is organised around a series of illustrative examples drawn from a corpus of audio-visual recordings in a student dental clinic.
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Team building is an ongoing, multifaceted process where group members learn how to work together for a common goal, and share pertinent information regarding the quality of team functioning for the purpose of establishing more effective ways of operating. This article describes a “hands on” approach to conducting team building interventions in sport. Drawing on reserurh from organizational development and group dynamic theory in sport, as well as information derived from interviews with coaches and athletes, key principles associated with successful team building interventions are presented and discussed. Core components to consider in building a successful team include having a shared vision and unity of purpose, collaborative and synergistic teamwork, individual and mutual accountability, an identity as a team, a positive team culture and cohesive group atmosphere. open and honest communication processes, peer helping and social support, and trust at all levels. Recommendations for conducting effective team building interventions are offered, along with miscellaneous team building activities, and suggestions for coaches that can impact the team building process.
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Despite the growing interest in using audio-visual technologies to support communication and collaborative work among individuals in different locations, we still have relatively little understanding of the organization of video-mediated interaction. In the following article, we discuss some findings of recent research concerning interpersonal communication in a sophisticated multimedia office environment. Based on the detailed naturalistic analysis of individuals collaborating on various tasks during their day-to-day working lives, we explore the extent to which the media space provides a satisfactory means for interpersonal communication and ordinary sociability. In particular, the research suggests that audio-visual technology introduces certain asymmetries into interpersonal communication that can transform the impact of visual and vocal conduct. These communicative asymmetries may be consequential for the design and implementation of audio-visual infrastructures used to support informal sociability and collaborative work. What of the hands? We require, promise, call, dismiss, threaten, pray, supplicate, deny, refuse, interrogate, admire, number, confess, repent, confound, blush, doubt, instruct, command, incite, encourage, swear, testify, accuse, condemn, absolve, abuse, despise, defy, flatter, applaud, bless, humiliate, mock, reconcile, recommend, exalt, entertain, congratulate, complain, grieve, despair, wonder, exclaim.... There is not a motion that does not speak and in an intelligible language without discipline, and a public language that everyone understands. (Montaigne, 1952, pp. 215-216)
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Preface The transcription system 1. Video analysis: interactional coordination in movement and speech 2. The display of recipiency and the beginning of the consultation 3. Maintaining involvement in the consultation 4. Forms of participation 5. The physical examination 6. Taking leave of the doctor 7. Postscript: the use of medical records and computers during the consultation Notes References Index.
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Early channel reliance research compared different modes of communication to assess relationships among nonverbal and verbal cues. Emerging communication technologies represent a new venue for gaining insights into the same relationships. In this article, the authors advance a principle of interactivity as a framework for decomposing some of those relationships and report an experiment in which physical proximity—whether actors are in the same place (“co-located”) or interacting at a distance (“distributed”)—and the availability of other nonverbal environmental, auditory, and visual information in distributed modes is varied. Results indicate that both proximity and availability of nonverbal cues affect communication processes, social judgments participants make about each other, and task performance. The authors discuss implications about gains and losses due to presence of nonverbal features.
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theoretical approaches to the study of groups are outlined / findings from three of the most-researched topics within sport groups, namely, group size, group composition, and group cohesion, are presented / problems associated with the study of group dynamics are delineated / suggestions for avoiding or minimizing these "pitfalls" are advanced (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the cohesion–performance outcome relationship in 83 female golfers from 18 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I teams who participated in a tournament. Cohesiveness was assessed by the Group Environment Questionnaire (A. V. Carron et al; see record 1986-20987-001), and performance outcome was assessed by the team tournament score minus the NCAA differential (handicap) score. Cohesion significantly predicted performance outcome, with task cohesion being the best predictor. Cohesiveness also significantly predicted communication and motivation as assessed by commitment to the team goal. Communication and motivation accounted for only 5% of the variance in performance, with motivation being the only significant predictor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In the airline cockpit it is critical to say and do things at the appropriate time and in the appropriate order. When a pilot is responsible for initiating a next action but has not yet done so, the pilot NOT responsible can prompt or perform the action with talk that is prefaced with and. Rather than make conspicuous another's possible lapse, and-prefaced talk presents the not-yet-initiated action as timely and merely occurring routinely next in sequence. And occurs in talk for monitoring another's conduct and for maintaining accountability in the temporal organization of work by situating actions acceptably in time. This article points to the value of seeing grammatical forms as consequential for just how work gets done in particular settings, and especially for identifying local means of creating order for agenda-based activities. The article analyzes transcriptions of pilots interacting in the cockpit on actual scheduled passenger flights.