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Abstract

Environmental sustainability in manufacturing is nowadays an urgent and remarkable issue and the main concerns are related to more efficient use of materials and energy.In sheet metal forming processes there is still a lack of knowledge in this field mainly due to the need of a proper modelling of sustainability issues and factors to be taken into account. The aim of this paper is mainly to underline the state of the art from a forming point of view about the sustainability contributions offered in any phase of a product life cycle. Actually, a lack in terms of comprehensive contributions is present in the technical literature, thus, the authors try to give a sort of holistic vision aimed to provide basic guidelines in order to help in identifying the possible solutions with regard to all the phases of a forming product life cycle. The main attention was paid to sheet metal forming technologies. The paper gives an overview of the main topics concerning sheet metal forming problems related to energy and resource efficiency with the aim to stress the principal contributions which may derive from such processes to environmental performances of manufacturing.

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... According to Gholami et al. (2020), such opportunities exist on all fronts, including occupational safety and health, energy consumption, waste management and many others, as well as the development of performance indicators to measure progress in these areas. When focusing on metal forming processes, sustainable practices become even rarer, and the application potential increases significantly (Ingarao et al., 2011(Ingarao et al., , 2012Riaz et al., 2022). Thus, this section aims to present a synthesis of research, academic texts, and publicly reported experiences by industrial organizations that make relevant contributions to the knowledge on sustainability in metal forming. ...
... The study by Ingarao et al. (2011) can be considered one of the milestones of sustainability in metal forming processes. Despite emphasizing energy efficiency and the use of resources for sheet metal forming process, the authors state that sustainable practices in the macro area can be developed in seven major topics: (1) Energy consumption: which involves taking into account relevant factors, such as required loads and time consumed, when comparing different forming processes; (2) Material wasting: the authors discuss some forming processes that require low material quantities, highlighting those of mechanical stretching; (3) Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions: it should be noted in this point that there is a direct relationship with the source of energy used, with those of fossil origin causing the most environmental damage; (4) Manufacturing cycles: in general, reducing the number of forming cycles contributes to lower energy and lubricant consumption, in addition to reducing the tools wear; (5) Lubrication: the authors comment on the possibilities of using ecological lubricants, but emphasize the need of analyzing the tribological aspects; (6) Tooling systems: the authors argue that when analyzing the forming process, the tools aspects must be considered; (7) Temperature effects: there is an equation to solve here, because higher temperatures make it easier to conform the material, but it generates additional energy consumption. ...
... Even though it was published more than a decade ago, the article by Ingarao et al. (2011) still addresses some very relevant and current issues, such as the need for innovative forming processes capable of recycling materials, more effective analyses of the life cycle of the entire metal forming industry and the complexity inherent in such processes, and the search for advanced materials in steel, aluminium, and magnesium alloys. Summary of barriers to SM implementation. ...
... An overview of sustainability aspects of sheet metal forming with regard to the entire life cycle of a product is described in detail by [3]. The sustainability in the form of a comparison between incremental sheet metal forming and deep drawing in terms of material efficiency and energy use for the manufacture of the same component is presented by [4]. ...
... The total CO2 emissions of forming tools are summation of the emissions during the manufacturing of the tools and during the usage of the tools. The forming tools are generally machined and thus, the emissions arising from the machining processes have to be taken into account [3]. As implied in [3] it is important to accurately estimate the amount of material necessary for the machining of the tooling, which reduces the CO2 footprint of the tools. ...
... The forming tools are generally machined and thus, the emissions arising from the machining processes have to be taken into account [3]. As implied in [3] it is important to accurately estimate the amount of material necessary for the machining of the tooling, which reduces the CO2 footprint of the tools. Besides, the forming tools used in hot forming experiences high tool wear, fatigue, and thermal loads compared to that of cold forming ultimately leading to a lower life time of the tools [19]. ...
Article
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Increasing demands for reducing greenhouse gases drive the metal processing industries to a CO 2 -neutral production. A thorough understanding of CO 2 emission sources from the stage of material acquisition up to the final component is thus necessary to improve the CO 2 footprint of sheet metal hot forming process chains. To emphasize on this, an exemplary hot forming process chain is assessed to identify the impact of each sub-process step on total CO 2 emissions and the savings potential of individual measures is evaluated. Moreover, a mathematical model is proposed that enables for the prediction of the product specific CO 2 emissions as early as in the product design stage. This model is tested to calculate the CO 2 emissions resulted during the production of an exemplary hot stamped sheet component. The results point out that the heating stage is responsible for the second highest percentage of CO 2 emissions in the process chain next to the material acquisition. Thus, as one of the most suitable measures, a concept to recover process heat from hot formed components to the cold initial blanks is proposed and evaluated analytically.
... Power consumption profile and time share profile are classified into four stages as given below and depicted in Figure 6(a) and (b), respectively. [83][84][85] First stage: Start-up: ---Electric power supply (1.CNC initialization 2. Switch-on computer) (startup time contributes up-to 15% of total time) Second stage: Standby/Ready for manufacture: --Engine and pneumatic circuit activation -Set machine and part zero point (time consumed depend on operator expertise such as approx. 16%-17% of total process time) --CNC program loading and ready to run (time consumption is up-to 3% of the total process time) In second stage, the sharp rise in power consumption is identified, due to pneumatic activation, cooling system, and spindle run) Third stage: Part manufacture: (Power consumption is almost constant and may varies for bidirectional contouring to avoid torsion of part, where tool rotation changes in each loop) and (time consumption is very high such as 60% of the total process time, depend on part complexity) Fourth stage: Shutdown: --CNC program finished and CNC and computer can be disabled for other purpose. ...
... Emission intensities (CO 2 /kg) for virgin form tool is 80% more when compared to re-manufactured tool which was re-ground up to fivefold in its life cycle. 84 Effect on CO 2 emissions for modified ISF parameters; such as double the feed rate and step size, Aluminum sheet with 33% of recycled contents, cooking oil and reproduced ISF tool is studied by Branker et al. 87 while forming Al-3003-O sheet in to hat shape using ISF. It was found that CO 2 contents reduced by 28%-31% as compared to pre-modified ISF parameters which result in saving 0.06% $ per hat at a cost of 50$ per ton of CO 2 . ...
... Comparative analysis of ISF and conventional deep drawing techniques shows that ISF is material efficient and save around 10% of material in comparison with the latter one as shown in Figure 10. In another comparative study, researchers 84 found that for the pyramid part with similar dimension, sheet blank material is saved by 24% in ISF when compared to conventional stamping. ...
Article
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Due to continuous worsening of the environment and depletion of natural resources, concept of sustainability in manufacturing sector is gaining an increasing attention. New processes and strategies characterized by efficient use of energy and materials, low processing time and zero or nearly zero green-house emissions are being explored. Incremental sheet forming (ISF) is a comparatively new sheet forming process with high economic payoff for small production runs and customized orders. The current study presents a comprehensive review on the sustainability aspects of the process. The process performance in terms of power demand, energy consumption, cost, CO 2 emissions, processing time, and material wastage/usage is analyzed on the basis of published literature, and important conclusions and recommendations are drawn to utilize the process for cleaner, economical and time efficient production. The review establishes that ISF is more sustainable process than conventional forming methods for small production runs. Further, its sustainability performance can be further enhanced by choosing optimum process conditions especially lower spindle rotation, larger feed rate and step size. Shorter tool paths and advent of energy efficient machines is likely to further elevate the process performance. The review also identifies future work and presents fundamental guidelines and recommendations for establishing the sustainable ISF process.
... However, the requisite for manufacturing processes taking into account the triple bottom line requirements is nowadays becoming very vital [17,18], and it is more immense for engineering supporting industries that do not have rights on the product design. A thriving implementation of sustainable manufacturing strategies in any industry requires an effective analytic assessment framework indicating how far the company is from achieving its sustainability goals, objectives, and targets [8,19,20]. In discussions concerning sustainable manufacturing processes, for example, supporting industries such as sheet metalworking companies, it can be seen that the likelihood of making any changes to the product design is very remote. ...
... Although other processes, such as casting, joining, forming, and shaping, have negative impacts on the triple bottom line, limited efforts have been made in their assessment [19,29,[64][65][66][67][68]. It has been observed that casting and some joining processes, such as welding, consume a considerable amount of energy and involve safety risks owing to the workers' exposure to toxic gases and high temperatures. ...
... Sproesser [65] used a weight space partitioning sustainability assessment tool to evaluate two welding processes. Ingarao et al. [19] pointed out there is a lack of knowledge in sheet metal forming processes. In 2012, they compared energy and material used between a single point incremental sheet forming operation and a classical stamping operation based on experimental and numerical data [67]. ...
Article
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The sheet metalworking industries possess minimal knowledge in the area of sustainability despite having served as subcontractors to various industrial sectors. This also highlights that suitable indicators for measuring the sustainability performance of sheet metalworking operations are poorly addressed. As sustainability assessment is regarded as a vital part of sustainable development, this paper has been aimed at establishing a general framework for sustainability assessment of sheet metalworking processes. The main attention was paid to two important processes-the cutting operations with a CNC turret punch press machine and sheet metal bending operations with CNC press brake machine. Stepwise guidelines to implement the proposed framework in sheet metalworking industries are consequently presented. Besides, this study contributes to developing an applicable sustainability indicator set for assessing such manufacturing processes. It makes a valuable contribution to advancing the narrow body of knowledge on the under-researched scope.
... The environmental impacts of raw material and energy production are included by evaluating the most relevant sustainability issues, which are (1) material consumption, (2) CO 2 emissions, (3) primary energy demand, and (4) fresh water consumption. The main virgin raw material in this sector is ore and the quality of ore deposits are decreasing [41]. There is potential for the reduction of energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in the metal extraction stage of the metal production life cycle. ...
... The type of reductant used is an important factor, especially in iron and steel production. In addition, utilization of biomass as a source of carbon can improve the sustainability of primary metal production [41]. In addition, emissions that arise from electricity production might have a significant role depending on the amount and origin of the purchased power. ...
... Transportation covers only a small part of the environmental impact of the production chain, but, globally, transportation plays a significant role. Transportation contributes to almost 19% of greenhouse gas emissions worldwide [41] and it is therefore an important factor in sustainability evaluation. Emissions of CO 2 , NO x , SO 2 , and primary energy consumption are taken into consideration in the calculation. ...
Article
Numerous sustainability assessment methods, especially environmental performance evaluation tools, have been developed to assess environmental performance of the process industry. Typically, environmental performance indicators cover only primary emissions and consumption without any recognition of secondary environmental burdens from auxiliary processes outside the plant boundaries. Therefore, the environmental impacts of the production site might be decreased whereas the overall environmental performance is not necessarily improved. The overall objective of our research project is to develop a sustainability index that comprehensively and reliably captures the environmental, economic, and social sustainability of an industrial plant. In this paper, we present this work on environmental and economic sustainability metrics for the metal production industry and two hypothetical process industry case studies on the application of the developed metrics. We develop both appropriate indicators and an example of an environmental and economic sustainability index that is also tested in two process industry case studies. Our assessment approach integrates indicators and life cycle assessment by expanding the scope of the typical environmental performance indicators. By this approach, the evaluation not only concentrates on the activities at the plant site, but also covers the emission sources that are indirectly connected to the actual production process. As a result, this approach provides comprehensive information for decision-makers on both the environmental impacts caused by plant operations and economic implications of alternative decisions. In addition, we present a discussion of according EU and Finnish legislation and their implications for both the management and assessment of plant level environmental and economic sustainability performance.
... For example, environmentally friendly products have become a trend, especially in European countries. To fulfill these market needs, manufacturers are required to practice various environmental strategies, including material efficiency [13], green packaging [32,45], consuming less energy [33,46], lightweight product design [25,47], and less CO 2 emissions [33,34,48]. Furthermore, manufacturers need to clearly understand the differences in the product requirements in various regions. ...
... Rise of raw material and resource prices Rise of material prices, energy prices, machinery, and technology costs [25,30] Regulation Fulfill the environmental regulations and directives [32][33][34][35] Competitor Competition given by the local and international rivals [20,26,38] Social responsibility Reduce the release of industrial pollutants to the environment [13,19,25,[40][41][42][43] Market requirements Fulfill customer requirements, such as material quality, product performance, product functionality, eco-design [13,25,[32][33][34][46][47][48] Incentive from the government Tax reduction for companies that commit to green manufacturing and eco-products [13,20,28,48,49] ...
Article
Full-text available
A circular economy can be achieved by the efficient use of materials across different industries and sectors. In the manufacturing sectors, practicing material efficiency is one of the effective strategies to reduce material usage and solid waste generation. However, due to many unknown factors, such as key drivers to enhance material efficiency, most of the time, manufacturers are practicing at the minimum level of material saving. This study aims to examine the key drivers of material efficiency among electrical and electronic (E&E) companies to fulfill the aims of sustainable manufacturing. The data collection and synthesis were conducted using semi-structured interviews and an analytical hierarchy process survey. In this study, thirteen key drivers were found. Five internal drivers and eight external drivers with different priorities were found to influence E&E companies in the practice of material efficiency strategies. In addition, the drivers’ implications to different practitioner groups are suggested. To conclude, achieving material efficiency can be done effectively if the incentivized key drivers are clearly notified. This research is important to show the key drivers that influence the implementation of material efficiency strategies in the E&E industries.
... After analyzing and comparing the results obtained by the experimental method and listed in Table 8, it is verified that the force value obtained with the use of graphite as lubricant was higher than that obtained in the dry process. This behavior is considered abnormal, because according to Booser [36], the graphite has good lubrication efficiency, maintaining good performance until approximately 2000 • C, and according to the author, the coefficient of friction is between 0.05 and 0.1, which was confirmed by the test of the ring, which resulted in a coefficient of friction μ = 0.09. However, a detail that was observed during and after the drawing in the experimental method is that the powdered graphite adhered to the test specimen, and thus a higher load was required to perform the work. ...
... The behavior of the grease occurred as expected and reported in the literature. According to Booser [36], lithiumbased grease performs well in lubrication and generates a good quality of the final product, especially when associated with high-performance agents such as lubricity agent, which produces a film and decreases metal-metal contact, and extreme pressure agent, which reacts with the surface of the material, generating compounds of lower shear strength, which improves the performance of the lubricant and protects the drawing die. ...
Article
Full-text available
Environmentally friendly products are increasing demand and the challenge is to combine them with optimal efficiency in industrial processes. In cold drawing, lubrication improves the surface and dimensional quality of the workpiece, reduce tool wear, work loads, and maintenance intervention. Ester-based, vegetable-derived lubricants have interesting properties, such as biodegradability and low toxicity, but their application in forming processes has not yet been investigated despite their use in machining operations. In this work, we evaluated the drawing strength , surface roughness, and microhardness of electrolytic copper in the dry (non-lubricated) condition and using three different types of lubrication: powdered graphite, molybdenum sulfide grease, and ester-based oil, a possible environmentally friendly lubrication substitute for petroleum-derived lubricants. The drawing strength proved to be 23.4% lower when using grease and ester-based oil compared to the dry process, and the grease and ester-based oil presented the same result regarding process performance and material characteristics. Thus, combined with the fact that the ester-based oil led to the lowest friction coefficient between cooper and tool steel among the tested lubricants, it was possible to demonstrate that it can be used as an alternative to conventional products in cold- drawing operations of the tested cooper alloy.
... Tahmini enerji kullanımında yaklaşık 4-8 milyon kWh'lik toplam enerji tasarrufu yapılabilir [7]. Üretimde maliyetlerin azaltılması ve sürdürebilirlik için enerji tasarrufu ile ilgili yapılan araştırmaların günümüzde önemi artmıştır [8,9]. Enerji ihtiyacının gün geçtikçe artış göstermesi ve enerji üretiminin yeterli düzeyde sağlanamaması günümüzde büyük bir sorun haline gelmiştir [9][10]. ...
... Üretimde maliyetlerin azaltılması ve sürdürebilirlik için enerji tasarrufu ile ilgili yapılan araştırmaların günümüzde önemi artmıştır [8,9]. Enerji ihtiyacının gün geçtikçe artış göstermesi ve enerji üretiminin yeterli düzeyde sağlanamaması günümüzde büyük bir sorun haline gelmiştir [9][10]. Bununla birlikte önemli oranda artan üretim ve ortaya çıkan enerji ihtiyacı; çevre kirliliğini arttırarak iklim değişikliklerini ortaya çıkarmıştır [10][11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Various types of positive displacement gear pumps are widely used for the transfer of petrol, diesel, chemicals and different types of liquid. The gear pump provides transfer of the fuel by transferring the asynchronous motor on the transfer kits, and it is in an energy expenditure during this process. These pumps can be produced in different types including internal gear, pellet and helical gear pumps. Their common feature is that the fuel can be transported to higher levels by sucking the reservoir placed below the ground level. Achieving energy consumption and fuel transfer at the optimum level for the development of sustainable production practices is the industry's main mission. In this context, a gear pump which is produced abroad is modeled by reverse engineering method. The manufacturing of this design is very difficult because of the pallet assembly in the tooth. Production costs reduce competitive power in the market. Therefore, the authors have developed a new industrial design by developing this gear geometry through basic motion analysis method. This design has been determined to have the maximum amount of fuel transfer and suction power with low energy consumption. A fuel-transfer system with a daily capacity of 100 tonnes will provide 3506 kWh of annual energy savings with the specified speed and gear design. Anova variance analysis applied on the calculated frame rate of 94-95% effect considering the energy consumption rate has been observed that the act of changing the engine speed and the amount of flow. Gear pump is determined that the minimum energy consumption at 500-600 RPM induction motor speed range.
... Reduce energy usage [46][47][48][49][50] Yield improvement Reduce solid waste generation from manufacturing process; Reduce reprocess activities [13,28,30,51] By-product recycling Recover the solid waste into resource [30,52,53] Product Distribution ...
... Material efficiency could be achieved through increasing the efficiency of the production operations, which could be done by simplifying the involved manufacturing processes or increasing the process efficiency. By reducing the processing steps, potential solid waste generation could be reduced through eliminating unnecessary secondary processes [46]. Furthermore, batch processing is one of the widely used practices to reduce the process steps and shorten the total production lines [47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The circular economy (CE) is in a growing trend, especially to address the concern of resources sustainability, both from academics as well as industrial practitioners. For manufacturing businesses and services to be sustainable, using materials efficiently is an essential strategy, which is able to enhance the promotion of CE. However, for a developing country like Malaysia, little is known about the ongoing material efficiency strategies among the manufacturers. This paper presents a qualitative investigation of adopting material efficiency strategies in the manufacturing industry. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the material efficiency strategies at selected Electrical and Electronics (E&E) companies in Malaysia. A list of 11 E&E companies material efficiency strategies were determined and explicated. This paper provides valuable insights to academics and practitioners for a better understanding of the current practices pertaining to the material efficiency strategies in E&E companies in a developing country.
... Tahmini enerji kullanımında yaklaşık 4-8 milyon kWh'lik toplam enerji tasarrufu yapılabilir [7]. Üretimde maliyetlerin azaltılması ve sürdürebilirlik için enerji tasarrufu ile ilgili yapılan araştırmaların günümüzde önemi artmıştır [8,9]. Enerji ihtiyacının gün geçtikçe artış göstermesi ve enerji üretiminin yeterli düzeyde sağlanamaması günümüzde büyük bir sorun haline gelmiştir [9][10]. ...
... Üretimde maliyetlerin azaltılması ve sürdürebilirlik için enerji tasarrufu ile ilgili yapılan araştırmaların günümüzde önemi artmıştır [8,9]. Enerji ihtiyacının gün geçtikçe artış göstermesi ve enerji üretiminin yeterli düzeyde sağlanamaması günümüzde büyük bir sorun haline gelmiştir [9][10]. Bununla birlikte önemli oranda artan üretim ve ortaya çıkan enerji ihtiyacı; çevre kirliliğini arttırarak iklim değişikliklerini ortaya çıkarmıştır [10][11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Various types of positive displacement gear pumps are widely used for the transfer of petrol, diesel, chemicals and different types of liquid. The gear pump provides transfer of the fuel by transferring the asynchronous motor on the transfer kits, and it is in an energy expenditure during this process. These pumps can be produced in different types including internal gear, pellet and helical gear pumps. Their common feature is that the fuel can be transported to higher levels by sucking the reservoir placed below the ground level. Achieving energy consumption and fuel transfer at the optimum level for the development of sustainable production practices is the industry's main mission. In this context, a gear pump which is produced abroad is modeled by reverse engineering method. The manufacturing of this design is very difficult because of the pallet assembly in the tooth. Production costs reduce competitive power in the market. Therefore, the authors have developed a new industrial design by developing this gear geometry through basic motion analysis method. This design has been determined to have the maximum amount of fuel transfer and suction power with low energy consumption. A fuel-transfer system with a daily capacity of 100 tonnes will provide 3506 kWh of annual energy savings with the specified speed and gear design. Anova variance analysis applied on the calculated frame rate of 94-95% effect considering the energy consumption rate has been observed that the act of changing the engine speed and the amount of flow. Gear pump is determined that the minimum energy consumption at 500-600 RPM induction motor speed range.
... The requirement of sustainable practices, i.e., more efficient utilization of materials and energy during forming of sheet metal components, is important to reduce the environmental impacts [3][4][5]. Many attempts have been made on energy analysis of ISF which includes the study on the effect of process parameters [6][7][8][9][10], selection of machine tools having different standby power consumption [8], and preferability of ISF in comparison with other sheet metal forming processes [11,12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Double-sided incremental forming (DSIF) process is gaining industrial importance as it has the capability to form complex 3D sheet metal components without using component-specific tooling. It is necessary to form the components in an energy-efficient way without compromising on quality. Almost all the earlier attempts on the energy analysis of single point incremental forming (which is less preferable as it results in poor accuracy, formed components of opening size less than 200 mm × 200 mm) focused on the energy consumption (predicted using either measured forming forces or power) under various process parameters and different machine tools. Energy necessary for free traverse of tools in predefined path is much higher compared to that required to plastically deform the sheet. Energy/power required for free traverse of tool is the significant contributor to the total energy when the tools have to move against the gravity (as in the case of scaled-up machines). Therefore, strategies to reduce energy consumption to move the tools need to be developed, and the present work is an attempt towards the same. In the present work, a mechanics-based model is developed to predict power and energy consumption (i.e., during free movement of tools and to deform sheet) during forming of any arbitrary geometry considering the chosen DSIF machine configuration. Predicted variation in power with forming time for various geometries is compared with measured ones, and they are in excellent agreement. Analysis is carried out to select the process parameters such that energy required to plastically deform the sheet is reasonably less with good surface quality. The effect of component orientation on energy consumption is emphasized. Finally, a process planning strategy is proposed (that includes selecting process parameters and using them to estimate deflection compensations for enhancing accuracy, choosing component orientation, tool type, support force) to form the components with improved surface quality and accuracy in an energy-efficient way. Results indicate that the energy consumption is reduced in the range of 10 to 50% for the geometries formed at an optimal orientation using the self-rotating tools.
... The requirements on materials, tools and processes in manufacturing companies are increasing as a result of growing customer demands [1]. For this reason, the reproducible production of (complex) defect-free components is one of the main objectives of production and manufacturing technology geared to meeting customer needs while, at the same time, conserving resources [2]. In this context, the production of components tailored to customer requirements is taking on increasing importance. ...
Article
Full-text available
The control of workpiece properties enables an application-oriented and time-efficient production of components. In reverse flow forming, e.g., the control of the microstructure profile, in contrast to the adjustment of the geometry, is not yet part of the state of the art. This is particularly challenging when forming seamless tubes made of metastable austenitic stainless AISI 304L steel. In this steel, a phase transformation from austenite to martensite can occur due to mechanically and/or thermally induced energy. The α’-martensite has different mechanical and micromagnetic properties, which can be advantageous depending on the application. For the purpose of local property control, the resulting α’-martensite content should be measured and controlled online during the forming process. In this paper, results from an empirical correlation model of process parameter combinations and resulting α’-martensite content as well as geometry will be presented. Based on this, the focus of the paper will be on process modeling by means of FEM in order to create the transition to a numerically supported process model. Furthermore, it will be specified how the numerical process model can be used in a predictive manner for an online closed-loop process control.
... Forming processes represent one of the most economical steps in the value-added chain in manufacturing industry. Compared to additive manufacturing or machining, forming processes are characterized by an optimum utilization of material and lower specific energy costs per manufactured workpiece [1,2]. Even with these technical and economic advantages, forming companies are under high cost pressure caused by low margins per product. ...
Article
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Wear is one of the decisive factors for the economic efficiency of sheet metal forming processes. Thereby, progressive wear phenome lead on the one hand to a poor workpiece quality and on the other hand to tool failure resulting in high machine downtimes. This trend is intensified by processing high-strength materials and the reduction of lubricant up to dry forming. In this context, data-driven monitoring methods such as machine learning (ML) provide the potential of detecting wear at an early stage to overcome manual and cost-intensive process inspections. The presented study aims to provide a ML based inline quantification of wear states within sheet metal forming processes. The development of this monitoring approach is based on a procedure model the Knowledge Discovery in Time series and image data in Engineering Epplications (KDT-EA) which is validated on two forming processes, blanking and roll forming, that strongly differ in their physical process behavior and their acquired process data. The presented inline quantification allows an estimation of wear states with a deviation of less than 0.83% for the blanking process and 2.21% for the roll forming process from the actual wear state. Furthermore, it is shown that combining different feature extraction methods as well as a compensation of unbalanced data using data augmentation techniques are able to improve the performance of the investigated ML models.
... Incremental sheet forming (ISF) is a relatively new plastic forming technology, characterized by flexibility, low tooling costs, and may be an alternative to traditional stamping processes in the case of unit production, small series, and also in prototyping processes [1][2][3]. While reviewing the research carried out on this subject, it can be observed that ISF technology is increasingly used to form lightweight structures in the aviation, maritime, and automotive industries [4,5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Efforts to reduce COx are extremely important, which forces the use of materials and technologies that reduce the weight of means of transport in order to reduce energy consumption. Currently, aluminum alloys and FRP composites are still too expensive for mass industry applications. Presented in this study, Litecor is a three-layer composite that combines the high strength of steel with the low density of plastic. Thanks to the use of external steel covers 0.3 mm thick and a light core 0.7 mm thick, high stiffness was achieved while maintaining a relatively low weight. The weight reduction in comparison with steel blanks with the same stiffness is up to 40%. Litecor is mainly developed by ThyssenKrupp, it is a promising construction material, but it requires development the technology of forming and joining. In this study, the possibility of forming the Litecor layered composite was investigated using the single-point incremental sheet forming (SPIF) method. As part of the research, the stiffening ribs were shaped, the maximum depth of the embossing was determined. The degree of thinning in selected cross-sections of the embossing was determined. The influence of the rotational speed of the tool and the feed rate on the properties of the shaped surface was also analyzed. Incorrectly selected shaping parameters have been shown to damage the zinc coating on the inner surface of the embossing.
... This is one fundamental that clearly demonstrates the need for reconfigurable machines. Sheet metal processing has gained an increased popularity, as it exhibits environmentally friendly operations with minimum waste (Ingarao et al., 2011). To reduce investment and production cost of sheet metal products, it is imperative that a dual reconfigurable machine be developed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose In manufacturing, dedicated machine tools and flexible machine tools are failing to satisfy the ever-changing manufacturing demands of short life cycles and dynamic nature of products. These machines are limited when new product designs are introduced. The solution lies in developing responsive machines that can be adjusted or be changed functionally when these change requirements arise. These machines are reconfigurable machines which are becoming the new focus, as they rapidly respond to product variety and volume changes. A sheet metal working machine known as a reconfigurable guillotine shear and bending press machine (RGS&BPM) has been developed. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology, function-oriented design approach (FODA), which was developed for the design of the RGS&BPM. Design/methodology/approach The design of the machine is based on the six principles of reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMSs), namely, modularity, scalability integrability, convertibility, diagnosability and customisability. The methodology seeks to optimise the design process of the RGS&BPM through a design of modules that make up the machine, enable its conversion and reconfiguration. The FODA is focussed on function identification to select the operational function required. Two main functions are recognised for the machine, these being cutting and bending; hence, the design revolves around these two and reconfigurability. Findings The developed design methodology was tested in the design of a prototype for the reconfigurable guillotine shear and bending press machine. The prototype is currently being manufactured and will be subjected to functional tests once completed. This paper is being presented not only to present the methodology by to show and highlight its practical applicability, as the prototype manufacturers have been enthusiastic about this new approach. Research limitations/implications The research was limited to the design methodology for the RGS&BPM, the machine which has been designed to completion using this methodology, with prototype being manufactured. Practical implications This study presents critical steps and considerations in the development of reconfigurable machines. The main thrust being to explore the best possibility of developing the machines with dual functionality that will assist in availing the technology to manufacturer. As the machine has been development, the success of the design can be directly attributed to the FODA methodology, among other contributing factors. It also highlights the significance of the principles of RMS in reconfigurable machine design. Social implications The RGS&BM machine is an answer for the small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs), as the machine replaces two machines with one, and the methodology ensures its affordable design. It contributes immensely to the machine availability by eliminating trial and error approaches. Originality/value This study presents a new approach to the design of reconfigurable dual machines using principles of RMS. As the targeted market is the SME, it is not limited to that as any entrepreneur may use the machine to their advantage. The design methodology presented contributes to the body of knowledge in dual reconfigurable machine tool design.
... Parameter optimization for energy consumption reduction of the machining chain process was also found to be fruitful [11,12]. Furthermore, several studies have been done on energy consumption for machining [13], metal forming [14], injection molding [15] and additive printing process [16]. Moreover, several researchers have studied energy breakdown analysis in some laser-based manufacturing [17][18][19]. ...
... Parameter optimization for energy consumption reduction of the machining chain process was also found to be fruitful [11,12]. Furthermore, several studies have been done on energy consumption for machining [13], metal forming [14], injection molding [15] and additive printing process [16]. Moreover, several researchers have studied energy breakdown analysis in some laser-based manufacturing [17][18][19]. ...
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This paper focuses on optimizing the laser engraving of acrylic plastics to reduce energy consumption and CO2 gas emissions, without hindering the production and material removal rates. In this context, the role of laser engraving parameters on energy consumption, CO2 gas emissions, production rate, and material removal rate was first experimentally investigated. Grey–Taguchi approach was then used to identify an optimal set of process parameters meeting the goal. The scan gap was the most significant factor affecting energy consumption, CO2 gas emissions, and production rate, whereas, compared to other factors, its impact on material removal rate (MRR) was relatively lower. Moreover, the defocal length had a negligible impact on the response variables taken into consideration. With this laser-process-material combination, to achieve the desired goal, the laser must be focused on the surface, and laser power, scanning speed, and scan gap must be set at 44 W, 300 mm/s, and 0.065 mm, respectively.
... Metal forming offers a number of advantages, like improved mechanical properties due to strain hardening and material scrap reduction. In addition to the efficient use of resources, the metal-forming manufacturing sector is also faced with a number of novel challenges, such as customization (Yang et al., 2018;Ingarao et al., 2011;Tekkaya et al., 2015). Ideally, the specified properties of a workpiece should be adjustable locally in a reproducible manner. ...
Article
The implementation of control systems in metal forming processes improves product quality and productivity. By controlling workpiece properties during the process, beneficial effects caused by forming can be exploited and integrated in the product design. The overall goal of this investigation is to produce tailored tubular parts with a defined locally graded microstructure by means of reverse flow forming. For this purpose, the proposed system aims to control both the desired geometry of the workpiece and additionally the formation of strain-induced α′-martensite content in the metastable austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 L. The paper introduces an overall control scheme, a geometry model for describing the process and changes in the dimensions of the workpiece, as well as a material model for the process-induced formation of martensite, providing equations based on empirical data. Moreover, measurement systems providing a closed feedback loop are presented, including a novel softsensor for in-situ measurements of the martensite content.
... In terms of research on the concept of sustainable manufacturing, publications can be found associated with impacts related to energy consumption [17], water consumption [18], use of materials and substances and waste [19,20]. In regards to product recovery and environmental awareness are the works of Ilgin et al. [21] and Krill et al. [22] for remanufacturing processes, Ramani et al. [23] for sustainable life cycle design and finally at the micro manufacturing level there are quality of sustainable manufacturing processes [24,25], emissions [26] improved design and machining [27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. For a more extensive view of sustainable manufacturing, the contributions of Gunasekaran and Spalanzani [34] are worth considering. ...
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Value chain is identified as the generator of the metabolic rift between nature and society. However, the sustainable value chain can mitigate and reverse this rift. In this paper, firstly, a review of the main digital enablers of Industry 4.0 and the current state of cognitive manufacturing is carried out. Secondly, Cyber-Physical Systems are conceived from the holonic paradigm, as an organizational enabler for the whole of enablers. Thirdly, the bijective relationship between holonic paradigm and container-based technology is analyzed. This technology allows mapping the physical and virtual holon as an intelligent agent embodied at the edge, fog and cloud level, with physical and virtual part. Finally, the proposed holonic system based on the cyber-physical holon is developed through multi-agent systems based on container technology. The proposed system allows to model the metabolism of manufacturing systems, from a cell manufacturing to whole value chain, in order to develop, evolve and improve the sustainable value chain.
... Finished products have good quality, are geometrically accurate and are ready to be used. However, sheet metal forming processes are complex and require expensive tooling, which is economically feasible only for mass production [1]. Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are replacing conventional steels in the production of sheet components, particularly in the automotive industry [2], due to their excellent weight to strength ratio. ...
Article
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The increasing use of advanced high-strength steels in sheet metal forming processes requires improved knowledge concerning the thermal and contact conditions. This study presents the experimental and numerical analysis of tensile and draw-bead tests, considering a dual phase steel DP780. The temperature evolution was measured in both tests using an infrared thermal camera. The presented finite element model considers both the heat generated by plastic deformation and friction, as well as the heat loss to the environment by free convention and the contact conductance. The temperature rise in the uniaxial tensile test is accurately predicted by the numerical model. Regarding the draw-bead test, the pulling force is accurately predicted but the temperature variation is overestimated, requiring further investigation.
... This was attributed to the fact of severe frictional occurrence at dies-workpiece interfaces, which resulted in failures due to phenomena like abrasive wear, fatigue and galling. Consequently, these failures would cause the quality of production to deteriorate and would retard the operating lifespan of the tools (Ingarao et al., 2011;Podgornik et al., 2012;Jarfors et al., 2016). In an effort to attain tool material with sufficient toughness and hardness, the development of new chemical compositions has already been effectively investigated. ...
Article
Sustainable metal forming Clean forming process Vegetable oil Surface texture Tribological performance Metal forming performance Vegetable oil is a potential candidate to replace mineral oil-based lubricant because it is renewable and sustainable and also has high biodegradability and low toxicity. The application of surface texture is a clean approach that can be used to improve the lubrication condition of a smooth surface. From tribological tests, researchers found that the friction and wear performances are greatly affected by the physiochemical properties of vegetable oil and the dimension characteristics of texture. Therefore, it is vital to have a detailed understanding of the parameters related to each application. In the metal forming process, it is a relatively new practice to use vegetable oil and surface texture to improve lubrication film thickness at the tool-workpiece interface. These approaches improve the deformation of metal, retard the formation of surface defects and reduce friction, surface roughness and forming load. The quantity of lubricant can be minimised when the thickness of the film between the tool and the material is developed as a boundary lubrication condition. The physical properties of vegetable oil and surface texture are therefore critical and need to be optimised before implementing their use in metal forming work. The present paper reviews the influence of vegetable oil and surface texture on the tribological behaviour in metal forming processes.
... It has been concluded that environmentally friendly lubricants are emerging as future green products because these bio-degradable lubricants have a better wear performance and higher viscosity index than other lubricants. Ingarao et al. [47] gives an overview of the main topics concerning SMF problems related to resource efficiency including tribological aspects of the use of environmentally friendly lubricants. ...
Article
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Finding effective and environmentally friendly lubrication to use in sheet metal forming operations presents a substantial environmental and economic challenge to the automotive industry. This paper examines the effectiveness of different lubricants in the reduction of the coefficient of friction (COF) in the process of sheet metal forming of the low carbon steel sheets. These lubricants are based on a combination of boric acid (H3 BO3) and edible vegetable oils, both of which are natural and environmentally friendly. To evaluate the friction characteristics of the lubricants in a forming operation, a strip drawing friction test is used. This test consisted in drawing a specimen in the form of a sheet metal strip between two non-rotating counter-samples with radii of 200 and 10 mm. The effectiveness of environmentally friendly lubricants in reducing the COF was compared to the traditional petroleum-based lubricants which are used in sheet metal-forming operations. The effect of lubricant conditions and tool surface roughness on the value of COFs is studied. It was found that palm oil in both configurations of countersample radius, both as pure oil and with the addition of 5 wt.% of H3BO3 , was the most effective in lowering the coefficient of friction. In most of the conditions analysed, the addition of boric acid into vegetable oils leads to an increase in the lubrication efficiency by up to 15% compared to pure oils. The effectiveness of lubrication by olive and rapeseed oils in decreasing the frictional resistances clearly depends on the nominal pressure applied.
... Sustainable production of TWBs in the manufacture of BIW components is growing at a rapid pace, with nearly 30% components being manufactured by TWB technology alone. In addition to this, the use of scrap sheet metal as well, and to meet certain geometry requirements and functional strength, the sustainability of using tailor welded blank (TWB) process is adopted in automobile industry [2]. Sustainable manufacturing issues related to sheet metal forming processes are widely investigated. ...
Article
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Tailor welded blank (TWB) technology has been used in the manufacture of automobile body-in-white components since a long time. These components consist of different materials/thicknesses. Researchers and manufacturers involved with production of warm formed TWB components failed to address the sustainable issues related to warm forming. Rather they concentrated more on reducing the weld line movement (WLM). The WLM if not arrested shall lead to fracture, due to wrinkles, produced during forming. In this paper, the sustainability aspects involved in the warm forming of TWB were discussed with respect to energy and material savings. The results show a reduction of about 50% punch load in a hydraulic press during deep drawing under warm forming conditions. This paper addresses the questions related to the implications of thickness ratio on the weld line movement and further shows how material savings of nearly 33% has been obtained. It also discusses about the carbon emissions during manufacturing of raw materials and the recycling benefits of stainless steel, so as to minimize emissions at the production stage itself during raw materials production.
... At the same time, lower mass means best stability and handling as well as shorter braking distance, thus providing a substantial contribution to meet the continuously rising legal safety requirements [6,7]. Last, but not least, weight reduction has an important role in both lowering with respect to the intended applications [30,31]. In general, average mass reductions of about 10-30% are provided through high-strength and advanced high-strength steels. ...
Article
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The paper presents an innovative lightweight design solution for the rear crash management system of a C-class car, developed within the AffordabLe LIghtweight Automobiles AlliaNCE (ALLIANCE) EU research project. The innovation provides that the reference version of the module, based on conventional steel components, is revolutionized through the introduction of extruded 6000/7000 series aluminum alloys. The two competing alternatives are described and compared in relation to design and technological solutions, including also a sustainability analysis which assesses the entire Life Cycle (LC) of the system on the basis of a wide range of environmental indicators. The lightweight solution allows achieving a large mass reduction (almost 40%), while providing improvements in terms of strength, production efficiency and design freedom. On the other hand, the introduction of new materials and manufacturing technologies entails contrasting sustainability effects depending on impact category, thus not allowing to affirm that the novel alternative is unequivocally preferable under the environmental point of view. However, the comprehensive evaluation of all sustainability aspects through a multi-criteria decision analysis (TOPSIS method) reveals that the environmental profile of the innovative design is slightly preferable with respect to the conventional one.
... Sheet metal forming is one of the most commonly practiced manufacturing processes these days to form sheets into a wide range of complex geometry products. It has gained importance over various production processes due to (1) higher productivity, (2) ability to deliver high-quality products at minimal cost, (3) considerable material as well as energy savings, (4) reduction in emissions and (5) enhanced mechanical properties [1][2][3]. However, during forming process, the material is generally subjected to biaxial/multiaxial stress conditions rather than uniaxial state of stress. ...
Article
The present paper aims at designing a novel cruciform geometry which could effectively demonstrate the biaxial behavior of aluminum A1050-H14. A cruciform geometry with two geometric shapes milled about the center region on the basic cross-shaped geometry is considered for the present study. The geometric shapes include a double-armed cruciform and a circle but with different depths (geometric-shaped CS-I). An FEA tool is used to study the biaxial behavior of these geometries under two biaxial loading conditions: (1) biaxial tension (TT) and (2) biaxial compression–tension (CT). Along with the above-mentioned geometry, two more geometries are even analyzed to end up with a better geometry for the in-plane biaxial testing. The other two geometries are (1) modified cruciform with spline cut at the cross-arms of the sample and with a straight arm (CS-II), and (2) modified CS-I geometry by tapering the arms (CS-III). The geometry producing (1) uniform von Mises stress, (2) zero or minimal shear stress along the gauge section and (3) initiation of failure about the gauge section is considered.
... Gao et al. have established energy models for evaluating the process energy of deep drawing and analyzed the effects of process parameters on energy consumption [27,34,35]. Ingarao et al. have reviewed the main topics concerning the energy and resource efficiency of sheet metal forming aiming at the emphasis of principal contributions [36]. The metal forming process energy is usually analyzed as a criterion in environmental impact evaluation or sustainability issues. ...
Article
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Energy efficiency improvement and environmental impact reduction are emerging issues in the manufacturing industry. Aside from cutting, metal forming is also an important process in manufacturing. Metal forming is energy intensive because of the low energy efficiency of the used metal forming press. Although many literature reviews focused on the energy reduction and energy efficiency of machine tools, a comprehensive literature review of metal forming processes remains lacking because of the great difference between cutting machines and forming equipment. In addition, methods for energy efficiency and energy-saving still need to be promoted in metal forming. In this review, a novel hierarchy of the metal forming system was presented to describe the relationship among the equipment, process, and manufacturing system, providing a guideline of methods for energy efficiency and saving in metal forming. Then, existing energy consumption modeling and estimation theories and methods were discussed from two aspects. One is energy monitoring and modeling of metal forming equipment, and the other is process energy analysis of metal forming based on different parameters. On the basis of the hierarchy of the metal forming system, the present methods and technologies aiming to promote energy efficiency and energy saving effects were discussed from the aspects of equipment design and control, process optimization, and scheduling management and use. Thus, this review may serve as a reference for the decision-making of producers and managers to realize energy efficiency and energy saving at the system level. In addition, the major points that need attention are accurate energy models and control of forming equipment as well as the integrated optimization of equipment, process, and scheduling.
... Through mapping global flows of material, (Cullen et al., 2012) approximate that 12% of steel and 30% of aluminium produced globally is used in the automotive industry, much of which is in the form of sheet metal. Previous research has identified environmental and financial motivation to improve material utilisation of this sheet metal, for example (Ingarao et al., 2011) capture the environmental motivation to reduce production yield losses in their review of sustainability issues associated with automotive sheet metal forming and (Linton et al., 2007) recognised that manufacturing by-products should be considered in the evaluation of sustainable product design. (Baumgartner et al., 2017) reviewed sustainability strategies and develop a checklist for considering sustainability in the automotive industry, material efficiency is included within this checklist. ...
Article
There is an opportunity to reduce the amount of sheet metal currently used to manufacture automotive components, despite the available cost and CO2 savings, the automotive industry has not realised the full potential of these saving opportunities. To understand why, a practical case study was set up with an automotive manufacturer. A cross-functional team was established with the scope to make changes to five components using a structured design process to improve material efficiency. The trial identified realistic opportunities to improve material utilisation by 20%pts, and save £9million and 5 kilotonnes of CO2 annually. The greatest saving opportunities were found early in the product development cycle, before the production method is determined by component geometry. Of these, 3%pts were actually implemented on the production vehicle, saving £1.8million and 1.5 kilotonnes of CO2 annually. The case study identified significant barriers to implementing material efficiency strategies in an industrial setting. To overcome these barriers material utilisation should be considered early in the product design process and high in the vehicle platform hierarchy. As a result of this investigation, new business processes are being generated to support design for material utilisation at the automotive manufacturer. This case study approach should be considered to increase implementation for other aspects of material demand reduction.
... Considering the current economy and competitive conditions, sustainability in energy consumption has become one of the most important research topics carried out in the manufacturing sector [1][2][3]. In order to obtain both semi-finished and completed products, energy consumption is required for the production processes. ...
Article
Energy consumption is an important part of the production cost of mass production industrial enterprises. The casting, heat treatment and threading processes involved in the industrial production of fittings result in high energy consumption. In serial production, the threading of pipe fittings is carried out using high torque and low speed. The thin-walled designs of the fittings lead to rapid cooling, causing the formation of a high rate of pearlite microstructures and subsequent low or extremely hard machinability. Heat treatment with long austenitizing time in the furnace reduces the pearlite ratio, thus enabling a ferritic microstructure to be obtained. In this study, the ½-inch BSP threading process was applied to materials having both microstructures after casting and heat treatment. As in the mass production pipe threading process, fittings were threaded in a multi-threading process using a universal lathe and in a single threading process using a CNC mill. The Power Index (PI) was measured during the metal removal process and the energy consumption of the products was calculated via energy/power conversion equations. In addition, a new model was proposed that takes into consideration the energy consumption per product (ECPP) in the mass production machining process. As a result of combining the energy consumption and energy-power transformation theory with an experimental investigation, 39% optimization was achieved. That's a result of this experimental study resulted in energy savings of 8755 kWh annually.
... Seri üretimde maliyetlerin azaltılması ve sürdürebilirliğin artırılması için enerji tüketiminde optimizasyon ile ilgili yapılan araştırmalar günümüzde önemli bir konu başlığını oluşturmaktadır [1][2][3]. Dünya çapında üretim için gerekli olan enerji ihtiyacının gün geçtikçe artması ve enerji üretiminin yeterli düzeyde sağlanamaması günümüzde enerji ücretlerinde önemli bir artışa sebep olmuştur. Aynı zamanda üretimin ve enerji ihtiyacının yüksek oranda artış göstermesi sonucunda, çevre kirliliği de artış göstererek çeşitli iklim değişikliklerini ortaya çıkarmıştır [4,5]. ...
Article
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TS 11 EN 10242 Pipe fittings (fittings) manufactured according to standards and geometries; It is widely used in many sectors such as aerospace, automotive and machinery production, mainly in building natural gas and water installations. Threading of the fittings to the materials at one time is usually carried out on CNC mill and on special manual threading machines. In addition, fittings are also thread by universal lathes. Especially in America and India, aluminum alloy fittings manufactured for the automotive industry and mechanical equipment are alloyed via chips of brass and copper in this study. Pipe fittings for the first time in the literature, considering industrial mass production conditions, made in gradual threading via lathes and milling by tap tool were evaluated comparatively. In this study, speed, alloy type, and machine type are selected as parameters and the conditions which make optimum specific energy consumption (SEC) by using energy power conversion equations are determined. Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum conditions. microstructure and hardness changes in the obtained materials were investigated. When the results of SEC were examined, it was observed that 73,91% of the processing type and 26,01 % of the rotational speed were effective. According to these results; CNC milling as the machine type, 180 RPM as the number of revolutions, and 8% brass reinforced 6061 aluminum alloy as the alloy type, conditions were obtained.
... Established manufacturing processes for automotive structural components are based on sheet metal processing [6]. FRP-based multi-material structures exploit their full lightweight potential in load-path optimized structures, which calls for the development of new manufacturing processes that fulfil the requirements of high-volume production [7]. ...
Article
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Increased utilization of multi-material lightweight structures requires the development of new manufacturing processes for large-volume automotive production. Manufacturing processes based on fiber-reinforced plastics tend to be more energy intensive than current steel-based processing technologies, which reduces the environmental advantages of lightweight design. The risk of shifting environmental impacts from the usage to the production stage increases the relevance of life cycle engineering based production planning. This paper presents an approach for integrating environmental impact targets into early phase production planning for manufacturing systems of lightweight structures. In the approach, impact targets are derived from eco-efficiency measures. An exemplary application is presented within the case of FRP patching.
... Resource efficiency. The automotive industry is a large consumer of resources and the industry is much concerned about resource efficiency, and lean manufacturing and design for material consumption (Rothenberg et al., 2001;Ingarao et al., 2011;Rehman et al., 2018;Khan et al., 2018). Sustainable and efficient production systems are fundamental for enterprises to decrease the use of natural resources, and reduce the environmental burdens created by production systems. ...
Article
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Purpose Circular economy (CE) has gained considerable attention from researchers and practitioners over the past few years because of its potential social and environmental benefits. However, limited attention has been given in the literature to explore the drivers and barriers in CE implementation in emerging and developing countries besides China. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify the drivers and barriers to implementing a CE in Pakistan’s automobile manufacturing industry. Design/methodology/approach This study adopts an explorative approach to understand the drivers and barriers at the micro-level CE implementation in Pakistan’s automobile industry. The research design includes both qualitative and quantitative methods using a survey instrument and interviews to gather data. The use of the two main sources of data provides the opportunity for triangulation of the data to improve the validity of the findings, and enables greater inferences from the results. Findings This study shows that “profitability/market share/benefit” (30 percent), “cost reduction” (22 percent) and “business principle/concern for environment/appreciation” (19 percent) are the top three drivers. Similarly, “unawareness” (22 percent), “cost and financial constraint” (20 percent) and “lack of expertise” (17 percent) are the top three barriers in implementing CE principles in Pakistan automobiles industry. Research limitations/implications This study considers only Pakistan automobiles industry, and the practical implications potentially limit to emerging Asian economies. Originality/value This study is the first of its kind that has investigated the drivers and barriers of CE at the organizational level in the automobile industry of Pakistan. Thus, it helps to advance the understanding of the subject matter and enables the formulation of effective policies and business strategies by practitioners for upscaling CE and sustainability.
... Higher temperatures improve formability and enable a reduction of forces required for forming. In the case of high strength and ultra-high strength steels, force limits may be reached and result in the need for high power machinery due to greater dimensional deviations when forming such steels [129]. One example is the hot-stamping of steels [130] in modern vehicle manufacturing. ...
Article
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Lightweight structures are increasingly necessary to meet current engineering requirements. Weight reduction in diverse applications such as automobiles or machine tools is achieved either by using less material or by substituting material with a lighter one, which provides more functionality per unit of weight. To be an effective enabler for sustainability, lightweight structures should result in lower environmental impacts per functional unit when compared to conventional structures on a life cycle basis. However, applying new materials and manufacturing processes often leads to an increase in environmental impacts from the raw materials and production stage of the life cycle. Furthermore, end-of-life disassembly and recycling may become more difficult. In addition, the expected efficiency gains from the use of lightweight structures depend on how the overall market and technical systems respond to them. Consequently, the environmental evaluation of lightweight structures in engineering entails various methodological challenges. Organised around a life cycle engineering framework with a focus on eco-effectiveness, this paper provides a comprehensive review of lightweight structure applications and the challenges and opportunities they present in a life cycle engineering context.
... Innovative technologies need to develop in the joining process in order to cope with rapidly changing manufacturing trends and sustainability issues by addressing process flexibility, production lead times, product life cycle and management of end products in a sustainable way [2]. To decrease the carbon emission and increase the energy efficiency, automobile industries take the approach of reducing the vehicle weight by using lightweight high strength materials [3]. ...
Article
Self-piercing riveting (SPR) is a high-speed method of joining sheet materials by creating a mechanical interlock between the sheets. Unlike conventional riveting, SPR does not require predrilling. Automobile industries adopted this joining technique because of its suitability in joining dissimilar materials and doing so at high-volume production. However, in SPR, the rivet plastically deforms and residual stress develops in the joint. The deformation behavior of the rivet and the residual stress distribution in SPR joints are poorly understood. This leads to difficulties in developing new product and optimizing the process. Development of new rivet and die geometries are also limited since the residual stress state in SPR joints are not fully described. Several key issues in modeling and measuring residual stress in SPR joints are discussed. How the plastically induced residual stress can be linked to the different phases of the riveting process is also described. This is an area of SPR with numerous prospects for research. It is expected that advancement will be achieved by a combination of techniques, including laboratory recreation, finite element modeling and manufacturing trials.
... Research has shown that the replacement of low-carbon steel, cast iron, or high-strength steel with aluminum alloys could reduce a vehicle weight by 30 %-60 %. Each kilogram of aluminum used in a vehicle reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 13-20 kg [3]. The replacement of steel with aluminum is therefore a popular trend in vehicle lightweighting technologies, and the use of aluminum has become typical in luxury cars. ...
Article
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Low weight and high strength are significant factors in the current decade’s spread of composite sandwich materials. Previous studies have proven that forming stiffening ribs in these materials through the Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) process is possible and gives encouraging results. On the other hand, knowledge of residual stress (RS) values that form during the manufacturing process is essential, as they may affect the structural integrity of manufactured elements, whether in compression or tension. The investigation of the RS in the composite materials formed by the SPIF process using the XRD method was very limited in the previous studies, so this research aims to apply the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method to determine RS on the part of the LITECOR® sandwich material formed using SPIF. LITECOR® consists of a plastic core between two layers of steel. In this study, three types of LITECOR® were used with differing plastic core thicknesses of 0.8, 1.25, and 1.6 mm, while the steel layers’ thickness remained the same at 0.3 mm. The axial and traverse RSs were measured in five positions on both sides of the formed part. It was found that the achieved RSs varied from tensile to compressive along the formed regions. It was found that the residual stress values in both directions were inversely proportional to the thickness of the plastic core. It was noted that the highest RS values were in the unformed base metal, after which the RS was reduced on both sides of the SPIF-formed region, followed by a rise in the RS at the concave of the SPIF-formed region. The maximum measured RS for X-axes was 1041 MPa, whereas, for Y-axes, it was 1260 MPa, both of which were recorded on the back side at a thickness of t = 0.8 mm.
Chapter
Recent years introduced process and material innovations in the design and manufacturing of lightweight body parts. Lightweight materials and new manufacturing processes often carry a higher environmental burden in earlier life cycle stages. The prospective life cycle evaluation of newly developed manufacturing processes and related production systems remains to this day a challenging task. Against this background, this chapter introduces a modeling and simulation approach for determining the potential environmental impacts of new manufacturing processes and production systems for multi-material lightweight body parts.
Article
SKD11 has a wide range of applications in the tooling industry. However, due to its high mechanical strength and hardness, it is a difficult material to machine. To address the issues of low machining efficiency, severe tool electrode wear, and environmental pollution caused by traditional EDM, this paper proposes a more efficient and sustainable method of EDM production called short electric arc machining (SEAM). This paper discussed the mechanism of material removal by a short electric arc and then conducted experiments on SKD11 machining with various voltage parameters using a self-designed short electric arc milling machine, analysing the material removal rate (MRR), relative tool electrode wear ratio (REWR), and specific energy consumption (SEC) of the machined workpiece. The experimental results indicate that the maximum removal rate is 15,745 mm³/min, the REWR is significantly reduced to 1.4 %, and the energy consumption ratio is 76.84 KJ/cm³. Finally, the microscopic morphology and elemental composition of the workpiece and tool electrode were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and the variation of cross-sectional grains was analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).It can be concluded that the short-arc milling method discussed in this paper can provide an efficient machining method for difficult-to-machine materials.
Article
Combined shear and tension (CST) tests are important experimental methods for characterizing yield surfaces for metal sheets, which is vital to ensure the effectiveness of the constitutive models employed in finite element simulation. However, the existing CST experimental method with a reduced thickness specimen, designed for advanced high strength steel sheets, is not suitable for accurately characterizing yield surfaces for lightweight alloy sheets, such as aluminum alloy sheets. In this paper, an improved experimental method employing CST loading along with an appropriate full-thickness specimen is proposed to address the problem. To establish the proposed experimental method, an appropriate full-thickness specimen is presented through finite element method and combined with a newly developed biaxial testing machine. To verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the improved experimental method, virtual simulations and real experiments on the proposed full-thickness specimen obtained from 6K21-T4 aluminum sheets under different CST loading cases are conducted. Research results show that the yield surfaces of the aluminum alloy sheets between simple shear and plane strain (SSPS) can be described accurately by employing the improved experimental method. In addition, according to the experimental results, the prediction capability of the Yld2000 and Hill48 yield criteria is studied. It is found that the commonly used Yld2000 yield criterion cannot accurately predict the yield behavior of the aluminum alloy sheets under shear-dominant loading.
Article
In recent years, a mass of scientific literature has been developed in the attempt of providing guidance to control and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and preserve the Earth’s natural resources. Several contributions showed that the life cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful methodology to evaluate the performance of a service or a good by means of a comprehensive approach, particularly, in a high energy demanding industry such as the construction sector. In this context, the present study tackles the environmental sustainability of a novel piezoresistive Smart Brick monitoring sensor, for new and existing masonry buildings. The environmental footprint of two brick prototypes is compared to that of a regular strain gauges-based monitoring setup in the frame of the ReCiPe evaluation method. Metals use can be pointed as hot spot. Results show that Smart Brick prototypes, due to their longer durability (considering 50-year’s lifespan), are associated to 50% lower damage oriented impacts compared to the traditional solution in a life cycle (LC) perspective. This result is critical towards large scale implementation of smart bricks, given that environmental impact of sensing systems is one of the major current bottlenecks that are still limiting the application potential of structural health monitoring technologies.
Article
AA2195 sheets treated by artificial aging to an ultra-high strength were subjected to electromagnetic forming (EMF) to overcome the distortion of formed components during heat treatment. The deformation behavior and corresponding strengthening effect of a conical-shape workpiece were evaluated by strain analysis and Vickers hardness testing, respectively. The limiting dome height (LDH) and limiting effective strain of the conical workpiece during electromagnetic bulging were 26.7 mm and 46.3%, respectively. Hardness in the undeformed area of the conical workpiece was 180 HV, which increased with increased deformation during electromagnetic bulging, reaching 200 HV at the effective strain of 35%. Microstructure characterization showed that grain distribution increased in uniformity with increase in strain, accompanied by small and equiaxed grains. Dislocation density and low-angle grain boundaries increased with increasing strain, which improved the strength of the bulged specimen. Texture evolution indicated that the {110} <112> orientation of the Brass texture component increased significantly as the deformation increased. Considerable helical dislocations were formed during electromagnetic bulging, which led to the improved hardness with an increase in strain. This study proves the feasibility of forming ultra-high-strength aluminum alloys at room temperature.
Chapter
The modern automotive industry is based on lighter materials and cleaner processes leading to reduced CO2 consumption. Here, the manufactured parts integrated in different types of cars are generally produced through a metal forming process (cold, warm, or hot forging). This process is very competitive in respect to machining; however, in order to achieve the best parameters for production of automotive parts, an advanced optimization is required. Therefore, in this chapter, we present a detailed survey of the main factors affecting the metal forming process, and we also propose modern optimized solutions leading to better mechanical and surface properties of formed parts.
Chapter
This paper focuses on assessing the environmental sustainability of a machining process. Environmental sustainability involves production of products by eco-friendly methods assuring a green environment. A sustainability assessment model is presented considering the green characteristics of a machining operation in three orientations: productivity, environmental performance, and economic performance using multigrade fuzzy approach. The area which needs improvement in the sustainability level of a process is identified, and proposals are given which assists the industrialists to remain competitive ensuring a green environment. The usage of this model will accelerate the green practices in machining process.
Chapter
Several innovative forming processes have been developed in order to produce highly customized products with a reasonable manufacturing cost. Incremental sheet forming (ISF) is one of these new technologies, and it has gained importance in the last years, becoming the focus of interest for many researchers and institutions. This chapter provides a deeper insight of the process in terms of different variants of the technology; formability; deformation mechanisms; the most influencing process parameters, and future trends. It describes the most common variants of the ISF processes: single point incremental forming (SPIF) and two point incremental forming (TPIF). Additionally, the chapter summarizes a review of other ISF variants developed to improve the process' performance in terms of accuracy or formability. It also presents a case study aimed at the examination and comparison of performance between the two main ISF variants, SPIF, and TPIF on a scaled prototype of a biopsy micro forceps jaw.
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This article aims to list the main sustainable practices developed in the processes of metal forming, casting, heat treatment, welding and electrostatic painting. When analysed the literature about sustainable manufacturing, a predominance of studies about machining is observed and the processes mentioned are few explored in academic studies. The research strategy used to reach the objective was systematic literature review, conducted for each process cited. Many sustainable practices were identified with prominence of better materials use and energy efficiency. The authors of this article believe that the information presented here can be useful for researches in their future studies and for industry professionals interested in improving manufacturing processes.
Article
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TS 11 EN 10242 Pipe fittings (fittings) manufactured according to standards and geometries; It is widely used in many sectors such as aerospace, automotive and machinery production, mainly in building natural gas and water installations. Threading of the fittings to the materials at one time is usually carried out on CNC mill and on special manual threading machines. In addition, fittings are also thread by universal lathes. Especially in America and India, aluminum alloy fittings manufactured for the automotive industry and mechanical equipment are alloyed via chips of brass and copper in this study. Pipe fittings for the first time in the literature, considering industrial mass production conditions, made in gradual threading via lathes and milling by tap tool were evaluated comparatively. In this study, speed, alloy type, and machine type are selected as parameters and the conditions which make optimum specific energy consumption (SEC) by using energy power conversion equations are determined. Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum conditions. microstructure and hardness changes in the obtained materials were investigated. When the results of SEC were examined, it was observed that 73,91% of the processing type and 26,01 % of the rotational speed were effective. According to these results; CNC milling as the machine type, 180 RPM as the number of revolutions, and 8% brass reinforced 6061 aluminum alloy as the alloy type, conditions were obtained.
Article
A hybrid process combining hot micro-embossing process with subsequent surface modification was proposed to realize an economic, environmental-friendliness and reusable sustainable production of superhydrophobic surfaces on ultrafine-grained (UFG) pure aluminum substrate. Hot micro-embossing was executed using a silicon die at 523 K with the force of 4.5 kN, where an array of micro hexagonal pillar patterns was formed with feature side length ranging from 75 μm to 165 μm. The embossed micro array structures were clearly printed well, with a good geometric transitivity and no obvious disfigurement. After surface modification, the water contact angle of the embossed surface, following by immersed in boiling water with micro/nano hierarchical structures, reached ∼160° which increased by 142% compared with original UFG pure aluminum. Moreover, the mechanism of the obtained superhydrophobic surface with high adhesive force was analyzed, which would be attributed to the Cassie impregnating wetting regime. The research indicates that there is a potential application by using hot micro-embossing process in the mass and sustainable production of superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent adhesive property without pollution.
Article
The main objective of this paper is to provide a reliable experimental methodology that utilizes biaxial tension and shear loading combined with appropriate butterfly specimens for characterizing forming limits at fracture (FLF) for aluminum alloy 6K21-T4 sheets over a wide range of strain paths. To realize the goal, the performance of an existing butterfly specimen for fracture testing of the aluminum sheet is first experimentally and numerically studied. Experimental and numerical results show that premature edge fracture may easily occur on the aluminum sheet specimen under combined tension and shear loading, which would lead to a high degree of uncertainty for the measured limit strains at fracture. To solve the problem and provide a reliable testing method, optimized butterfly specimens are proposed, and their performance for fracture testing of the aluminum sheet is numerically evaluated. Subsequently, verification experiments on the optimized butterfly specimens extracted from the aluminum sheet are conducted under seven different combined tension and shear loading conditions and a strain-rate-based time-dependent method combined with the image inspection of specimen surface is presented to determine the onset of fracture. Experimental results show that the forming limit strains at fracture in arbitrary strain paths between simple shear and plane strain can be accurately obtained by using the proposed experimental methodology. In addition, three newly proposed ductile fracture criteria (Lou−Huh 2012, MMC3, and Hu−Chen) are employed to predict the FLF for the aluminum 6K21-T4 sheet over a wide range of strain paths. It is found that the Hu−Chen model exhibits the best prediction capability for the FLF.
Article
With the development of lightweight vehicles, aluminum alloy sheets are increasingly used in the automotive field. However, the aluminum alloy sheet has poor forming performance at room temperature. Therefore, how to improve the sheet metal forming performance of aluminum alloy sheet has become one of the current research hotspots. In this paper, the effects of different lubricants on the deep drawing forming properties of 6061 aluminum alloy sheets were studied by cupping experiments. The effects of lubricants on the deep drawing of sheet metal forming and the wall thickness of cups after deep drawing were explored. The results show that under the condition of drawing speed of 3MPa and 200mm/min, the ultimate drawing ratio of the sheet under oil lubrication is 1.92, and the PTFE film is 2.16. Grease and graphite lubrication are respectively 2.12 and 2.03, using PTFE film lubrication can increase by about 10% contrast with the oil lubrication. The measurement of the wall thickness of the cup under the forming limit state shows that the position with the largest reduction rate appears in the rounded transition zone, and the wall portion of the cylindrical member increases with the height of the wall, and the thickness from the bottom of the cup to the bottom of the cup. The edges all show a trend of decreasing first and then increasing.
Thesis
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Nowadays, with the continued technological advances, traditional sheet metal forming processes face more and more challenges in both forming quality control and forming cost control. These challenges are especially serious for extreme manufacturing areas, such as aviation and aerospace industries. In aviation and aerospace industries, there are lots of sheet metal parts with characteristics of large-size, thin-walled, deep-cavity, complicated curved-surface. The increasing forming cost and the difficult forming quality control in manufacturing of these sheet metal parts nearly pushes the traditional sheet metal forming processes to their limits. Lots of researches indicated that, electromagnetic forming (EMF)—as one of high energy rate and high speed forming process shaping sheet metal with high pulsed Lorentz force—has lots of advantages over the traditional quasi-static forming process, such as enhanced forming flexibility, improved forming limit, inhibited wrinkling, reduced spring-back, and effectively lowered forming cost. Therefore, EMF is one of the most promising forming technologies that can break through the abovementioned challenges. However, the high complexity of the EMF process leads to the lack of effective design criterion for EMF; meanwhile, the high electromagnetic and mechanical loadings in EMF process put forward high requirements on the forming facility. These two reasons significantly limit the widespread applications of EMF in sheet metal forming. In order to overcome these obstacles, this dissertation proposed a multi-space-time high pulsed magnetic field based electromagnetically sheet metal forming method. From methodology aspect, the new method introduces a multi-stage (in time dimension) and multi-direction (in space dimension) pulsed Lorentz force to flexibly alter the deformation behavior of the workpiece, thus accurately controlling the forming quality. And from technological realization aspect, high magnetic field pulsed magnet and high energy pulsed power source technologies were introduced to develop high performance EMF system with multiple driving coils and multiple power sources, thus producing the multi-stage and multi-direction pulsed Lorentz force. Based on this method, the dissertation systematicallyinvestigates the design and implementation of the multi-stage and multi-direction pulsed Lorentz force, and the mechanism of the multi-stage and multi-direction force on driving and altering the workpiece deformation behavior. These investigations establish key foundations to realize the manufacturing of sheet metal parts with extremely large size and complicated shape. Firstly, the dissertation developed a circuit-magnetic-structure coupled numerical model of EMF. This model is the foundation to analyze the complicated dynamic deformation behavior driven by multi-space-time magnetic field, and is also the key to optimize the EMF system. In this coupled model, the electromagnetic model was realized based on equivalent circuit method. The structure model was realized with finite element software ANSYS. And the coupling between the electromagnetic and structure models was realized with a data interface program. Compared with most of the existing EMF numerical models which simulate electromagnetic field with finite element method, the proposed model need not to update the air mesh. As consequences, the simulation is more effective; and more importantly, this enables the structure model to handle the high speed impact between the workpiece and the die, conveniently and effectively. Therefore, the proposed model can simulate the complicated dynamic deformation behavior of the workpiece-die system more effectively and more accurately. Secondly, aim at the state of art that EMF is hard to form sheet metal part with complex shape, due to the onefold spatial distribution of the generated Lorentz force, the dissertation proposed the process of axial-radial Lorentz force driven EMF method with a dual-coil EMF system. Different to the traditional EMF, which can be regarded as axial Lorentz force driven EMF, the proposed method introduced an additional radial inward Lorentz force on the sheet flange to enhance the plastic flow of the sheet flange, therefore introducing the deformation mode of deep drawing. In this dissertation, theoretical analysis, experimental investigations, and numerical simulations were conducted to prove the feasibility of the method, to demonstrate the flexibility of the method on altering the deformation behaviors of the workpiece, and to reveal the underlying mechanism of the radial and axial Lorentz forces on driving the changes of the deformation behaviors. Thirdly, aim at the state of art that EMF is hard to shape large size sheet parts, due to the limitations of the forming equipment and other reasons, the dissertation proposed alight-weight and flexible EMF method capable of shaping large size sheet metal. In this study, this method was applied to form an aluminum alloy sheet with a diameter of 1378 mm into partial-ellipsoid shape. The numerical simulations were carried out to optimize the forming coil system. The design and implementation of the forming facility was discussed in detail. The fabricated forming facility is very light-weight, the characteristic length of which is 1840 mm, only 1.34 times of the workpiece diameter, which is much lighter than those of traditional quasi-static forming equipment. An experiment was performed to evaluate the forming quality obtained by the proposed facility. The workpiece to be formed was with thickness of 3.945 mm, the manufacturing of which is very difficult with traditional forming process, due to the thickness-diameter ratio is lower than 0.3%. The experimental results show sound forming quality. The maximum thinning over the ellipsoid surface of the formed sheet was only about 9.5%. The maximum deviation between the deformed sheet and the die is about 4.2 mm. The results show the great advantages of the proposed method on improving the forming quality in large-scale sheet metal forming, providing a new approach for integrated manufacturing of large-scale light-weight alloy sheet parts in aviation and aerospace industries.
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The FFC Cambridge process for the reduction of metal oxides was discovered in 1997 by observing that it was possible to reduce solid oxide films on titanium foil by making the foil cathodic in a bath of molten calcium chloride. This observation led to experiments, which demonstrated that it was possible to reduce solid titanium oxide pellets. Since the late nineties these results have been reproduced at laboratories across the world, not only for titanium dioxide but other metal oxides as well. Mixtures of oxides have also been reduced to form alloys and intermetallic compounds. This review discusses the process, the mechanism of reduction, its development and future prospects.
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The use of computers in manufacturing has enabled the development of several new sheet metal forming processes, which are based upon older technologies. This paper describes modifications that have been made to traditional forming methods such as conventional spinning and shear forming, forming processes in which deformation is localized. Recent advances have enabled this localized deformation to be accurately controlled and studied. Current developments have been focused on forming asymmetric parts using CNC technology, without the need for costly dies. Asymmetric Incremental Sheet Forming has the potential to revolutionize sheet metal forming, making it accessible to all levels of manufacturing. This paper describes the genesis and current state-of-the-art of Asymmetric Incremental Sheet Forming.
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Along with the increase in the standard of living, energy consumption, and the consumption of other non- renewable material resources have grown to unsustainable levels. Closing the loop on the material flows associated with product or service delivery to consumers is an important step towards a more sustainable industrial society. One element of an overall product life-cycle strategy that can aid in achieving this goal is product remanufacturing. However, the full societal benefits of remanufacturing can not be achieved unless design for remanufacturing becomes an integral part of the product development process, both at the product strategy level and the detailed product and manufacturing engineering level.
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I ndustry practices in environmental l y sustainabl e manuf acturing have emerged in various ways in dif f erent regions around the worl d. Depending on l ocal environmental requirements companies have adopted practices with dif f erent priorities and dif f erent intensity. An industry survey in three regions of the worl d was conducted with the aim to f ind out what the current trends and dif f erences of industry practices are. The issues considered in the survey were strategic issues, product devel opment, manuf acturing, product recovery, and l egisl ation. The paper discusses the survey resul ts and tries to identif y dif f erences and commonal ities in the companiesí approaches to impl ementing environmental requirements in their operations.
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Green sources of power generation and efficient management of energy demand are among the greatest challenges facing manufacturing businesses. A significant proportion of energy used in manufacturing is currently generated through fossil fuels. Therefore in the foreseeable future, the rationalisation of energy consumption still provides the greatest opportunity for the reduction of greenhouse gases. A novel approach to energy efficient manufacturing is proposed through modelling the detailed breakdown of energy required to produce a single product. This approach provides greater transparency on energy inefficiencies throughout a manufacturing system and enables a 20–50% reduction of energy consumption through combined improvements in production and product design.
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This paper brings to light the sustainability aspects of forming lightweight materials using the superplastic forming technique, emphasising the long-term potentials in reducing the adverse impact of the transportation industry on the environment. This is carried out by a qualitative sustainability assessment of both process and material, with regard to the various elements of the comprehensive 6R approach. And in an effort to further refine and enhance its sustainability role, a comprehensive integrated approach to the superplastic forming of lightweight materials is presented. This approach uniquely accounts for and blends the process/material interaction on the pre-forming, forming and post-forming levels. 'An integrated approach to the Superplastic Forming of lightweight alloys: towards sustainable manufacturing', Int. J. Sustainable Manufacturing, Vol. 1, Nos. 1/2, pp.18–40. Biographical notes: Fadi K. Abu-Farha graduated on May 2007 with a PhD Degree from the University of Kentucky's Department of Mechanical Engineering, where he is currently employed as a postdoctoral scholar. His research targets advancing the superplastic forming technique to effectively form Lightweight Materials (LWM); particularly structural metallic alloys, like titanium, aluminium and magnesium alloys. His work combines constitutive modelling, designing specialised testing fixtures and setups, and an extensive amount of various wide-ranging experiments. He has published in several journals such as Annals of the CIRP, ASME Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance and Journal of Advanced Engineering Materials.
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With advances in extraction/fabrication techniques and ever-increasing gasoline prices, the advantage of using lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and titanium in automobiles continues to increase, particularly for the first two metals. The major drawback for titanium, much more so than the other light metals, is high cost. However, innovative extraction and fabrication approaches are leading to decreased cost. This paper discusses the present status and future potential for titanium use in the family automobile.
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Over the past 10 years, firms, government and the public have increasingly focused on measurement tools to assess the environmental aspects of sustainability. While there are numerous lists of environmental performance indicators (see, for example, International Organizations for Standardization's ISO 14301, Global Reporting Initiative, and World Business Council for Sustainable Development), these lists provide little insight into how firms might revise the indicators they currently have to more accurately measure sustainability. The Lowell Center for Sustainable Production at the University of Massachusetts Lowell has developed a tool to enable companies to evaluate the effectiveness of sustainability indicator systems. The tool includes a framework that consists of five levels for categorizing existing indicators relative to the basic principles of sustainability. The purpose of the framework is not to rank indicators as better or worse, but rather to provide a method to evaluate the ability of a set of indicators to inform decision-making and measure progress toward more sustainable systems of production. In its current state, the framework focuses on environmental, health and safety aspects of production. Work is underway to expand it to include social and economic aspects.
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This paper optimizes a common metal forming process (upset forming) with respect to: 1) the process; 2) reduction of CO2 emissions; 3) environmentally benign lubricants (palm oil ester and used cooking oil ester). The emphasis is on optimization of these three parameters, with respect to minimizing CO2 emissions, which is not commonly done in manufacturing. It is shown a 13.5% reduction in CO2 emissions can be achieved. The work includes experimental determination of Coulomb coefficients of friction using the ring test with environmentally benign lubricants. A simple FE model of upset forming is used to illustrate the optimization process. A clear and effective optimization method, which can be used as an auxiliary decision tool for a manufacturer in the metal forming sector in decreasing CO2 emissions is hereby presented.
Article
Aluminum alloys have been widely used in the fields of aerospace and automobile industries. Due to their bad cold-formability in deep drawing, many forming methods have been explored to increase the drawing ratio, hydroforming is one of the more effective methods. In this paper, a special process of hydrodynamic deep drawing assisted by radial pressure was investigated experimentally. The Al6016-T4 aluminum alloy was used in the investigation. The failure modes including fracture and heavy wrinkling were studied and predicted in experiment. Generally, the failure modes could be divided into three types: the initial fracture; the middle fracture; the final fracture according to the deformation characters of the blanks. The process windows were established and the optimal gap between the blank holder and the die, the pre-bulging parameters, the liquid pressure in the die cavity and the optimal variation routine of liquid pressure in the die cavity were determined. Finally, the quality of the formed part was studied.
Article
Electric hot incremental forming of metal sheet is a new technique that is feasible and easy to control to form hard-to-form sheet metals. In the present study, Ti-6Al-4V titanium sheet was studied because it was wildly used in the aeronautics and astronautics industries. Although Ti-6Al-4V titanium can be well-formed in high temperature, the surface quality is a problem. In order to enhance the surface quality, it is very important to select the proper lubricant. At the same time, because Ti-6Al-4V titanium has a lively chemical property, it is very important to choose a processing temperature range in order to acquire excellent plastic property and to prevent oxidation. Various lubricants were selected in processing to compare the effect, and some workpieces were formed at different temperatures to find the best forming temperature. The results show that using the lubricant film of nickel matrix with MoS2 self-lubricating material, Ti-6Al-4V titanium workpiece was formed with high surface quality, and the optimum thickness of composite coating is 20 μm for Ti-6Al-4V titanium sheet of 1.0-mm thickness. In fact, the lubricant film also does help to prevent oxidation of Ti-6Al-4V titanium sheet. The appropriate temperature range of Ti-6Al-4V forming with slightly oxidized is 500–600°C in processing, and the maximum draw angle formed in this range was 72°.
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The corrosion behaviors of pure Mg and AZ31Mg alloy recycled by a solid-state process were investigated by salt (5wt.% NaCl solution) immersion tests, and were compared with those of an ingot reference and an extrusion reference subjected to the same deformation history. The recycled specimen possessed superior corrosion resistance compared with the reference ones, contrary to anticipated apprehension. The enhancement of corrosion resistance for the recycled specimens was attributed to the presence of dense oxide contaminants which were distributed parallel to the extrusion direction. The addition of Al accelerated the enhancement of corrosion resistance by solid-state recycling. This suggests that the capacity of the oxides as corrosion barriers depends their elemental content.
Article
In the present study, it was attempted to apply the incremental forming method to magnesium sheets at warm temperature in order to fully utilize the formability of the material. To assess the influence of temperature to the forming limit, plane-strain as well as axisymmetric stretching tests were performed at 20°C, 100°C, 150°C, 200°C and 250°C. Cones with different inclination angles were designed based on the forming limits at these temperatures, and formed incrementally. FEM analysis was used to understand the deformation characteristics observed in the experiment. A circular cup with an inclination angle that exceeds the forming limit was successfully formed by introducing the concept of the progressive forming to the incremental forming.
Article
The present study has been undertaken in order to investigate the suitable tool and lubricant, which can be employed to form a commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) sheet by negative incremental forming. For the intended purpose, various combinations of tools and lubricants were employed. The effect of each combination of tool and lubricant on the quality of the formed surface was studied by measuring the surface roughness with a surface roughness meter and examining the surface with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Vice versa, interaction between the sheet and tool in the presence of a particular lubricant was examined by conducting energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It has been concluded that in order to ensure the presence of lubricant at the interface of the sheet and tool, proper surface coating of the sheet-blank is an essential pre-requisite before forming. With the suggested lubrication method, the CP Ti components having good surface quality can be realized by using the surface-hardened high speed steel (HSS) tool and the paste of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) with petroleum jelly in a specific proportion.
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The high-pressure sheet metal forming of tailor rolled blanks allows the production of optimised components specially developed for their future function, which cannot be made from conventionally rolled sheet metal. The research aims at showing that the two processes, i.e. flexible rolling and high-pressure sheet metal forming, can be well represented in finite element simulations. By linking the finite element models with a combinatory optimisation tool it is possible to simulate and optimise the entire process chain and/or the product itself. Within this paper the forming restrictions of the high pressure sheet metal forming of tailor rolled blanks are presented. Furthermore, two optimisations, considering not only the process chain but also the behaviour under loading conditions, are shown.
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A tribological principle for realizing green metal forming processes is proposed. This principle is based on the adhesion theory of friction. Based on this principle, green metal forming with low friction coefficient may be realized under three kinds of lubrication condition. The present state of the relevant technologies is summarized.
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Because of hexagonal close-packed (HCP) crystal structures, commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) shows low ductility at room temperature, and requires thermal activation to increase its ductility and formability. In the present study, the formability of CP Ti sheets at various temperatures was studied by the experimental approach. Tensile tests were first conducted to investigate the mechanical behavior of CP Ti sheets at various temperatures. Forming limit tests, V-bend tests, and cup drawing tests were also performed to examine the stamping formability of CP Ti sheets at various temperatures. The experimental results indicate that CP Ti sheets could be formed into shallow components at room temperature, although the formability is limited in cold forming. In addition, the results obtained from the V-bend tests reveal that springback can be reduced at elevated forming temperatures. The experimental results obtained in the present study can be of help to the die design of stamping CP Ti sheets.
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3D-Strip Profile Rolling should enable the production of blanks with a defined thickness profile in latitudinal and longitudinal direction. The production chain of 3D-Strip Profile Rolling will combine Flexible Rolling in a first production step with Strip Profile Rolling in a second step. The control system to adjust the roll gap during 3D-Strip Profile Rolling is currently under development. Nevertheless, some first experiments have shown the general feasibility to produce 3D-profiled blanks. In 3D-Strip Profile Rolling the material will strain harden differently on different locations. This results in a variation of the material properties of the strip. Lateral spread, elastic roll stand deformation and local deformation will be influenced by this variation. To investigate these influences on the complete production process, the complete production chain needs to be modelled in the future with aid of finite element simulations. In this publication a first simulation model is used to study the influence of different grades of strain hardening in a Taylor Rolled Blank on the bulge formation that occurs during the rolling of a rill in this Tailor Rolled Blank.
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Due to the significant ecological relevance and constantly rising prices, energy consumption more and more gets into the focus of manufacturing companies which strive to consciously consider energy consumption when planning and managing production facilities. Thereby it is important to take into account the interdependencies of all technical processes (production and technical building services). Against this background this paper presents an integrated concept to foster energy efficiency in manufacturing companies on different layers. Important part of the concept is an appropriate simulation approach. The approach enables to derive and evaluate technical as well as organizational measures to increase energy efficiency with respect to both ecological and economic objectives.
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Industrial application of magnesium alloy AZ31 is dramatically increasing due to the very competitive mechanical strength vs. weight ratio. On the other hand, AZ31 is very difficult to be formed at room temperature. In this study incremental forming of the above material is taken into account, with particular reference to formability limits. The role of the main process parameters on material formability was investigated through a wide experimental campaign and a rigorous statistical analysis. (c) 2008 CIRP.
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Due to the need to significantly reduce the part weights in automotive manufacturing, the use of lightweight materials becomes ever more important. Unfortunately, these materials are often associated with a limited cold formability. Due to this fact, production of large, complex sheet metal components using forming technology frequently entails increased expenditures. Moreover, processing high-strength materials requires correspondingly high processing forces and pressures. In order to find a solution to counter the disadvantages mentioned above, the use of elevated temperatures as a process parameter in forming operations represents a potential solution approach. The following paper will give an overview about research activities in the field of forming operations at elevated temperatures.
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In the metal forming industry, most of the efforts are directed towards materials and process development, with little attention paid to the properties of the formed components. In Superplastic Forming (SPF), the issue of post-forming properties is particularly important because of the large plastic deformation, significant microstructural changes, and exposure to elevated temperatures for prolonged periods of time. In this work, a detailed experimental study on the mechanical and microstructural properties of superplastically-formed AZ31 magnesium alloy is presented. The results clearly show the necessity to integrate post-superplastic forming analysis with material and process development for SPF optimization.
Article
Incremental forming is an innovative sheet metal forming technology in which a blank is plastically deformed through the progressive action of a small-size punch, whose movement is governed by a CNC machine. In this way the tool locally deforms the material through an almost pure stretching deformation mechanics.The paper is focused on material formability in incremental forming. Several tests were developed, aimed to the achievement of different straining conditions in the material and consequently to the determination of Forming Limit Diagrams for progressive forming operations. The features and the application of such FLD are discussed in the paper.
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This two part paper presents general issues, methods and a case study for achieving production sustainability on a machining technology level. In order to tackle these issues, the paper promotes sustainable production via the alternative machining technologies, namely cryogenic and high pressure jet assisted machining that have a high potential to cut costs and improve competitiveness by reducing resource consumption and thus creating less waste. The general issues of sustainable technologies pointed out with a comparative case study life cycle assessment performed for alternative machining processes are covered in part I of the work, concluding that future of sustainable production is going to entail the use of alternative machining technologies to reduce consumption rates, environmental burdens, and health risks simultaneously, while increasing performances and profitability. As an upgrade to this part, overall cost evaluation is covered by a case study in part II of this work.
Article
Deep drawing is a common sheet metal forming process. In most cases, sheets with constant thicknesses are formed. At the end of the previous century, new innovative blank technologies have been established for weight saving purposes. The development of the flexible rolling process is an illustrating example for this progression. By changing the roll gap during rolling, longitudinal thickness transitions are produced. The innovative semi-finished product, which is produced in this manner, is called tailor rolled blank (TRB). Its behaviour and characteristics during further processing, especially in forming, are topics of present research. The main emphasis of this paper is placed on the idea that TRB can be used to increase the maximum deep drawing depth compared to blanks having a constant thickness. This can be realised by “weakening” certain areas of the blank in a way that the load in failure at critical areas is reduced. To ensure weight saving in addition to increasing the maximum deep drawing depth, the maximum sheet thickness of the TRB is equal to the constant thickness of the other blanks. The concept is first analysed with the help of numerical simulations and then verified by experimental work.
Article
Light weight construction is a construction philosophy which aims at maximum weight reduction. Reasons for light weight construction can be very diverse. One main cause can be to improve fuel efficiency. This can be achieved by use of load optimised sheet thicknesses. Another reason can be the increasing demands on crash performances by optimisation of local properties. This paper presents two production processes of flexibly rolled blanks, one with longitudinal and the other one with latitudinal thickness transitions. Both of them have been developed at the Institute of Metal Forming (IBF) and yet found their way into series production. The potential of these processes is already proved by a large range of products, especially in automotive industries. Some special deep drawing tests with flexibly rolled blanks have been conducted and their results are presented. Also process simulation has been carried out at the IBF and will be explained. One possibility with regard to optimise these products is shortly introduced. Completing this paper an outlook is given.
Article
AZ31B magnesium alloy chips of different size were recycled by hot extruding. Mechanical properties and microstructure of the recycled specimens and reference specimen were investigated. Amounts of oxide in recycled materials were estimated. Almost all the recycled specimens exhibit higher strength than reference specimens, this is mainly attributed to grain refinement strengthening whereas particle-dispersion strengthening has few effect. The strength of recycled specimen increases with increasing of total surface area of chips because of different grain size. Recycled specimens show inferior ductility than reference specimens and recycled specimens with medium surface area of chips possess highest elongation. Grain size, oxide amount and density of billet have an effect on the elongation of recycled materials.
Article
Reducing the energy consumption of machine tools can significantly improve the environmental performance of manufacturing systems. To achieve this, monitoring of energy consumption patterns in the systems is required. It is vital in these studies to correlate energy usage with the operations being performed in the manufacturing system. However, this can be challenging due to complexity of manufacturing systems and the vast number of data sources. Event stream processing techniques are applied to automate the monitoring and analysis of energy consumption in manufacturing systems. Methods to reduce usage based on the specific patterns discerned are discussed.
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The manufacturing of a product is connected directly to the amount of carbon emitted in producing electrical energy for that manufacturing process. A new, simple Carbon Emission Signature, CES™, is proposed. Knowing the CES for a power grid and the energy needed to make a part, the carbon emitted can be found. Examples of single point turning and open die forging are given. Knowing the total carbon emitted for a product, a manufacturer can place a Green House Gas (GHG) label on each product. A customer can then see the amount of Green House Gas emitted in making the product.
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The use of sheet metal in the hydroforming process for hollow bodies is a new manufacturing technology for the automotive industry. In this paper, a comparison is made between the forming processes of sheet hydroforming and conventional stamping for production of an automobile fuel tank using a commercial explicit FEM code. A modeling methodology for correlation between stamping and hydroforming is proposed in order to obtain the optimal process parameters for producing a sound hydroformed fuel tank. The simulation model for a conventional stamping process is also verified by comparison with experiment. Finally, it is concluded that the hydroforming process can produce a fuel tank with a more uniform and sound thickness distribution than the stamping operation.
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Magnesium (Mg) has a great potential to reduce vehicle weight, fuel consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The Chinese Mg industry has developed rapidly since the 1990s. The output of Mg reached 700,000tons in 2006, accounting for more than 70% of global Mg production. Most of Mg is produced in China through the Pidgeon process that has an intensive energy usage and generates a large amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which may offset the potential advantage of using Mg parts in automobiles. It is critical to quantify the energy usage and GHG emissions through entire life cycle when the Mg are applied to automobiles. It is also essential to evaluate cost implications of the Mg parts application in automobiles and ensure it to be cost competitive. The objectives of this study are (1) Build a life cycle inventory (LCI) of Mg produced by Pidgeon process; (2) Establish an LCA model that can evaluate GHG emissions and energy usage for the Mg automotive application; (3) Estimate the cost implications of the Mg parts application in automobiles.An Mg LCI was built based on interviews and surveys and the GREET model was adapt for this study. The results indicated that, for each kilogram of Mg produced by Pidgeon process, GHG emissions and energy usage would be 27kg CO2eq and 280MJ, which are five times higher than steel production. Replacing steel with 82kg Mg on a base automobile would lower curb weight by 5.7%, but only reduce life cycle GHG emissions and energy usage by 0.8% and 1.3%. Scenario analyses indicated that potential reduction of life cycle GHG emissions and energy usage could reach to 15%, if secondary weight saving and a smaller engine were included. Cost analyses also show 18% reduction when the additional weight saving and a smaller displacement engine were included, under a 100,000km driving distance and gasoline price at $1.0/l.