Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... One of the biological aspects found to have an influence on level of ego depletion is sleep quality. Low level of sleep quality will cause degraded executive function due to weakened self-control and cognitive fatigue (Barnes et al. 2011). ...
... Prior research found that deviance and maladaptive behavior at work increased due to low level of sleep quality (Barnes et al. 2011). This is because a low level of sleep quality will deplete the energy that determines one's self-regulation ability (Kaplan and Berman 2010), or, in other words, it triggers ego depletion. ...
... Conversely, if an auditor has a low level of sleep quality, he/she will be more likely to experience ego depletion. The findings by Baumeister, Wright, and Carreon (2018), Hurley (2015), and Barnes et al. (2011) supported that sleep quality negatively affected ego depletion. Thus, the first hypothesis proposed is as follows: ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to examine the determinants of ego depletion and its effect on judgment and decision-making (JDM) quality. Auditing is one of the professions vulnerable to ego depletion, which is a temporary state of lack of cognitive resources to self-control caused by physical or psychological fatigue. Data were collected via online survey on 121 auditors in Indonesia who were selected by convenience sampling. The results showed that interpersonal conflict positively affected ego depletion. In line with ego depletion theory, the results supported previous research that ego depletion negatively affected JDM quality. Interestingly, this research also found that the level of industry-specific experience reduced the effect of ego depletion on JDM quality. In conclusion, psychological problems had a more significant influence on auditor cognitive resources than physical problems, which could then have an impact on his/her performance in generating judgments and decisions.
... 28 . 29 . 30 . ...
... 28 Reference 22 -TROI of ; TROI of . 29 TROI of . 30 TROI of . ...
... 61 One could conclude from this that it is not surprising that a decline in standards of behaviour coincided with the loss of a sense of purpose for some in SOCOMD. 29. This coincided with . ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Leadership and Ethics of Special Operations Command Review - the Whetham Report - is Annex A of the Afghanistan Report, published by the Inspector General of the Australian Defence Force Executive Summary This review into the leadership and ethics of Special Operations Command (SOCOMD) personnel during the period 2007 to 2014 draws a picture of a gradual erosion of standards over time resulting in a culture within which, ultimately, war crimes were tolerated. This was contributed to by: the character and tempo of the deployments (and redeployments); inadequate training and support; inappropriate metrics of success imposed from above warping behaviour within the Special Forces (SF) Task Group; a lack of clarity about purpose and gradual loss of confidence in both the mission and the higher chain of command; a fractured, compartmentalised and dysfunctional leadership, and; a general lack of effective oversight aided and abetted by the very people who should have been providing it. This combination of factors led to a normalisation over time of behaviours that should never have been considered normal and ultimately, the effective covering up of, or wilful blindness to, the perpetration of war crimes by some soldiers.
... Other studies have shown that dishonesty may be more present when there is an increase in the number of people acting dishonestly in the same group , by a reduction of self-control before a task in which people can be dishonest Mead et al., 2009) and in a framework of losses instead of cheating to earn more money (Grolleau et al., 2016). Along with these factors, the literature also contains studies that correlate dishonest behavior with the final stages of a series of cheating opportunities (Effron et al., 2015), with creativity (Gino & Ariely, 2012;Gino & Wiltermuth, 2014;Wiltermuth et al., 2017), with the lack of sleep (Barnes et al., 2011), and with the time of day at the time of decision-making (Kouchaki & Smith, 2014). Despite the several variables studied and their relationships with dishonesty, few studies have evaluated an essential factor in any decisionmaking: time pressure, i.e., how much time the individual has for decision-making. ...
... As the experiments dealt with larger time scales, other cognitive processes may be associated with participants' decision-making about dishonesty or honesty in our study. Some studies have found, for example, a relationship that can be established between self-control depletion and an increase in dishonest behavior (Barnes et al., 2011;Gino et al., 2011;Kouchaki & Smith, 2014;Mead et al., 2009). It could be argued that with the extended duration of the Matrix Task, self-control would be depleted along the time, which could lead to an increased number of reportedly solved matrices in the cheating group. ...
Article
No studies have investigated dishonesty during a time pressure extension greater than that of seconds. The objective was to determine if cheating groups report having completed a larger number of matrices than non-cheating groups in the Matrix Task, under different time pressures. In the experiment, participants were required to solve as many matrices as possible within a given time frame and then received a monetary reward for each correctly solved matrix. Participants of each cheating and non-cheating conditions were divided into three groups depending on the time pressure to solve the problems: 2.5, 5, and 10 min. Participants in the cheating group stated that they had solved more matrices than those of the non-cheating group, both under the 5-min pressure. However, the same did not happen under the time pressures of 2.5 and 10 min, indicating that time pressure modulates dishonest behavior in different ways, depending on the extent of the time pressure evaluated.
... Sleep time is one of the criteria for measuring sleep quality and an influencing factor for mental health [35]. According to the theoretical model of self-control resources, it is believed that individual self-control depends on self-control resources [36]. Students who experienced negative life events such as bullying victimization over a long period of time could be in a state of self-depletion. ...
... Hypothesis 3: sleep duration has an influence on the direct effect of victimization on depressive symptoms ( Figure 1). resources [36]. Students who experienced negative life events such as bullying victimization over a long period of time could be in a state of self-depletion. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Bullying victimization and its effect on symptoms of depression have received attention from researchers, but few studies have considered the potential mechanism. The aim of this study was to examine a moderated mediation model for the association between bullying victimization and depressive symptoms in terms of it being mediated by social anxiety, and investigated whether sleep duration would show moderating effects in this relationship. Methods: In this study, there were 2956 students, who completed three questionnaires, including a bullying victimization scale, as well as a social anxiety and epidemiologic studies depression scale. Results: Bullying victimization's effects on depressive symptoms were mediated by social anxiety. Furthermore, sleep duration moderated the relationship between bullying victimization and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: The research contributes by clarifying the mechanisms underlying the relationship between bullying victimization and depressive symptoms.
... Other studies have shown that dishonesty may be more present when there is an increase in the number of people acting dishonestly in the same group , by a reduction of self-control before a task in which people can be dishonest Mead et al., 2009) and in a framework of losses instead of cheating to earn more money (Grolleau et al., 2016). Along with these factors, the literature also contains studies that correlate dishonest behavior with the final stages of a series of cheating opportunities (Effron et al., 2015), with creativity (Gino & Ariely, 2012;Gino & Wiltermuth, 2014;Wiltermuth et al., 2017), with the lack of sleep (Barnes et al., 2011), and with the time of day at the time of decision-making (Kouchaki & Smith, 2014). Despite the several variables studied and their relationships with dishonesty, few studies have evaluated an essential factor in any decisionmaking: time pressure, i.e., how much time the individual has for decision-making. ...
... As the experiments dealt with larger time scales, other cognitive processes may be associated with participants' decision-making about dishonesty or honesty in our study. Some studies have found, for example, a relationship that can be established between self-control depletion and an increase in dishonest behavior (Barnes et al., 2011;Gino et al., 2011;Kouchaki & Smith, 2014;Mead et al., 2009). It could be argued that with the extended duration of the Matrix Task, self-control would be depleted along the time, which could lead to an increased number of reportedly solved matrices in the cheating group. ...
... Kratkotrajno spanje omejuje količino obnavljajočih procesov (Watson idr., 2015b), slabša kakovost spanja pa zmoti obnavljajoče procese, ki potekajo skozi noč (Barnes, 2012;Harvey, Stinson, Whitaker, Moskovitz in Virk, 2008;Litwiller, Snyder, Taylor in Steele, 2017;Scott in Judge, 2006;Medic, Wille in Hemels, 2017), oba dejavnika imata učinek na delo zaposlenih (Barnes, 2012). Da gre za dva ločena konstrukta, kaže raziskava Barnes, Schaubroeck, M. Huth in S. Ghumman (2011), v kateri je bila prisotna nizka negativna povezanost med obema dimenzijama (r= −,11). ...
... V raziskavi Weaver idr. (2018) so imeli posamezniki z motnjami spanja večje tveganje za varnostne izide v 83 % primerov, tveganje je bilo večje v primerjavi s tveganjem v primeru diagnosticiranih motenj anksioznosti in depresije, kar kaže na pomembno vlogo, ki jo spanje igra pri zagotavljanju pripravljenosti in sposobnosti za delo z drugimi ter za sledenje organizacijskim proceduram (Barnes, Schaubroeck, Huth in Ghumman, 2011;Krizan in Hisler, 2016). Vendar pa pregled literature Kramer (2010) kaže, da kljub enoznačnim učinkom, ki ga kažejo laboratorijske študije, na kognitivno delovanje, razpoloženje in uspešnost, pa prihaja do kontradiktornih rezultatov pri učinku pomanjkanja spanja na medicinske napake in varnost. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Covid-19 pandemic presents important risk factor for sleep disorders and other psychological diseases, which is especially present among healthcare workers. During crisis management physicians are faced with situations that require optimal psychological functioning, however additional workload, reduced safety at work and exposure to risk can negatively impact sleep, which plays an important role in maintaining physicians’ optimal levels of resilience, cognitive and emotional self-regulation. Aim of our study, was to gain an insight into epidemiological state of sleep among physicians, during the first month of Covid-19 epidemic, the effects of work factors on sleep and the consequences this can have on physicians’ work, medical errors and compromised safety. Our study included a large sample of 1189 physicians and dentists of all specialisations and working in all Slovenian regions. For the purposes of our study Sleep and Psychological Functioning at Work Scale was tested and developed. Respondents answered questions related to Covid-19, demographic and work characteristics. 29 % of respondents slept less than 6 h per night on workdays, with average duration of sleep during nightshifts lasting a bit less than 4 h. Perceived work safety reduced anxiety for Covid-19 infection, which negatively impacted sleep. Work over-hours, nightshifts and working at Covid-19 entry point had negative effects on sleep quantity, the effects of which were greater for physicians with children. Sleep played a preventative role during Covid-19 epidemic, which by reducing negative psychological functioning at work indirectly reduced the likelihood of medical errors and compromised safety. Based on our results, we provided recommendations to ensure adequate response of healthcare systems during Covid-19 epidemic.
... This view is derived from two mechanisms advocated by theories of self-regulation. First, when cognitive resources are lacking, people experience diminished self-control abilities and consequently may find it more appealing to take shortcuts [6]. Second, this lack of cognitive resources may also induce individuals to use defensive behaviors focusing on conserving resources (e.g., focus, energy) by preferring expedient behaviors, such as taking shortcuts. ...
... In this study, we laid the groundwork for such important extensions and showed that self-regulation and ego depletion theories can serve as a solid theoretical foundation for further studying employees' IT-mediated behaviors and perhaps more broadly noncompliant IT-mediated behaviors. This extends and contextualizes the application of ego depletion and selfregulation theories from employee behavior [6] to the case of IT-mediated employee behaviors. This is an important extension because IT has become complex and, consequently, it can motivate various forms of shortcuts, which managers try to prevent [53]. ...
Article
We aim to understand why employees take information technology (IT)-mediated shortcuts, that is, skipping one or several steps for completing tasks quicker by bending the rules. This is a specific and often detrimental form of noncompliant behavior. Adopting an ego-depletion perspective, we posit that IT complexity drives IT-mediated shortcuts by increasing employees’ ego-depletion. Extending this view, we use a modified Delphi study and build on self-regulatory and goal setting theories to point to key boundary conditions for these effects. First, in a preliminary study we found that taking IT-mediated shortcuts in our context is, on average, detrimental to employee performance. This highlighted the need to focus on IT-mediated shortcuts. Next, we tested our assertions with three experiments focusing on the use of dashboards with 584 data analysts. The results show that (1) dashboard complexity increases ego depletion, (2) ego depletion fully mediates the impact of dashboard complexity on taking IT-mediated shortcuts, (3) moral integrity moderates the influence of ego depletion on taking IT-mediated shortcuts, and (4) outcome compared to learning goals enhance the impact of ego depletion on IT-mediated shortcuts. In all studies, objectively measured IT-mediated shortcut-taking was negatively associated with objectively measured task performance. Ultimately, the integrated perspective explains whether, how, and under what conditions IT complexity drives IT-mediated shortcuts.
... We further propose that lower levels of ego depletion experienced among physically fit individuals are associated with lower levels of deviance. Ego depletion results in self-control impairment, making it more difficult for people to regulate their emotions, thoughts, and behaviors, and make them aligned with societal and personal standards rules and norms (Barnes et al., 2011;Inzlicht & Schmeichel, 2012;Schmeichel & Baumeister, 2004). When people experience ego depletion, they are less able to inhibit or suppress their maladaptive responses across domains of activity DeWall et al., 2007). ...
... When people experience ego depletion, they are less able to inhibit or suppress their maladaptive responses across domains of activity DeWall et al., 2007). Consistent with this notion, past research has shown that when people experience ego depletion, they are more likely to cheat on laboratory tasks (Kouchaki & Smith, 2014), and engage in unethical behavior at work (Barnes et al., 2011). Importantly, this effect has also been documented in the context of deviance specifically (Christian & Ellis, 2011;Gino et al., 2011;Mead et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
While modern organizations generate economic value, they also produce negative externalities in terms of human physical fitness, such that workers globally are becoming physically unfit. In the current research, we focus on a significant but overlooked indirect cost that lack of physical fitness entails-deviance. In contrast to early (and methodologically limited) research in criminology, which suggests that physically fit people are more likely to behave in a deviant manner, we draw on self-control theory to suggest the opposite: That physically fit people are less likely to engage in deviance. In Study 1, we assembled a dataset on 50 metropolitan areas in the U.S. spanning a 9-year period, and found that physical fitness index of a metropolitan area is negatively related to deviance in that area in a concurrent as well as time-lagged fashion. We complemented this aggregate-level theory test with two studies testing the theory at the individual level. In Study 2, we collected multi-source data from 3,925 military recruits who underwent physical training and found that those who score higher on physical fitness test are less likely to engage in deviance. Study 3 conceptually replicated the effect with both concurrent and time-lagged models using a five-wave longitudinal design in a sample of employees working in service roles, and also found that ego depletion mediates the effect of physical activity on workplace deviance. We speculate on economic implications of the observed relationship between physical fitness and deviance and discuss its relevance for organizations and public policy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Sleep is a recovery process that ensures restoration of resources that are necessary for selfregulatory functioning the next day (e.g., Baumeister et al., 2000;Barber et al., 2010). Barnes et al.'s (2011) research emphasized the role of sleep quality, stating that it provides an important foundation for an individual's self-regulation ability. According to Barnes et al. (2011) poor sleep minimizes and high-quality sleep maximizes self-regulatory resources. ...
... Barnes et al.'s (2011) research emphasized the role of sleep quality, stating that it provides an important foundation for an individual's self-regulation ability. According to Barnes et al. (2011) poor sleep minimizes and high-quality sleep maximizes self-regulatory resources. This is in line with previous studies showing that high-quality sleep at night restores self-regulatory resources and thus prevents procrastination the next day (Kühnel et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have highlighted the relevance of sleep for procrastination at work. Procrastination at work is defined as the irrational delay of the initiation or completion of work-related activities. In line with recent studies, we offer a self-regulation perspective on procrastination. We argue that procrastination is an outcome of depleted self-regulatory resources and that the restoration of self-regulatory resources during high-quality sleep at night would prevent procrastination. Aims In an attempt to further develop this line of research, the current study aimed to achieve a broader understanding of the relevance of sleep and circadian rhythm for procrastination. Therefore, we explored the effect of sleep quality on procrastination for different chronotypes. We also considered the shift to daylight saving time as a phenomenon that aggravates circadian misalignment and thereby later chronotypes' dependence on high-quality sleep. Specifically, we hypothesized that compared to employees with an earlier chronotype (morning types), employees with a later chronotype (evening types) are more dependent on good sleep at night to prevent procrastination the next day. This effect would be especially pronounced after the shift to daylight saving time. Methods For this repeated-measures study, participants were 101 full-time employees. They completed a general questionnaire and day-specific questionnaires on the Monday before and the Monday following the shift to daylight saving time. Results The multilevel analyses showed that employees procrastinated less on days following nights during which they slept better and that later chronotypes experienced more procrastination than earlier chronotypes. Our findings also supported the hypothesis that the relationship between sleep quality and procrastination is stronger for later chronotypes compared to earlier chronotypes on the Monday following the shift to daylight saving time. In other words, the lower the sleep quality of later chronotypes during the previous night, the more they procrastinated on the Monday following the shift to daylight saving time. Discussion Our findings further corroborate the existing findings on the relevance of sleep and chronotype for well-being and performance at work.
... Dual-process models of processing information have proposed that the human thought process can be differentiated into intuitive thinking that is characterized by fast and effortless processing, and deliberate thinking, that is characterized by slow and effortful processing (Epstein et al., 1996;Novak and Hoffman, 2009). Previous research has explored the relationship between intuitive thinking and unethical behavior (e.g., Anderman et al., 2009;Barnes et al., 2011;Christian and Ellis, 2011;Suchotzki, et al., 2017). However, research on intuitive thinking and unethical behavior showed mixed results and suggested that the effects were contingent on situational boundary conditions (Köbis et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Ethical leadership has been suggested as an organizational factor that could reduce unethical behaviors in an organization. We extend this research by examining how and when ethical leadership could reduce followers’ corruption. We examined the moderating role of followers’ Machiavellianism and the mediating role of intuitive thinking style in the negative effect of ethical leadership on corruption. Across two different studies (field study and experiment), we found that ethical leadership decreases followers’ corruption (Studies 1 and 2) and that this negative effect is mediated by followers’ intuitive thinking style (Study 2). Furthermore, followers’ Machiavellianism moderated the direct negative effect of ethical leadership on corruption. However, the pattern of this moderation was not consistent. In Study 1, we found that ethical leadership has the strongest direct negative impact on corruption when followers’ Machiavellianism is high, whereas in Study 2, we found that ethical leadership has the strongest direct negative effect on corruption when followers’ Machiavellianism is low. The theoretical implications for corruption, ethical leadership, and information processing research, as well as practical implications for corruption prevention, will be discussed.
... The impact of long-term (persistent) sleep deprivation on earnings is about 5 times a large as the effect of short-run sleep deprivation. Sleep loss has also been found to impair self-control and compromise other neurobehavioral outcomes for all age groups (Christian and Ellis, 2011;Barnes et al., 2011;Pilcher et al., 2015;Mai et al., 2019) and is associated with poorer memory, lower attentional capacity, worse cognitive skills and higher risk of incident dementia among elderly adults (Sterniczuk et al., 2013;Richards et al., 2017;Wams et al., 2017;Sabeti et al., 2018). ...
Article
Technology and social media use are increasingly associated with delays in nightly sleep. Here, we consider the timing of President Trump’s official Twitter account posts as a proxy for sleep duration and how it relates to his public performance. The President wakes around 6am, a routine which has not changed since early 2017. In contrast, the frequency of Twitter activity 11pm–2am increased 317% from under one day per week in 2017 to three days a week in 2020. The President’s increased late-night activity is not accounted for by increases in the frequency of his use of social media over time, his travel schedule, or seasonality. On the day following one where he posts late at night, his Twitter followers interact less with his posts, described as “official statements by the President of the United States”.¹ He receives 7400 fewer likes per tweet, 1300 fewer retweets per tweet, and 1400 fewer replies per tweet after a late night (drops of 6.5%–8%). Tweets aside, the President’s speeches and interview transcripts have previously been coded for their dominant emotion through text analysis. On the day following a late night, the President’s inferred emotion is less likely to be “happy” and nearly three times more likely to be “angry” in his interviews and speeches. Finally, the 2020 election odds of the President’s chief opponent also increase after a late night, while the President’s are unchanged. The pattern we document is consistent with a progressive shortening of the President’s sleep over his first term and compromised performance from sleep deprivation.
... Internal validity is not an inherent property of lab studies and generalizability is not an inherent property of laboratory studies, and there are ways to maximize either within a particular type of study (e.g., Highhouse, 2009). There was a noticeable trend for several studies in our meta-analysis sample to combine multiple studies with field and laboratory settings within a manuscript (e.g., Barnes, Schaubroeck, Huth, & Ghumman, 2011;Christian & Ellis, 2011), thereby combining the benefits of both types of validity. ...
Article
The present study utilizes meta‐analytic techniques to examine the literature on sleep and work performance. In line with previous meta‐analytic research, results indicate that sleep and work performance have a positive relationship. However, more importantly, results from moderator analyses reveal that the type of sleep measurement (sleep quantity and sleep quality), work performance measurement (task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior), analysis method (between‐person and within‐person), sleep report source (self‐report, other‐report, and objective), sleep recall window (day, week/month, and more than one month), and study setting (field and laboratory) differentially influence the strength of the sleep‐work performance relationship. Furthermore, meta‐analytic SEM results indicate that certain mediators (affect, job attitudes, and cognitive resources) provide stronger explanations (i.e., stronger indirect effects) for the relationship between sleep and work performance, depending on the specific type of performance being examined. In general, results highlight the importance of construct operationalization and methodology decisions when conducting sleep‐work performance research and provide greater insight into explanations for the relationship between sleep and work performance. Research implications, practical implications, potential limitations, and future directions are also discussed.
... The collective data on decision criterion, therefore, favored the altered threat perception account. Nonetheless, we cannot dismiss the possibility that sleep loss also affects the decision criterion to shoot via amygdala/emotional reactivity, inhibitory inefficiency, impulsivity, altered ethical decision making, or general tendencies toward aggression [26][27][28][29][30][31][32] , accounts which are not necessarily mutually exclusive with the altered threat perception account. ...
Article
Full-text available
Violent behavior, police brutality, and racial discrimination are currently at the forefront of society’s attention, and they should be. We investigated whether mild sleep loss—as typical for many adults throughout the work week—could aggravate the socio-emotional-cognitive processes contributing to violence and discrimination. In a sample of 40 healthy young adults, we either experimentally restricted participants’ sleep for four nights (6.2 h/night) or let participants obtain normal sleep (7.7 h/night)—and then had them complete the Police Officer’s Dilemma Task. In this computerized task, the participant must rapidly decide to shoot or not shoot at White and Black men who either are or are not holding a gun. Results showed significant racial biases, including more and quicker shooting of Black targets compared to White targets. Furthermore, signal detection analyses demonstrated that mild sleep restriction changed participants’ decision criterion, increasing the tendency to shoot, even when controlling for psychomotor vigilance, fluid intelligence, and self-reported desirability to behave in a socially acceptable manner. The increased tendency to shoot was also observed in participants who reported believing that they had adapted to the sleep loss. Future experimental research using trained police officers will help establish the generalizability of these laboratory effects. Importantly, sleep loss is modifiable via organization-level changes (e.g., shift scheduling, light entrainment) and individual-level interventions (e.g., sleep hygiene education, incentives for behavioral change), suggesting that if sleep loss is corrected, it could save lives—including Black lives.
... As a result, situational variables that are recognized by psychologists as significant to counterproductive work behaviour are not included; critically these aspects are likely to be more pronounced in a health context (Johns, 2018), which involves the delivery of 24-hour and potentially emotionally exhausting services. These omissions include consideration of prior sleep quality (Barnes et al., 2011;Gold et al., 1992), personality details such as low trait self-control (Spector et al., 2006), the experience of negative emotions (Kiefer & Barclay, 2012), or care requirements that are likely to produce depersonalization and disidentification (Bolton et al., 2012). ...
Article
The scarcity of public sector healthcare resources and the vulnerability of service users make the conduct of health professionals critically important. Health regulators, in delivering their core objective of patient protection, use empirical evidence to identify professionals' misconduct, improve their understanding of why misconduct occurs, and to maximise the effectiveness of regulatory actions that safeguard public trust in the healthcare system. This paper outlines the contribution of comparative academic analysis of three professions in the UK (doctors, nurses & midwives, and allied health professions) based on 6714 individual cases of professional misconduct. Three dynamic strands of ongoing impact are identified: 'dialogue', that creates an international multi-stakeholder community of interest; 'knowledge generation', which advances conceptual and empirical understanding of counterproductive work behaviour through sequential quantitative and qualitative study; and 'dissemination', where practical learning is utilised by regulators, employers, and other academics.
... Self-control is therefore necessary to ignore the self-serving temptations of criminal behavior. However, once depleted, this ability diminishes and the typically controlled behavior is more likely to occur (Yam et al., 2014). 2 Indeed, studies using standard ego-depletion tasks observe that depleted participants are more likely to engage in deviant or unethical behaviors in a variety of settings (Barnes et al., 2011;Gailliot et al., 2012;Gino et al., 2011). Collectively, these findings suggest that when depleted of their self-control, individuals may not only reduce or lose the ability to engage in deliberative decision-making but may also be more likely to engage in deviant or criminal behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed the relationship between state self-control and criminal choice, as well as the moderating influence of key mediators namely: perceived risk, positive and negative state affect, as well as perceived social consensus. Using a standard ego-depletion task and a between groups design (N = 390), participants responded to four vignettes regarding the likelihood of engaging in a criminal behavior, the perceived risk and severity of apprehension, how that situation made them feel, and the perceived social consensus around the acceptability of a given behavior. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to evaluate and contrast path coefficients between groups. Although there were no group differences in criminal choice, perceived risk was significantly associated with criminal choice in the control but not the depletion group. Conversely, in both groups positive state affect as well as perceived social consensus were positively associated with criminal choice while negative state affect negatively associated with criminal choice. Although state self-control may not directly influence variation in criminal choice, it may influence what factors associate with it. Thus, traditional deterrents may not be as effective in a lapse of selfcontrol.
... Lack of sleep affects human life and causes many health problems: memory issues, mood changes, concentration issues, risk of diabetes, increased risk of heart diseases, weight gain, high blood pressure, and increased driver crash risk [6][7][8][9]. Lack of sleep also impacts negatively on a person's energy towards work, health, and emotional balance [10]. Good sleep is an indicator of a healthy person. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bruxism is a sleep disorder in which the patient clinches and gnashes their teeth. Bruxism detection using traditional methods is time-consuming, cumbersome, and expensive. Therefore, an automatic tool to detect this disorder will alleviate the doctor workload and give valuable help to patients. In this paper, we targeted this goal and designed an automatic method to detect bruxism from the physiological signals using a novel hybrid classifier. We began with data collection. Then, we performed the analysis of the physiological signals and the estimation of the power spectral density. After that, we designed the novel hybrid classifier to enable the detection of bruxism based on these data. The classification of the subjects into “healthy” or “bruxism” from the electroencephalogram channel (C4-A1) obtained a maximum specificity of 92% and an accuracy of 94%. Besides, the classification of the sleep stages such as the wake (w) stage and rapid eye movement (REM) stage from the electrocardiogram channel (ECG1-ECG2) obtained a maximum specificity of 86% and an accuracy of 95%. The combined bruxism classification and the sleep stages classification from the electroencephalogram channel (C4-P4) obtained a maximum specificity of 90% and an accuracy of 97%. The results show that more accurate bruxism detection is achieved by exploiting the electroencephalogram signal (C4-P4). The present work can be applied for home monitoring systems for bruxism detection.
... Like the recovery experiences discussed above, sleep implies that individuals stop drawing on the same resources as during work. As compared to being awake, sleep is associated with changes in cerebral activity(Mignot, 2008) and reorganizing of neural activity of the brain in the service of restoring cognitive functioning and energy (seeBarnes et al., 2011; cf. Schmitt et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
We integrate perspectives from research on recovery from work and perspectives from day‐of‐week research to predict continuous as well as discontinuous changes in vitality and fatigue. We examine whether changes in recovery experiences and sleep quality predict changes in human energy over the course of the weekend. Furthermore, we consider positive anticipation of work at the start of the workweek and effort during the workweek to predict changes in energy. We collected experience sampling data from 87 employees over the course of twelve days. In total, 2187 observations nested in 972 days were eligible for analysis. Applying discontinuous growth curve modeling, we found that human energy increases continuously during the weekend, drops on Monday, follows a passageway trajectory from Monday to Thursday, and increases on Friday again. Changes in recovery experiences did not predict changes in energy, increases in sleep quality did. Positive anticipation of work attenuated the drop in vitality on Monday. Effort did not predict changes in energy over the course of the workweek. Our results suggest that the transition between weekends and workweeks and vice versa accounts for considerable changes in human energy and that weekends are recuperative, particularly because they provide the opportunity for better sleep.
... Sleep is not only positively correlated with self-control resources. Barnes et al. reveal that sleep is related to unethical behavior in the workplace as well (Barnes et al., 2011). In addition, sleep has a strong causal link between stress and emotional function. ...
Article
Full-text available
The occupational specialty of casino employees brings about the problem of long-standing severe emotional exhaustion and stress management challenges. Therefore, it is of great significance to pay attention to their occupational health psychology (Du & Li, in Psych Res 7(1):46–50, 2014). Based on the relevant researches on occupational health psychology of casino employees at home and abroad in recent years, this paper reviews and outlines the previous research results in a systematic way from environmental and occupational, organizational as well as individual dimensions, and figures out the factors that may affect the occupational health psychology of casino employees, and further expounds the psychological and behavioral effects of these factors on employees (including job burnout, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, employees’ problematic gambling behavior, etc.), with the purpose of getting a deeper understanding of why occupational health psychology of casino employees can affect customer satisfaction, loyalty and casino profits ultimately. On this basis, three suggestions are put forward for the optimization of human resource management in casinos through the lens of occupational health psychology. In the end, the paper points out some shortcomings of existing studies and the trend for future study that can expand and deepen relevant variables and research subjects that affect the occupational health psychology of casino employees on the basis of comprehensive review.
... Participants in the experimental group produced a larger N2 compared with participants in the control group. This finding in line with those reported previously (Barnes et al., 2011;Christian & Ellis, 2011;Gino et al., 2011). Individuals in the experimental group were more likely to exhibit selfish and egoistic impulses (Christian & Ellis, 2011;Gino et al., 2011). ...
Article
The self-control ability and self-control resources have a different influence on deception, but the cognition mechanism of this different influence has not been described yet. In this study, the event-related potentials (ERPs) technique was utilized to conduct two experiments exploring the effects of self-control ability and self-control resources on deception from two approaches. In Experiment 1, participants with different levels of self-control ability performed a visual perception task to measure deception and deception tendencies. The results revealed that individuals with low self-control ability exhibited more deceptive behaviors than did individuals with high self-control ability. Furthermore, individuals with high self-control ability evoked larger N2 and smaller P3 amplitudes than did individuals with low self-control ability. Experiment 2 involved selecting individuals with medium self-control ability. The Stroop task and a visual perception task were employed to investigate the influence of self-control resources on deception. The results showed that the depletion of self-control resources facilitated smaller N2 and larger P3 amplitudes than did non-depletion of self-control resources. In conclusion, these results suggest that individuals with high self-control ability are less likely to deceive others in order to obtain more benefits. When individuals have sufficient self-control resources, they resist temptation and reduce deception behaviors. Deception and deception tendencies may be more likely in people with low of self-control and whose self-control resources are depleted. In people with moderate self-control, deception was still regulated by self-depletion.
... Still, research suggests state sleepiness can also uniquely influence executive functioning in important life domains. Across three studies with working adult samples, sleepiness contributed to working adults' unethical behavior across employment domains (Barnes, Schaubroeck, Huth, & Ghumman, 2011;Christian & Ellis, 2011). ...
Article
Approximately 60% of college students report sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances, such as insomnia, negatively influence physical energy, cognitive resources, and affective states that might inhibit executive functioning. To better delineate the variables that alter the college student insomnia and executive functioning relationship we examined sleepiness, sleep debt, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. We expected insomnia to predict executive dysfunction, with a stronger relationship observed at higher levels of the focal moderator (i.e., sleepiness, sleep debt, or ADHD symptoms). Undergraduate participants (n ϭ 472) completed a cross-sectional survey assessing insomnia, state sleepiness, sleep debt, ADHD symp-tomatology (inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity), and executive dysfunction. Hierarchical linear regressions showed that poor sleep had a negative influence on executive function when college students also had high levels of impulsivity, state sleepiness, or sleep debt. These results partially support our expectations and further the academic sleep-related literature while providing insight for counselors, academic advisors, or other professionals working with college student populations. Public Significance Statement This research reports that poor sleep harms college students' adaptive executive functioning. Moreover, the negative influence of poor sleep on executive function is stronger when college students are highly impulsive, experience high daytime sleepiness levels, or have more sleep debt. We discuss these findings' implications for theory, as well as their practical application.
... Sleep may affect preferences through its impact on cognition or directly. For instance, sleep has been hypothesized to play a critical role in replenishing self-control (Vohs and Baumeister, 2016) and sleep deprivation has been correlated with cyberloafing at work (Wagner et al. 2012) and cheating (Barnes et al. 2011 ...
Article
The urban poor in developing countries face challenging living environments, which may interfere with good sleep. Using actigraphy to measure sleep objectively, we find that low-income adults in Chennai, India sleep only 5.5 hours per night on average despite spending 8 hours in bed. Their sleep is highly interrupted, with sleep efficiency—sleep per time in bed—comparable to those with disorders such as sleep apnea or insomnia. A randomized three-week treatment providing information, encouragement, and improvements to home sleep environments increased sleep duration by 27 minutes per night by inducing more time in bed. Contrary to expert predictions and a large body of sleep research, increased nighttime sleep had no detectable effects on cognition, productivity, decision-making, or well-being, and led to small decreases in labor supply. In contrast, short afternoon naps at the workplace improved an overall index of outcomes by 0.12 standard deviations, with significant increases in productivity, psychological well-being, and cognition, but a decrease in work time.
... Job design can also affect how individuals frame their activities. It is documented that stress, hunger, lack of sleep, or tiredness leads individuals to focus on the immediate term, ignoring the ethical implications of what they are doing and overlooking the long-term consequences of their actions (Barnes et al., 2011;Barnes, Gunia, and Wagner, 2015;Danzinger et al., 2011;Gailliot et al., 2007;Treviño, 1986). As these working conditions become settled, they start to take on a normative force. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a body of research on Organizational Behavior and Industrial/Organizational Psychology (OB/IO) that expands the range of empirical evidence relevant to the ongoing character-situation debate. This body of research, mostly neglected by moral philosophers, provides important insights to move the debate forward. First, the OB/IO scholarship provides empirical evidence to show that social environments like organizations have significant power to shape the character traits of their members. This scholarship also describes some of the mechanisms through which this process of reshaping character takes place. Second, the character-situation debate has narrowly focused on situational influences that affect behavior episodically and haphazardly. The OB/IO research, however, highlights the importance of distinguishing such situational influences from influences that, like organizational influences, shape our character traits because they are continuous and coordinated. Third, the OB/IO literature suggests that most individuals display character traits that, while local to the organization, can be consistent across situations. This puts pressure on the accounts of character proposed by traditional virtue ethics and situationism and provides empirical support to interactionist models based on cognitive-affective processing system theories of personality (CAPS). Finally, the OB/IO literature raises important challenges to the possibility of achieving virtue, provides valuable and untapped resources to cultivate character, and suggests new avenues of normative and empirical research.
... Our findings align with the suggestion of Barnes (2012) that lower sleep quantity may drive depletion states. Although sleep quality is also relevant to depletion in this framework, it has also been argued that poor sleep quality is harmful partially because it erodes sleep quantity, such that sleep periods are insufficient to replenish self-regulatory resources (Barnes et al., 2011). We encourage future research to directly evaluate if sleep quantity is relatively more important than sleep quality in the prediction of depletion states. ...
Article
Background: Physical activity is a salient input to psychological health and well-being. Recent applied psychology research suggests that physical activity of a greater intensity is particularly important for recovery from work-related effort expenditure. However, whether and how moderate-to-vigorous levels of physical activity influence recovery outside of working populations remains unclear. Further, the process through which this relationship unfolds on a day-to-day basis has yet to be mapped. Method: We conducted a 10-day daily diary study in a sample of 66 college students that incorporated objective measurements of physical activity and sleep to address these research gaps. Results: We found that higher levels of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were associated with leisure-time psychological detachment from daily school demands, which in turn related to longer duration sleep that diminished next-morning depletion. Discussion: We discuss how our findings advance a dynamic perspective of the intersection of physical activity and recovery from day-to-day that can be applied outside of working populations.
... When employees go to bed shortly after engaging in TASW, this mental and physical activation could extend sleep latency. Second, research shows that when work demands are high, employees tend to borrow time from sleep to meet their demands, consequently reducing sleep quantity (Barnes et al., 2011). It is conceivable that employees buy themselves time on evenings with high TASW by cutting sleeping time. ...
Article
Full-text available
Engaging in work-related activities after hours is increasingly common among knowledge workers due to modern information and communication technologies. The potential downsides of technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) are well-researched. In contrast, the question how TASW can support employees in meeting their work demands has not received sufficient attention. Building on conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989), we proposed that TASW is related to fewer unfinished tasks at the end of the day (i.e., before going to bed). We further hypothesized that fewer unfinished tasks, in turn, will be associated with better sleep quality and quantity. In addition, we expected that high (vs. low) levels of problem-solving pondering strengthen the negative relationship between TASW and unfinished tasks. We tested these hypotheses using a daily diary study (N = 100 employees). Participants answered two surveys per day (one before going to bed and one after waking up) throughout one workweek. Results of multilevel analyses showed that daily TASW was negatively related to daily unfinished tasks, but only when daily problem-solving pondering was high. Daily TASW, but not daily unfinished tasks, was negatively associated with daily sleep quantity. We discuss practical implications and future research avenues regarding the relationship between TASW and sleep.
... Mental fatigue is associated with considerable risks to employees, employers, and society at large [5,9]. Acute, short-term risks include reductions in performance, effectiveness, and productivity [5,25,26]; increased errors and do-overs [26,27]; absenteeism [24,28]; "presenteeism," wherein the worker is on task but performing below capacity [26,28]; ineffective teamwork [29]; immoral or unethical behavior [30,31]; reduced job satisfaction [32]; degraded quality of life [33,34]; decreased morale [29]; reduced safety [35,36]; workplace accidents and injuries [4,[37][38][39]; motor vehicle crashes during the commute [40]; and high-profile industrial catastrophes [41,42]. In addition to degraded physical and mental health [43], long-term risks include reduced individual and community well-being as well as economic losses [44]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Risks associated with fatigue that accumulates during work shifts have historically been managed through working time arrangements that specify fixed maximum durations of work shifts and minimum durations of time off. By themselves, such arrangements are not sufficient to curb risks to performance, safety, and health caused by misalignment between work schedules and the biological regulation of waking alertness and sleep. Science-based approaches for determining shift duration and mitigating associated risks, while addressing operational needs, require: 1) a recognition of the factors contributing to fatigue and fatigue-related risks; 2) an understanding of evidence-based countermeasures that may reduce fatigue and/or fatigue-related risks; and 3) an informed approach to selecting workplace-specific strategies for managing work hours. We propose a series of guiding principles to assist stakeholders with designing a shift duration decision-making process that effectively balances the need to meet operational demands with the need to manage fatigue-related risks.
... Such strongly participative and interconnected culture would be useful in shaping a more helpful and conducive environment in the presence of appreciative leadership. In the meantime, stressed supervisors might not be inclined towards appreciation (Barnes, Schaubroeck, Huth, & Ghumman, 2011), hence their level of stress should also be taken into account, which might hinder them from appreciating employees. ...
Article
This study, based on social exchange theory, aims to explore the association between appreciative leadership and employees’ helping behaviors through mediation role of emotional reactions (pride, anxiety), and organizational trust as a boundary condition between appreciative leadership and helping behaviors. A total sample of 285 reliable questionnaires were collected in three time lags from employees working in education and banking sectors of Pakistan. PROCESS macro and AMOS are employed for the data analysis of the proposed model. The findings reveal that appreciative leadership has positive impacts on employees’ helping behaviors and emotional reactions (pride, anxiety) mediates the relationship of appreciative leadership and employees’ helping behaviors. In addition, the results show that high organizational trust strengthens the positive relationship between appreciative leadership and employees’ helping behaviors. This study has provided empirical proof between the relationship of appreciative leadership and helping behaviors and the findings are of great significance for managers, employees, and organizations. Findings of this study indicate that leaders from service sector (educations/banks) should be appreciative while treating their subordinates, as this will encourage positive emotions and discourage the negative ones. In addition, the buffering role of organizational trust should be given more attention, as together with appreciative leadership as it will enhance employees’ helping behaviors. The present study, among the first empirical studies investigating the relationship between appreciative leadership and helping behaviors, organizational trust as a moderator between appreciative leadership and helping behavior, enriches the existing academic literature of and provides worthy insight into the research on appreciative leadership and helping behaviors.
... Scholars have long recognized that both depletion and voice behavior could be conceptualized as withinperson phenomena that fluctuate daily (Liu et al., 2017). For example, research on depletion has demonstrated that depletion varies between days (Li et al., 2019;Wehrt et al., 2020) as a result of a variety of factors, including sleep (Barnes et al., 2011), late-night smartphone use (Lanaj et al., 2014), aversive morning commutes (Gerpott et al., 2021), morning routine disruption (McClean et al., 2021), childcare-related demands (Dettmers et al., 2020), workrelated worry and planning , and physical activity during the previous day (Rost et al., 2021). Likewise, voice research shows that employees may speak up with new ideas or suggestions (i.e., daily promotive voice) and/or express issues, concerns, or problems (i.e., daily prohibitive voice) more on some days than on others (Li et al., 2019;Lin & Johnson, 2015;Liu et al., 2017;Welsh et al., in press). ...
Article
Although extant work has found that employee depletion is associated with less voice behavior, an emerging line of research suggests that depletion may sometimes be associated with more voice behavior. We build on this emerging line of research by establishing when and why employee depletion is associated with more voice behavior on a daily basis. We then further identify the implications of these relationships for daily voice endorsement by managers. Integrating research on the strength model of self‐control and the resource distinction between promotive and prohibitive voice, we predict that, among employees with low levels of trait self‐control, higher levels of daily depletion will be associated with lower levels of daily voice impulse control. In turn, lower levels of daily voice impulse control will be associated with higher levels of daily prohibitive voice, but lower levels of daily voice endorsement. Results from a 10‐day daily study with 697 daily observations from 88 employees working for 50 managers (Study 1) and an experimental recall task with 136 full‐time employees (Study 2) supported our hypotheses. We discuss how our findings contribute to theories of voice and self‐control, review the methodological strengths and limitations of our studies, and expound on the practical implications of our results.
... For instance, chronic sleep deprivation has been correlated with declines in executive functioning, difficulties with emotion regulation, and increases in stress hormones, sleep disorders, chronic pain, and psychological disorders (Beattie et al., 2015;James et al., 2017;Mysliwiec et al., 2013). Chronic sleep deprivation has also been shown to adversely affect moral judgment and increase permissiveness for unethical or transgressive behavior (Barnes et al., 2011;Killgore et al., 2007;Olsen et al., 2010). ...
Article
Over the last two decades, there has been increased interest in the role of emotions in decision‐making, with new theorizing to highlight how leader decisions often differ from rational choice and purely cognitive models. To date, however, existing theories have not adequately explained why emotions drive decisions in some situations and not others. This article posits that the variation in emotion's role in leader decision‐making likely results from currently undertheorized connections between leaders' stress arousal levels, stress loads, and emotions. It explores how leaders' neurobiological windows of tolerance to affect arousal influence their capacity to regulate their emotions and make decisions. It introduces the mediating role of leaders' self‐regulatory capacity—their capacity to regulate stress and emotions so that these phenomena do not drive resulting decisions—as an explanation for variation in emotion's influence on decision‐making. Finally, it formally illustrates the argument put forth by comparing two decisions made by U.S. President Bill Clinton as his window of tolerance varied over time.
Article
Controlling impulses and overcoming temptations (i.e., self-control) are key aspects of living a productive life. There is a growing yet disperse literature indicating that sleep is an important predictor of self-control. The goal of this meta-analysis is to empirically integrate the findings from multiple literatures, and investigate whether sleep quality, and sleep duration predict self-control. To provide a thorough understanding of the proposed relationships, this meta-analysis also investigated potential differences between the level of analysis (between-individual vs. within-individual), research design (experiment vs. correlation; and cross-sectional vs. time-lagged), and types of measure (subjective vs. objective for sleep and self-control). A systematic review was conducted through ABI/Inform (including PsycInfo), ERIC, ProQuest Dissertation & Theses, PubMed, and Psychology Database using keywords related to self-control and sleep. Sixty-one independent studies met the inclusion criteria. The results, in general, suggest that sleep quality (between-individual 0.26, CI 0.21; 0.31; and within-individual 0.35, CI 0.24; 0.45), and sleep duration (between-individual 0.14, CI 0.07; 0.21; and within-individual 0.20, CI 0.09; 0.31) are all related to self-control. Given the impact of self-control on how individuals live productive lives, a future research agenda should include a deeper investigation in the causal process (potentially via prefrontal cortex activity) linking sleep and self-control, and an examination of the moderators (individual and contextual variables) that could impact the relationship between sleep and self-control.
Article
Lack of adequate sleep is a major source of many harmful diseases related to heart, brain, psychological changes, high blood pressure, diabetes, weight gain etc. The 40 to 50 % of the world’s population is suffering from poor or inadequate sleep. Insomnia is a sleep disorder in which individual complaint of difficulties in starting/continuing sleep at least four weeks regularly. It is estimated that 70% of the heart diseases are generated during insomnia sleep disorder. The main objective of this study to determine the all work conducted on insomnia detection and to make a database. We used two procedures including network visualization techniques on two databases including PubMed and Web of Science to complete this study. We found 169 and 36 previous publications of insomnia detection in the PubMed and the Web of Science databases, respectively. We analyzed 10 datasets, 2 databases, 21 genes, and 23 publications with 30105 subjects of insomnia detection. This work has revealed the future way and gap so far directed on insomnia detection and has also tried to provide objectives for the future work to be proficient in a scientific and significant manner.
Article
Unhealthy sleep is a modern epidemic, and recent research has linked it to unethical behaviors like deception. Yet, scholars are also starting to examine factors that could curtail unhealthy sleep and its consequences. The current paper reviews evidence that indirectly implies or directly documents a relationship between unhealthy sleep and deception, detailing critical mediators and moderators. It concludes with a discussion of the many intriguing research avenues arising from this nascent literature, each with eminent relevance in a sleep-deprived world.
Article
Based on the assumptions that moral judgement activities require cognitive control, a capacity impaired by low sleep quality or a lack of sleep, several studies have explored the association between sleep and moral judgements. However, even if some studies support the association between sleep and both moral awareness and unethical behaviours, others failed to find a robust association between sleep and moral utilitarianism. In the present well‐powered preregistered cross‐sectional study, we explored the role of sleep in another class of moral judgement, namely third‐party punishment (in which people have to assess the morality of an agent who transgressed a moral rule). Specifically, we targeted the association of sleep with judgements of accidental harm transgressions, which are assumed to be especially cognitively costly. Our main analysis showed no association of overall sleep quality during the past month with moral severity in these transgressions. This result was confirmed for other sleep indexes (sleep quantity in the past month, and sleep quantity and quality in the past night). Lastly, we exhaustively explored the associations of all sleep indexes with all classes of moral judgement (accidental, intentional, attempted transgressions and control scenarios). These additional results revealed associations between sleep and moral severity, but none survived correction for multiple testing. Equivalence tests confirmed that the effect sizes of all these associations were relatively low (|r < 0.25|). We ensured that the lack of robust association between natural sleep and third‐party punishment could not be explained by a low quality of the data collected.
Article
Military ethics training has tended to focus on imparting ethical attitudes and on improving deliberative moral decision-making through classroom instruction. However, military personnel can be exposed to extreme conditions on operations, which can lead to heat-of-the-moment thinking. Under stress, individuals are more likely to engage in automatic processing than deliberative processing, and visceral states such as anger and disgust can increase a person’s risk of behaving unethically. We propose that military ethics training could be improved by reinforcing classroom ethics training with interventions to counteract these risk factors. As training interventions, we recommend incorporating affect-labeling, goal-setting, and perspective-taking into realistic, pre-deployment training to make moral decision-making more robust against stress and other emotional experiences typical in combat. We outline steps researchers and trainers can take to test whether these interventions have the desired impact on ethical behavior.
Article
Full-text available
We propose a new theoretical model depicting the compensatory relations between personal agency and social assistance. It suggests two general hypotheses, namely that (1) the stronger the individuals’ sense of personal agency, the weaker their motivation to utilize social assistance and the greater their consequent tendency to develop anti-social attitudes. Conversely, (2) the stronger the individuals’ reliance on social assistance, the weaker their motivation to be agentic, and the lesser their tendency to develop a strong sense of self. These relations are assumed to apply across levels of generality, that is, concerning agency and assistance within a single goal domain, as well as across domains where the source of agency (e.g., money, power) or assistance facilitates the attainment of multiple goals.
Article
This research aimed to advance overqualification literature by examining how leaders’ perceived employee overqualification (LPEO) influences their empowering behaviour and employee work behaviours. Drawing upon the individualized leadership theory, we proposed that LPEO has an inverted U‐shape relationship with their empowering behaviour such that leaders are more motivated to empower employees from low to moderate levels of overqualification, but this tendency decreases after a certain inflection point. We also predicted that the inflection point occurs at a lower level of employee overqualification when leaders perceive higher (vs. lower) status threats. Leader empowering behaviour was hypothesized to positively predict employees’ voice and negatively predict their withdrawal behaviour. Two multi‐source and time‐lagged studies were conducted to examine this moderated mediation curvilinear model. In Study 1, survey data from 372 leader–employee dyads supported the inverted U‐shape mediation model from leaders’ perceived overqualification to empowering behaviour, then to employee outcomes (i.e., voice and withdrawal behaviour). In Study 2, we collected data from a sample of 73 team leaders and 286 employees, and the results supported the full model. Taken together, these findings offer a perspective to enrich the understanding of employee overqualification and have important practical implications. When leaders regard employees as overqualified, they can assist them via the means of appropriate empowerment to best utilize their skills to benefit the company. Leader empowerment can inspire employees’ voice behaviour but reduce their withdrawal behaviours. To minimize potentially negative aspects from highly overqualified employees, organizations should reduce leaders’ concern about the status threat, and encourage leaders’ proactive responses to these employees so as to achieve positive returns from overqualified employees.
Article
Full-text available
Sleep is linked to critical outcomes in the work context including job attitudes, job performance, and health. This study examines daily positive behaviors (i.e., task accomplishment) and positive experiences (i.e., job satisfaction) at work as well as outside of work (i.e., psychological detachment from work in the evening) as positive antecedents of sleep quality. Specifically, the study tested a moderated mediation model in which job satisfaction and psychological detachment from work interact with daily task accomplishment to predict sleep quality and in turn positive affect and self-efficacy the following morning. Based on daily survey data over five consecutive workdays, results from multilevel structural equation modeling indicate that daily task accomplishment alone was neither significantly related to sleep quality nor positive affect or self-efficacy the following morning. However, sleep quality was positively and significantly linked to positive states the following morning. Furthermore, both job satisfaction and detachment from work moderated the association between daily task accomplishment and sleep quality. Specifically, the conditional indirect effects from task accomplishment to positive affect and self-efficacy via sleep quality were significant and positive when both daily job satisfaction and detachment from work were high, and when job satisfaction was low and detachment was high. The results point to the role of the interaction between positive experiences for sleep and next morning outcomes.
Article
Bottom-line mentality (BLM) describes a one-dimensional frame of mind revolving around bottom-line pursuits, which pervades most organizations today. But how does working with high BLM supervisors affect employees’ functioning both at work and at home? Guided by this question, we draw on social information processing theory and insights from the person-environment fit literature for a nuanced understanding of the effects of supervisor BLM. Using data from two field studies conducted in China (340 employees) and the United States (174 employees), we find that supervisor BLM increases employee perceptions of a competitive climate that ultimately increases employee thriving at work and insomnia outside work. We further find that employee trait competitiveness moderated the indirect relationship (via perceived competitive climate) between supervisor BLM and thriving at work but not for insomnia; employees high (versus low) in trait competitiveness were found to thrive at work under the competitive climate stimulated by high BLM supervisors. Taken together, our findings highlight the need for organizational leaders to be cautious of being too narrowly focused on bottom-line outcomes and aware of the wider implications of BLM on different domains of their employees’ lives.
Article
Entrepreneurs work in an uncertain, novel, and high-stakes environment. This environment can lead to disagreements and conflicts over how to develop, grow, and run a business venture, thus triggering destructive social interactions. This research sheds light on the role of destructive interpersonal relationships by examining daily perceived social undermining from work partners and how and when this perceived undermining affects entrepreneurs' work engagement. Building on a resource-based self-regulation perspective, we develop a theoretical model of the self-regulation impairment process whereby an entrepreneur's perceived social undermining disrupts sleep quality at night, which dampens work engagement the next day. We further theorize trait resilience as a self-regulation capacity that buffers this impairment process. We test the model in a study based on daily surveys over 10 workdays from 77 entrepreneurs. The results largely support our hypotheses and further indicate that trait resilience is more crucial for less experienced entrepreneurs. Our study contributes to research on how entrepreneurs' interpersonal relationships—particularly destructive ones—affect entrepreneurial well-being.
Article
Insufficient sleep is commonplace, and understanding how this affects interpersonal conflict holds implications for personal and workplace settings. We experimentally manipulated participant sleep state for a full week prior to administering a stylized bargaining task that models payoff uncertainty at impasse with a final-offer arbitration (FOA) procedure. FOA use in previous trials decreases the likelihood of voluntary settlements going forward—the narcotic effect. We also report a novel result that a significantly stronger narcotic effect is estimated for more sleepy bargaining pairs. One implication is that insufficient sleep predicts increased dependency on alternatives to voluntarily resolution of interpersonal conflict.
Article
Recent research has shown that sleep is associated with moral judgment. Most of these studies have focused on moral awareness and unethical behaviors but far fewer have examined the impact of sleep on moral utilitarianism. We report a set of six preregistered cross-sectional studies which explore the association between moral utilitarianism and sleep quantity and quality at both the acute and chronic levels. A total of 582 participants drawn from diverse populations (USA, UK and France) addressed various measures of sleep quantity, sleep quality, and moral utilitarianism. We report a meta-analysis which showed only a weak association between sleep and moral utilitarianism. Despite the heterogeneity in the samples and methods employed, equivalence tests ruled out the possibility that we missed medium to strong effect sizes. We discuss the implication of these findings in the light of the moral judgment literature.
Article
This article discusses preliminary results from two experiments and puts forth the notion that the development of sensory systems might be more geared toward discerning differences rather than for spotting similarities. The article presents the possibility that the necessity to spot differences might have evolved to ensure the survival of the organism, which suggests numerous other experiments to assess the response of participants to various stimuli. The article considers our present state of affairs, wherein the need is to thrive and not merely survive, which requires us to spot similarities around us. Some suggestions are provided on how this attribute can be developed, which includes mathematical education. This article concludes with an alternate measure for intelligence, termed the Involvement Quotient (also, IQ), which gauges the level of involvement of the sense organs to whatever is happening around the individual.
Preprint
Full-text available
We discuss preliminary results from two experiments and put forth the notion that the development of sensory systems might be more geared towards discerning differences rather than for spotting similarities. We present the possibility that the necessity to spot differences might have evolved to ensure the survival of the organism, which suggests numerous other experiments to assess the response of participants to various stimuli. We consider our present state of affairs, wherein the need is to thrive and not merely survive, which requires us to spot similarities around us. We provide some suggestions on how this attribute can be developed, which includes mathematical education. We conclude with an alternate measure for intelligence, termed the Involvement Quotient (also, IQ), which gauges the level of involvement of the sense organs to whatever is happening around the individual.
Article
The current study examined the bidirectional relationship between parental psychological control and problematic smartphone use (PSU) in early Chinese adolescence using a two time-points repeated-measures study and explored the role of psychological security and insomnia in the relationship between parental psychological control and subsequent PSU in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 2128 fourth- and fifth-grade students (55.69% male, age = 9 to 13, Mage ± SD = 10.91 ± 0.80) who participated in two measurements and completed questionnaires about parental psychological control, PSU, psychological security and insomnia. The results indicated that: (1) Autoregressive cross-lagged models showed a reciprocal relationship between parental psychological control and PSU severity in early adolescence. (2) Both psychological security and insomnia mediate the link between parental psychological control and subsequent PSU severity. (3) Psychological security and insomnia play serial mediating roles between parental psychological control and subsequent PSU severity. These findings indicate that reducing parental psychological control, boosting psychological security and alleviating insomnia symptoms in adolescents are all conducive to decrease PSU severity in early adolescence.
Article
Performance‐oriented human resource system (HRS) brings both benefits and risks to organizations. Prior studies mainly reported the positive impact of performance orientated HRS on organizational and employee performance, ignoring its negative impact on employee behavior. Based on self‐regulation theory, this paper examines the double‐edged sword effects of performance‐oriented HRS on employee outcomes. Multiwave data from a total of 253 employees indicated that perceived performance‐oriented HRS can predict employees’ concerns with performance. This system could improve their willingness for self‐development, but it may also reduce employees’ moral awareness, which increases employees’ unethical behavior. Employees’ self‐control moderates the negative effects of performance‐oriented HRS; that is, when employees’ self‐control is low, performance‐oriented HRS leads to a stronger influence on employees’ unethical behaviors through moral awareness than when it is high. The results enhance our knowledge of the effects of performance‐oriented HRS on employees’ attitudinal and behavioral outcomes and provide new insights for countering the negative effects of performance‐oriented HRS in organizational human resource practices.
Article
Past research often relegates the management of the ideal worker’s overworking body to the nonwork environment. Reflecting a segmentation approach to managing the boundary between work and nonwork, the nonwork setting is treated as a context for recuperation. Yet, segmentation may, ironically, support the ideal worker image and reinforce the persistence of overwork. Drawing on two-year-long ethnographic studies of yoga teacher training, this paper considers how individuals shift how they manage the boundaries around their bodies. In doing so, we challenge the notion that segmentation of nonwork from work is an ideal boundary management strategy for addressing the negative impacts of overwork. Rather, we suggest that an integration strategy developed in a nonwork community may be productive for breaking the cycle of overwork and recuperation promoted by the ideal worker image and creating a virtuous cycle of activation and release. We bring forward the bodily basis to overwork and conceptualize somatic engagement as a form of engagement through which actors come to connect reflexively with their bodily experience across domains. Relatedly, in revealing how individuals come to connect reflexively with their bodily experience, we elaborate our understanding of the relational phenomena that enhance individuals’ somatic experiences across boundaries.
Article
Modern technology is ubiquitous i.e., “always there” – available to us when we want it and engaging us even when we don’t actively seek it. This constantly available ubiquitous technology influences people’s perception of time. This conceptual paper explores how ubiquitous technology creates a new time vision we call ubichronic time. We argue ubichronic time is qualitatively different from existing time visions and highlight the new values and behaviours associated with it. Specifically, people who have an ubichronic time vision perform disparate activities that span short durations across the day, find specific tiny units of time valuable and cram many repeated activities into a day. We also argue ubichronic time will have profound implications on the way we work and as such propose new concepts and research directions on how the way we work needs to adapt at the individual, team, and organisational levels.
Article
Situation awareness is often argued to be an indicator of safety performance. Several factors may influence situation awareness that need to be identified and analyzed. This study investigated the influence of some variables on safety performance and examined the mediating effect of situation awareness. This study was conducted on 601 workers of different industries in Iran. All variables were measured via a multi-sectional questionnaire in a self-report manner. Path analysis modeling was used for data analysis. To measure the validity of the model, the RMSEA, CFI, and R² coefficients were employed. The results revealed that safety knowledge and sleepiness had significant direct and indirect effects on safety behavior and human error. Fatigue had only a mediating effect on safety behavior and error via situation awareness. Safety locus of control had only a mediating effect on human error through situation awareness. Whereas better safety knowledge and an internal safety locus of control could boost siaituation awareness, daily sleepiness and fatigue had significant, detrimental effects on situation awareness. These variables explained 38% of the variations in situation awareness. A proportion of the effect of personal variables on safety behavior and human error was mediated by situation awareness; thus, situation awareness is the direct cause of some safe behaviors and human errors.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This meta-analysis examined how demand and resource correlates and behavioral and attitudinal correlates were related to each of the 3 dimensions of job burnout. Both the demand and resource correlates were more strongly related to emotional exhaustion than to either depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Consistent with the conservation of resources theory of stress, emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to the demand correlates than to the resource correlates, suggesting that workers might have been sensitive to the possibility of resource loss. The 3 burnout dimensions were differentially related to turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and control coping. Implications for research and the amelioration of burnout are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
We introduce the construct of sleep deprivation to the team-level management literature by integrating theory and research on sleep deprivation and group behavior. We propose that sleep deprivation has a negative monotonic, but nonlinear, influence on team decision-making accuracy and problem solving. We then propose that task, structural, and social characteristics accentuate or attenuate the influence of sleep deprivation on team decision-making accuracy and problem solving.
Article
Full-text available
This article integrates self-efficacy theory with decision latitude theory to generate a typology of workload management strategies used by knowledge workers working under conditions of high job demands. We then propose that physical and emotional fatigue should differentially influence usage of these workload management strategies based on anticipated differences in their effects on selfefficacy. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our model with regards to knowledge workers who often face ongoing challenging job demands.
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has presented a mixed picture of the cognitive and neural consequences of sleep deprivation on decision-making. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine the neural changes associated with simple and integrated decision-making under conditions of sleep deprivation. When rested, regions of the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) were recruited to a greater degree for integrated decision-making (ID). After 24 hours of sleeplessness, there was minimal effect on simple decision-making but a clear vulnerability of ID to sleeplessness that was accompanied by a breakdown in task-specific neural activity in prefrontal cortex that, when rested, correlated with behavioral performance.
Article
Full-text available
A series of findings over the past decade has begun to identify the brain circuitry and neurotransmitters that regulate our daily cycles of sleep and wakefulness. The latter depends on a network of cell groups that activate the thalamus and the cerebral cortex. A key switch in the hypothalamus shuts off this arousal system during sleep. Other hypothalamic neurons stabilize the switch, and their absence results in inappropriate switching of behavioural states, such as occurs in narcolepsy. These findings explain how various drugs affect sleep and wakefulness, and provide the basis for a wide range of environmental influences to shape wake-sleep cycles into the optimal pattern for survival.
Article
Full-text available
The authors studied certain aspects of the construct validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), the most popular measure of burnout, and that of the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM). These burnout measures were compared with respect to their psychometric characteristics and factorial validity in two groups of professionals, human service and other professionals (N=196 and 226, respectively), who completed questionnaires at work. As hypothesized, the confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor and a three-factor structure invariance across the two groups considered for the SMBM and the MBI-GS, respectively, with superior fit found for the SMBM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Evaluated ethical decision making under different contingencies of reinforcement. A laboratory experiment was devised around a simulated task involving marketing decision making and the possibility of kickback payments to purchasing agents. Ss were 120 graduate business students who made a series of decisions of whether to pay kickbacks or not. When Ss were rewarded for unethical behavior, then unethical behavior was higher than when Ss were not rewarded. Unethical behavior was also higher under increased competition. Four personality variables (locus of control, economic and political value orientation, and Machiavellianism, as assessed by Rotter's Internal–External Locus of Control Scale, the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values, and the Mach V Scale) were found to be significant covariates of unethical behavior. Foreign Ss were found to be more unethical than US Ss, but sex was not related to ethical behavior. Overall, results suggest that unethical decision making is a combination of personality, cultural and value orientation, and environmental rewards and punishments. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the relationship between cognitive distortions, impulsivity and sensation seeking. It has been suggested that individuals with psychological problems have a tendency to make negative interpretations and dysfunctional predictions of events. It remains unclear how impulsive individuals interpret the situations that may contribute to their unplanned, rapid reactions with disregard to the consequences of behaviour. A battery of self-report scales measuring cognitive distortions (Cognitive Distortion Scale), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11), sensation seeking (Sensation Seeking Scale form-V), depression (Beck Depression Inventory),and anxiety (Beck Depression Inventory) was administered to a sample of 100 normal people, mainly undergraduate students to examine this. Individuals with high impulsivity had significantly higher levels of dysfunctional cognitions and sensation seeking. Multiple regression analysis showed that only impulsivity and age factors were significant predictors of cognitive distortions, with impulsivity positively correlated, and age negatively correlated, with cognitive distortions. These findings have clinical implications suggesting that cognitive-behavioural interventions targeting information processing characterized by specific cognitive distortions may help people with high levels of impulsivity regulate their behaviour and emotions more effectively, thereby increasing self-control.
Article
Full-text available
Although the effects of transformational leadership on task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) are well-documented, the mechanisms that explain those effects remain unclear. We propose that transformational leadership is associated with the way followers view their jobs, in terms of Hackman and Oldham's (1976) core job characteristics. Results of our study support a structural model whereby indirect effects supplement the direct effects of transformational leadership on task performance and OCB through the mechanisms of job characteristics, intrinsic motivation, and goal commitment. Additional analyses revealed that transformational leadership relationships were significantly stronger for followers who perceived high-quality leader-member exchange.
Article
Full-text available
Activation theory suggests that intermediate rather than low or high levels of quantitative job demands benefit job performance and job satisfaction among managers. Using an equity theory framework, I hypothesize that perceptions of effort-reward fairness moderate these inverted U-shaped demand-response relationships. In support of this hypothesis, survey results demonstrate that managers who perceive effort-reward fairness perform better and feel more satisfied in response to intermediate levels of job demands than managers who perceive "underreward unfairness.".
Article
Full-text available
The authors used experience-sampling methodology to investigate the dynamic relationships among insomnia, emotions, and job satisfaction. Over a period of 3 weeks, 45 employees completed surveys each workday, producing a total of 550 observations. Results revealed that, within individuals, insomnia was associated with increased feelings of hostility and fatigue and decreased feelings of joviality and attentiveness. Insomnia was also negatively related to job satisfaction, and this relationship was mediated by the emotions. Finally, gender moderated the within-individual relationships between insomnia and three of the four emotions such that women were more affected by a poor night of sleep than were men.
Article
Full-text available
BackgroundA significant and growing number of people work long hours. Research examining impacts is limited, but raises concerns about risks to the worker, the family, the employer, and the community. The purpose of this report, which is authored by the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) Long Work Hours Team, is to motivate and guide future research by proposing a framework for studying long work hours and discussing research gaps.Methods The NORA Long Work Hours Team examined research reports and literature reviews, and gathered input from a conference on long work hours organized by the Team and faculty from University of Maryland.Results and ConclusionA framework is proposed for long work hours, including determinants, outcomes, and moderating factors of long work hours, suggesting that studies need to include more clear and complete descriptions of work schedules, worker characteristics, and the work environment, and need to consider a wider range of possible health, safety, social and economic outcomes for workers, families, employers, and the community. Additional studies are needed on vulnerable employee groups and those critical to public safety. More studies are also needed to develop interventions and test their effectiveness. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2006. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
Full-text available
This article argues for the vulnerability of managerial work to unintended forms of racial and other bias. Recent insights into implicit social cognition are summarized, highlighting the prevalence of those mental processes that are relatively unconscious and automatic, and employed in understanding the self and others. Evidence from a response-time measure of implicit bias, the Implicit Association Test, (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz, 1998) illustrates this phenomenon. Recent work on the predictive validity of the IAT demonstrates that social cognitive pitfalls threaten a) managers' explicit commitments to egalitarianism and meritocracy and b) managers' performance in their three primary roles of processing information, interacting with others, and making decisions (Mintzberg, 1973). Implicit bias influences managerial behavior in unexpected ways, and this influence is heightened in the messy, pressured, and distracting environments in which managers operate.
Article
Full-text available
Criminological research on self-control focuses mainly on self-control failure. Such research has not, however, investigated the consequences of exercising self-control for the individual doing so. The present study investigates this issue within the framework of both criminological self-control theory and research on self-control depletion from social psychology, which depicts self-control as akin to a “muscle” that is “depletable” by prior use [Muraven and Baumeister (2000) Psycholog Bull 126:247–259]. Results are presented from a laboratory experiment in which students have the opportunity to cheat. Both “trait self-control,” as measured by the Grasmick etal. [(1993) J Res Crime Delinq 30:5–29] self-control inventory, and “self-control depletion” independently predicted cheating. The implications of these findings are explored for criminological perspectives on self-control and offender decision-making.
Article
Full-text available
According to the strength model, self-control is a finite resource that determines capacity for effortful control over dominant responses and, once expended, leads to impaired self-control task performance, known as ego depletion. A meta-analysis of 83 studies tested the effect of ego depletion on task performance and related outcomes, alternative explanations and moderators of the effect, and additional strength model hypotheses. Results revealed a significant effect of ego depletion on self-control task performance. Significant effect sizes were found for ego depletion on effort, perceived difficulty, negative affect, subjective fatigue, and blood glucose levels. Small, nonsignificant effects were found for positive affect and self-efficacy. Moderator analyses indicated minimal variation in the effect across sphere of depleting and dependent task, frequently used depleting and dependent tasks, presentation of tasks as single or separate experiments, type of dependent measure and control condition task, and source laboratory. The effect size was moderated by depleting task duration, task presentation by the same or different experimenters, intertask interim period, dependent task complexity, and use of dependent tasks in the choice and volition and cognitive spheres. Motivational incentives, training on self-control tasks, and glucose supplementation promoted better self-control in ego-depleted samples. Expecting further acts of self-control exacerbated the effect. Findings provide preliminary support for the ego-depletion effect and strength model hypotheses. Support for motivation and fatigue as alternative explanations for ego depletion indicate a need to integrate the strength model with other theories. Findings provide impetus for future investigation testing additional hypotheses and mechanisms of the ego-depletion effect.
Article
Full-text available
A substantial amount of research has been conducted in an effort to understand the impact of short-term (<48 hr) total sleep deprivation (SD) on outcomes in various cognitive domains. Despite this wealth of information, there has been disagreement on how these data should be interpreted, arising in part because the relative magnitude of effect sizes in these domains is not known. To address this question, we conducted a meta-analysis to discover the effects of short-term SD on both speed and accuracy measures in 6 cognitive categories: simple attention, complex attention, working memory, processing speed, short-term memory, and reasoning. Seventy articles containing 147 cognitive tests were found that met inclusion criteria for this study. Effect sizes ranged from small and nonsignificant (reasoning accuracy: g = -0.125, 95% CI [-0.27, 0.02]) to large (lapses in simple attention: g = -0.776, 95% CI [-0.96, -0.60], p < .001). Across cognitive domains, significant differences were observed for both speed and accuracy; however, there were no differences between speed and accuracy measures within each cognitive domain. Of several moderators tested, only time awake was a significant predictor of between-studies variability, and only for accuracy measures, suggesting that heterogeneity in test characteristics may account for a significant amount of the remaining between-studies variance. The theoretical implications of these findings for the study of SD and cognition are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
As corporate scandals proliferate, practitioners and researchers alike need a cumulative, quantitative understanding of the antecedents associated with unethical decisions in organizations. In this meta-analysis, the authors draw from over 30 years of research and multiple literatures to examine individual ("bad apple"), moral issue ("bad case"), and organizational environment ("bad barrel") antecedents of unethical choice. Findings provide empirical support for several foundational theories and paint a clearer picture of relationships characterized by mixed results. Structural equation modeling revealed the complexity (multidetermined nature) of unethical choice, as well as a need for research that simultaneously examines different sets of antecedents. Moderator analyses unexpectedly uncovered better prediction of unethical behavior than of intention for several variables. This suggests a need to more strongly consider a new "ethical impulse" perspective in addition to the traditional "ethical calculus" perspective. Results serve as a data-based foundation and guide for future theoretical and empirical development in the domain of behavioral ethics.
Article
Full-text available
This research examined the self-regulatory depletion model (e.g., M. Muraven & R. F. Baumeister, 2000). Although numerous studies support this model's prediction of decrements in self-regulation across tasks, the majority of this research has relied on a single paradigm in which two tasks are performed in succession. Other work related to learned industriousness (R. Eisenberger, 1992) and adaptation-level theory (H. Helson, 1964) indicates that self-regulatory behavior may remain stable or even improve as a result of prior self-regulatory activities in situations involving additional tasks. Three studies examined these differing perspectives with 2- and 3-task designs. Results indicated that, relative to low initial self-regulatory exertion, high exertion can lead to poorer or better subsequent self-regulation. These findings are consistent with an adaptation view of self-regulation, suggesting that the depletion effect may be only part of the picture of self-regulatory behavior over time.
Article
Full-text available
The authors examine the differential influence of time changes associated with Daylight Saving Time on sleep quantity and associated workplace injuries. In Study 1, the authors used a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health database of mining injuries for the years 1983-2006, and they found that in comparison with other days, on Mondays directly following the switch to Daylight Saving Time-in which 1 hr is lost-workers sustain more workplace injuries and injuries of greater severity. In Study 2, the authors used a Bureau of Labor Statistics database of time use for the years 2003-2006, and they found indirect evidence for the mediating role of sleep in the Daylight Saving Time-injuries relationship, showing that on Mondays directly following the switch to Daylight Saving Time, workers sleep on average 40 min less than on other days. On Mondays directly following the switch to Standard Time-in which 1 hr is gained-there are no significant differences in sleep, injury quantity, or injury severity.
Article
Full-text available
Impulsive behavior is a prominent characteristic of antisocial personality disorder. Impulsivity is a complex construct, however, representing distinct domains of cognition and action. Leading models refer to impulsivity as an inability to evaluate a stimulus fully before responding to it (rapid-response impulsivity), and as an inability to delay responding despite a larger reward (reward-delay impulsivity). We investigated these models in terms of the diagnosis and severity of antisocial personality disorder.
Article
Full-text available
A distinction is made between two forms of morality on the basis of approach-avoidance differences in self-regulation. Prescriptive morality is sensitive to positive outcomes, activation-based, and focused on what we should do. Proscriptive morality is sensitive to negative outcomes, inhibition-based, and focused on what we should not do. Seven studies profile these two faces of morality, support their distinct motivational underpinnings, and provide evidence of moral asymmetry. Both are well-represented in individuals' moral repertoire and equivalent in terms of moral weight, but proscriptive morality is condemnatory and strict, whereas prescriptive morality is commendatory and not strict. More specifically, in these studies proscriptive morality was perceived as concrete, mandatory, and duty-based, whereas prescriptive morality was perceived as more abstract, discretionary, and based in duty or desire; proscriptive immorality resulted in greater blame, whereas prescriptive morality resulted in greater moral credit. Implications for broader social regulation, including cross-cultural differences and political orientation, are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Very few prospective studies examine the relationship between childhood sleep problems and subsequent substance use. In this study, we examined how sleep problems at ages 3-8 predicted onset of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescence. We also investigated the relationships between childhood sleep problems and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Study participants were 292 boys and 94 girls from a community sample of high risk families and controls in an ongoing longitudinal study. Controlling for parental alcoholism, sleep problems at ages 3-8 predicted onset of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among boys and onset of alcohol use among girls. Childhood sleep problems were related to maternal ratings of internalizing and externalizing problems during adolescence for both boys and girls. Adjusting for these problems did not weaken the effects of sleep problems on onset of substance use. This is to our knowledge the first study that prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between sleep problems and early onset of substance use. Childhood sleep problems predicted early onset of substance use for boys but not girls. If childhood sleep problems indeed increase the probability of substance use onset, greater attention by parents to sleep problems in children and adolescents would potentially have ameliorative long-term effects. Parents are encouraged to explore different ways to help their children sleep better, including obtaining information and suggestions from their primary care physicians.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of actigraph placement and device sensitivity on actigraphic automatic sleep-wake scoring were assessed using concomitant polysomnographic and wrist actigraphic data from dominant and nondominant hands of 20 adults and 16 adolescents during 1 laboratory night. Although activity levels differed between dominant and nondominant wrists during periods of sleep (F = 4.57; p < 0.05) and wake (F = 15.5; p < 0.0005), resulting sleep-wake scoring algorithms were essentially the same and were equally explanatory (R2 = 0.64; p < 0.0001). When the sleep-wake scoring algorithm derived from the nondominant hand was used to score the nondominant data for sleep-wake, overall agreement rates with polysomnography scoring ranged between 91 and 93% for the calibration and validation samples. Results obtained with the same algorithm for the dominant-wrist data were within the same range. Agreement for sleep scoring was consistently higher than for wake scoring. Statistical manipulation of activity levels before applying the scoring algorithm indicated that this algorithm is quite robust toward moderate changes in activity level. Use of "twin-wrist actigraphy" enables identification of artifacts that may result from breathing-related motions.
Article
Full-text available
This meta-analysis examined how demand and resource correlates and behavioral and attitudinal correlates were related to each of the 3 dimensions of job burnout. Both the demand and resource correlates were more strongly related to emotional exhaustion than to either depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Consistent with the conservation of resources theory of stress, emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to the demand correlates than to the resource correlates, suggesting that workers might have been sensitive to the possibility of resource loss. The 3 burnout dimensions were differentially related to turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and control coping. Implications for research and the amelioration of burnout are discussed.
Article
Making choices, responding actively instead of passively, restraining impulses, and other acts of self-control and volition all draw on a common resource that is limited and renewable, akin to strength or energy. After an act of choice or self-control, the self's resources have been expended, producing the condition of ego depletion. In this state, the self is less able to function effectively, such as by regulating itself or exerting volition. Effects of ego depletion appear to reflect an effort to conserve remain ing resources rather than full exhaustion, although in principle full exhaustion is possible. This versatile but limited resource is crucial to the self's optimal functioning, and the pervasive need to conserve it may result in the commonly heavy reliance on habit, routine, and automatic processes.
Article
A 39-item life-event questionnaire was administered to 1,018 adolescents, who indicated the perceived desirability of each event and whether the event had actually happened to them either during the past year or more than one year earlier. A multidimensional scaling revealed seven interpretable dimensions of stress: Family/Parents, Accident/Illness, Sexuality, Autonomy, Deviance, Relocation, and Distress. Each dimension was scored for desirability, and occurrence was summed using unit weighting. Sex, race, and grade-level differences were evaluated for each item and scale score. The scales calculated for the two different time periods revealed that stress is correlated over time only for corresponding areas. Finally, the stress scales were related to measures of health and psychological functioning through canonical and product-moment correlation analyses; distinct patterns of association were revealed. Alternative methods of scoring life events are evaluated.
Article
Although academic dishonesty is a major problemin American colleges and universities, relatively littleresearch has investigated gender differences incheating. Based on the differential socialization theory of gender differences in moral reasoning(e.g., Chodorow, 1989; Gilligan, 1982) we expected that,compared to women, men would report more favorableattitudes toward cheating and more cheating behavior. We conducted a meta-analysis that included 8studies of gender differences in attitudes towardcheating, 34 studies of gender differences in cheatingbehavior, and 6 studies that investigated both attitudes and behavior. Although the mean effect size forgender differences in attitudes was of moderatemagnitude, equivalent to a correlation of r = .21, themean effect size for behavior was small, equivalent to r = .08. Behavior effect sizes also varied asa function of field of study, method of data collection,and country in which the study was conducted. We discussthe implications of our results for future research on gender differences in academicdishonesty.
Article
Research on executive functioning and on self-regulation have each identified a critical resource that is central to that domain and is susceptible to depletion. In addition, studies have shown that self-regulation tasks and executive-functioning tasks interact with each other, suggesting that they may share resources. Other research has focused specifically on restoring what we propose is the shared resource between self-regulation and executive functioning. Utilizing a theory-based natural environment intervention, these studies have found improvements in executive-functioning performance and self-regulation effectiveness, suggesting that the natural environment intervention restores this shared resource. © The Author(s) 2010.
Article
Role-set configuration is examined as a predictor of ethical/unethical behavior among two random samples of advertisers [corporate clients and ad agency account executives]. The specific reported behaviors analyzed are intraorganizational behaviors available to most employees. The conceptual framework is based on differential association theory and role set configuration analysis. The three dimensions of role-set configuration used to predict ethical/unethical behavior are organizational location, relative authority and referent others' beliefs and behaviors as perceived by the focal person. The focal person's opportunity to participate in unethical behavior is also a predictor variable. Eighty-nine corporate clients and 136 agency advertisers responded to a questionnaire [a 33% return rate] consisting of a slightly revised version of Newstrom and Ruch's ethics scale. Seven types of predictors of ethical/unethical behavior, "What I do," are developed through principal component factor analysis. These seven variables include the beliefs and behaviors of referent others in various locations and authority positions which affect the focal person: [1] the focal person's beliefs, "What I believe"; 12] what the focal person thinks his/her peers believe, "Peer beliefs"; [31 what the focal person thinks his/her top management believes, "What top management believes"; [4] what the focal person thinks his/her peers do, "What my peers do"; [5] the opportunity the focal person thinks he/she has to become involved in ethical/unethical behavior, 'My opportunity"; [6] and [7] what the corporate client thinks the advertising agency believes, "What the agency believes" and what the ad agency thinks the corporate client believes, "What the corporate client believes. " Focal persons were asked to respond to either variable [6] or [7] depending on which was a referent. This research demonstrates the influence of role-set proximity in predicting the ethical/unethical behaviors of both the corporate clients and the ad agency account executives with intraorganizational relationships being more important than interorganizational relationships. Interorganizational role-set of corporate clients for ad agency account executives and vice versa is not a predictor of ethical/unethical behavior. Opportunity is a predictor of ethical/unethical behavior for both respondent types. The relative authority and attitude/behavior dimensions influence ethical/unethical behavior of both respondent types, although corporate advertiser's ethical/unethical behavior is predicted by top management's beliefs and the ad agency account executives' ethical/unethical behavior is predicted by the behaviors of peers.
Article
The importance of ethical behavior to an organization has never been more apparent, and in recent years researchers have generated a great deal of knowledge about the management of individual ethical behavior in organizations. We review this literature and attempt to provide a coherent portrait of the current state of the field. We discuss individual, group, and organizational influences and consider gaps in current knowledge and obstacles that limit our understanding. We conclude by offering directions for future research on behavioral ethics in organizations.
Article
An interactionist model of ethical decision making in organizations is proposed. The model combines individual variables (moral development, etc.) with situational variables to explain and predict the ethical decision-making behavior of individuals in organizations. A major component of the model is based on Kohlberg's cognitive moral development model which provides the construct definition, measurement tools, and theory base to guide future business ethics research. Research propositions are offered and practical implications are discussed.
Article
Existing theoretical models of individual ethical decision making in organizations place little or no emphasis on characteristics of the ethical issue itself. This article (a) proposes an issue-contingent model containing a new set of variables called moral intensity; (b) using concepts, theory, and evidence derived largely from social psychology, argues that moral intensity influences every component of moral decision making and behavior; (c) offers four research propositions; and (d) discusses implications of the theory.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
SUMMARY  Increasingly, there is a need in both research and clinical practice to document and quantify sleep and waking behaviors in a comprehensive manner. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PghSD) is an instrument with separate components to be completed at bedtime and waketime. Bedtime components relate to the events of the day preceding the sleep, waketime components to the sleep period just completed. Two-week PghSD data is presented from 234 different subjects, comprising 96 healthy young middle-aged controls, 37 older men, 44 older women, 29 young adult controls and 28 sleep disorders patients in order to demonstrate the usefulness, validity and reliability of various measures from the instrument. Comparisons are made with polysomnographic and actigraphic sleep measures, as well as personality and circadian type questionnaires. The instrument was shown to have sensitivity in detecting differences due to weekends, age, gender, personality and circadian type, and validity in agreeing with actigraphic estimates of sleep timing and quality. Over a 12–31 month delay, PghSD measures of both sleep timing and sleep quality showed correlations between 0.56 and 0.81 (n= 39, P < 0.001).
Article
The author examines, in the context of Litwin and Stringer''s (1968) operationalization, the influence of social inclusion (organizational warmth and organizational identity) as a marketing ethics correlate. The results indicate that both organizational warmth and organizational identity underlie marketing professionals'' ethical behavior. Furthermore, the influence pattern for each variable is consistent witha priori hypothesis.
Article
Leaders should be a key source of ethical guidance for employees. Yet, little empirical research focuses on an ethical dimension of leadership. We propose social learning theory as a theoretical basis for understanding ethical leadership and offer a constitutive definition of the ethical leadership construct. In seven interlocking studies, we investigate the viability and importance of this construct. We develop and test a new instrument to measure ethical leadership, examine the proposed connections of ethical leadership with other constructs in a nomological network, and demonstrate its predictive validity for important employee outcomes. Specifically, ethical leadership is related to consideration behavior, honesty, trust in the leader, interactional fairness, socialized charismatic leadership (as measured by the idealized influence dimension of transformational leadership), and abusive supervision, but is not subsumed by any of these. Finally, ethical leadership predicts outcomes such as perceived effectiveness of leaders, followers’ job satisfaction and dedication, and their willingness to report problems to management.