Article

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Vitex agnus-castus L. fruits and leaves essential oils

Authors:
  • Institute for Biological resaerch
  • University of Belgrade, Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković", Belgrade
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Abstract

The following study deals with the chemical composition, antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Vitex agnus-castus L. and their main constituents in vitro and in vivo. The main compounds in the oil of unripe fruits were sabinene (17.8%) and 1,8-cineole (17.5%), while in the oil of the ripe fruits dominant compounds were 1,8-cineole (16.3%) and sabinene (13.4%). The leaves oil contained an abundance of 1,8-cineole (22.0%), as well. All of the oils tested were rich sources of α-pinene (12.2%, 9.4% and 9.4%, respectively). Antimicrobial activity was tested using bacterial and fungal strains by the microdilution method. Using the same technique 1,8-cineole and α-pinene showed very high antimicrobial potency as well. As 1,8-cineole was the predominant constituent of the oils, we have chosen to test it further in an in vivo experiment. Randomly chosen apples were treated with 1,8-cineol solution and infected with Aspergillus niger in order to provoke Aspergillus rot in apples. Disease incidence was recorded.Highlights► Essential oils of Vitex agnus-castus were reach source of 1,8-cineole. ► Antimicrobial potency of essential oils, 1,8-cineole and α-pinene was high and comparable with control antimicrobial agents. ► 1,8-Cineole completely inhibited Aspergillus rot development in apple fruits.

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... The oil from leaves of V. agnus-castus contains 46 compounds. The major constituents of the leaves are 1,8-cineole (22.0%), trans-beta-farnesene (9.4%), alpha-pinene (9.4%), trans-beta-caryophyllene (8.2%), terpinen-4-ol (7.8%), limonene (4.8%), alpha-terpineol (3.8%), sclarene (3.3%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (3.1%), p-cymene (3.0%) (Stojković et al., 2011). 1,8-cineole and alphapinene exerted notable antimicrobial potency as well (Stojković et al., 2011). ...
... The major constituents of the leaves are 1,8-cineole (22.0%), trans-beta-farnesene (9.4%), alpha-pinene (9.4%), trans-beta-caryophyllene (8.2%), terpinen-4-ol (7.8%), limonene (4.8%), alpha-terpineol (3.8%), sclarene (3.3%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (3.1%), p-cymene (3.0%) (Stojković et al., 2011). 1,8-cineole and alphapinene exerted notable antimicrobial potency as well (Stojković et al., 2011). The oil, particularly such from white flowering plants, is surveyed for its potential antibacterial effects (Stojković et al., 2011). ...
... 1,8-cineole and alphapinene exerted notable antimicrobial potency as well (Stojković et al., 2011). The oil, particularly such from white flowering plants, is surveyed for its potential antibacterial effects (Stojković et al., 2011). Extract from V. agnus-castus exhibited the greatest cytotoxic activity out of 57 medicinal plants tested in the experiment (Sammar et al., 2019). ...
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Plant food additives are becoming more and more popular and broadly applied products, though the information on risks they poses to the organism is limited and contradictive. Obesity and overeating are some of the commonest health issues around the world, and people are increasingly consuming workability-enhancing preparations as a simple and fast method of weight control. The plant-based preparations are considered less harmful than the synthetic chemical ones. Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Melissa officinalis L. and Vitex angus-castus L. are broadly used as food additives and medicinal plants, despite the fact that their complex physiological assessment on model animals in the conditions of obesity has not yet been performed. We carried out a 30-day experiment on white male rats. All the animals were given high-fat diet, and the experimental animals, in addition to this diet, received 5% crumbled dry herbs of L. angustifolia, M. officinalis or V. angus-castus. Taking into account the overall amount of consumed food, the mean daily gain in body weight; at the end of the experiment, we determined the index of the weight of the internal organs, biochemical and morphological blood parameters. At the beginning and the end of the experiment, the rats were examined for motor and orienting activities, and emotional status. Rats on high-fat diet gained up to 112% body weight by the end of the experiment, while rats that had received V. angus-castus gained up to 119%, M. officinalis – 135%, L. angustifolia – 139%, compared with the initial body weight. Addition of medicinal plants to the diet led to increase in average daily weight increment, significantly and reliably after consuming lavender and lemon balm, less significantly and unreliably after eating Vitex. L. angustifolia and M. officinalis reduced the relative brain weight, and ingestion of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis caused notable decrease in the relative mass of the thymus (down to 58% and 47% of the relative weight of thymus in animals of the control group respectively). Also, these plants decreased the motor and orienting activities of the rats by the end of the experiment. As for the biochemical parameters of blood, the activity of alkaline phosphatase significantly increased to 406% following consumption of Melissa, to 350% after consuming lavender, and to 406% after Vitex, compared to the control group. Furthermore, all the groups were observed to have increased AST and ALT activities. Intake of lavender led to increases in cholesterol (to 125%) and LDL cholesterol (to 228%), whereas the groups that consumed lemon balm were observed to have decreases in urea nitrogen (to 79%), totalbilirubin (to 63%) and triglycerides (to 63%). Addition of Vitex led to increase in the index of aterogenecity against the background of notable fall in HDL cholesterol (to 52% of the control group). The medicinal plants also contributed to the normalization of the glucose level. Morphological analysis of blood revealed no significant changes, except heightened content of monocytes in blood, which is characteristic of all groups, including the control. Effects of L. angustifolia, M. officinalis and V. angus-castus on the organism of rats on excessive-fat diet require additional histological, histochemical and immunological surveys.
... Each treatment was performed in triplicate. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cuminal against T.roseum in PDB was determined by a serial dilution techniques [28] using 96-well microtitre plates. Cuminal was added in PDB with inoculum and the microplates were incubated at 27 °C for 72 h. ...
... The in vivo antifungal activity of cuminal against T.roseum was tested on apple fruits using a modified method from the literature [28]. Apple fruits (cv. ...
... In terms of cellular components, the up regulated DEPs were mainly localized in cell part (30,33.33%), cytoplasm (26,28.89%), mitochondrial matrix (4, 4.44%), mitochondrial protein matrix (3, 3.33%), mitochondrial nucleoid (2, 2.22%) and some mitochondrial complexes. ...
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Trichothecium roseum is a harmful postharvest fungus causing serious damage, together with the secretion of insidious mycotoxins, on apples, melons, and other important fruits. Cuminal, a predominant component of Cuminum cyminum essential oil has proven to successfully inhibit the growth of T. roseum in vitro and in vivo. Electron microscopic observations revealed cuminal exposure impaired the fungal morphology and ultrastructure, particularly the plasmalemma. Transcriptome and proteome analysis was used to investigate the responses of T. roseum to exposure of cuminal. In total, 2825 differentially expressed transcripts (1516 up and 1309 down) and 225 differentially expressed proteins (90 up and 135 down) were determined. Overall, notable parts of these differentially expressed genes functionally belong to subcellular localities of the membrane system and cytosol, along with ribosomes, mitochondria and peroxisomes. According to the localization analysis and the biological annotation of these genes, carbohydrate and lipids metabolism, redox homeostasis, and asexual reproduction were among the most enriched gene ontology (GO) terms. Biological pathway enrichment analysis showed that lipids and amino acid degradation, ATP-binding cassette transporters, membrane reconstitution, mRNA surveillance pathway and peroxisome were elevated, whereas secondary metabolite biosynthesis, cell cycle, and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis were down regulated. Further integrated omics analysis showed that cuminal exposure first impaired the polarity of the cytoplasmic membrane and then triggered the reconstitution and dysfunction of fungal plasmalemma, resulting in handicapped nutrient procurement of the cells. Consequently, fungal cells showed starvation stress with limited carbohydrate metabolism, resulting a metabolic shift to catabolism of the cell’s own components in response to the stress. Additionally, these predicaments brought about oxidative stress, which, in collaboration with the starvation, damaged certain critical organelles such as mitochondria. Such degeneration, accompanied by energy deficiency, suppressed the biosynthesis of essential proteins and inhibited fungal growth.
... (E)-oct-2-enal, used in preparing chicken, has a cucumber-like flavor [21]. 1,8-Cineole has strong antibacterial activity, especially against food-borne bacteria such as S. aureus and Escherichia coli, and antiinflammatory activity as well [35]. (E)-dec-2-enal also has antimicrobial activity, and it has a strong pest-killing ability during grain storage [36]. ...
... In the main components of the AEOs, it has been reported that the MIC of 1,8-cineole, citral (with nanostructured lipid carriers), α-pinene, and (E)-dec-2-enal against S. aureus reached 6 µg/mL [35], 125 µg/mL [37], 210 µg/mL [39], and 250 µg/mL [36], respectively. ...
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Chemical components are one of the most significant traits and attributes of plant tissues, and lead to their different functions. In this study, the composition of Amomun tsao-ko essential oils (AEOs) from different regions was first determined by a combination of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS). In total, 141 compounds were identified, of which terpenes and aldehydes were the main groups. Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) distinguished the samples from different regions clearly, and the main differences were terpenes, aldehydes, and esters. Meanwhile, AEOs showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) reached 0.20 mg/mL and 0.39–0.78 mg/mL, respectively. From correlation analysis, 1,8-cineole, (E)-dec-2-enal, citral, α-pinene, and α-terpineol were determined to be the potential antibacterial compounds. This study provides the basis for the variety optimization ofA. tsao-ko and its application as a natural food preservative.
... Research works on extracts and essential oils from Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae) have demonstrated that the essential oil extracted from seeds, fruits, flowers or leaves has good antimicrobial activities (Stojkovi c et al. 2011;Asdadi et al. 2015;Gonc ßalves et al. 2017). Leaf essential oil contained 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), (E)b-farnesene, (E)-caryophyllene, sabinene and a-terpinyl acetate as main compounds with strong antibacterial activity (Zoghbi et al. 1999;Gonc ßalves et al. 2017). ...
... Etheric and ethanolic extracts of V. agnus-castus had good antimicrobial activities (Pepeljnjak et al. 1996). Furthermore, compounds such as 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) and (E)-b caryophyllene, and sabinene have reported antimicrobial activities (Novak et al. 2005;Marongiu et al. 2010;Yilar et al. 2016), that is, Aspergillus apple rot has been reduced significantly by applying of 1,8-cineole that isolated from V. agnus-castus essential oil (Stojkovi c et al. 2011). Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Verticillium dahlia were inhibited significantly by applying the oil of Vitex, which contains eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) (17Á75%) and 8-caryophyllene (13Á21%) as the main compounds (Yilar et al. 2016). ...
Article
Aims Wood as a packing tool is used for packaging and transportation of fruits and vegetables for a period of hours or days. During transportation, fruits or vegetables can be affected by molds with significant postharvest problems. From this way, the present study describes the possibility of using wood‐treated oil‐fungicide of n‐hexane extracts from Eucalyptus camaldulensis (aerial parts), Vitex agenus‐castus (leaves) and Matricaria chamomilla (flowers) against the infestation of Fusarium culmorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Penicillium chrysogenum. Methods and Results Air‐dried wood samples of Melia azedarach were prepared with the dimensions of 0.5 x 1 x 2 cm and treated with the oily extracts at the concentrations of 0, 1, 2, and 3%. Oils extracted with n‐hexane from E. camaldulensis and V. agenus‐castus showed promising antifungal activities against the isolated and molecularly identified three fungi F. culmorum, R. solani and P. chrysogenum, while M. chamomilla observed the lowest activity against the studied fungi. GC/MS analysis of oils reported that the major components in E. camaldulensis were β‐fenchol (20.16%), 1,8‐cineole (eucalyptol) (12.01%) and sabinene (9.45%); in V. agenus‐castus were eucalyptol (44.00%), (E)‐β caryophyllene (13.39%), and β‐sitosterol (12.44%); while in M. chamomilla were bisabolol oxide A (16.60%), (Z)‐β‐farnesene (16.11%), 4‐isopropenyl‐1‐methyl‐cyclohexene (14.18%), and chamazulene (11.27%). Conclusions The results suggests using n‐hexane oily extracts from E. camaldulensis and V. agenus‐castus for wood protection as bio‐fungicide. Significance and impact of study This study highlights the importance of using bio‐friendly fungicide agents to protect wood against most common molds occurred during handling of food packaging. The investigated natural oils are represent a source of molecules with potential antifungal activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Chemical composition of the essential oil Tables 1 and 2 demonstrate the GC-MS results which proved that 29 constituents represent 90.34 % of VAC essential oil and [10,12,[26][27]. RO essential oil consisted mainly of 1,8-Cineole (28.03 %) and α-Pinene (14.70%), which is in agreement with some researches [28]. ...
... Also, α-Pinene and Camphor were the main compounds in other reports [31]. 1,8-cineole and α-pinene have very high antimicrobial potency as shown in literature [12]. It is necessary to mention, that the composition of these volatile oils varies according to the countries, or the places in the same country. ...
... Table 5 presents the chemical constituents of V. agnus-castus fruit EO, where the main compounds are γ-elemene (41.59%), geranyllinalool (17.98%), eucalyptol (16.65%), nerolidyl acetate (11.63%), cis-caryophyllene (3.73%), α-pinene (2.58%), caryophyllene oxide (2.55%), and nerolidol (1.16%). The main chemical compounds identified in the EO of V. agnus-castus with strong antimicrobial activities were mostly 1,8-cineole or eucalyptol, sabinene, (E)-β-farnesene, (E)caryophyllene, and α-terpinyl acetate [9,21,[65][66][67]. Further, 1,8-cineole has been proven to have good antifungal activity against Aspergillus apple rot [21]. ...
... The main chemical compounds identified in the EO of V. agnus-castus with strong antimicrobial activities were mostly 1,8-cineole or eucalyptol, sabinene, (E)-β-farnesene, (E)caryophyllene, and α-terpinyl acetate [9,21,[65][66][67]. Further, 1,8-cineole has been proven to have good antifungal activity against Aspergillus apple rot [21]. V. agnus-castus oil contains the main compounds of 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) and 8-caryophyllene, which significantly inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum, R. solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Verticillium dahlia [68]. ...
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In this work, the essential oils (EOs) from Eriocephalus africanus leaf, Vitex agnus-castus leaf and fruit, Cymbopogon citratus leaf, and Rosmarinus officinalis leaf were used as antifungal agents against isolated Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Penicillium chrysogenum from an ancient Egyptian child’s mummy. The isolated fungi were used to colonize the samples of linen fibers. The best oil was used as a novel natural product for the cleaner production of model linen fibers similar to those used in ancient Egyptian mummification. Standard and original linen fibers were compared with the infected Linen samples using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The FTIR revealed the changes in the molecular structure of the cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of the infected linen fibers. The cellulose crystallinity indices decreased to 64.61%, 52.69%, and 54.63% in the linen inoculated with A. flavus, C. cladosporioides, and P. chrysogenum compared to the control sample (72.08%), thereby affecting the chemical properties of the cellulose. The mycelia inhibition percentages of the three fungi reached 100% after the leaf EO from V. agnus-castus was applied, followed by C. citratus. The V. agnus-castus leaf EO applied at contraptions of 250, 500, 50, 1000, and 2000 µL/mL showed 100% inhibition for A. flavus and P. chrysogenum and reached 100% against C. cladosporioides at concentrations of 500, 750, 1000, and 2000 µL/mL. C. citratus leaf essential oil applied at concentrations of 500, 750, 1000, and 2000 µL/mL showed 100% inhibition to the growth of A. flavus and C. cladosporioides and reached 100% inhibition against the growth of P. chrysogenum at concentrations of 750, 1000 and 2000 µL/mL. This inhibition could be related to the main compounds of caryophyllene (23.13%), eucalyptol (20.59%), sabinene (β-thujene) (12.2%), γ-elemene (9%), and β-farnesene (6.14%) identified in V. agnus-castus leaf EO or due to the main compounds of β-citral (43.63%) and geranial (41.51%), as identified in the leaf EO of C. citratus by GC/MS. The morphological changes in the hyphae of the fungi were observed via SEM examination, where V. agnus-castus leaf EO, the best active oil, showed potent inhibition to fungi grown on the model linen fiber. In this way, the morphology and the structure of the hyphae were effectively changed. Our findings prove that the designed model linen fiber treated with V. agnus-castus leaf EO is able to preserve wrapping fibres and represents a novel natural alternative for effective fungicidal treatment.
... Vitex agnus-castus L. (VAC) (Verbenaceae) is a shrub with a strong aromatic odor that is grown as an ornamental plant. In traditional medicine, ISSN Print: 0972-060X ISSN Online: 0976-5026 V. agnus-castus was used for the treatment of gynecological disorders, gastrointestinal problems, headache, influenza, insufficient lactation and acne 4,5 . The recent biological studies showed its efficacy as an efficient alternative in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome, post-menopausal syndrome (PMS) and insufficient milk production 6-8 while its essential oil has been reported as antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic agent [9][10][11] .V. agnus-castus showed a variety of phytoconstituents including, flavonoids and diterpenoids 12,13 , iridoids 14,15 , ecdysteroids 16 , besides its essential oil content [17][18][19][20] . ...
... Several studies have been performed on the essential oil constituents, however qualitative and quantitative differences were greatly observed in the essential oil constituents due to seasonal and geographical differences. Previous studies on the Egyptian variety showed that E-caryophyllene, 1,8 cineole, germacrene and sabinene were the predominant constituents ranging between 13-17 % 10,25 , while other studies showed a higher percentage of 1,8-cineole 5,26,27 . ...
Article
Antimicrobial resistance represents a public health problem worldwide that is associated with high morbidity and mortality which rose up the need for natural products as being an effective alternative. This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the Vitex agnus-cactus L. essential oil (EO) towards bacterial and fungal strains of economic importance, besides, correlating its chemical constituents to the observed antimicrobial and antifungal activity using molecular docking. The chemical composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), where oxygenated monoterpenes (44.98 %) and monoterpenes (32.2 %) represented the major classes. Molecular docking study was carried out for the major identified essential oil constituents against bacterial protein targets, where, sabinene, 1,8 cineole, and linalool (the major oil constituents) acted on multi targets and reflected the effective antibacterial activity. Additionally, caryophyllene and verticiol showed a high binding affinity to Candida’s Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, a critical enzyme responsible for cell membrane integrity. V. agnus-cactus L. oil demonstrated itself as a powerful anticandidal agent providing a possible candidate in the pharmaceutical formulations.
... Its trunk is covered with short, dense, soft and grey hairs. It is a deciduous shrub native to Europe and Central Asia (Stojković et al. 2011;Hürkul and Köroğlu 2018;Souto et al. 2020;Ilhan 2021). This plant is naturally found in many cities throughout Turkey, including Amasya, Antalya, Bursa, Muğla, Trabzon and Çanakkale (Yilar et al. 2016). ...
... V. agnus-castus fruits have been used as a flavor and spice component in meals, as a hormone-like remedy for menstrual problems and a mild sedative and digestive tool in Iranian traditional folk medicine (Ghannadi et al. 2012). The aromatic leaves are used as a spice (Stojković et al. 2011;Mari et al. 2015). Genetic diversity is a prerequisite for the short and long-term survival of plant species in their natural environment (Verma et al. 2017). ...
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In this study, genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of some Vitex agnus-castus L. populations were conducted based on ISSR-PCR and chloroplast DNA trnL intron, and trnL-F sequence analyses. Vitex agnus-castus populations were detected in Aydın province, Turkey. Fresh leaf samples from the populations were collected and brought to the laboratory for genomic DNA isolation. 15 ISSR primers were used to determine the genetic diversity ofe Vitex agnus-castus populations. A total of 138 bands were obtained in ISSR analysis, 85 of which were polymorphic and 53 were monomorphic. Polymorphism rate was determined as 61.59 %. trnC, trnD, trnE, and trnF primers were used for PCR amplification of the chloroplast trnL intron and trnL-F region. A total of 138 bands were obtained by ISSR analysis. For trnL intron analyses, nucleotide lengths of 13 populations were between 508 and 516. The average nucleotide composition consisted of 38.5 % T, 18.3 % C, 27.5 % A and 15.7 % G. In trnL-F assays, the nucleotide lengths of the 13 populations ranged from 330 to 353. The average nucleotide composition consisted of 29.4 % T, 18.1 % C, 32.9 % A and 19.6 % G. The results of the phylogenetic trees constructed using some trnL intron and trnL-F sequences of Vitex doniana, Vitex trifolia, Vitex triflora, Vitex turczaninowii, Vitex queenslandica, Vitex axillariflora, Vitex rotundifolia and Vitex negundo species obtained from NCBI were compared. As a result of the study, polymorphisms were obtained at a rate of 61.59% from the ISSR analysis. In addition, the phylogenetic relationship between chloroplast trnL intron and trnL-F sequences of Vitex agnus-castus populations along with the other species was revealed.
... It is a strongly aromatic shrub widespread in Morocco, along the rivers [8] , and known as "shajarat Mariam" [9]. Traditionally, seeds of VAC have been used to treat gynecological and obstetric diseases such as menstrual problems (amenorrhea, dysmenorrhoea), menopause, corpus luteum insufficiency, and infertility [10][11][12][13][14] . Many studies have demonstrated that different parts of Vitex agnus castus have antimicrobial [14], antifungal [15,16], antiepileptic [17], and antioxidant activities [18,19]. ...
... Traditionally, seeds of VAC have been used to treat gynecological and obstetric diseases such as menstrual problems (amenorrhea, dysmenorrhoea), menopause, corpus luteum insufficiency, and infertility [10][11][12][13][14] . Many studies have demonstrated that different parts of Vitex agnus castus have antimicrobial [14], antifungal [15,16], antiepileptic [17], and antioxidant activities [18,19]. Moreover, Insecticidal effect of the plant against Spilosoma obliqua [20] has recently been proved. ...
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Diuretics drugs preserve renal homeostasis. However, conventional currently used diuretics like furosemide induces dysfunction of the renal system. Thus, natural products could be a good alternative with no side effects. Plants contain a cocktail of bioactive compounds, which have potent biological activities such as ameliorating renal disturbance. The present work aimed to evaluate the diuretic ability of extracts of Vitex agnus castus (VAC) in animal model (rats). Single and repeated doses were tested. Urine volume and urine electrolyte excretion increased significantly after the single dose of two studied extracts. No significant change in plasma electrolytes induced by single dose. Whilst, the daily dose of extracts for sixteen days increased urine volume and urinary levels of sodium and potassium but did not cause hypokalemia, whereas the reference drug furosemide increased urinary sodium and potassium and caused hypokalemia. Creatinine clearance was significantly increased by both extracts. Leaves and seeds of Vitex agnus castus have a potent diuretic effect on the rat. However, additional studies are required to identify the active compounds for this effect and explore the mechanism of action. Keywords: Vitex agnus castus, Urine volume, Sodium, Potassium, furosemide.
... Saliva plays also an important role in maintaining microbial homeostasis against the development of dental caries by S. mutans and Lactobacillus species [32]. Some endogenous microbial colonies contribute to maintain homeostasis, thus preventing oral diseases [17,18,33]. However, a variety of external factors, such as atmospheric conditions, temperature, pH, salinity, and oxidative stress may influence the composition of the oral microbiota, and lead to microbial infections and inflammatory reactions. ...
... There are published papers dealing with antimicrobial activity of essential oil principal components, such as α-pinene 32 . Regarding the mechanism of action of 1,8-cineole; once the phenolic compound crossed the microbial cellular membrane, interactions with membrane enzymes and proteins would cause an opposite flow of protons, affecting cellular activity 33,34 . The mechanisms by which essential oil can inhibit microorganisms vary. ...
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The aim of the work was to extract, characterize, and formulate Thymus capitatus (Tymbra capitata) essential oil in phospholipid vesicles: liposomes, glycerosomes and Penetration Enhancer-containing Vesicles (PEVs). The steam-distilled essential oil was mainly composed of carvacrol. The oil was mixed with lecithin and water to produce liposomes, or different ratios of water/glycerol or water/propylene glycol (PG) to produce glycerosomes and PG-PEVs, respectively. Cryo-TEM showed the formation of unilamellar, spherical vesicles, and light scattering disclosed that their size increased in the presence of glycerol or PG, which improved long-term stability. The formulations were highly biocompatible, and capable of counteracting oxidative stress and favouring wound repair in keratinocytes, thanks to enhanced uptake. The antibacterial activity of the oil was demonstrated against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and commensal Streptococcus sanguinis. The combination of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Thymus essential oil formulations may be useful for the treatment of oral cavity diseases.
... Among the compounds in the plant extract, vitexin and isovitexin are the main flavones [16]. The antimicrobial activity of this plant has also been proven [17][18][19]. ...
... Several studies have shown the antimicrobial activity of alkaloids, tannin, flavonoids, and saponins [38][39][40]. In the study of Stojkovic et al. [18], the essential oil of vitex was reported to have a strong antibacterial effect against S. aureus. Furthermore, Sabinen, 1, 8 cineol, and alpha-pinene were reported as the main constituents of this essential oil. ...
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The present work aimed to determine the impact of Vitex pseudo-negundo extract (VE) (1%, 2%, and 3%) along with heat treatment (60 °C, 65 °C, and 70 °C) on the inactivation rate of two food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri) in chicken salad. The Baranyi inactivation model was utilized to fit the experimental data, and the genetic algorithm technique was used in conjunction with the Baranyi model in order to determine the kinetic parameters. The obtained results showed that the corresponding coefficient of determination (R²) for all the cases were above 0.99, indicating the good performance of BM and GA in estimating the bacterial inactivation process. The increased concentration of VE markedly promoted the thermal inactivation of both studied pathogens. Moreover, once VE was combined with heat treatment, augmentation in the temperature resulted in a decrease in the heat resistance of pathogens, suggesting the synergistic impact between the treatments. The 70 °C-5 min-3% VE treatment had the greatest inactivation effect, which resulted in a 98.90% reduction in both pathogens. The predictive inactivation models can be used by food processors to select the best heat treatment and the most appropriate concentration of VE, which can inactivate pathogens in chicken salads without negatively affecting the quality of the product. Graphical abstract
... In another study, it was suggested that V. agnus-castus can be applied as a valuable tool in the treatment of bone resorption, benign growth of the prostate and prostate cancer in men (Ignjatović et al., 2012). Vitex agnus-castus seeds or extracts obtained from fruit are applied among the public for therapeutic purposes, to eliminate fibroid cysts, infertility, menopause and menstrual period irregularities and troubles in women, to increase milk yield in breastfeeding mothers, acne problems, and impotence and stress in men ( Odenthal, 1998;Baytop, 1999;Arokiyaraj et al., 2009;Bachrach, 2012;Ohyama et al., 2003;Stojković et al., 2011). In many studies conducted with V. agnus-castus samples, its chemical components were investigated and its hormonal effect was researched. ...
... For this reason, it has been stated that V. agnus-castus is a herbal alternative in the treatment of hormonal disorders and in relieving their symptoms (Wuttke et al., 2003). It has been stated that the estrogenic, dopaminergic and opioidergic properties of V. agnus castus are partially related to their phenolic component content of it, although their efficacy in the treatment of gynecology has not been fully investigated (Rani and Sharma, 2013;Webster et al., 2006) It has been found out that V. agnus-castus leaf, flower and fruit are rich in phenolic acids and their derivatives, flavonoids, tannins, iridoids, diterpenoids and essential oil composition (Sağlam et al., 2007;Hajdú et al., 2007;Proestos et al., 2006;Cabral et al., 2008;Stojković et al., 2011;Latovi et al., 2012;Fakir et al., 2014). In another study, it was determined that the leaves and fruits of V. agnus castus contain a significant level of vitexin compound.Vitexin has many biological properties such as, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, spasmolytic, antiviral, antithyroid and antiglication (Gökbulut et al., 2010;Peng et al., 2008;Zielińska and Zieliński, 2011). ...
... This work revealed that extracts from different parts of Vitex agnus-castus inhibited bacterial growth with the lowest concentrations. Other studies have reported the antibacterial effects of Vitex agnus-castus [38][39][40]. Our results are in consonance with those obtained in these reported works with certain difference, which could be related to the difference in chemical compounds, bacterial strains, and used methods. ...
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Vitex agnus-castus is a medicinal plant of the Verbenaceae family, widely used in traditional medicine. This study is aimed at investigating the functional variability of phenolic compounds in different parts (leaves, stems, flowers, roots, and seeds) of Vitex agnus-castus methanolic extracts and at assessing their in vitro antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. The results of HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS indicated the presence of 25 phenolic compounds with a remarkable variability between plant parts; high levels were registered in chlorogenic, vanillic, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic, and 3-hydroxybenzoic acids; hesperidin; and luteolin. V. agnus castus fruits and stems presented higher antioxidant activities. The extracts inhibited the growth of five pathogenic bacteria with MIC values documented between 7.81 and 31.25 mg/mL. In vitro antihyperglycemic effect revealed higher effect in flowers (2921.84 μg/mL) and seeds (2992.75 μg/mL) against α-glucosidase and of leaves (2156.80 μg/mL) and roots (2357.30 μg/mL) against α-amylase. The findings of this showed that V. agnus castus is a promising source for antidiabetic bioactive compounds. However, further investigations regarding the evaluation of in vivo antidiabetic effects of these compounds are needed.
... heterophylla growing in the natural environment of north China flower from June to August once a year, and fruit from July to September. A similar pattern in flowering period was also documented in other species of the genus Vitex: V. rotundifolia (Murren et al., 2014), V. rapinii (Kok, 2007), and V. agnus-castus (Stojković et al., 2011). It is reported that the flowering period of V. negundo occurs during June-November or during January-May (Bhat, Jain, & Sharma, 2013), which is notably different from that in V. negundo var. ...
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Vitex negundo L. var. heterophylla (Franch.) Rehder (Lamiaceae) is an important tree species for soil and water conservation, yet the reproductive ecology of this species remains to be elucidated. To investigate the reproductive traits of V. negundo var. heterophylla, the phenology, morphological characteristics (a suite of characters was assessed: floral morphology, nectar production, pollen viability, and stigma receptivity) and mating system of this species were systematically revealed for the first time in this study. Phenological observations, morphological measurements, and nectar production analysis were conducted during anthesis. Pollen viability and stigma receptivity at different flowering stages were measured by biochemical methods. Finally, genetic analysis based on SSR markers was used to reveal the mating system; outcrossing index and pollen‐ovule ratio were also calculated to help analysis. V. negundo var. heterophylla showed several obvious characteristics of outcrossing, such as abundant and attractive flowers, secreting nectar, and emitting scent. In addition, mechanisms such as homogamy and a short anther‐stigma distance that can promote self‐fertilization were also identified in this species. The coexistence of selfing and outcrossing characteristics demonstrates a predominantly outcrossed mixed mating system (outcrossing rate, t = 95%). The scientific information provided by this study may contribute to conservation of V. negundo var. heterophylla from a reproductive perspective.
... Moreover, essential oils and methanolic extract of VAC have shown antimicrobial and antifungal activities [17][18][19]. The leaves of this plant are used as a spice [20]. In Imouzzer Ida Ou Tanane region, VAC (leaves and fruits) is used for burns, colds, headaches, and as a fumigant. ...
Article
Objective: The aim of the current study is to determine the chemical composition and evaluate antibacterial activity of Vitex agnus-castus L. (VAC) essential oils against some bacteria causing nosocomial infections in the neonatal and intensive care rooms at the university hospital center of Fez Morocco. Methods: The phytochemical screening of essential oils was determined using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry analysis. The antibacterial test was evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis) using disc diffusion method. Results: Twenty-nine components were identified in the fruits’ oil representing 93.1% of total oil. The major components in the fruits oil are 1,8-cineole (11.6%), α-thujene (9.3%), phyllocladene (8.2%), α-pinene (7.9%), caryophyllene (5.9%), and cubenol (5%). Furthermore, 28 components were identified in the leaf essential oil. The main component was caryophyllene (9.5%), followed by 1,8-cineole (8.7%), manoyl oxide (7.3%), eugenyl acetate (7.1%), phyllocladene (6.8%), and α-pinene (5.2%). Antibacterial activity of both oils showed a strong activity against nosocomial bacteria tested. Conclusion: Essential oils of Moroccan VAC could be exploited as natural drugs for bacteria, especially those who have acquired resistance to conventional antibiotics.
... The fruits are formerly used as a substitute for pepper from Italy to Eastern Georgia, where it is known as albero del pepe and pepe falso (Hanelt, 2001). The essential oil of VAC is used in the food industry (Stojković, 2011). A large number of VAC food supplements are commercially available, which are used by women routinely against psychic and somatic premenstrual symptoms such as sadness, depression, and irritability (Schellenberg, 2001;Webster et al., 2011). ...
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Vitex agnus‐castus (VAC, Verbenaceae) is widely used in Chinese traditional medicine as an antiinflammatory agent. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of the VAC extract to protect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced acute lung injury. The results have shown that VAC had a potent protective activity against LPS‐induced acute lung damage. It significantly decreased pulmonary edema as there was a significant decrease in lung wet/dry ratio and in protein content. VAC also decreased the lactate dehydrogenase's activity in the bronchoalveolar fluid. VAC ameliorated LPS‐induced inflammatory cells infiltration into the lung tissue and reversed the histopathological lesions of the lung. Furthermore, VAC counteracted LPS‐induced oxidative stress as it attenuated the lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde, in the lung. VAC increased the antioxidant activity as evident by elevated superoxide dismutase activity and increased reduced glutathione content in the lung tissue. Collectively, VAC has a protective activity against LPS‐induced acute lung damage through its antioxidant potential. Practical applications Vitex agnus‐castus has been used in various traditional medicines for treating various ailments as digestive complains, acne, rheumatic pains, menstrual irregularities, premenstrual syndrome, infertility, and hyperprolactinemia. Its leaves are used as a spice and the fruits are used as a substitute for pepper. VAC food supplements are used by women against psychic and somatic premenstrual symptoms. The findings of this study can demonstrate the potent protective activity of the VAC extract against LPS‐induced acute lung damage due to its antioxidative effects. Therefore, VAC could be developed as a health functional food to improve acute lung damage and many diseases caused by oxidative damage.
... Their results indicate the sensitivity of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria to this essential oil compared with chemical antibiotics (ampicillin and ofloxacin) (Eryigit et al., 2015). The researchers reported that 1,8-cineole and α-Pinene showed very high antimicrobial potency as well (Stojkovic´ et al., 2011). Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778) was the most sensitive strain against this essential oil (Table 3). ...
... 2 Consumer concerns have been rising regarding the use of synthetic preservatives such as sodium benzoate, nitrate, and nitrite, however, because of their adverse effects on the environment and human health. [3][4][5] For this reason, replacing chemically synthesized food additives with natural alternatives has gained greater importance in the food industry. 6 Moreover, the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics has forced new improvments. ...
Article
Single and combined antibacterial activities of cumin, cardamom, and dill weed essential oils against Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and mixed cultures were determined by using the broth microdilution method for determining minimum inhibition concentrations. Among the bacteria tested, C. coli and C. jejuni were generally more susceptible to essential oils, with lower minimum inhibition concentrations. The minimum inhibition concentration values were obtained against Gram‐negative and Gram‐positive bacteria tested within the range of 0.012–15.00 and 3.75–15.00 μL/mL, respectively. Fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs) were also calculated to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of essential oil combinations. Although the combined effects of essential oils changed depending on the strain and the type of essential oils used, generally the use of combinations increased the efficacy of the essential oils. Interestingly, according to the FIC index, the most synergetic effect was against C. coli and C. jejuni. This study has demonstrated the potential use of cardamom, cumin, and dill weed essential oils, and their combinations, against important pathogenic bacteria and their mixed cultures.
... Medicinal and aromatic plants are plant species that have one or a group of substances that have biological activities, such as insecticidal, larvicidal, anticancer, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiemetic, antimalarial, carminative, stimulant, antispasmodic, antiulcer, antimicrobial and antirheumatic, among others (Park et al. 2009;Abdelwahab et al. 2010;Rana et al. 2011;Stojkovic et al. 2011;Millezi et al. 2012;Millezi et al. 2013;Oliveira et al. 2012;Oliveira et al. 2013;Aznar et al. 2015). Many species that exhibit intense odor due to the release of volatile substances are classified as aromatic plants and may not be medicinal. ...
Chapter
Medicinal and aromatic plants are plants rich in specialized metabolites, mainly the essential oils, which have several functions in plant species and have biological activity. The chemical composition of these oils is influenced by biotic, abiotic, and genetic factors. The species of the families Lamiaceae (Mentha x piperita L, Ocimum selloi, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus vulgaris), Asteraceae (Lychnophora ericoides, Lychnophora pinaster, and Baccharis dracunculifolia), and Boraginaceae ( Varroniacurassavica ) have essential oils with important biological activities influenced by the conditions of the environment. Other species studied by researchers around the world also reveal essential oils and biological activities with varying potentials.
... The results agrees with previous reports on the chemical composition of essential oils from Vitex genus. In the Vitex genius is possible to observe a diversity of terpenoids, especially sesquiterpenes with gem-dimethylcyclopropyl subunits on seven-member ring compounds like the sesquiterpenoid 6,9-guaidiene one of the major constituents of essential oil leaves from V. gardneriana, which can be a good chemosystematic biomarker for the Vitex genus [27,28]. ...
... It is a medicinal plant contained flavonoids [29]. Vitex's fruits and leaves have been shown antioxidant [30], antimicrobial [31] and anti-inflammatory [32] activities. Sarikurkcu et al. used GC-MS method for study antioxidant activity of V. agnus-castus [33]. ...
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Gallic acid (GA) is the main phenolic antioxidant which has been subjected of many studies because of its important biological properties including anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities as well as free radicals scavenger and cardiovascular diseases protector. Hereupon, fabricating a selective and sensitive sensor for GA detection and measurement is an important issue. In this paper, a carboxylated MWCNTs modified carbon paste electrode (MWCNTs-COOH/CPE) was successfully fabricated and employed for GA determination. Activating the carboxylic sites of the MWCNTs carried out in nitric acid solution in an ultrasonic bath and further studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic oxidation of GA at the MWCNTs-COOH/CPE surface was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) methods. The GA presented a high electrochemical response on MWCNTs-COOH/CPE at pH 2 in comparison with the CPE. This sensor showed a linear response range of 0.33 - 196 µM and a detection limit of 17.2 nM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the designed MWCNTsCOOH/CPE was successfully applied as an electrochemical sensing system for GA determination in extracts of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Viola odorata L., Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari, and Vitex agnus-castus L., with the estimated amount of 11.4, 8.9, 11.91 and 2.9 mg L-1 GA in each plant extract, respectively.
... The Pelargonium adoraitissimum belongs to Geraniaceae Artemisa Compestris L and Pelargonium Adoraitissimum Leaves Extracts from North Libya family and represents important sources of food, medicines and cosmetics and of distilled volatile oils [23][24][25][26][27]. These genera have been found to possess significant pharmacological and biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, antiinfluenza, anticancer, antimicrobial and antifungal activity [23,24,[27][28][29][30]. It is used in folk medicine in Libya and in the world. ...
... The family consists of 241 genera and 7530 species [15]. Monoterpenes 1,8-cineole from Vitex agnus-castus [72] and Rosmarinus officinalis [73], pulegone from Mentha species, as well as thymol and carvacrol from Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare [74] disrupted CM. Although the mode of action of thymol and carvacrol is not clearly understood, it is mostly believed that the hydroxyl group on these two compounds interacts future science group www.future-science.com ...
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Aim: The goal of this study was to use phylogenetic evidence to determine plant families with high representation of antibacterial activity and identify potential sources to focus on for antibacterial drug discovery. Materials & methods: We reconstructed the molecular phylogeny of plant taxa with antibacterial activity and mapped antibacterial mechanisms of action on the phylogeny. Results: The phylogeny highlighted seven plant families (Combretaceae, Cupressaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae and Zingiberaceae) with disproportionately represented antibacterial activity. Phytochemicals produced were primarily involved in the disruption of the bacterial cell wall/membrane and inhibition of quorum sensing/biofilm production. Conclusion: The study provides phylogenetic evidence of seven plant families that should be examined as promising leads for novel antibacterial development.
... Seed coat cells may produce phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, isoflavones and other chemicals, which add a layer of chemical defense to the mechanical protection (e.g., [64]). Internal secretory structures present in the pericarp of dry, indehiscent fruits (e.g., Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae; [60]) secrete a huge variety of compounds with antifungal and antimicrobial effect [e.g., 65,66]. Mucilage producing seed coats having multiple roles also evolved in numerous plant families (reviewed by [67]). ...
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The widely accepted “endozoochory syndrome” is assigned to angiosperm diaspores with a fleshy, attractive tissue and implies the existence of adaptations for protection against digestion during gut passage. This syndrome has led diaspore fleshiness to be emphasized as the exclusive indicator of endozoochory in much of the ecology and biogeography research. Crucially, however, endozoochory in nature is not limited to frugivory, and diaspores without “external flesh” are commonly dispersed, often over long distances, via birds and mammals by granivory. A key question is: are such diaspores somehow less prepared from an architectural point of view to survive gut passage than fleshy diaspores? To answer this question, we selected 11 European angiosperm taxa that fall outside the classical endozoochory syndrome yet are known to be dispersed via endozoochory. We studied their seed coat/pericarp morphology and anatomy both before and after gut passage through granivorous waterfowl, and determined their seed survival and germinability. We found no fundamental differences in the mechanical architecture of the seed coat and pericarp between these plants dispersed by granivory and others dispersed by frugivory. Neither diaspore traits per se, nor dormancy type, were strong predictors of diaspore survival or degree of damage during gut passage through granivores, or of the influence of gut passage on germinability. Among our 11 taxa, survival of gut passage is enabled by the thick cuticle of the exotesta or epicarp; one or several lignified cell layers; and diverse combinations of other architectural elements. These protection structures are ubiquitous in angiosperms, and likely to have evolved in gymnosperms. Hence, many angiosperm diaspores, dry or fleshy, may be pre-adapted to endozoochory, but with differing degrees of specialization and adaptation to dispersal mechanisms such as frugivory and granivory. Our findings underline the broad ecological importance of “non-classical endozoochory” of diaspores that lack “external flesh”.
... It has been used by people in Egypt, Greece, Italy, and Iran for over 2500 years, mainly to treat gynecologic disorders [11]. The fruits of Vitex agnus-castus have been used to treat several females' problems such as menstrual disorders, premenstrual symptoms, menopause, disrupted lactation, acne, corpus luteum insufficiency, and infertility [12]. Hot water extracts from the fruits and flowering tops are used as antispasmodic, sedative, and anaphrodisiac [13]. ...
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the main sources of liver disease. In this study, we use computation methods to evaluate the drug candidature of the most abundant molecules from Vitex agnus L for the inhibition of HBV capsid protein and X protein. Molecular docking analyses were performed, using Autodock Vina, PKCSM and SwissADME were used to calculate ADMET. The results showed that the free binding energy for all tested molecules is better than that of Tenofovir disoproxil, a drug used to treat HBV, using capsid protein and protein X as a target. These results indicate that these ligands bind favorably to the binding site of HBV capsid protein and protein X, which may be considered a potential ligand for treating HBV-related diseases.
... Компоненты Марокко [13] Алжир [10] Италия [24] Крым [15] НБС Бразилия [12] Турция [4] Пакистан [9] Турция [25] Италия [26] Черногория [23] Турция [22] Иран [7] Иран [11] Нигерия [5] Анализ имеющихся данных относительно массовой доли основных компонентов (табл. 4) позволяет говорить о существенной изменчивости компонентного состава эфирного масла витекса в разных эколого-географических условиях. ...
... Essential oils are volatile and aromatic secondary metabolites of plants that have been tapped mainly for its various biological properties such as antimicrobial and antioxidant powers (Basak and Guha, 2018). Research works on extracts and essential oils from V. agnus-castus have demonstrated that the essential oil extracted from seeds, fruits, flowers or leaves has been reported to have antimicrobial and antifungal functions (Stojkovi c et al., 2011). Our results demonstrated that 400 ml/L of V. agnus-castus EOs was recorded as the minimum inhibitory concentration for the growth of R. solani. ...
Article
This study was conducted to find an alternative to synthetic fungicides currently used in the control of Rhizoctonia solani damping off in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The efficacy of seed presoaking in Vitex agnus-castus essential oils and foliar sprays with 50 ppm ZnO NPs in controlling the pathogen was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The minimum inhibitory concentration of V. agnus-castus essential oils (400 μl/L) caused a significant decrease in mycelial growth and the productivity of cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) of R. solani in vitro test. And also, Polygalacturonase, polymethyl-galacturonase, endoglucanase and β-glucosidase retained only about of its relative enzyme activities 10.5, 14.9, 8.8, 0%, respectively. The combination between seed presoaking in Vitex agnus-castus essential oils and foliar spray with ZnO NPs was found to be more effectivethan each of them separately, in reduction of disease incidence and enhance the seed germination percentage from 62% in infected untreated plants to 87% in infected plants exposed to dual treatment. Our results revealed that the content of enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid), total flavonoids, total phenolics, tannins, proline, glycine betaine, ferric reducing antioxidant power, total antioxidant capacity and mineral composition (potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and zinc) were significantly higher in the infected plants received the dual treatment as compared with the untreated infected plants. Moreover, CWDEs, H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation significantly decreased in infected plants received the dual treatment as compared with the untreated infected plants.
... Others reported that V. agnus-castus L. essential oil showed antifungal potential against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Verticillium dahlia with LC 50 values of 3.322 µg/mL and 1.063 µg/mL, and 9.729 µg/mL and 7.313 µg/mL, respectively [68]. Stojković et al. [69] reported antimicrobial potential for V. agnus-castus L. fruit and leaf essential oils attributed to the presence of α-pinene and 1,8-cineole. The administration of active ethyl acetate extract of V. agnus-castus L. leaf exhibited antibacterial potential against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MIC = 0.312 mg/mL) owing to steroids, terpenoids, and flavonoids [70]. ...
Article
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Medicinal plants are used worldwide due to their lower risk of side effects and eco-friendly, cost-effective production when compared to chemical drugs, encouraging researchers to further exploit the therapeutic potential of the former. One of the most popular medicinal plants is Vitex agnus-castus L., grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions, to which different health benefits have already been attributed. In this perspective article, the in vitro and in vivo therapeutic properties of V. agnus-castus L. have been analyzed and reviewed with a special focus on its health-promoting effects and potential nutraceutical applications.
... Vitex agnus castus L., known as chaste tree, belongs to the Verbenaceae family; it is widely distributed along the Anatolian coast line [1]. Described as a "women's herb" because of its uses in the treatment of gynecological conditions such as ovarian insufficiency, uterine bleeding, premenstrual syndrome, fibroid cysts, infertility and acne problems, it has been used for over 2500 years, since the days of Hippocrates [2][3][4][5]. It has been used for a long time as a diuretic, digestive, antifungal and also against anxiety, early birth and stomachache in Anatolian folk medicine [1,6]. ...
Article
The chemical profile, cytotoxic and apoptotic effect, and antioxidant activity were determined of ethanolic extracts of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste tree). Ripened fruits and fruitless aerial parts were extracted with ethanol, and the chemical characterization of the extracts was determined by LC/ESI-MS-MS. Twelve compounds were tentatively identified in the extracts. The dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of the extracts were tested on C6, A549 and MCF-7 cells by using MTT assay; inhibition of DNA synthesis, and apoptotic and caspase-3 activation effects of the extracts were determined. The potential antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by in vitro methods such as DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity, reducing power and β-carotene bleaching assays. The fruit extract showed noticeable cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 88 μg/mL. Both extracts showed similar DPPH scavenging activity comparably with that of the standard.
... The acyclic group has the smallest number of members, with only 11 acyclic SS identified in Vitex species, and all containing a farnesane skeleton (Figure 3). Among them, the compound (E)-β-farnesene (EβF) stands out, which is reported in eight species, being one of the main components of V. agnus-castus in various regions of the globe [24,26,31,[48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60]. Probably, EβF synthase is being expressed in this species. ...
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Sesquiterpenes (SS) are secondary metabolites formed by the bonding of 3 isoprene (C5) units. They play an important role in the defense and signaling of plants to adapt to the environment , face stress, and communicate with the outside world, and their evolutionary history is closely related to their physiological functions. This review considers their presence and extensively summarizes the 156 sesquiterpenes identified in Vitex taxa, emphasizing those with higher concentrations and frequency among species and correlating with the insecticidal activities and defensive responses reported in the literature. In addition, we classify the SS based on their chemical structures and addresses cyclization in biosynthetic origin. Most relevant sesquiterpenes of the Vitex genus are derived from the germacredienyl cation mainly via bicyclogermacrene and ger-macrene C, giving rise to aromadrendanes, a skeleton with the highest number of representative compounds in this genus, and 6,9-guaiadiene, respectively, indicating the production of 1.10-cyclizing sesquiterpene synthases. These enzymes can play an important role in the chemo-systematics of the genus from their corresponding routes and cyclizations, constituting a new approach to chemotaxonomy. In conclusion, this review is a compilation of detailed information on the profile of sesquiterpene in the Vitex genus and, thus, points to new unexplored horizons for future research.
... Hayıt bitkisinin ekstraktı korpus luteum eksikliğinde, akne ve kısırlığın giderilmesi tedavisinde ve buna benzer bir çok kadınsal hastalıkların şikayetlerinin giderilmesinde kullanılmaktadır. Hayıt bitkisinin çiçek ekstraktının ise prostat kanserini engelleyebileceği bildirilmiştir (Stojkovic vd. 2011). ...
... Likewise, the high antimicrobial potential of Carum copticum essential oil was attributed to the abundance of p-cymene and terpinene 45,46 . The prevalence of non-ubiquitous norisoprenoids in the root bark such as dihydroedulan (6.2 %) and β-ionone (3.4 %) suggests cytotoxic, antioxidant and anticancer activity of the plant [47][48] . Methyl salicylate (4.5 %) a common fragrance in foods and beverages is known to affect temporary relief of minor pains, hence acts as an analgesic. ...
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The chemical composition of essential oils (EOs) isolated by hydrodistillation from Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub. root wood and root bark were determined for the first time by GC/MS analysis. The EOs gave a percentage yield (w/w) of 0.34 % and 0.31 % for root wood and root bark respectively. A total of 60 compounds accounting for 86.1 % of the root wood EO composition were identified with monoterpenes (45.4 %) and sesquiterpenes (14.7 %) as predominant constituents. Root bark EO gave 53 identified constituents which make up about 78.5 % of the EO dominated by non-terpenes (23.4 %) and alkanes (14.1 %). The EOs are good sources of limonene (16.9 %), γ-terpinene (9.8 %) and p-cymene (6.70 %). The anti-diabetic (α-amylase and α-glucosidase models) and antioxidant activities (DPPH and H2O2 models) of EOs were evaluated in comparison with standard drugs. Alpha-amylase inhibition gave IC50 values (mg/mL) of 0.0493 and 0.0471 for root wood and root bark EOs respectively, compared to acarbose the standard anti-diabetic drug (0.0401) while α-glucosidase assay gave IC50 values (mg/mL) of 0.0517 and 0.0486 for root wood and root bark EOs respectively, compared with acarbose (0.0418). In the DPPH antioxidant assay, root bark EO showed higher activity (0.157 mg/mL) compared to root wood EO (0.159 mg/mL) while Root wood and root bark EOs had IC50 values (mg/mL) of 0.157 and 0.171 respectively using the H2O2 model. Results revealed the presence of chemical constituents in the EOs which could be responsible for activities expressed by the plant.
... A study performed by Santos and Rao (2001) [27] reported the ability of 1,8-cineole to alleviate gastric mucosa injury and damage induced by absolute ethanol in rats. Stojkovic et al. [28] investigated the inhibitory effect of 1,8-cineole on apple rot disease caused by Aspergillus niger at concentrations of 3% and 6% of 1,8-cineole applied for 3 days, 100% inhibition of apple rot disease was observed. Merghni et al. [26] also reported 1,8-cineole biofilm inhibition effect against S. aureus ATCC 6538. ...
Article
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Bacterial biofilm contributes to antibiotic resistance. Developing antibiofilm agents, more favored from natural origin, is a potential method for treatment of highly virulent multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains; The potential of Pimenta dioica and Pimenta racemosa essential oils (E.Os) antibacterial and antibiofilm activities in relation to their chemical composition, in addition to their ability to treat Acinetobacter baumannii wound infection in mice model were investigated; P. dioica leaf E.O at 0.05 μg•mL −1 efficiently inhibited and eradicated biofilm formed by A. baumannii by 85% and 34%, respectively. Both P. diocia and P. racemosa leaf E.Os showed a bactericidal action against A. baumanii within 6h at 2.08 μg•mL −1. In addition, a significant reduction of A. baumannii microbial load in mice wound infection model was found. Furthermore, gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis revealed qualitative and quantitative differences among P. racemosa and P. dioica leaf and berry E.Os. Monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, and phenolics were the major detected classes. β-Myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, and eugenol were the most abundant volatiles. While, sesquiterpenes were found as minor components in Pimenta berries E.O; Our finding suggests the potential antimicrobial activity of Pimenta leaf E.O against MDR A. baumannii wound infections and their underlying mechanism and to be further tested clinically as treatment for MDR A. baumannii infections.
... Different classes of secondary metabolites that have been isolated from various parts of V. agnus-castus; fruits containing iridoids and iridoid glycosides (casticin, aucubin, and agnuside) [3,5]; flavonoids (apigenin, castican, orientin, penduletin, and isovitexin), flavonoid O-or C-glycosides (orientin and vitexin); and flavonoids, luteolin 6-C-(4″-methyl-6″-O-trans-caffeoylglucoside), luteolin 6-C-(6″-O-transcaffeoylglucoside), luteolin 6-C-(2″-O-trans-caffeoylglucoside), and luteolin 7-O-(6″-p-benzoylglucoside) were isolated from the root bark of the plant., diterpenoids ( vitexilactone and rotundifuran), diterpene lactam (vitexlactam A); p-hydroxybenzoic acid β-sitosterol; and primary metabolites fatty acids (oleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid) [3,[5][6][7][8]. Essential oils also presented in chasteberry (1,8-cineole, (E)-β-farnesene, (E)-caryophyllene, sabinene, limonene, cineol, and α-terpinyl acetate were the major essential oils [9]. ...
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This is a specific review of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chasteberry) known as Finjinkest and Shajrat Ibrahim (Abraham’s tree) in Arabic, focusing in the current application: V. agnus-castus is listed among other medicinal plants in the ancient book “Al-Kulliyat Fi A-Tibb,” written by the famous Andulasin Philosopher Ibn Rushd. The focus of the study is to review only the uses mentioned in the book, review up to date literature (e.g., Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus) and analyzing the current pharmacological properties in link to the active constituents of the plant. The purpose of the present study is to confirm the uses of V. agnus-castus mentioned by Ibn Rushd with modern scientific and pharmacological research. Ethnopharmacological research confirming the uses mentioned by Ibn Rushd, such as treatment internal organs, liver and spleen, erectile dysfunction, and offspring. The results give further insights into the pharmacological activity of V. agnus-castus and confirm the different uses mentioned by Ibn Rushd.
... The positive control was a medium with 10 μl of fungal suspension, and the negative control included a medium with an antifungal that had no growth. Following incubation for 24 hours, the fungal growth was specified by a spectrophotometer at 600 nm; the lowest concentration of antifungal compound inhibiting the growth of the tested fungi, was reported as MIC (17). All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v. 22. ...
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Background and Objective: The prevalence of the infections caused by Candida species has led to a significant increase in their resistance to antifungal compounds. The aim of this study was to i) investigate drug resistance ii) evaluate the incidence of Candida albicans drug resistance pattern in the vaginal samples of women referring to health centers of Qom province, and iii) examine the effect of Zn nanoparticles combined with fluconazole against C. albicans isolates. Methods: This experimental, descriptive study was performed on 120 patients of candidiasis. In order to identify Candida albicans, direct experiments, differential culture, Germ tube test and sugar assimilation test (API20C kit) were conducted. The effect of different antifungal drugs and zinc nanoparticles and the synergistic effect of fluconazole with zinc nanoparticles were investigated by disk diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) of all cases was further specified. Results: Of the 120 samples, 50 (41.6%) were identified as Candida albicans. These strains were resistant to certain antifungal drugs while others were semi-sensitive and sensitive. The lowest and the highest mean diameter of inhibition zone in all Candida albicans isolates belonged to ketoconazole (15.64 mm) and fluconazole nano-ZnO (26.76mm), respectively. The lowest and the highest MICs were observed in fluconazole- nano-ZnO and nano-ZnO, respectively. Conclusion: The synergistic effect of Zn nanoparticles with fluconazole can be conducive to the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.
... The leaves oil contained an abundance of1,8-cineole (22.0%), as well. All of the oils tested were rich sources of α-pinene (12.2%, 9.4% and 9.4%,respectively) [31] . ...
... Volatile and aromatic compounds extracted from medicinal and aromatic plants are known to have important biological effects. Oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons constitute a subclass of terpenes that have been known to show a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial [32], anti-inflammatory [33], anticancer [34], and insecticidal activities [35]. ...
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Scarce information about the phenolic composition of Scabiosa atropurpurea L. is available, and no carotenoid compounds have been reported thus far. In this study the phenolic and carotenoid composition of this plant was both investigated and associated bioactivities were evaluated. Aiming to obtain extracts and volatile fractions of known medicinal plants to valorize them in the pharmaceutical or food industries, two techniques of extraction and five solvents were used to determine the biologically active compounds. Gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization and mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry highlighted the presence of 15 volatiles, 19 phenolics, and 24 natural pigments in Scabiosa atropurpurea L. stem samples; among them, the most abundant were 1,8-cineole, chlorogenic acid, cynaroside, and lutein. Bioactivity was assessed by a set of in vitro tests checking for antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and allelopathic (against Brassica oleracea L. and Lens culinaris Medik) effects. Scabiosa atropurpurea L. stem extracts presented a considerable antioxidant, antibacterial, and allelopathic potential, with less antifungal effectiveness. These results indicate that the volatile fractions and extracts from S. atropurpurea L. stem could be considered as a good source of bioactive agents, with possible applications in food-related, agriculture, and pharmaceutical fields. Genetic investigations showed 97% of similarity with Scabiosa tschiliensis, also called Japanese Scabiosa.
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The present work was designed with the objective of characterizing the current studies on the use of essential oils in the treatment of neuralgia in an animal model. It is a systematic review of the literature, where the bibliotegraphic survey was carried out in December 2019, through electronic research, consulting the Medline-PubMed, LILACS, Scopus and Web of Science databases. The present study identified 338 articles. 324 were removed, and 14 articles were selected after the established inclusion and exclusion criteria. All articles selected were in the English language, among them 14 were carried out in Brazil with research using extracts, isolated or complexed essential oils. This systematic review suggests that the natural compounds found have therapeutic potentials for the treatment of neuralgia conditions.
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During grain storage, a considerable amount of product is lost because of insects, such as Zabrotes subfasciatus. Currently, to mitigate these risks, studies are searching for plants with potential for the control of agricultural pests, also known as botanical insecticides. In this study, the fumigant toxicity of the essential oils of Piper callosum (PC-EO), Piper marginatum (PM-EO) and Vitex agnus-castus (VA-EO) against Zabrotes subfasciatus was investigated. The essential oils of PC-EO, PM-EO and VA-EO were analysed by gas chromatography (GC-MS), and the major components were 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone (10.4%), bicyclogermacrene (10.1%) and germacrene D (9.9%) for PM-EO; safrol (29.3%) for PC-EO; and 1,8-cineol (23.8%) for VA-EO. In fumigation tests, VA-EO killed 100% Zabrotes subfasciatus at a concentration of 0.004 µL/L air after 24 h of treatment, whereas PC-EO and PM-EO at 0.01 µL/L air caused 100% Z. subfasciatus mortality after 48 h. The VA-EO sample provided the lowest LD50 after 24 h (0.17 µL/L air), followed by PC-EO (0.78 µL/L air) and PM-EO (1.17 µL/L air). These results demonstrate that the essential oils of these species can be an alternative to control pests in stored products. This is the first report of the fumigant potential of these species against Z. subfasciatus.
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Glycyrrhiza echinata L. is a perennial plant of considerable commercial importance in medicine, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and tobacco industries and the production of food additives as flavoring and sweetening agent. This study, variation on composition and yield of essential oil from the underground parts of five accessions of G. echinata growing wild in northern Iran was investigated. Results showed high variability for the main constituents of essential oil among accessions of G. echinata. The presence of α-pinene and myrcene in two accessions suggests that these volatiles could serve as chemotaxonomic markers and also might be considered as potentially relevant for taste. The presence of β-caryophyllene and α- caryophyllene in three accessions could be strong potential for being used in medical applications (anticancer and analgesic properties). Generally, the essential oils from G. echinata and other species could be very competitive targets for phytochemical and food studies.
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In this study, we performed a genetic diversity analysis using RAPD markers for some Vitex agnus-castus populations grown in Aydin, Turkey. Total genomic DNA isolation from the leaves of Vitex agnus-castus was performed using a commercial kit. Seven RAPD primers (OPA-02, OPA-05, OPA-13, OPA-15, OPA-16, OPA-18, OPA-20) were used to determine genetic diversity among populations. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed with all genomic DNA samples and primers. PCR products were run in agarose gel electrophoresis and visualized under UV light. The amplified products were scored as bands (1) and no bands (0) for all gel images and their matrix files were generated. A total of 36 characters were obtained from the primers. Phylogenetic relationships and genetic distances between the cultivars were calculated by using the PAUP* (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony and other methods) program. According to PAUP analysis, the closest genetic distances were between Çine pink flower and Çakmar purple flower, and Çakmar pink flower and Çakmar purple flower populations with a value of 0.05556; and the greatest genetic distance was between Çakmar pink flower and Köşk purple flower populations with a value of 0.36111. In the phylogenetic analysis obtained using UPGMA algorithms, the phylogenetic tree consisted of four groups. The results suggest that RAPD markers are useful tools for determining genetic relationships among Vitex agnus-castus genotypes.
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Chapter
Instead of relying on prescription medications with numerous dangerous side effects, what if you could opt for a safer, natural alternative to address your health concerns? Medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes have been used for many years. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their major constituents have been widely documented by several works, however, in a fragmented way. Based on this premise, this book is designed to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antimicrobial properties of essential oils and their mechanisms of action, either alone or in combination, as a possible tool for obtaining new antibiotics
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Five aromatic constituents of essential oils (cineole, citral, geraniol, linalool and menthol) were tested for antimicrobial activity against eighteen bacteria (including Gram-positive cocci and rods, and Gram-negative rods) and twelve fungi (three yeast-like and nine filamentous). In terms of antibacterial activity linalool was the most effective and inhibited seventeen bacteria, followed by cineole, geraniol (each of which inhibited sixteen bacteria), menthol and citral aromatic compounds, which inhibited fifteen and fourteen bacteria, respectively. Against fungi the citral and geraniol oils were the most effective (inhibiting all twelve fungi), followed by linalool (inhibiting ten fungi), cineole and menthol (each of which inhibited seven fungi) compounds.
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This study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and various extracts (prepared by using solvents of varying polarity) of Salvia tomentosa (Miller). The essential oil was particularly found to possess strong antimicrobial activity while other non-polar extracts and subfractions showed moderate activities while polar extracts remained almost inactive. GC and GC/MS analyses of the oil resulted in the identification of 44 compounds, representing 97.7% of the oil; β-pinene (39.7%), α-pinene (10.9%) and camphor (9.7%) were the main components. The samples were also subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. In the first case, the free radical scavenging activity of aqueous methanol extract (MW) was superior to all other extracts (IC50=18.7 μg/ml). Polar extracts exhibited stronger activities than non-polar extracts. In the case of the linoleic acid system, oxidation of the linoleic acid was effectively inhibited by the polar subfraction of the MW extract, while the oil was less effective. The MW extract showed 90.6% inhibition, that is close to the synthetic antioxidant BHT.
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The essential oil composition of Vitex pooara, V. rehmannii, V. obovata ssp. obovata, V obovata ssp. wilmsii and V. zeyheri was determined using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was assessed on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli and the minimum inhibitory concentration values recorded. All essential oils were moderately active with V. zeyheri being the most active (8, 4 and 16 mg ml(-1) for S. aureus, B. cereus and E. coli respectively). The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils was evaluated using a 5-lipoxygenase assay and all essential oils effectively inhibited 5-lipoxygenase, a key enzyme in the inflammatory cascade with V. pooara producing the most promising activity (IC50 value of 25 ppm). Using the essential oil data matrix, chemotaxonomic evidence is presented which supports the infrageneric placement of V. pooara in subgenus Vitex while the other four above mentioned taxa are placed in subgenus Holmskiodiopsis.
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In vitro susceptibility of the turpentine oil obtained from Pinus pinaster oleoresin was evaluated against three Sudanese clinical isolates of Actinomadura madurae, which is the main causative agent of actinomycetoma. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the oil ranged from 100.3 to 124.8 μL/mL, and the minimum microbicidal concentrations (MMCs) were between 100.3 and 150.0 μL/mL. α-Pinene exhibited prominent bioactivity with MICs ranging between 3.3 and 5.0 μL/mL, while its MMC was 10.0 μL/mL against the same clinical isolates. Pinus pinaster turpentine oil and α-pinene might be useful agents in the treatment of mycetoma caused by A. madurae.
Book
The role of the cell wall in the life of the plant. The molecular components of the wall. Cell wall architecture and the skeletal functions of the wall. Cell-wall formation. The cell wall and control of cell growth. The cell wall and intracellular transport. The cell wall and interactions with other organisms. The cell wall and reproduction. Cell-wall degradation and biotechnological applications. Cell walls in diet and health. Outstanding problems for future research.
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Six spice essential oils (sage, rosemary, caraway, cumin, clove, and thyme) and their basic ingredients were tested for their inhibitory effect against 3 strains of Gram-negative bacteria, 4 strains of Gram-positive bacteria, one acid fast bacterium, and one yeast. Preliminary screening of antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was done using the filter paper disc agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration for each essential oil against various micro-organisms was also measured. Very low concentrations (0.25-12 mg/ml) of the various essential oils were sufficient to prevent microbial growth. The data show that Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the antimicrobial compounds in spices than Gram-negative. The inhibition zones of different microbial growth produced by various essential oils were similar to those produced by their basic compounds. Thyme and cumin oils possessed very strong antimicrobial activity compared with the other essential oils. There was a relationship between the chemical structures of the most abundant compounds in the essential oils under investigation and the antimicrobial activity. Copyright © International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians.
Article
Literature searches were conducted in six electronic databases, in references lists of all identified papers and in departmental files. Data from spontaneous reporting schemes of the WHO and national drug safety bodies were also included. Twelve manufacturers of VAC-containing preparations and five herbalist organisations were contacted for additional information. No language restrictions were imposed. Combination preparations including VAC or homeopathic preparations of VAC were excluded. Data extraction of key data from all articles reporting adverse events or interactions was performed independently by at least two reviewers, regardless of study design. Data from clinical trials, postmarketing surveillance studies, surveys, spontaneous reporting schemes, manufacturers and herbalist organisations indicate that the adverse events following VAC treatment are mild and reversible. The most frequent adverse events are nausea, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, menstrual disorders, acne, pruritus and erythematous rash. No drug interactions were reported. Use of VAC should be avoided during pregnancy or lactation. Theoretically, VAC might also interfere with dopaminergic antagonists. Although further rigorous studies are needed to assess the safety of VAC, the data available seem to indicate that VAC is a safe herbal medicine.
Article
The inhibitory effects of five essential oils (thyme, sage, nutmeg, eucaptus and cassia) against Alternaria alternata were tested at different concentrations (100–500ppm) in vitro. The cassia oil and thyme oil both exhibited antifungal activity against A. alternata. The cassia oil inhibited completely the growth of A. alternata at 300–500ppm. The thyme oil exhibited a lower degree of inhibition 62.0% at 500ppm. Spore germination and germ tube elongation of the pathogens in potato dextrose broth was strongly inhibited in the presence of 500ppm cassia oil. Irreversible inhibition of fungal growth could be caused by exposure to 300ppm and 400ppm cassia oil for 6 days and 500ppm cassia oil for 3 days. Cassia oil at 500ppm reduced the percentage of decayed tomatoes. The experiments on reducing natural decay development of tomatoes gave similar results. Therefore, essential oils could be an alternative to chemicals for control of postharvest phytopathogenic fungi on fruits or vegetables.
Article
The essential oils of fresh leaves, flowers and fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L., growing in north Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and their volatile constituents were identified by GC–MS. The most abundant constituents found were 1,8-cineole, (E)-β-farnesene, sabinene, α-pinene, α-terpenyl acetate, β-caryophyllene and bicyclogermacrene. Their compositions were compared with oils from Europe and Nigeria. 1,8-Cineole was an important component in all the samples analysed. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Objectives To assess efficacy and tolerability of a special extract of Vitex agnus castus (VAC, BNO 1095) in the treatment of women suffering from premenstrual syndrome (PMS) with moderate to severe complaints.Methods Prospective, open, non-comparative, monocentre study. After a run-in phase lasting three cycles, eligible patients were treated for up to three cycles with VAC extract. Efficacy was assessed using a PMS-Diary (primarily) and the PMTS score.ResultsOne hundred and twenty-one patients were enrolled, 118 provided efficacy data (full analysis set), and 109 completed the treatment phase. The severity of the PMS symptoms consistently decreased during treatment, on average from 22.8 score points during the baseline cycle to 10.2 during the third cycle. The mean decrease was 12.6 score points (95% CI: 10.9–14.4, p < 0.0001, Student's t-test). Response to treatment was found in 67.8% of the women during the third treatment cycle (95% CI: 58.6–77.0). Results for the PMTS were similar with a decrease on average from 22.5 to 11.0 score points, i.e. mean change −11.4 (95% CI: 10.1–12.8, p < 0.0001).Conclusion Vitex agnus castus extract BNO 1095 is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of moderate to severe PMS.
Article
Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea (Pers.) is the most economically important postharvest disease of fruit and vegetables at harvest and during storage. Therefore the current study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of chitosan with different molecular weights on gray mold in vitro and in vivo in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. lycopersicum) stored at different temperatures. In an in vitro experiment, the results demonstrated that the antifungal activity increased as the chitosan molecular weight decreased. In an in vivo study, chitosan treatments significantly reduced fungal decay and all compounds with concentrations of 2000 and 4000mg/L showed complete control of the fungus in wound-inoculated fruit. Chitosan with a molecular weight of 5.7×104g/mol was the most effective compound among those tested. The results also revealed that high chitosan concentrations correlated with low disease incidence regardless of storage conditions. In addition to the antifungal activity, chitosan had the potential for the elicitation of defense markers, including total soluble phenolic compounds, polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity and total protein content. Chitosan treatment decreased the activity of PPO and enhanced total protein and phenolic compounds in wounded tomato fruit. These findings suggest that the effects of chitosan with different molecular weights on gray mold in tomato fruit may be associated with direct fungitoxic properties against the pathogen, and the elicitation of biochemical defense responses in fruit.
Article
The volatile oil of the Lebanese Za'atar (Origanum syriacum L.) was characterized for its thymol and carvacrol content using gas-liquid chromatography. These two compounds constituted the major components of the oil and were present in equal proportions of 30% in the volatile oil extracted from the leaves and shoot tips of the Origanum plant during the preflowering stage. The percentage of carvacrol in the essential oil increased to 62% after flowering and maturation, while the concentration of thymol decreased to 14%. Origanum oil extracted from plants collected during midseason was evaluated for its antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Penicillium species. The oil exhibited strong inhibitory action against the three fungi tested. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oil was found to be 0.1 μl/ml of yeast extract sucrose broth for the fungi tested.
Article
The whole, fresh involucral bracts of cardoon, Cynara cardunculus L. (Compositae), were extracted with EtOH and an aqueous suspension of the obtained EtOH extract was partitioned successively with CHCl3, EtOAc and n-BuOH, leaving a residual water extract. All obtained extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using following in vitro methods: FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assay, and scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Antimicrobial activity was estimated using a microdilution technique against food-borne, mycotoxin producers and human pathogenic bacteria and micromycetes. The following bacteria were tested: Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, as well as micromycetes: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium ochrochloron, Penicillium funiculosum, Trichoderma viride, Fusarium tricinctum and Alternaria alternata. Results showed that all extracts possessed concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. In biological assays, C. cardunculus extracts showed antimicrobial activity comparable with standard antibiotics.
Article
One hundred and twenty-nine strains of epiphytic micro-organisms, isolated from table and wine grapes in Israel, were screened for antagonistic activity against Botrytis cinerea on table grapes. Two isolates (Candida guilliermondii, strain A42 and Acremonium cephalosporium, strain B11) were further evaluated for the control of decay in grapes caused by Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer. Decay incidence caused by Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer on wounded detached berries was reduced to 8, 14 and 22% respectively, by A42 and to 16, 82 and 60%, respectively, by B11. On small clusters with intact berries, decay was reduced to 30, 22 and 22%, respectively, by A42 and to 48, 39 and 30% respectively, by isolate B11. Both strains survived well under local vineyard conditions and during storage at 0°C and maintained relatively high cell counts on the berries. Field experiments were conducted in 1996, 1997 and 1998, with both table and wine grapes. Vines were sprayed with yeast suspension 2–5 times at 7–10 day intervals and decay was evaluated before harvest (wine grapes) or after storage (table grapes). A42 reduced decay caused by Botrytis cinerea in two of the three seasons in both table and wine grapes, and rots caused by Aspergillus niger in wine grapes were reduced significantly in 1997 and 1998. B11 reduced Botrytiscinerea development in the two years it was tested in wine grapes but in table grapes only in 1996. Morever, it did not control decay caused by Aspergillus niger.
Article
Boneless loins from both sides of 20 pig carcasses were divided into five sections each and assigned equally to five packaging treatments: 100 % CO(2); 50 % CO(2)/50 % N(2); 25 % CO(2)/ 75 % N(2); 25 % CO(2)/65 % N(2)/10 % O(2) and vacuum. Loin sections were packaged in bags of low O(2) permeability, then stored in darkness at 1 °C for up to 22 days. Retail chops were cut from the sections and displayed in oxygen-permeable film under light at 3 °C for 3 additional days. The O(2) concentrations in packages with nominally anoxic atmospheres were 0.1-0.4 %. Sections stored in 25 % CO(2)/65 % N(2)/10 % O(2) had more surface greying and greening, stronger off-odour and psychrotropic counts after storage were more than one log(10) higher compared to sections from the other four treatments. Displayed chops from sections stored in 25 % CO(2)/65 % N(2)/10 % O(2) also had greying/greening at an outer layer of the chops. Off-odour of chops was most pronounced for treatments with 10 % O(2) and vacuum. Drip loss from loin sections was highest for those in 100 % CO(2) (4.2 %) and lowest for those in vacuum (3.2 %). In conclusion, storage in CO(2) or CO (2)N (2) atmospheres benefitted the overall shelf life of pork.
Article
Eight essential oils (EOs) as well as 13 single terpenes were studied for their nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , for three immersion periods (24, 48, and 96 h). The EOs were isolated from eight Greek Lamiaceae species: Melissa officinalis , Sideritis clandestina , Origanum dictamnus , Ocimum basilicum , Mentha pulegium , Origanum vulgare , Vitex agnus castus , and Salvia officinalis . The EOs nematicidal activity was correlated to their chemical composition as well as to the pure terpenes' activity tested individually. Clear dose and time response relationships were established. The EOs of O. vulgare, O. dictamnus, M. pulegium, and M. officinalis exhibited high nematicidal activity against M. incognita, and the EC(50) values (96 h) were calculated at 1.55, 1.72, 3.15, and 6.15 muL/mL, respectively. The activity of the nematicidal terpenes was found to decrease in the order l-carvone, pulegone, trans-anethole, geraniol, eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, terpinen-4-ol, and the respective EC(50) values (24 h) were calculated in the range of 115-392 mug/mL. Terpenes tested individually were more active than as components in EO, implementing antagonistic action.
Article
This study is designed to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of Vitexagnuscastus. GC and GC-MS analysis was resulted in the detection of 27 components, representing 94.5% of the oil. Major components of the oil were 1,8-cineole (24.98%), sabinene (13.45%), alpha-pinene (10.60%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (6.66%), and (Z)-beta-farnesene (5.40%). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by three different test systems, DPPH, beta-carotene/linoleic acid and reducing power assays. In all systems, water extract exhibited excellent activity potential than those of other extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol) and the oil. As expected, amount of total phenolics was very high in this extract (112.46+/-1.22mugGAEs/mgextract). Dichloromethane extract has been found to be rich in flavonoids. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant activity potential and total phenolic and flavonoid levels of the extracts.
In three experiments, chloroform was administered to mice by gavage in a toothpaste base or in arachis oil, in doses up to 60 mg/kg/d on 6 days/wk for 8 wks. Control groups were left untreated or given vehicle only. In general, there were more survivors in chloroform-treated groups than in the controls. In the case of the males of three strains (C57BL, CBA and CF/1), treatment was associated with no adverse affect on the incidence of any type of neoplasm or any other parameter. In the males but not the females of a fourth strain (ICI) and in doses of 60 mg/kg/d but not of 17 mg/kg/d, exposure to chloroform in toothpaste base as a vehicle was associated with increased incidence of epithelial tumours of the kidney. A more pronounced effect of the same kind was seen in mice given 60 mg CHCl3/kg/d in an archis oil vehicle. This treatment was also associated with a higher incidence and severity of non-neoplastic renal disease. The mechanisms underlying the peculiar strain- and sex-specific susceptibility of ICI male mice to develop renal tumours when exposed to chloroform remain obcure; spontaneous renal tumours were also seen in vehicle control mice and possible ways in which this tendency may be enhanced by chloroform treatment are discussed. At the dose levels tested, namely 113 and 400 times average human exposure levels from the use of toothpaste (with 3.5 percent chloroform content), no adverse affect was seen in the liver and there was no increased incidence of liver tumours even in the higher liver tumour susceptible CBA strain. At the 17 mg CHCl3/kg/d level, equivalent to 113 times average human exposure from toothpaste use, no excess of renal tumours was seen even in males of the peculiarly susceptible ICI strain.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of the two main apple varieties, Golden Delicious and Starking, in Syria. The experiments were performed in 1995 and 1996. Fruits were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 KGy. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 degrees C and under a relative humidity of 80 to 90%. Weight loss and spoilage due to physiological disorders and fungal diseases were evaluated throughout the different storage periods. Firmness, coloration and pH values were estimated immediately after irradiation. The results showed that, in both varieties, gamma irradiation increased the weight loss after 45 days of storage in apples gathered in 1995 but not in the 1996 season. After 180 days of storage, gamma irradiation had different effects on weight loss depending on the growing year and variety, and increased fungal spoilage. Application of gamma irradiation prevented the growth of Aspergillus niger and the formation of skin scald in 'Golden Delicious' fruits. Immediately after treatment, gamma irradiation increased the softening of fruits, changed their color from green to yellow and decreased the pH value of the juice.
Article
The volatile oils of black pepper [Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae)], geranium [Pelargonium graveolens L'Herit (Geraniaceae)], nutmeg [Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae), oregano [Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (Link) Letsw. (Lamiaceae)] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae)] were assessed for antibacterial activity against 25 different genera of bacteria. These included animal and plant pathogens, food poisoning and spoilage bacteria. The volatile oils exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all the organisms under test while their major components demonstrated various degrees of growth inhibition.
Article
Mature and immature fruits of a Cretan Vitex agnus-castus L. population were chosen to investigate different parameters such as comminution, maturity, distillation period and extraction method influencing the essential oil yield and composition. The effect of the comminution and the maturity of the plant material showed highly significant differences in yield and composition of the essential oils obtained, as well as the distillation duration from one to five hours and the method applied (hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation extraction). The variation of 36 essential oil components due to the parameters applied was studied. The results showed that many different essential oil qualities can be obtained from the same plant material according to the parameters employed in its extraction. Entire fruits hydrodistilled for one hour yielded an oil much richer in monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds whereas the best combination to obtain an oil rich in less volatile compounds is by SDE of comminuted fruits for five hours. For mature fruits the main components varied as follows due to the parameters studied: sabinene 16.4-44.1%, 1,8-cineole 8.4-15.2%, beta-caryophyllene 2.1-5.0%, and trans-beta-farnesene 5.0-11.7%.
Article
The pharmacological effects of ethanolic Vitex agnus-castus fruit-extracts (especially Ze 440) and various extract fractions of different polarities were evaluated both by radioligand binding studies and by superfusion experiments. A relative potent binding inhibition was observed for dopamine D2 and opioid (micro and kappa subtype) receptors with IC50 values of the native extract between 20 and 70 mg/mL. Binding, neither to the histamine H1, benzodiazepine and OFQ receptor, nor to the binding-site of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter, was significantly inhibited. The lipophilic fractions contained the diterpenes rotun-difuran and 6beta,7beta-diacetoxy-13-hydroxy-labda-8,14-dien . They exhibited inhibitory actions on dopamine D2 receptor binding. While binding inhibition to mu and kappa opioid receptors was most pronounced in lipophilic fractions, binding to delta opioid receptors was inhibited mainly by a aqueous fraction. Standardised Ze 440 extracts of different batches were of constant pharmacological quality according to their potential to inhibit the binding to D2 receptors. In superfusion experiments, the aqueous fraction of a methanolic extract inhibited the release of acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the potent D2 receptor antagonist spiperone antagonised the effect of the extract suggesting a dopaminergic action mediated by D2 receptor activation. Our results indicate a dopaminergic effect of Vitex agnus-castus extracts and suggest additional pharmacological actions via opioid receptors.
Article
Vitex agnus castus L. (VAC) [Verbenaceae] is a deciduous shrub that is native to Mediterranean Europe and Central Asia. Traditionally, VAC fruit extract has been used in the treatment of many female conditions, including menstrual disorders (amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea), premenstrual syndrome (PMS), corpus luteum insufficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, infertility, acne, menopause and disrupted lactation. The German Commission E has approved the use of VAC for irregularities of the menstrual cycle, premenstrual disturbances and mastodynia. Clinical reviews are available for the efficacy of VAC in PMS, cycle disorders, hyperprolactinaemia and mastalgia, but so far no systematic review has been published on adverse events or drug interactions associated with VAC. Therefore, this review was conducted to evaluate all the available human safety data of VAC monopreparations. Literature searches were conducted in six electronic databases, in references lists of all identified papers and in departmental files. Data from spontaneous reporting schemes of the WHO and national drug safety bodies were also included. Twelve manufacturers of VAC-containing preparations and five herbalist organisations were contacted for additional information. No language restrictions were imposed. Combination preparations including VAC or homeopathic preparations of VAC were excluded. Data extraction of key data from all articles reporting adverse events or interactions was performed independently by at least two reviewers, regardless of study design. Data from clinical trials, postmarketing surveillance studies, surveys, spontaneous reporting schemes, manufacturers and herbalist organisations indicate that the adverse events following VAC treatment are mild and reversible. The most frequent adverse events are nausea, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, menstrual disorders, acne, pruritus and erythematous rash. No drug interactions were reported. Use of VAC should be avoided during pregnancy or lactation. Theoretically, VAC might also interfere with dopaminergic antagonists. Although further rigorous studies are needed to assess the safety of VAC, the data available seem to indicate that VAC is a safe herbal medicine.
Article
Extracts of Vitex agnus-castus fruits (VACF) are described to have beneficial effects on disorders related to hyperprolactinemia (cycle disorders, premenstrual syndrome). A VACF extract has recently been shown to exhibit antitumor activities in different human cancer cell lines. In the present study, we explored the antiproliferative effects of a VACF extract with a particular focus on apoptosis-inducing and potential cytotoxic effects. Three different human prostate epithelial cell lines (BPH-1, LNCaP, PC-3) representing different disease stages and androgen responsiveness were chosen. The action of VACF on cell viability was assessed using the WST-8-tetrazolium assay. Cell proliferation in cells receiving VACF alone or in combination with a pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-fmk) was quantified using a Crystal Violet assay. Flow cytometric cell cycle analysis and measurement of DNA fragmentation using an ELISA method were used for studying the induction of apoptosis. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was determined as a marker of cytotoxicity. The extract inhibited proliferation of all three cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner with IC (50) values below 10 microg/mL after treatment for 48 h. Cell cycle analysis and DNA fragmentation assays suggest that part of the cells were undergoing apoptosis. The VACF-induced decrease in cell number was partially inhibited by Z-VAD-fmk, indicating a caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. However, the concentration-dependent LDH activity of VACF treated cells indicated cytotoxic effects as well. These data suggest that VACF contains components that inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cell lines. The extract may be useful for the prevention and/or treatment not only of benign prostatic hyperplasia but also of human prostate cancer.
Monographie: Eucalyptol
Pharmaceutical Codex (1979). Monographie: Eucalyptol (11th ed.). London: The Pharmaceutical Press.
Phenols and chelators
  • J J Kabara
Kabara, J. J. (1991). Phenols and chelators. In N. J. Rusell & G. W. Gould (Eds.), Food preservatives (p. 200). London: Blackie.
Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (except ornamentals)
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Hanelt, P. (2001). Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (except ornamentals). Berlin: Springer.