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The antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities of extract and fractions from corn silk (Zea mays L.) and related flavone glycosides

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Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate both the antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities of extract and fractions from corn silk. N-butanol fraction (BF) demonstrated the highest total phenolic content (164.1 ± 9.7 μg GAE/g DCS) and total flavonoids content (69.4 ± 5.1 μg RE/g DCS), accompanied with the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions through all antioxidant assays. Two flavone glycosides showing potent antioxidant activity were isolated from BF and identified, by comparing spectral data (UV, FAB-MS and NMR) with literature values, to be isoorientin-2″-O-α-l-rhamnoside and 3′-methoxymaysin. The two isolated flavone glycosides, particularly isoorientin-2″-O-α-l-rhamnoside, demonstrated significant total antioxidant activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and iron-chelating capacity, with EC50 values of 14.24 ± 1.49, 22.69 ± 2.33, 6.58 ± 1.07 and 30.25 ± 3.05 μg/ml, respectively. Results obtained indicated that corn silk extracts can be used potentially as a ready accessible and valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.Research highlights► In this study, the antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities of crude ethanol extract and fractions of corn silk were systematically evaluated for the first time. ► Two flavone glycosides were isolated and identified from n-butanol fraction from corn silk, which demonstrated highest antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities. ► The antioxidant activities of the two isolated flavone glycosides were investigated for the first time and the result demonstrated that they were potent antioxidants. ► The results in this study may the possibility of using corn silk as source of low-cost natural antioxidant.

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... There are some literature reviews on yellow corn silk revealing that it contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Several reports have been published on biological effects of corn silk such as antiproliferative effects on human cancer cell lines, lipopolysaccharide-induced cell adhesion, antibiotic and antifungal, antioxidant effects, and anti-diabetic activity [8][9][10][11]. ...
... Hydro-alcoholic extract exhibited a good reducing power and was also a good bioactive source of natural antioxidants. Our results are similar to those found by other researchers, the hydro-ethanolic extract exhibited higher level of scavenging activity compared to the aqueous extract [8,38]. ...
... Significant correlation has been found between the reducing power activity and the TPC (R = 0.9792) and TFC (R = 0.9838) of corn silk fractions, indicating that the reducing power is highly related to the amount of phenolic compounds especially flavonoids that present in the extracts, which can serve as electron donor to terminate the radical chain reaction [8]. ...
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This study aims to investigate phytochemical screening, total polyphenol and flavonoids content, antioxidant activities and to examine toxicity, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of different extracts of stigmata of Zea mays from Morocco. The flavonoids and total phenols content were performed for both extracts. The aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extracts were screened for their possible antioxidant activities by three test systems, namely DPPH free radical-scavenging, reducing power and molybdenum system. Oral and Sub-acute toxicity of the hydro-ethanolic extract was evaluated in vivo. Anti-inflammatory activity of the hydro-ethanolic extract was evaluated by Carrageenaninduced rat paw edema method. The antinociceptive effect was tested by using the formalin test. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed a presence of flavonoids, leucoanthocyans, heterosid sterodic, coumarins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthocyanins and tannins. The flavonoids and total phenols content show higher content of flavonoids and total phenols in the hydro-ethanolic extract. It showed better antioxidant activity than the aqueous extract in the three methods used. Furthermore, the hydro-ethanolic extract with a concentration of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight inhibited the inflammation induced by carrageenan in rats at 66.67% and 86.67% compared to 60.8% for indomethacin at 10 mg/kg after 5 h of inflammation induction. However, at dose of 500 mg/kg extract showed a pro-inflammatory effect. In the formalin test, the tolerance time of the rats was significantly higher compared to the control group. These initial results tend to support the traditional use in the treatment of cystitis, oliguria, nephritis, renal lithiasis edema, albuminuria, heart disease, slimming cures of stigmata of Zea mays in Morocco.
... The adverse toxic and health risks of synthetic antioxidants have increased and this has attracted the attention of many researchers into the field of natural antioxidants (Mohammed et al., 2013) [17] . There is higher demand for natural antioxidants because they have the potential to provide protection against diseases that are free radical induced such as cancer and other cardiovascular diseases (Liu et al., 2011) [13] . Fruits and vegetables have been recognized to reduce the risk of chronic diseases on regular consumption due to their richness in antioxidants. ...
... The adverse toxic and health risks of synthetic antioxidants have increased and this has attracted the attention of many researchers into the field of natural antioxidants (Mohammed et al., 2013) [17] . There is higher demand for natural antioxidants because they have the potential to provide protection against diseases that are free radical induced such as cancer and other cardiovascular diseases (Liu et al., 2011) [13] . Fruits and vegetables have been recognized to reduce the risk of chronic diseases on regular consumption due to their richness in antioxidants. ...
... Other studies show corn has antioxidant activity and increases NO production by considering the inhibition of peroxynitrite formation induced by inhibition of tyrosine nitration [47]. The antioxidant activity of maize extracts is maybe due to the presence of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and ferulic acid [48]. Ohsaki et al. documented ferulic acid decrease blood pressure through the reduction of ACE activity [28]. ...
... Flavonoids of corn silk (FCS) have been investigated and confirmed to own various pharmaceutical activities such as, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antidiabetic (Liu et al., 2011). Nephroprotective effect of corn silk extract was also reported along with gentamicin renal toxicity (Sepehri et al., 2011). ...
... Flavonoids of corn silk (FCS) have been investigated and confirmed to own various pharmaceutical activities such as, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antidiabetic (Liu et al., 2011). Nephroprotective effect of corn silk extract was also reported along with gentamicin renal toxicity (Sepehri et al., 2011). ...
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The effects of different concentration of Arabic Gum (AG) and corn silk (CS) extracts against hepato-nephro toxicity which induced by gentamicin (GM) in experimental rats were investigated. 25 bioactive constituents in the extract of CS were investigated by GC-MS analysis; Phytol (3.325 μg/g) was the major constituent with antioxidant properties and can reduce free-radical generation in an in-vitro experimental system. GM at a dose 80 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (ip) for 8 sequential days was used to induce nephrotoxicity, manifested biochemically by a significant increase in serum creatinine, blood urea and uric acid. In addition, liver enzymes, Total Bilirubin increased and total protein decreased. All extracts showed a significant effect in improving kidney function, liver enzymes, total protein and Bilirubin. The histopathological investigation of liver and kidney in rats injected with GM showed that, the best improvement in liver enzymes were obtained by using 20% Arabic Gum Extract (AGE) +5% Corn Silk Extract (CSE) and 10% AGE ,while using 10% CSE, 10% AGE and 20% AGE improved kidney function compared with control (+) group.
... Also, Z.mays hairs, as an essential part of maize, have high pharmaceutical values, for example, it is a urinary emulsifier, which passes stones and gravel from the kidneys and bladder; these hairs work against benign prostatic hyperplasia, cystitis, gout, chronic nephritis, and other similar diseases [3]. In previous studies, a series of phenolic compounds such as rutin, quercetin, epicatechin, vanillic acid, gallic acid, and flavone have been identified and isolated from Z. mays hairs [4][5][6]. Polyphenols (containing at least two phenolic groups (hydroxybenzenes)) are present in most plant foods and have been considered as "antinutrients" [7,8]. Pharmacological studies have shown that phenolic compounds have an important function in human health [9], including anticancer actions [3,10] and antioxidant activity [11]. ...
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The aim of this study was to achieve the best extraction efficiency of the hydroethanolic extract of Zea mays hairs. The impacts of ethanol concentration, extraction time, and solvent /material ratio were studied in relation to the performance of Zea mays extracts by ultrasonic extraction at 50 kHz and room temperature. All extracts were quantitatively characterized in terms of polyphenol content. Response surface methodology (RSM) was carried out to optimize the extraction process and increase extraction efficiency. In the experiments, different concentrations of ethanol:water were used. The efficiency of the extraction process was determined from an analysis of variance (ANOVA). The maximum extraction efficiency of the hydroethanolic extraction (31.37%) and the quantitative value of the polyphenol content (257.87 mg EAG/g extract) were obtained using a treatment time of 40 min, an ethanol:water (70 : 30), and a solvent/material ratio (11 mL/g). The results obtained indicate that ultrasonic-assisted extraction is an effective method for extracting natural compounds from Zea mays, thus allowing the full use of this abundant and inexpensive industrial waste.
... Chemical compounds that belong to the antioxidant group are the polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids [4] . Flavonoid compounds can act as natural antioxidants because they have activity in binding oxygen radicals and inhibiting peroxidation [5] . The primary use of antioxidants is to stop or break the chain reaction of free radicals to save the body from damage due to free radicals. ...
... This result is not much different when compared with previous studies, which stated that AME has a total flavonoid level of 2.10% ± 0.24%. Compared to other extracts such as Zea mays L. peel extract with a total flavonoid content of 6.94% ± 0.51% (31), that of Alpinia galangal L. amounted to 1.378% (32) and that of Citrus hystrix peel amounted to 11.47% (33). The total flavonoids contained in AME were likely to be quite a lot. Figure 1. ...
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Annona muricata L. extract (AME) exhibits cytotoxic activities on various types of cancer cells. This study aims to unveil the anticancer activity of AME as a cotreatment agent with doxorubicin (dox) on 4T1 cells and AME's relation to senescence. AME was obtained by maceration using 96% ethanol. AME was then subjected to qualitative analysis using TLC compared to quercetin (hRf = 75). Spectrophotometry analysis of AME resulted in a total flavonoid content of 2.3% ± 0.05%. Cytotoxic evaluation using the MTT assay revealed that AME showed an IC50 value of 63 µg/mL, while its combination (25 µg/mL) with dox (10 nM) decreased the viability of 4T1 cells to 58 % (CI = 0.15). Flowcytometry using propidium iodide staining confirmed that AME (13 and 25 µg/mL) caused cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase as a single treatment and G2/M arrest in combination with dox. However, by using the dichloro dihydrofluorescein diacetate staining assay, it turned out that AME at concentrations of 13 and 25 µg/mL decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels both as a single treatment and in combination with dox. Senescence-associated β - galactosidase assay showed that AME decreased dox-induced senescence. AME alone and in combination with dox (cotreatment) showed cytotoxic effect synergistically on 4T1 cells, but this was not caused by an increase in intracellular ROS levels as well as senescence induction. Therefore, AME showed its potential to be a cotreatment agent with antioxidant property on triple-negative breast cancer cells.
... also reported that maysin (a C-glycoside flavone from centipedegrass) and its precursor chemical components could exhibit anti-oxidative activity via DPPH radical scavenging in vitro antioxidant model (5), and protect SK-N-MC cell lines against inhibition of H 2 O 2 -induced apoptotic cell death (6). Despite these health benefits of maysin and flavonoid derivatives, its cytoprotective effects against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced cell death in fibroblasts and the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated yet. ...
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Centipedegrass originates from China and South America, and has been reported to contain several C-glycosyl flavones and phenolic compounds, including maysin and luteolin. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective activity of centipedegrass extract (CGE) in radiation exposed-fibroblasts and to assess the affected molecular pathway. The radioprotective effects of CGE were determined in NIH-3T3 cells using Cell Counting Kit-8 and morphological changes were observed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the apoptotic profile of NIH-3T3 cells were also measured. The expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family proteins [Bcl-2, Bcl-2 like protein 4 (Bax), Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad), caspase-3, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)], AKT and MAPK family proteins (ERK, p38 and JNK) were measured in vitro. The results demonstrated that when 3T3 fibroblasts pretreated with CGE were subjected to H2O2-induced cell damage, their viability was significantly decreased. Additionally, CGE pretreatment decreased ROS levels and the protein expression levels of cleaved PARP upon H2O2 treatment, indicating that CGE induced cytoprotective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, significant protective effects of CGE against intracellular ROS, induced upon exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), were observed. The protective effects of CGE pretreatment were also determined by morphological observation of NIH-3T3 cells following exposure to IR. CGE pretreatment increased the expression levels of anti-apoptotic signals (Bcl-2, p-BAD) and decreased the levels of pro-apoptotic signals (Bax, Bad), and led to cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 proteins. Additionally, in cells pretreated with CGE, the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK was increased and that of p38 and JNK was decreased compared with in cells subjected only to IR. These results indicated that CGE may act as a radioprotector due to its anti-oxidative activity, restoring cell homeostasis and redox balance in radiation-exposed fibroblast cells. Therefore, it could be suggested that CGE may be an effective candidate in the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases and in radioprotection.
... Contrary to the results of our study, the amount of carbohydrate and protein present was 27.8 g and 5.7 g, respectively, in a research carried out by Solihah et al. [13] The study by Jun et al. [14] showed the nutritional composition of the matured corn silk. Carbohydrate and protein percentage of matured corn silk is 29.74% and 8.95%, respectively. ...
... Traditionally, tannins are also used for the treatment of diarrhoea, haemorrhage, detoxification etc. 46,47 . Studies have shown that flavonoids and phenolic compounds present in plants have a wide variety of biological effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anti-allergic properties etc. 48 . ...
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Plants are excellent sources of functionally bioactive compounds and essential nutrients. The phytochemical constituents have enormous potential in treating both plant and human diseases. Parkia timoriana (Yongchak/Zawngtah), one of the most important underutilized plants popularly consumed in Manipur and Mizoram states of Northeastern region of India, is known for its ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal values. A significant DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), and Phosphomolybdate scavenging activity corresponding to high antioxidant potentials was shown by the extracts from different edible parts of P. timoriana. P. timoriana extract showed significant antibacterial potential against Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtillis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses of the extracts revealed the functional groups and bioactive compounds present in different edible parts of the plant. Characteristic peaks of phenols, carboxylic acids, alkenes, glycogen, alkyl halides, halogen, aliphatic amines, primary and secondary amines, esters, ether, aromatics, lipids, triglycerides, nitro compounds that had antimicrobial, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties etc. were observed. The GC–MS analysis also revealed the occurrence of 49 bioactive compounds that are known to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. Subsequently, in silico molecular docking studies of the identified bioactive compounds predicted potential anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first-hand report on the bioactive compounds of edible parts of P. timoriana extracts showing antioxidant, antimicrobial and pharmacological significance. This study can lead to the production of new herbal medicines for various diseases employing P. timoriana and perhaps leading to the creation of new medications.
... Grub senyawa bioaktif yang sebelumnya dilaporkan dapat diekstrak oleh etil asetat adalah alkaloid, aglicon, dan senyawa glikosida, sterol, terpenoid, dan flavonoid (Dehkharghanian et al., 2010;Liu et al., 2011;Widyawati et al. 2014). Penelitian ini juga memberikan informasi tambahan bahwa pelarut etil asetat juga mampu menarik senyawa fenol dan saponin dari dalam media kultur kapang. ...
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The Trichoderma asperellum MT02 has been reported to has antibacterial activity against the Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) E. coli based on the screening results through an agar plug method. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of T. asperellum MT02 and characterize the composition of the bioactive compounds group possessed in its crude extract. The isolate was cultured in the Malt Extract Broth (MEB) media (static, 27 oC, 15 days). The intracellular metabolites from mycelium were extracted using methanol while extracellular metabolites from broth media were extracted using ethyl acetate. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts was tested using the paper disc diffusion method while bioactive compounds were characterized using the phytochemical method. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of the broth media extract performed a greater activity than the crude extract from the mycelium. The crude extract from mycelia only contained flavonoid and phenol hydroquinone compounds while the crude extract from broth media contains alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols hydroquinone and saponins. Kapang Trichoderma asperellum MT02 telah dilaporkan memiliki potensi sebagai penghasil senyawa antibakteri melawan Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) E. coli berdasarkan hasil penapisan melalui metode agar plug. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak kasar kapang T. asperellum MT02 serta komposisi golongan senyawa bioaktif yang dimiliki. Kapang dikultur pada media Malt Extract Broth (MEB) (statis, 27 oC, 15 hari) di mana metabolit intraseluler dari miselium diekstrak menggunakan metanol sedangkan metabolit ekstraseluler dari media kaldu diekstrak menggunakan etil asetat. Aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak kasar diuji menggunakan metode difusi kertas cakram sedangkan senyawa bioaktif dikarakterisasi menggunakan metode fitokimia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas antibakteri asal ekstrak media kaldu lebih baik dibandingkan ekstrak kasar asal miselium kapang. Ekstrak kasar kapang asal miselia hanya mengandung senyawa golongan flavonoid dan fenol hidrokuinon sedangkan ekstrak kasar asal media kaldu mengandung alkaloid, flavonoid, fenol hidroquinon dan saponin.
... Antioxidants effectively inhibit and neutralize free radical reactions by providing hydrogen or electron to the reaction chain [13]. Antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and others from synthetic sources are applied in food protection against oxidative damages [14]; however, concerns regarding the side effects of them have been increased among scientists and nutritionists. Therefore, the exploration of economical and physiological justified natural antioxidants rather than synthetic resources is of interest [5,15,16]. ...
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... FRAP is a parameter that quantifies antioxidant activity related to the electron-donating capability of a molecule. e Fe 3+ in K 3 Fe(CN) 6 is reduced to Fe 2+ in the presence of an antioxidant, which results in the initial yellow test solution turning green or blue [36]. High FRAP values were obtained for all solvents in this study, with the exception of DW, and decreased in the order: aqueous methanol > aqueous acetone > aqueous ethanol >> pure water. ...
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BACKGROUND Zizyphus jujube Miller cv. Dongzao is extremely susceptible to reddening, browning, nutritional loss and perishability after harvest. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms of calcium chloride and chitosan/nano‐silica composite film treatments on the quality, especially in reddening by physiological and metabolomic assays. RESULTS The treatment delayed the decline of phenylalanine ammonia‐lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), and chalcone isomerase (CHI) activities. Meanwhile, the treated groups retarded the increases in anthocyanin and quercetin contents by inhibiting the gene expressions of flavonol synthase (FaFLS ), dihydroflavonol 4‐reductase (FaDFR ) and anthocyanidin synthase (FaANS ), while promoting leucoanthocyanidin reductase (FaLAR ) expression, which leads to retardation of fruit reddening. Anthocyanins were found to be responsible for post‐harvest winter jujube reddening through principal component analysis (PCA). Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) results indicated that the treated group delayed the decline of the quality of Dongzao and extended its shelf life. CONCLUSION The treatment induced the heightening of flavonoids metabolism. They enhanced the nutritional value and the ability to resist stress by delaying the decline of PAL, CHS, and CHI activities. Meanwhile, the treated groups retarded the increase in anthocyanin and quercetin contents by inhibiting the gene expressions of FaFLS , FaDFR and FaANS and promoting FaLAR expression, which leads to retardation of fruit reddening. Anthocyanins is to be responsible for post‐harvest winter jujube reddening. Coating treatment effectively delayed the decline of winter jujube quality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Aim: To evaluate the protective and therapeutic potentials of corn silk extract on gentamicin (CN)-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. Study Design: The rats were randomly selected and grouped as follows: Group 1 (NC): Were given only food and water. They served as negative control. Group 2 (PC): Were treated with 80 mg/kg/day of CN over a period of 7 days. They served as the positive control. Protective Treatment: Group 3a (CN+CSP 200 mg/kg): Concurrently treated with 200 mg/kg corn silk extract and 80 mg/kg/day of CN for 7 days. 200 mg/kg corn silk extract continued for 30 days. Group 3b (CN+CSP 400 mg/kg): Concurrently treated with 400 mg/kg corn silk extract and 80 mg/kg of CN for seven days. 400 mg/kg corn silk extract continued for 30 days. Therapeutic treatment: Group 4a (CN+CST 200 mg/kg): Induction of nephrotoxicity with 80 mg/kg/day of CN for seven days before the administration of 200 mg/kg of corn silk extract for 30 days. Group 4b (CN+CST 400 Original Research Article Nwachuku et al.; JOCAMR, 11(4): 13-23, 2020; Article no.JOCAMR.61894 14 mg/kg): Induction of nephrotoxicity with 80 mg/kg/day of CN for 7 days before the administration of 400 mg/kg of corn silk extract for 30 days. Methodology: At the end of the treatment, the animals were allowed to fast for 18 hours and later anaesthetized using chloroform. Whole blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture and put into lithium heparin bottles. The samples were then spun at 3500 rpm for 5 minutes to obtain plasma. Kidney specimens harvested were fixed in 10% formol saline. Sections were prepared using histological techniques and stained using Haematoxylin and Eosin stain. Urea was analysed using Berthelot's enzymatic colorimetric method, creatinine using Jaffe's enzyme-kinetic method while the estimation of Na + , K + , and Cl-were performed using Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) analyzer. Results: Significantly lower (p<0.05) values of creatinine and urea were seen in protective and therapeutic treatment groups when compared against positive control. Potassium indicated significantly lower values especially in the therapeutic groups when compared against negative control while chloride indicated significantly higher values in 400 mg/kg rats compared with positive control at p<0.05. Histology of the protective treatment groups showed slightly distorted glomerular space, vacuolations, and dilated proximal and distal tubules. The positive control and the therapeutic treatment groups indicated severely damaged glomerulus, glomerular space, proximal and distal tubules as well as loss of parenchymal materials and presence of kupffer cell infiltration were seen but less severe in the therapeutic group compared to the positive control. Conclusion: The results obtained suggest protective and therapeutic potentials of corn silk extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. However, the therapeutic efficacy was progressively gradual and not be fast-effective as documented in most traditional or herbal literatures.
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The effect of four different extraction methods on physicochemical characteristics and functionalities of chloro-phycocyanin (CP) was investigated. Swelling (S-CP), freezing and thawing (4FT-CP), ultrasonication with freezing and thawing (4FT+U-CP), and the high-pressure cell disruption (HPCD-CP) process affected CP differently, thus resulting in different levels of solubility, DPPH scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity, and reducing power. Among the four CPs, HPCD-CP had the highest CP content (15.3%), purity (1.66 ± 0.16), and ∆E value but the lowest ∆b value. The ζ potential of HPCD-CP (−38.8 mV) was the highest, but the average particle size of 4FT+U-CP (719.1 nm) was the highest. UV-Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra illustrated that high-pressure cell disruption-assisted extraction had more profound impacts on the microenvironment of tetrapyrrole chromophores, the environment of aromatic amino acids, and the phycocyanobilin of CP. Furthermore, HPCD-CP and 4FT-CP showed higher solubility and antioxidant activities than S-CP, especially 4FT+U-CP. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that HPCD technology could obtain a food-grade C-phycocyanin product with higher CP concentration, purity, solubility, and antioxidant activity.
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The discovery of new natural additives from agro-industrial waste is considered an important research topic. This study investigated the feasibility of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of antioxidant compounds from corn stigma (CS) and the effect of independent variables (time and solid-solvent ratio) and their interaction in the extraction of CS. Results indicated that the UAE method increases the antioxidant activity and reduces the extraction time by 67%. Optimized conditions for the simultaneous extraction of antioxidants and polyphenols from CS were obtained using 5 min and a solid-solvent ratio of 0.05 g mL-1. The CS extract obtained by UAE was characterized by ESI-ToF-MS and 27 phytochemicals were reported. The extract showed promising antifungal and antibacterial activities against 23 of the studied microorganisms. Therefore, the CS extract obtained by the UAE can be used as a source of bioactive and antimicrobial compounds for use as a functional ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical industry.
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summary The current study aimed to evaluate the preventive and curative role of aqueous extracts of Apium graveolens and Eruca sativa against the anemia induced by Phenyl hydrazine in albino rats. The study was conducted in the animal house of the Iraqi Center for Cancer and Medical Genetics Research / Al-Mustansiriya University (ICCMGR) for the period from 1/12/2020 to 15/2/2021. The study included (45) white rats, Rattus norvegicus (Albino Rat), with an age ranging between (8-12) weeks and a weight ranging between (200-300 g). And in laboratory conditions of lighting, darkness, cleaning and temperatures. The study was designed by distributing the animals into groups that included each group of 5 animals that were as follows: the first group (A) positive control, the second group (B) negative control with phenyl hydrazine-induced anemia, and the third group (C) suffering from induced anemia treated with aqueous extract The celery plant had a concentration of 150 mg/ kg, and the fourth group (D) had induced anemia treated with aqueous extract of the watercress plant at a concentration (250 mg/ kg), The fifth group (E) had induced anemia treated with aqueous extract of celery 150 mg / kg and watercress 250 mg / kg, the sixth group (F) had induced anemia treated with aqueous extract of celery at a concentration of 150 mg / kg and watercress 250 mg / kg and iron 4 mg/ kg), the seventh group (G) was injected with PHZ 60 mg / kg, after an hour, the aqueous extract of celery was dosed 150 mg / kg, and the eighth group (H) was injected with PHZ 60 mg /kg, and an hour later, the aqueous extract of watercress was dosed 250 mg / kg, and the ninth group (I) had induced anemia and treated with iron 4 mg / kg . The study included a qualitative and quantitative examination of celery and watercress plants, identifying the effects of the aqueous extracts of plants in the current study and blood parameters CBC, determining the effective dose, calculating the correlation coefficient, calculating some coagulation factors, b prothrombin time PT, International Normalized Ratio INR, calcium Ca, and measuring the oxidation variables Malondialdehyde MDA and lactate Dehydrogenase LDH, Superoxide dismutase SOD, Glutathione peroxidase GPX, and Glutathione GSH, measurement of liver function variables, alkaline phosphatase ALP, Alanine Transaminase ALT, Aspartate Transaminase AST, and renal function parameters Urea, Creatinine, and Erythropoietin (EPO). The results of the current study of blood tests showed a significant increase (p < 0.01) in the values of WBC and MCV and a decrease in RBC and Hb values in the negative control group compared to the positive control. The groups (C, D, E, F, G, I) also showed a decrease Highly significant (p < 0.01) in MCV and WBC values compared to the negative control, and RBC and Hb values increased compared to the negative control, except for MCV values, Group (G) did not show any significant differences compared to the negative control, while group (H) indicated high levels of (RBC , Hb, MCV), while it did not indicate any significant differences in WBC values, and there were no significant differences in PLT values for all experimental groups compared to the negative control. As well as for clotting factors and calcium, it showed no significant differences for the negative control compared to the positive, as well as the experiment groups showed no significant differences compared to the negative control, except for group (I) a significant decrease (p < 0.01) for calcium values, as well as in the group (E) indicated a high decrease Significant (p < 0.01) in the level of clotting factors compared to the negative control. As for the oxidants, the results indicated that there were significant differences (p < 0.01) in the oxidation level of (LDH, MDA) values in the negative group compared to the positive control. The rest of the experimental groups for the values of (LDH and MDA) showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.01) compared with the negative control. The results also showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.01) in the level of antioxidant variables (GSH GPX) for the c negative control compared with the positive control. Positive control, while it did not indicate any differences with the (SOD) variable. The study also did not indicate any significant differences for the experimental groups of (SOD) values compared with the negative group, except for group (I), which showed a highly significant (p < 0.01), As for (GPX) values, significant differences (p < 0.01) were noted, as the level of the variable increased for all groups compared with the negative control, except for group (C) which did not show any significant differences, Also (GSH) values indicated a highly significant increase (p < 0.01) in the variable level for all groups compared with the negative control, except for the (H) group, which did not show any significant differences. Liver function indicated that there were highly significant differences (p <0.01) in the level of (AST, ALP) compared to the positive control, while it did not indicate a statistically significant difference in the values of (ALT). The study also showed that there were highly significant differences (p < 0.01) in the ALP level for all study groups compared with the negative control. As for the level of (AST) a significant decrease (p < 0.01) was recorded for groups (E, H, I) compared to the negative control, while no significant differences were observed for the rest of the groups, while (ALT) values indicated that there were no significant differences for all groups compared to the negative control. The values of urea and creatinine indicated that there were no significant differences for the affected control compared to the positive control, and the values of urea recorded a highly significant (p < 0.01) in groups (C, D) and a highly significant decrease in group (I) compared to the negative control. While no significant differences were observed for the rest of the groups, while there were no significant differences in creatinine values for all groups compared to the negative control, and the results of the study did not show any significant differences between the negative control and the positive control in the (EPO) variable, as well as no significant differences were observed. For the d rest of the groups (D, E, F, H,I) compared to the negative control with the exception of group (C, G) significant differences (p<0.01) were noted, as (EPO) recorded a highly significant increase for both groups. We conclude from the current study that PHZ induces anemia in rats and affects the levels of blood variables, oxidation and antioxidants. Medicinal herbs can be considered a good tool for treating anemia because herbal plants contain substances such as flavonoids, phenols and coumarins that contain strong antioxidant properties to remove radicals. The study proved that the use of celery and watercress plants in the treatment of anemia gave valuable results, because the composition of the plant and its medicinal properties stimulate the production of red blood cells in anemia disease.
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Management of glycaemic response is perhaps the most critical part of antidiabetic therapy. Hypoglycaemia is an avoidable complication caused by conventional drugs used in the treatment of diabetes. It triggers commonly during the intensification of anti-hyperglycemic therapy used to render glycemic control in diabetic patients. The commercial oral hypoglycaemic drugs, insulin, herbal medicines and plant extracts are therefore used as a part of the treatment of diabetes. The demand for treating diabetes, through herbal and plant resources is due to their lesser adverse reactions and better phytochemical benefits. Corn silk has been shown to have anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hypertensive effects when extracted in various solvents. Corn silk has medicinal characteristics and has long been used as a traditional medicine in many nations, although the mechanism of action is unknown. The hypoglycaemic effects of corn silk are investigated in this review. The phytochemical components present in corn silk-like flavonoids, phenolics, terpenoids, tannins, sterols, and alkaloids are phytochemical components that have hypoglycemic activity and a mechanism for lowering blood glucose levels. There is a lack of a homogenized database on the hypoglycemic properties of corn silk thus the present review attempts to critically analyse it and provide specific recommendations of its doses.
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Corn Silk is a beneficial herb that possesses health-promoting nutrients, including flavonoids. It has been found safe for human consumption and used to treat many diseases like urinary tract infections, asthma, hypertension, dropsy, and pathological swelling. It has also been found advantageous against oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, urinary tract infections, edema, prostate disorders, cystitis, obesity, nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction. The phytochemical in Corn Silk possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The bioactive compounds in Corn Silk that are beneficial for health include vitamins, carbohydrates, magnesium, proteins, calcium, sodium and magnesium salts, alkaloids, steroids, volatile salts, potassium, flavonoids, and many other phenolic compounds. Maysin is one of the flavonoids in Corn Silk. This review highlights the therapeutic effects of Corn Silk in healthcare.
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Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis ( Engl. corn silk) are well known in medical practice. In the scientific literature, a lot of information has been accumulated about the chemical composition and pharmacotherapeutic actions of this medicinal plant material. A chronological analysis of this information shows that earlier, the scope of scientific publications was mainly devoted to the study of the choleretic, diuretic, hemostatic kinds of Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis activity, and the identification of the active substances responsible for these types of action. Currently, there is a growing scientific interest not only in the individual natural compounds of the Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis composition, but also in the search for new aspects of their medical application. The aim of the article is a review and systematization of modern scientific data in the field of the Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis chemical composition and their pharmacological action. Materials and methods. For the information and analytical search, the scientific data posted on the following electronic resources were used: PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, eLibrary. The search was carried out in the period from 2005 to 2021 using the following keywords: Zea mays L.; Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis ; corn silk; chemical composition; pharmacological action. Results. The review is devoted to the generalization and analysis of modern scientific data on the Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis chemical composition and their pharmacological action. It has been shown that, as before, the greatest attention of scientists is attracted by flavonoids in the Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis chemical composition. Alongside with them, phenolcarboxylic acids, vitamin K, phytosterols, volatile compounds and polysaccharides are of no small importance for the Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis pharmacological activity. Modern ideas about the Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis pharmacological activity have been expanded by summarizing the study results of their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, hypotensive, neuro- and photoprotective activities. The data on the effectiveness of their use as parts of the complex tumor diseases therapy have been published. Conclusion. As a result of the data analysis of modern scientific literature, it has been found out that Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis are still in the sphere of scientists’ interest. Alongside with the flavonoids of this raw material, other groups of pharmacologically active substances are also being actively studied. It has been revealed that the information about potentially significant and confirmed types of the Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis therapeutic action is significantly updated. The results of this review may be useful for identifying promising directions for the development of the drugs based on Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis .
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Response surface technique was employed for improving the extraction of corn silk polysaccharides (CSP). Temperature, liquid-to-solid ratio, and per extraction time were all examined as separate factors. The optimal extraction parameters were determined by fitting experimental data to a second-order polynomial; a liquid-to-solid ratio of 21.5 ml/g, temperature equivalent to 88°C, and extraction time of 1.87 h. The experimental yield of the extracted polysaccharides following the application of these conditions was 4.33 ± 0.08% (dry weight), which fit quite well with the predicted value. CSP’s strong scavenging capabilities against hydroxyls, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, and superoxide anions along with its excellent reducing potential, were demonstrated in an in vitro antioxidant experiment. Meanwhile, in vivo testing revealed that CSP substantially enhanced glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. The Malondialdehyde levels in the liver and serum of aged mice also underwent a decrease. This study found that CSP has a substantial antioxidant potential in vitro and in vivo , suggesting that it might be used as an antioxidant in food and medicine.
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When harvesting corn, corn silk was discarded as waste, including the compounds isolated and identified from corn silk such as flavonoids, sterols, alkaloids, polysaccharides, organic acids, volatile oils, trace elements, and multivitamins. It not only pollutes the environment but also wastes resources. In this paper, extraction methods commonly used for extracting flavonoids from corn silk were reviewed, such as reagent method, enzymatic method, microwave, supercritical CO2 extraction, ultrasonic, and microwave-assisted ultrasonic. Flavonoids are natural antioxidants and have application value in scavenging free radicals, inhibiting bacteria, and regulating blood lipids. The in vitro biological activities of flavonoids from corn silk extracted by different extraction methods were also compared.
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Cornsilk is maize waste containing phenolic compounds. In this study, freeze-drying, spray-drying, and microwave-drying techniques were evaluated for the encapsulation of cornsilk's phenolic compounds using maltodextrin as wall material. The results of antioxidant properties showed that freeze-drying was more efficient than microwave-drying and spray-drying techniques. The highest recovery of phenolic compounds was obtained with freeze-drying. The microstructure, DSC, and FTIR data showed that the encapsulation process was effective, and freeze-drying was the best drying technique. The physical properties of the microparticles greatly changed with the drying techniques. This study revealed that the phenolic compounds of the cornsilk extract can be successfully encapsulated and valorized.
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This work evaluated the modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the cisplatin–human DNA interaction in a cell-free experimental model by the carotenoids bixin and lycopene, extracted from natural dietary sources and purified through luminol- and Cypridina luciferin methoxy-analogue (MCLA)-enhanced chemiluminescence assays. The results showed that the ROS generation by DNA–cisplatin interaction was inhibited by both lycopene and bixin in a concentration-dependent manner. At a concentration of 100μM, lycopene and bixin inhibited superoxide anion (O2-) generation at 90% and 82%, respectively, and the total ROS generation at 44% and 42%, respectively. The formation of significant amounts of isomers or degradation products of both carotenoids was not observed after ROS scavenging, as evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Taken together, these results suggest that carotenoids can be helpful to modulate the oxidative stress found in cancer therapy with cisplatin.
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This article has been retracted at the request of the editors and authors. Please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy).Reason: This paper appears to be very similar to another paper by the same authors which was published about the same time: “Tissue Culture of Some Lichens and Screening of Their Antioxidant, Antityrosinase and Antibacterial Properties”, B.C. Behera, Neeraj Verma, Anjali Sonone and Urmila Makhija, Phytother. Res., 21 (2007) 1159–1170.The similarity is too great to justify two primary publications.
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The antioxidant activity of extracts from bark and heartwood of Acacia confusa was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including free radical and superoxide radical scavenging assays and lipid peroxidation assay as well as hydroxyl radical-induced DNA strand scission assay. In addition, an ex vivo antioxidant assay using a flow cytometric technique was also employed in this study. The results indicate that both bark and heartwood extracts clearly have strong antioxidant effects. Similar inhibitory activities for each test sample were found for both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical generation and lipid peroxidation. As for the superoxide radical scavenging activity, the heartwood extract was more effective than the bark extract. Furthermore, the heartwood extract protected ΦX174 supercoiled DNA against strand scission induced by ultraviolet photolysis of H2O2, and it reduced the amounts of intracellular hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species, when it was co-incubated with human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells under oxidative stress. Keywords: Acacia confusa; antioxidant activity; lipid peroxidation; reactive oxygen species; flow cytometry
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Reduced derivatives of maysin [2 ''-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl-6-C-(6-deoxy-xylo-hexos-4-ulosyl)luteolin] and 3'-methoxymaysin have been isolated and identified from several corn (Zea mays L.) inbreds. These include 2 ''-O-alpha-L-rhamnasyl-6-C-quinovosylluteolin (equatorial 4 ''-OH-maysin, eq-4 ''-OH-maysin), 2 ''-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl-6-C-fucosylluteolin (axial 4 ''-OH-maysin, ax-4 ''-OH-maysin), and 2 ''-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl-6-C-fucosyl-3'-methoxyluteolin (ax-4 ''-OH-3'-methoxymaysin). In addition to maysin and 3'-methoxymaysin, inbred Tx501 contains minor amounts of ax-4 ''-OH-maysin and ax-4 ''-OH-3'methoxymaysin. Corn Lines A103, GE275, ESDJ1, and CML131 contained relatively large levels of both ax-4 ''-OH-maysin and eq-4 ''-OH-maysin. Synthetic 4 ''-OH-maysin (obtained by NaBH4 reduction of maysin) was tested for growth inhibition of corn earworm (Helicoverpa tea Boddie) larvae in a laboratory bioassay and found to be almost as active as maysin, suggesting that incorporation by breeders of these compounds into silks could enhance the resistance of corn to corn earworm larvae.
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This study evaluated the antioxidative activities of 50% ethanolic extract from red bean (Phaseolus radiatus L. var. Aurea). The antioxidative activities, including α,α-diphenyl-β-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging effects, Fe2+-chelating ability, and reducing power, were studied in vitro. The antioxidative activity was found to increase with the concentration of the extract to a certain extent and then level off as the concentration further increased. Compared with commercial antioxidants, the red bean extract showed less scavenging effect on the DPPH radical and less reducing power than α-Tocopherol and BHT, but better Fe2+-chelating ability. No mutagenic effect toward any tester strains was found in the 50% ethanolic extract of red bean.
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The growing interest in the substitution of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on vegetable sources and the screening of raw materials for identifying new antioxidants. Oxidation reactions are not an exclusive concern for the food industry, and antioxidants are widely needed to prevent deterioration of other oxidisable goods, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and plastics. Polyphenols are the major plant compounds with antioxidant activity, although they are not the only ones. In addition, other biological properties such as anticarcinogenicity, antimutagenicity, antiallergenicity and antiaging activity have been reported for natural and synthetic antioxidants. Special attention is focussed on their extraction from inexpensive or residual sources from agricultural industries. The aim of this review, after presenting general aspects about natural antioxidants, is to focus on the extraction of antioxidant compounds (mainly polyphenols) from agricultural and industrial wastes, as well as to summarize available data on the factors affecting their antioxidant activity and stability, and, in some cases, the reported major active compounds identified.
Article
The antioxidant activities of different polarity solvents extracts from barley were evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including reducing power, free radical scavenging and lipid oxidation inhibition. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants, butylated hydroxyluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (Vit. C). The properties of the extracting solvents significantly affected the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activities of barley extract. The highest contents of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins were obtained from extraction with 70% acetone. For three different solvent extracts, the antioxidant activities were in this order: 70% acetone extract > 70% ethanol extract ⩾ 70% methanol extract. Reducing powers of three extracts and their scavenging effects on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals were effective at amount of 200 μg. The 70% acetone extract of barley exhibited high antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system, which was not significantly (P < 0.05) different from BHT during the incubation time.
Article
Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-Alzheimer active compounds from the root of Angelica sinensis. In this study, the ability of Angelica root to inhibit the aggregated amyloid β-peptide (agg Aβ1-40) induced damage of differentiated PC-12 cells (dPC-12), a well-known cell model for Alzheimer disease, was investigated. Air-dried roots of A. sinensis were extracted with methanol and then separated into ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water layers. Among them, only the ethyl acetate layer showed strong activity and therefore, subjected to separation and purification using various chromatographic techniques. Four compounds showing potent activity were identified by comparing spectral data (UV, NMR, and ESI-MS) with literature values to be Z-ligustilide, 11-angeloylsenkyunolide F, coniferyl ferulate and ferulic acid. They were found to significantly inhibit Aβ1-40 toxicity on dPC-12 cells at lower concentrations (1–10 μg/ml), but at high concentrations (>50 μg/ml) they were toxic to the dPC-12 cells, except 11-angeloylsenkyunolide F. DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts and isolated compounds have also been carried out to find the possible mechanism of the activity.
Article
Yams (the tubers of the Dioscorea spp.), consumed and regarded as medicinal food in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, are seasonal foods and easily deteriorate during storage. It is of great importance to prolong the storage of yams for supplying in the off-season and without losing nutritional functionality. Three varieties of yams, Dioscorea alata (cultivars of Tai-Nung no. 2 and Ta-Shan) and D. purpurea (cultivar of Ming-Chien), were made into flours by freeze-drying, hot air-drying, and drum-drying in this report. The proximate compositions and physical properties, as well as antioxidant activities, of yam flours were determined. While drying methods showed significant effects on the moisture contents of yam flours, they had no marked effects on other components of yam flours. Colour attributes and physical properties were all affected by drying methods to different extents. While freeze-drying usually preserved more antioxidant activity of the yam flours, yam flours made of different yam varieties showed different antioxidant mechanisms.
Article
There has been growing interest in the beneficial health effects of consuming fruits and vegetables. Mainly, the presence of phenolic antioxidants is believed to have the protective mechanisms. In the present study the fruit of Dillenia indica was extracted with ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activity of the extracts was assayed through some in vitro models such as antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method, β-carotene-linoleate model system, and radical scavenging activity using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The total phenolic contents of the fruit extracts as tannic acid equivalents were found to be highest in methanol extract (34.1%) followed by ethyl acetate extract (9.3%) and water extract (1.4%). Antioxidant capacity of the extracts as equivalent to ascorbic acid (μmole/g of the extract) was in the order of methanol extract > ethyl acetate extract > water extract. In comparison with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), at 100 ppm of concentration, the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of the extracts assayed through β-carotene-linoleate model system, and DPPH method were also found to be highest with methanol extract followed by ethyl acetate and water extracts. The results indicated that the extent of antioxidant activity of the extract is in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in that extract and the fruit of D. indica is rich in phenolics may provide a good source of antioxidant.
Article
The relative antioxidant activities, against radicals generated in the aqueous phase, of a range of plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoids, constituents of fruit, vegetables, tea and wine, have been assessed. The results show that compounds such as quercetin and cyanidin, with 3',4' dihydroxy substituents in the B ring and conjugation between the A and B rings, have antioxidant potentials four times that of Trolox, the vitamin E analogue. Removing the ortho-dihydroxy substitution, as in kaempferol, or the potential for electron delocalisation by reducing the 2,3 double bond in the C ring, as in catechin and epicatechin, decreases the antioxidant activity by more than 50%, but these structures are still more effective than alpha-tocopherol or ascorbate. The relative significance of the positions and extents of hydroxylation of the A and B rings to the total antioxidant activity of these plant polyphenolics is demonstrated.
Article
The recent explosion of interest in the bioactivity of the flavonoids of higher plants is due, at least in part, to the potential health benefits of these polyphenolic components of major dietary constituents. This review article discusses the biological properties of the flavonoids and focuses on the relationship between their antioxidant activity, as hydrogen donating free radical scavengers, and their chemical structures. This culminates in a proposed hierarchy of antioxidant activity in the aqueous phase. The cumulative findings concerning structure-antioxidant activity relationships in the lipophilic phase derive from studies on fatty acids, liposomes, and low-density lipoproteins; the factors underlying the influence of the different classes of polyphenols in enhancing their resistance to oxidation are discussed and support the contention that the partition coefficients of the flavonoids as well as their rates of reaction with the relevant radicals define the antioxidant activities in the lipophilic phase.
Article
Treatment of human endothelial cells with cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) or E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the expression of several adhesion molecules and enhances leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell surface. Interfering with this leukocyte adhesion or adhesion molecules upregulation is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of bacterial sepsis and various inflammatory diseases. In the course of screening marketed European anti-inflammatory herbal drugs for TNF antagonistic activity, a crude ethanolic extract of corn silk (stigma of Zea mays) exhibited significant activity. The extract at concentrations of 9-250 micrograms/ml effectively inhibited the TNF- and LPS-induced adhesiveness of EAhy 926 endothelial cells to monocytic U937 cells. Similar concentration ranges of corn silk extract did also block the TNF and LPS but not the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced ICAM-1 expression on EAhy 926 endothelial cell surface. The extract did not alter the production of TNF by LPS-activated macrophages and failed to inhibit the cytotoxic activity of TNF. It is concluded that corn silk possesses important therapeutic potential for TNF- and LPS-mediated leukocyte adhesion and trafficking.
Article
The antioxidative activity of a total of 92 phenolic extracts from edible and nonedible plant materials (berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, cereals, tree materials, plant sprouts, and seeds) was examined by autoxidation of methyl linoleate. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Among edible plant materials, remarkable high antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content (GAE > 20 mg/g) were found in berries, especially aronia and crowberry. Apple extracts (two varieties) showed also strong antioxidant activity even though the total phenolic contents were low (GAE < 12.1 mg/g). Among nonedible plant materials, high activities were found in tree materials, especially in willow bark, spruce needles, pine bark and cork, and birch phloem, and in some medicinal plants including heather, bog-rosemary, willow herb, and meadowsweet. In addition, potato peel and beetroot peel extracts showed strong antioxidant effects. To utilize these significant sources of natural antioxidants, further characterization of the phenolic composition is needed.
Article
Flavonoids are phenolic substances isolated from a wide range of vascular plants, with over 8000 individual compounds known. They act in plants as antioxidants, antimicrobials, photoreceptors, visual attractors, feeding repellants, and for light screening. Many studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit biological activities, including antiallergenic, antiviral, antiinflammatory, and vasodilating actions. However, most interest has been devoted to the antioxidant activity of flavonoids, which is due to their ability to reduce free radical formation and to scavenge free radicals. The capacity of flavonoids to act as antioxidants in vitro has been the subject of several studies in the past years, and important structure-activity relationships of the antioxidant activity have been established. The antioxidant efficacy of flavonoids in vivo is less documented, presumably because of the limited knowledge on their uptake in humans. Most ingested flavonoids are extensively degraded to various phenolic acids, some of which still possess a radical-scavenging ability. Both the absorbed flavonoids and their metabolites may display an in vivo antioxidant activity, which is evidenced experimentally by the increase of the plasma antioxidant status, the sparing effect on vitamin E of erythrocyte membranes and low-density lipoproteins, and the preservation of erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids. This review presents the current knowledge on structural aspects and in vitro antioxidant capacity of most common flavonoids as well as in vivo antioxidant activity and effects on endogenous antioxidants.
Article
Antioxidative effects of Maydis stigma methanolic extracts were studied on the level of lipid peroxidation in liposomes, induced by Fe(2+)/ascorbate system and measured spectrophotometrically by the TBA-test. The most significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation was observed when methanolic extracts of fully developed, mature corn silk were applied. The same test, performed after fractionation of the most active extract, showed that most of the activity was concentrated in fractions with moderate lipophilicity, containing phenolic acids, flavonoid aglyca and resembling monosides.
Article
Diuretic and uricosuric properties have traditionally been attributed to corn silk, stigma/style of Zea mays L. Although the diuretic effect was confirmed, studies of the plant's effects on renal function or solute excretion were lacking. Thus, we studied the effects of corn silk aqueous extract on the urinary excretion of water, Na+, K+, and uric acid. Glomerular and proximal tubular function and Na+ tubular handling were also studied. Conscious, unrestrained adult male rats were housed in individual metabolic cages (IMC) with continuous urine collection for 5 and 3 h, following two protocols. The effects of 25, 50, 200, 350, and 500 mg/kg body wt. corn silk extract on urine volume plus Na+ and K+ excretions were studied in water-loaded conscious rats (2.5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 5 h (Protocol 1). Kaliuresis was observed with doses of 350 (100.42 +/- 22.32-120.28 +/- 19.70 microEq/5 h/100 g body wt.; n = 13) and 500 mg/kg body wt. (94.97+/- 29.30-134.32 +/- 39.98 microEq/5h/100 g body wt.; n = 12; p<0.01), and the latter dose resulted in diuresis as well (1.98 +/- 0.44-2.41 +/- 0.41 ml/5 h/100 g body wt.; n = 12; p<0.05). The effects of a 500 mg/kg body wt. dose of corn silk extract on urine volume, Na+, K+ and uric acid excretions, and glomerular and proximal tubular function, were measured respectively by creatinine (Cler) and Li+ (ClLi) clearances and Na+ tubular handling, in water-loaded rats (5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 3 h (Protocol 2). Clcr (294.6 +/- 73.2, n = 12, to 241.7 +/- 48.0 microl/ min/100 g body wt.; n = 13; p<0.05) and the Na+ filtered load (41.9 +/- 10.3, n = 12, to 34.3 +/- .8, n = 13, p<0.05) decreased and ClLi and Na+ excretion were unchanged, while K+ excretion (0.1044 +/- 0.0458, n=12, to 0.2289 +/- 0.0583 microEq/min/100 body wt.; n = 13; p<0.001) increased. For Na+ tubular handling, the fractional proximal tubular reabsorption (91.5 +/- 3.5, n = 12, to 87.5 +/- 3.4%; n = 13; p<0.01) decreased, and both fractional distal reabsorptions--I and II--increased (96.5 +/- 1.5, n = 12, to 97.8 +/- 0.9%; n = 13; p<0.01; and 8.2 +/- 3.5, n = 12, to 12.2 +/- 3.4%, n = 13, p<0.01, respectively). To summarize, in water-loaded conscious rats (2.5 ml/100 body wt.), corn silk aqueous extract is diuretic at a dose of 500 mg/kg body wt. and kaliuretic at doses of 350 and 500 mg/kg body wt. In water-loaded conscious rats (5.0 ml/100 g body wt.), corn silk aqueous extract is kaliuretic at a dose of 500 mg/kg body wt., but glomerular filtration and filtered load decrease without affecting proximal tubular function, Na+, or uric acid excretion.
Article
Flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds have powerful antioxidant effects in vitro in many test systems, but can act as pro-oxidants in some others. Whether pro-oxidant, antioxidant, or any of the many other biological effects potentially exerted by flavonoids account for or contribute to the health benefits of diets rich in plant-derived foods and beverages is uncertain. Phenolic compounds may help to protect the gastrointestinal tract against damage by reactive species present in foods or generated within the stomach and intestines. The overall health benefit of flavonoids is uncertain, and consumption of large quantities of them in fortified foods or supplements should not yet be encouraged.
Article
Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. is an indigenous tree species in Taiwan. In this study, phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts from the twigs of C. osmophloeum were investigated for the first time. The extracts were obtained successively using liquid-liquid partition to yield n-hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water fractions. The antioxidant activities of C. osmophloeum twig extracts were examined using various antioxidant assays, such as DPPH, NBT, reducing power, lipid peroxidation using mouse brain homogenates, metal chelating ability, and photochemiluminescence (PCL). In addition, total phenolic contents were also determined. Results revealed that the BuOH fraction exhibited the best performance in DPPH assay, NBT assay, reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation using mouse brain homogenates assay. Furthermore, the BuOH fraction has the highest total phenolic contents (496.7 mg of GAE/g). Consequently, kaempferol-7-O-rhamnoside was also isolated from the antioxidative BuOH fraction and its activity was also confirmed. These results demonstrated that ethanolic extracts of C. osmophloeum twigs have excellent antioxidant activities and thus it has great potential as a source for natural health products.
Article
The three flavones were isolated from water extracts of corn silk by chromatography on macroporous resin, polyamide, ODS and Sephadex LH-20. Three compounds were identified as formononetin (7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyi