Serum MicroRNAs Are Promising Novel Biomarkers

Article (PDF Available)inPLoS ONE 3(9):e3148 · February 2008with51 Reads
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003148 · Source: PubMed
Circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) offer unique opportunities for early diagnosis of clinical conditions. Here we show that microRNAs, a family of small non-coding regulatory RNAs involved in human development and pathology, are present in bodily fluids and represent new effective biomarkers. After developing protocols for extracting and quantifying microRNAs in serum and other body fluids, the serum microRNA profiles of several healthy individuals were determined and found to be similar, validating the robustness of our methods. To address the possibility that the abundance of specific microRNAs might change during physiological or pathological conditions, serum microRNA levels in pregnant and non pregnant women were compared. In sera from pregnant women, microRNAs associated with human placenta were significantly elevated and their levels correlated with pregnancy stage. Considering the central role of microRNAs in development and disease, our results highlight the medically relevant potential of determining microRNA levels in serum and other body fluids. Thus, microRNAs are a new class of CNAs that promise to serve as useful clinical biomarkers.


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    • "There is mounting evidence to suggest that miRNAs are involved in many fundamental cellular processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation , apoptosis, carcinogenesis and cancer progression (Winter et al. 2009; Joshi et al. 2014). Correlated with characteristic clinicopathological parameters in cancer subtypes and existing not only in tissue but also in body fluids, microRNAs are potential biomarkers for different cancer subtypes classified by origin, histology, or chemosensitivity (Lu et al. 2005; Gilad et al. 2008; Kishikawa et al. 2015; Hollis et al. 2015 ). Due to their characteristic nature, microRNAs have a potential to be used for the development of diagnostics, prognostics, and targeted therapeutics. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a key occurrence in the process of many human cancers. Lung cancer is the most common aggressive malignancy and cause of cancer death worldwide. The research on lung cancer stem cells has been highlighted for many years. Lung CSCs seem to play a major role in lung cancer metastasis, drug resistance and tumour-self-renewal. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of newly emerging small noncoding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, have been demonstrated to serve as a vital player in fine-tuning a number of biological activities ranging from embryogenesis to programmed cell death as well as tumourigenesis. In recent years, several miRNAs have been highlighted to be specifically expressed in CSCs. The miRNA profile of CSCs is remarkably different from non-stem cancer cells. As such, many miRNAs have been shown to regulate self-renewal and differentiation properties of CSCs. In this review, we present the latest findings on miRNAs that regulate the tumour microenvironment of lung CSCs with the goal to prompt the development of novel therapeutic strategies for patients with lung cancer.
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    • "The extreme stability of circulating miRNA displays is a natural advantage as a biomarker. In healthy individuals, the existence of circulating and intracellular miRNAs in blood cells is homogeneous [8], but can be changed in pathological conditions [9] . Several miRNAs have been found to play important roles in asthmatic animal organs and human pulmonary cells (Additional file 1: Table S1) [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background This study aims to find out whether extracellular miRNAs is implicated in recurrent childhood wheezing with asthmatic risk. Methods One hundred and forty children of Chinese Han population were recruited for this study. Plasma and intracellular miRNAs from children with recurrent wheezing and rats with antigen induced pulmonary inflammation (AIPI) were detected by using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Differential leukocytes in blood were automatically counted. Total IgE was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical implication in diagnosis was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves. Results The increase of plasma miR-21 and miR-26a was screened out from 11 candidate miRNAs and validated in wheezing children. The level of expression for both miRNAs were comparable in different age and gender. Plasma miR-21 was more preferable to miR-26a and total IgE for diagnosis. Plasma miR-21 and miR-26a levels were not significantly correlated with various leukocyte counts or miRNA expression in blood cells. In acute and chronic AIPI rats, miR-21 levels increased in both plasma and lavaged lung compared with control. Moreover, circulating miR-21 and miR-26a levels were highly positively correlated with infiltrated cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of AIPI rats. Conclusions Circulating miR-21 and miR-26a increase in wheezing children and AIPI rats. This not only manifests their strong clinical implication in recurrent childhood wheezing with asthma risk, but also provides novel insights into the role of extracellular miRNAs during development of airway inflammation and recurrent wheezing. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12890-016-0216-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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    • "And it was demonstrated that there are no significant differences between plasma and serum miRNA levels , and miRNA levels are not affected by high temperatures, pH, or repeated freezing/thawing cycles [9] . Compared with other biological fluids, serum miRNAs are promising and stable bio- markers [10]. In recent years, serum/plasma miRNAs have been used in the diagnoses of tissue injuries [11], arthritis [12], cardiovascular diseases [13], chronic hepatitis [14], diabetes [15], and tumors [16][17][18]. "
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