Article

Alveograph as a tool to assess the quality characteristics of wheat flour for parotta making

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Abstract

Studies were carried out to assess the relationship between alveograph characteristics and parotta making quality of wheat flours. Twenty-five commercial wheat flour samples were analysed for their chemical, alveograph and parotta making characteristics. The correlation co-efficient data indicated that among the chemical characteristics of wheat flours, ash content was found to be highly correlated to alveograph index of swelling, G (r = −0.838, P ⩽ 0.001), gluten content and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) sedimentation value to the maximum over pressure, P (r = 0.951 and r = 0.875, P ⩽ 0.001), and to shear force (r = 0.954 and r = 0.840, P ⩽ 0.001). Among alveograph characteristics, P was highly correlated to shear force of parrotta (r = 0.938, P ⩽ 0.001). Average abscissa at rupture, L to spread ratio (r = 0.754, P ⩽ 0.001). Curve configuration ratio, P/L to all the physical and sensory characteristics of parotta at 1% level. G is correlated to spread ratio (r = 0.914, P ⩽ 0.001), texture (r = 0.928, P ⩽ 0.001), layers (r = 0.934, P ⩽ 0.001) and overall quality score (r = 0.931, P ⩽ 0.001). Deformation energy of dough, W is correlated to spread ratio (r = 0.825, P ⩽ 0.001), texture (r = 0.892, P ⩽ 0.001), layers (r = 0.901, P ⩽ 0.001) and overall quality score (r = 0.872, P ⩽ 0.001) indicating that alveograph G and W values could be considered as the indicators of the overall quality of parotta.

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... For many researchers rheological parameters do not predict the baking properties of wheat correctly. Indrami et al. (2007) observed good correlations between W and final texture (r = 0.892) and lower correlations with sensorial characteristics (r = 0.790). P, P/L or L variables did not reveal good correlations. ...
... Four parameters were measured: -Tenacity of dough (P) (mm): resistance to deformation of dough. This parameter represents the dough elasticity (Indrami et al., 2007). -Extensibility (L) (mm): stretching capacity of the dough before breaking. ...
... -Extensibility (L) (mm): stretching capacity of the dough before breaking. It corresponds to the abscissa at rupture in alveograph curve (Indrami et al., 2007). -The ratio (P/L): This parameter characterises the level of balance between two important mechanical properties of flour. ...
Article
Rheological properties of dough are important for wheat quality characterisation. This research sought to obtain prediction models for rheological characteristics and to characterise the breadmaking quality of whole wheat using NIRS (Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy) technology, in order to offer a rapid tool to the farmers to know the quality of their product at the harvest moment. Tenacity (P), extensibility (L), deformation energy (W) and ratio P/L of dough were measured using traditional methods. NIR spectra were acquired from these samples. Models to predict the values from these parameters were developed. The SEC achieved for the extensibility, deformation energy and tenacity of dough and the ratio between the two latter parameters were 5.27 mm, 9.97 × 10−4 J, 3.98 mm and 0.025, respectively. The four models were validated by cross-validation, and by independent validation. The precision obtained in these models was enough for being applied in harvesters or at delivering moment.
... The average of abscissa at rupture (L), which is a measure of dough extensibility, ranged from 11 to 72 mm. Indrani et al. (2007) reported that higher value for (P) indicates that the dough resists deformation and is elastic in nature. On the other hand, "L" gives information about dough extensibility, longer "L" values indicating weak dough. ...
... Data also show that flour supplemented with pumpkin powder was 247 x10 -4 . This finding was coincides with those obtained by Indrani et al., (2007) who proved that higher (W) values resulted in bigger dough bubble owing to balanced elastic and extensibility properties . ...
... De La Hera et al. (2013) reported that particle size of flour affected the bread quality and observed that fine flour led to the poor gas retention during fermentation and produce lower specific volume bread. Ash content, gluten content, and sedimentation value were reported to be increased with increase in break system (Indrani et al. 2007). The variation in protein composition, falling number, rheology of dough and baking properties amongst flour streams obtained during wheat milling have also been reported (Menkovska et al. 2002;Every et al. 2002). ...
... Wang et al. (2013) earlier reported that fine flour had higher ash content. Indrani et al. (2007) also reported that ash content increased with increase in break system. Ash content was positively correlated with a* (r = 0.498, p B 0.005) and negatively correlated with L* (r = -0.487, ...
Article
In the present study coarse fraction (CF), medium fine fraction (MFF) and fine fraction (FF) were separated from flours milled from medium-hard and extraordinarily soft wheat varieties and were evaluated for various quality characteristics. Grain hardness of medium-hard and extraordinarily soft wheat varieties varied from 77 to 80 and 17 to 18, respectively. Ash and protein content was the highest for FF and the lowest for CF. Varieties with greater hardness produced higher CF and lower of FF. FF showed higher unextractable polymeric protein (UnEx-PP) and dough stability as compared to MFF and CF. FF showed lower damage starch content as related by lower Sodium SRC (NaSRC) as compared to MFF and FF. CF showed higher paste viscosities than FF and difference were greater amongst fractions from varieties with lower grain hardness. FF with greater proportion of small size particles showed greater accumulation of 98 kDa and 85 kDa PPs than CF. This study demonstrated that fractionation of flours can be employed to produce fractions with varied gluten strength required for production of various products.
... The total energy required for breaking a standardized bubble is called baking strength (W). The length of the curve (L), or the time required to break it, is the extensibility, and the height of the peak (P) represents the tenacity or maximum dough resistance to rupture (Indrani et al. 2007). All these traits are used to select varieties with better bread quality (Vázquez 2009). ...
... Our grouping of traits, where one group was associated with gluten strength and the other one was related to protein quantity, is similar to that found in Vázquez et al. (2012). The high correlation we found between MH, W and SV was also found in others studies (Peña et al. 1994;Ruiz and Carillo 1995;Indrani et al. 2007). Model predictive ability using single-trait prediction through CV1 with 40% of randomly masked individuals (198 individuals) was lower (between 0.24 and 0.43) than previously found in Battenfield et al. 2016 (between 0.45 and 0.60) predicted using 20% randomly masked individuals. ...
Article
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Key Message Multi-trait genomic prediction models are useful to allocate available resources in breeding programs by targeted phenotyping of correlated traits when predicting expensive and labor-intensive quality parameters. Abstract Multi-trait genomic prediction models can be used to predict labor-intensive or expensive correlated traits where phenotyping depth of correlated traits could be larger than phenotyping depth of targeted traits, reducing resources and improving prediction accuracy. This is particularly important in the context of allocating phenotyping resource in plant breeding programs. The objective of this work was to evaluate multi-trait models predictive ability with different depth of phenotypic information from correlated traits. We evaluated 495 wheat advanced breeding lines for eight baking quality traits which were genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing. Through different approaches for cross-validation, we evaluated the predictive ability of a single-trait model and a multi-trait model. Moreover, we evaluated different sizes of the training population (from 50 to 396 individuals) for the trait of interest, different depth of phenotypic information for correlated traits (50 and 100%) and the number of correlated traits to be used (one to three). There was no loss in the predictive ability by reducing the training population up to a 30% (149 individuals) when using correlated traits. A multi-trait model with one highly correlated trait phenotyped for both the training and testing sets was the best model considering phenotyping resources and the gain in predictive ability. The inclusion of correlated traits in the training and testing lines is a strategic approach to replace phenotyping of labor-intensive and high cost traits in a breeding program.
... Los valores de la fuerza de gluten (W) obtenidos a través del alveógrafo de Chopin nos permite comprobar la adecuación de las distintas harinas a diferentes procesos de panificación y de la elaboración de galletas etc. (Indrani et al. 2007). Además, es uno de los parámetros más importantes ya que permite clasificar a los trigos en duros, semiduros y blandos, de acuerdo a su aptitud de uso industrial (Bettege et al. 1989, Indrani et al. 2007). ...
... Los valores de la fuerza de gluten (W) obtenidos a través del alveógrafo de Chopin nos permite comprobar la adecuación de las distintas harinas a diferentes procesos de panificación y de la elaboración de galletas etc. (Indrani et al. 2007). Además, es uno de los parámetros más importantes ya que permite clasificar a los trigos en duros, semiduros y blandos, de acuerdo a su aptitud de uso industrial (Bettege et al. 1989, Indrani et al. 2007). Los ensayos de alveografía son muy empleados en la industria, ya que sus resultados permiten clasificar a las harinas de trigo en tres grupos principalmente: para panificación, para la elaboración de pastas y para la elaboración de galletitas. ...
Article
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The objective of the National Wheat Program, IPTA / CAPECO / INBIO is to identify new varieties with good agronomic characteristics, tolerance and / or resistance to disease and good industrial quality for the country´s different production areas. Three new varieties, ITAPUA 80, ITAPUA 85 and Canindé 21, released during 2013/15, were evaluated for their industrial quality through chemical and physical analysis including rheological properties of dough. Regarding their physical characteristics, the three varieties are within the ranges accepted by the industry, with hectoliter weight (PH) values between 76 and 79 kg / hl and Thousand Kernel Weight (TKW) values between 29.85 and 33.85 gs. Industrial quality was measured by protein assay, gluten quantity and quality, Falling Number index value and Alveography. The analyzes showed the excellent bakery quality of all three varieties, which were all deemed suitable for the industry both nationally and internationally. Among the three varieties, Canindé 21 was considered as the one with the best gluten for its properties of kneading resistance strength, which made it eligible to be supplied to the industry at premium prices.
... Moreover, Skendi et al. (2010) and Wang et al. (2002) suggested that addition of high levels of fibres could result in a reduction of gas retention capacity in the dough and a possible deterioration in the gluten network structure during proofing. According to Indrani et al. (2007), the ash content is significant by negatively correlated to Alveograph G, W, and P/L. Wheat flour with higher ash content had lower values for Alveograph P and L as a consequence of the formation of smaller volume dough bubbles (Indrani et al., 2007). ...
... According to Indrani et al. (2007), the ash content is significant by negatively correlated to Alveograph G, W, and P/L. Wheat flour with higher ash content had lower values for Alveograph P and L as a consequence of the formation of smaller volume dough bubbles (Indrani et al., 2007). The dough resistance to deformation (P) depends on the polypeptide chains present in the gluten that develop a viscoelastic matrix able to support the pressure from the gas produced by the fermentation process (Doxastakis et al., 2002). ...
Article
The milling by-products have high nutritional value and can be incorporated into white flour. This study was aimed at comparatively examining the rheological behaviour of the doughs made from wheat white flour with different levels (3-30%) of bran streams incorporated and from wholewheat. The results indicated significant correlations between the ash content of the wheat bran streams incorporated into flour and Alveograph, Rheofermentograph and Mixolab parameters. The white flour sample with 25% wheat bran streams had the ash content similar to wholewheat, but the dough rheology was improved. The quality of the white flour bread with 25% wheat bran streams was improved compared to the wholemeal bread.
... High dough elasticity values (100-143 mm) were recorded for fractions obtained from the central endosperm (C1-C3, CMD, C4, and C5 fractions), while the flours from the last milling and break passes are characterized by values of 44-79 mm (Fig. 4). These differences are due to the grain zone origin of the wheat fractions: the quantity and quality of the gluten from the central endosperm is lower than those from the dorsal and ventral endosperm (Indrani et al 2007). ...
... The P/L variation provides the configuration index of the alveogram. Therefore, due to high elasticity, the first reduction roll fractions present high P/L values, almost linear in variation (Fig. 4), in agreement with the observations of Indrani et al (2007). The fractions from the dorsal and ventral endosperm are characterized by higher energy values, while smaller values were registered for the fractions from the subaleuronic zone. ...
Article
Knowing the quality of mill streams is very important for obtaining standardized flours with intended qualities for specific applications. The physicochemical and rheological quality of wheat flour mill streams obtained through industrial milling were analyzed. Rheological behavior was tested using alveograph, rheofermentograph, and mixolab equipment. The results obtained indicate that the starch damage, protein quality, and rheological properties vary with the mill streams. Three variants of bread-making flours, obtained by blending different milling fractions without negatively affecting the extraction and final product quality, were characterized.
... 2,5,6 Most studies correlating flour characteristics with bread quality are based on the bread-making processes common in western countries. Few articles have focused on the adequacy of flours used in different parts of the world for preparing special breads such as the Asiatic breads parotta, 7,8 chapati and roti, 9,10 characterised by flat shapes and high cooking temperatures, or the Chinese steamed breads 11 -13 prepared by steam cooking. ...
... Osella et al. 31 found similar correlations between alveographic and kneading parameters and specific volume, although in their study they analysed breads with higher hydration levels and without the sheeting roll process. Indrani et al. 8 also found good correlations between alveographic parameters and the characteristics of parotta, a type of flat bread. Hence the lack of strength and protein quality characteristic of some landraces could be a drawback for the elaboration of lowhydration breads with improver, but it would not be so negative in the elaboration of low-hydration breads without improver. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in recovering landraces as genetic resources and as raw materials in ecological production. Low-hydration bread, whose dough is submitted to a sheeting roll process, is commonly prepared in Spain and other countries. The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of some landraces, compared with commercial cultivars and flours, for making this type of bread. Eight Spanish landraces, four wheat cultivars developed during the green revolution and three commercial flours were chosen, their alveographic and kneading behaviours were analysed and the characteristics of the resulting breads were determined. RESULTS: The best correlations were obtained in breads with improver. Flours with extreme alveographic behaviour differed markedly from the rest. When these flours were excluded from the analysis, the parameters best correlated with bread quality (when using improver) were strength, tenacity and development time. A significant correlation between flour colour, a genetic factor, and crumb colour was found. This correlation was higher in breads without improver. CONCLUSION When flours with extreme characteristics were removed, the protein quality characteristics of flours defined the quality characteristics of low-hydration breads. Copyright
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... Acta Rheological properties of Russian wheat flour (72% extraction) obtained from thirteen different treatment wheat kernels before storageAlveograph has been used to measure and evaluate wheat flours of bread making and using air pressure to inflate a thin sheet of doughsure to inflate a thin sheet of dough. Alveogragh measure the resistance to expansion and the extensibility of dough by providing the measurement for maximum over pressure, average abscissa at rupture and index of swelling and deformation energy of dough[23]. The highest water absorption (63.0%) was observed in con-trol wheat flour followed by ascorbic (3%) wheat flour (62.4%) while propionic (0.04%) wheat flour had the lowest water absorption (58.5%). ...
... The gradual flour addition significantly affected dough extensibility -L and swelling index -G in a similar way to the results of , showing that the gradual addition of bread ingredients enhanced dough extensibility properties independently of the total water content (Fig. 1). Since dough from unrefined wheat flours are generally characterised by significantly reduced extensibility (Gómez et al., 2003;Banu et al., 2012;Gómez et al., 2011;Srivastava et al., 2007;Gómez et al., 2012), and a negative correlation between dough extensibility and flour ash content has been reported in the literature (Indrani, Manohar, Rajiv, & Rao, 2007), practices able to enhance this parameter are important for improving the bread-making performances of unrefined flours. ...
Article
The increasing interest in unrefined flour-based products demands innovative strategies to improve dough properties and bread quality. This study investigated the effect of an empirical practice used by bakers – gradual flour addition during kneading – on wholewheat flour dough properties and bread quality. After optimizing the kneading operating conditions to perform gradual flour addition during kneading, a full factorial design tested gradual flour addition in the optimized dough samples as a function of total water content. Although gradual flour addition did not affect bread quality, the dough extensibility – L and swelling index – G improved significantly independently of the total water content. Significant interaction was observed between gradual flour addition and dough water amount; a reduction of dough tenacity – P and tenacity-to-extensibility ratio – P/L at Farinograph water absorption, and an increase of dough tenacity – P and flour strength – W at the highest water level were observed. Furthermore, the 1H NMR results revealed different water redistribution and dynamics which could be interpreted as molecular phenomena associated with the macroscopic parameters. Gradually adding flour during kneading improved the rheology and workability of unrefined dough.
... The results of flour characterization are shown in Table 1. The flour showed a high ash content, which, according to studies by Indrani et al. (2007), is negatively correlated with alveographic parameters. However, values such as work (W) were high (442), which could be due to a high protein content (12.5%), indicating that the flour is resistant and appropriate for bread making. ...
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In the baking industry, different processes and methods of freezing have been used for breadmaking to preserve a quality comparable to that of fresh bread. In this study, the effect of part-baking time, freezing rate, and frozen storage time on part-baked French bread quality was determined. The bread was part-baked for 0, 3 and 6 min, frozen at slow (0.15 °C/min) and fast (1.75 °C/min) freezing rates, stored under freezing conditions for up to 56 days and thawed every 14 days. Part-baked bread was rebaked, and the SV and firmness at 2, 24 and 48 h were obtained. An experiment with a factorial design of 3×2×5 (3 part-baking time, 2 freezing rates and 5 frozen storage times) with analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a confidence level of 95% was carried out. The highest SV was obtained at 6 min of part-baking at a slow freezing rate and decreased as the frozen storage time increased. In contrast, TPA showed that bread firmness increases when the specific volume decreases, and the highest firmness is at 0 min of part-baked time. Relatively long part-baking times allow for firm crumb formation with limited damage to the structure and therefore bread with optimal quality.
... To evaluate the dough workability, an alveogram was obtained. Typical bread flour presents strength between 120-160 × 10 4 J, with an equilibrium (P/L) ranging between 0.4-0.6 [20,21]. In our study, the flours obtained from both treated and untreated grains showed similar farinograms and alveograms, suggesting that the essential oils had no significant effects on the rheological properties of the dough (Tables 6 and 7). ...
Article
Full-text available
Wheat grains are exposed to several plagues after harvesting and during storage. These plagues include bacteria, fungi, and insects with detrimental outcomes to their quality and heavy losses to the farmers. Fungi are of special interest because of their ability to produce mycotoxins with health concerns. Once grains are harvested, synthetic fungicides, which are sprayed before long-term storage, normally control fungi; however, these synthetic products represent a health concern because of their toxicities. Previously, we reported the antifungal activity of the essential oils extracted from Porophyllum linaria, Agastache mexicana, and Buddleja perfoliata against fungal strains isolated from stored wheat. In this study, we sprayed wheat grains with the same essential oils to measure their persistence interval and to prepare baked products to assess potential changes in their physical properties. The persistence interval of the essential oils in grains indicated that it takes between 63 and 134 days to eliminate 90% of the original compounds. This extended time of the compounds in the grains together with a lack of physical properties modifications of the flour and baked products (post-treatment) suggest that the presence of oils in the grains is potentially safe to use. The solid data denote the technological feasibility of the treatment and the possible management of residues through adequate safety intervals.
... The Alveograph properties presented in Table (3) showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) in flour samples among the parameters of alveograph. Dough resistance to deformation or tenacity (P) is the ability to predict how the dough retained gas where, as the bran increased, P increased [33]. In samples M10, M34 and L148, the resistance to deformation (P) increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared to other samples. ...
... Indrani et al. (2007) used bubble inflation system as a tool to assess the quality characteristics of wheat four for parotta making. According to the results, lower Alveograph P values and higher L values indicate higher wheat flour dough extensibility and higher stretchability.Aldovrandi and Vitali (1995) indicate that values of parameter P for standard wheat dough quality range 60-80 mm H2O, very good wheat dough quality 80-100 H2O, whilst extra strong wheat doughs are characterized by (P) value higher than 100 mm H2O.Parameter of extensibility (L) of 100mm is generally considered as good for bakery production. ...
Thesis
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Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in fortification of baked goods by replacing a portion of wheat flour with non-wheat flours, especially protein concentrates, isolates and oilseed meals. The use of composite flours with (or without) wheat gives rise to technical problems in the production of baked goods. Many investigations often focus on the selected seed flour or its targeted component to assess their functional potential in a specific food or food product group. However, in this study the effects of addition of oilseed flour on the rheological properties of a wheat flour dough were investigated. Partial substitution of wheat flour with oilseed (sesame, apricot, blend of black/white poppy seed with linseed and grapeseed) flour at the levels of 5, 10, 15 and 20% was carried out to characterise the rheological property of dough. Within the Cereal Science community, there is a widespread conviction that baking performance is related to the rheological properties of dough. Dough undergoes some type of deformation in every phase of the conversion of flour into baked products and because those changes can have significant effects on the final product, accurate assessment of dough texture has spawned a great deal of several researches the last few years. Moreover, the selection of appropriate methods to measure the rheological properties of dough which are relevant to baked goods making processing continues to be a scientific challenge. In this study, the rheological characterization of dough has been carried out by the D/R dough inflation system. Doughs were inflated on a Dough Inflation System attachment mounted on a TAXTplus texture analyser (Stable Micro Systems Ltd., Godalming,UK). The D/R Dough Inflation System was chosen because the deformation during the test closely resembles practical conditions – method tries to simulate phases of dough processing (sheeting, rounding, molding) during baking processes. ii The effect of a partial substitution of wheat flour by various oilseed flours induced changes in the rheological characteristics. The addition of oilseed flours reduced the extensibility for all samples of wheat dough, compared with the control sample. The effects observed in the reduction of the extensibility and increase of the resistance to extension of the dough is related to gluten network changes due to fiber rich addition. The results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.001) in dough tenacity, extensibility and configuration ratio between the control dough and the dough groups with added oilseed flours. The findings illustrate the impact of oilseed flours on the rheological properties of a dough. Based on all results, substitution of wheat flour by 5% of apricot or white poppy seed blend give rheological parameter values approximately as good as the control sample. On the other hand, if producers want to produce non-aerated bakery products at which no need to higher volumes, oilseed flours can be used much more concentrations than 5%.
... The alveograph is accepted as one of the important tests in the assessment of the quality characteristics of wheat flour and it has previously been used in various countries (Khattak et al., 1974;Bettge et al., 1989;Indrani et al., 2007;Boros et al., 2009;Codina et al., 2011;Mironeasa and Codina, 2013). It was also suggested for breeding studies in Turkey (Kaya and Şahin, 2015). ...
Article
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Association of glutenin alleles with bread quality has long been known and identification of glutenin alleles may be very informarmative for the quality of the breeder’s material. In this study, 64 wheat genotypes were evaluated for high and low molecular weight glutenin alleles (Glu-1 and Glu-3) and some quality parameters. Of the identified glutenin alleles, eleven were at the Glu-1 loci and 15 were at the Glu-3 loci. Highly significant (P
... It is interesting to note that the genotypes with the lowest values of W also reported the highest level for ash ('Ramirez' and 'Tirex') (Tables 3 and 4). In a previous work, the ash content in wheat was negatively correlated to W [30]. Table 4. Ash (% dry matter) and macro-minerals content (mg kg −1 fresh weight) as affected by 'cropping system (CS) × genotype (G)' interaction. Different letters (a-d or A, B) within each main factor indicate significance differences (LSD test, p ≤ 0.05). ...
Article
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Durum wheat plays a central role for Italy, a country characterized by an historical tradition of pasta making. This crop is one of the major sources of starch in the Mediterranean diet, also providing substantial amounts of nutrients, either essential or healthy, such as minerals and phytochemicals. In this study, the effect of cropping system (organic (ORG) and conventional (CONV)) on the content of proteins, wet gluten, minerals, and total polyphenols (TPC), as well as on the antioxidant activity (AA) and yield characteristics were evaluated in nine genotypes of whole durum wheat. The analysis of variance confirmed the key role of cropping system, which explained more than 50% of the total variation for some minerals (Na, K, and Fe), and more than 80% for proteins, wet gluten, and TPC. The CONV reported the highest levels of proteins, wet gluten, and ash, whereas the TPC and AA were statistically higher in the ORG ones. The quality traits under study were also genotype dependent. For instance, ‘Ramirez’ had a higher ash content under ORG than CONV, while ‘Core’ had an opposite behavior. This study provides a better understanding about the effect of both cropping system (ORG vs. CONV) and genotype on the yield and qualitative traits of the whole grain durum wheat.
... La longueur de l'alvéogramme (L) correspond à l'extensibilité de la pâte. Enfin, Le rapport de configuration P/L est souvent recherché par les meuniers vu qu'il détermine en grande partie l'utilisation de la farine (pâtisserie, panification, biscuit etc.) (Indrani et al., 2007). Ainsi, une farine à faible ténacité (P) et forte extensibilité est plus appropriée pour la biscuiterie. ...
Thesis
Le blé tendre (Triticum aestivum L.) compte parmi les céréales les plus cultivées et également parmi les aliments de base de la population mondiale. Il servait principalement à la production de la farine panifiable et de sous-produits utilisés respectivement en alimentation humaine et animale, actuellement ses utilisations se sont diversifiées (Boulangerie, Biscuiterie, Amidonnerie, Biocarburants etc.). En poste récolte, les pertes (en valeur commerciale, qualité nutritionnelle et technologique, liés à la température de stockage et l’humidité du grain) peuvent être très importantes, en effet ces deux paramètres physiques contrôlent les processus de détérioration et d’altération qui peuvent affecter le grain du blé et ses produits de transformations (perte en matière sèches, endommagement d’amidon et des protéines, développement de moisissures). Le contrôle et la surveillance de ces deux paramètres physiques, de la récolte jusqu’à la transformation, s’avèrent primordiales afin d’assurer un produit sain et de qualité supérieure. La première partie de ce travail consiste en l’étude de l’effet des conditions de stockage variables sur la qualité technologique de mélanges de variétés de blé tendre de production locale et d’importations destinés à la meunerie. Il s’est révélé que le stockage à température ambiante et à une teneur en eau des grains inférieur à 12% n’a pas d’effets significatifs sur la qualité technologiques des grains stockés. Par contre à 40°C, presque tous les paramètres mesurés ont connu des changements significatifs (seuil 5%). De plus, les lots de blé de production marocaine paraissaient de qualité technologique moindre que le lot importé qui résiste mieux aux altérations dues à la température de stockage et à l’humidité des grains élevées. En second lieu, le même travail a été transposé sur deux variétés de blé tendre (Amal et Arrehane) inscrites eu Catalogue National Officiel. Le stockage dans les conditions ambiantes de ces deux variétés a eu des effets variables sur les paramètres technologiques des grains et des farines issues dérivées, qui apparemment nécessitent une période de maturation. A 45°C par contre, tous les paramètres mesurés ont variées significativement au moins chez une variété. Les champignons de champs (Geotrichum et Alternaria) dominent la mycologie de post-récolte des deux variétés. Cependant ces derniers cèdent rapidement la place aux souches des genres Aspergillus et Penicillium après 2 mois de stockages. Le dosage des Aflatoxines totales par chromatographie liquide à haute performance et de l’Ochratoxine A par chromatographie sur couche mince a révélé que l’ensemble des échantillons analysés étaient exemptes de ces deux mycotoxines en post récolte et après 4 mous de stockage dans les conditions définies. La troisième partie de cette thèse a été consacrée aux risques et danger de la réutilisation des produits à base de blé comme aliments pour animaux. Ainsi, une enquête pilote a été menée au niveau de quelques boulangeries de l’oriental dans le but d’avoir une idée sur les quantités des produits de boulangerie rassis collectés et revendus dans certains marchés publics de la ville d’Oujda comme aliments pour animaux.
... As defined in the standard protocol (ISO, 27971 International Standard, 2008), dough tenacity (P), dough extensibility (L), deformation energy (W), the curve configuration ratio (P/L), and the index of swelling (G) were evaluated. Chopin alveography was chosen for its capacity to simultaneously provide multiple parameters directly associated with the rheological properties of doughs, and because it is the standard method for the assessment of the technological properties of flours and doughs (Indrani et al., 2007). ...
Article
This paper evaluates the relationship between the rheological properties of doughs and the constituents of flours made from ancient grain. It also examines the effect of water on the rheological properties of doughs obtained with three types of flour (refined white flour, type 2 flour, and whole wheat flour) and the associated chemical and physical phenomena. A Chopin alveograph was used to take rheological measurements. Significant differences were found between doughs made with refined and unrefined flours. Tenacity, deformation energy, and the curve configuration ratio decreased as total water content increased, while the inverse trend was found for extensibility and the index of swelling. The analysis made it possible to develop a model to predict the rheological properties of doughs produced with refined and unrefined flours, if the starch, insoluble fiber, protein, and gluten content is known. Although, ancient grains are notorious for their poor technological properties, even a minimum improvement in rheological performances would contribute to satisfying the increasing demand for these products and facilitate their production, with positive returns for economies and biodiversity. Finally, level curves diagrams made it possible to identify the optimum water content of doughs corresponding to the technological properties of the required finished product.
... Mironeasa and Codina (2013) reported that alveographic parameters L and G are predictive for rheological behavior of wheat dough. Indrani et al. (2007) announced that G and W were the best indicators of overall quality of parotta. W energy value has also been an important parameter in Turkey for evaluating wheat quality in breeding studies (Şahin et al. 2009(Şahin et al. , Aydoğan et al. 2012. ...
... The distribution of hydrolytic (amylases and proteases) and oxidation-reduction enzymes in different mill streams has also been reported (Every et al., 2006). Ash and gluten contents were reported to be increased with increase in break system (Indrani et al., 2007). The variation in protein composition, falling number, rheology of dough and baking properties amongst flour streams obtained during wheat milling has also been reported (Menkovska et al., 2002). ...
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Coarse flour fractions (CFFs) and fine flour fractions (FFFs) obtained from flour milled from twelve different wheat cultivars varying in grain hardness index (GHI) were evaluated for particle size distribution, pasting and protein characteristics. Cultivars with greater hardness produce flour with high protein content had more proportion of large size particles. FFF had higher unextractable polymeric protein, solvent retention capacity (SRC), sedimentation value (SV) and dough stability (DS) than their corresponding CFF. Both FFF and CFF from cultivars with lower hardness showed lower sodium SRC. CFF showed higher pasting viscosities than their corresponding FFF, and difference in these properties was greater amongst soft cultivars. DS increased with decrease in grain hardness, but medium hard cultivars showed exceptionally higher value. The concentration of HMW‐GS in the CFF was higher than FFF of hard wheat cultivars, whereas the concentration of LMW‐GS in the CFF and FFF was not influenced by the fractionation of flour.
... These correlations indicate the fact that the higher wet gluten resistance to deformation is the lower wheat flour dough extensibility and the higher it stretches are. Lower Alveograph P values and higher L values indicate higher wheat flour dough extensibility and higher stretch ability [28]. Because we obtained good correlations between GDI and Alveograph parameters we can say that the values of the gluten deformation index may be very well used as a measure of the dough stretch and extensibility. ...
Conference Paper
A data matrix from sixty samples of Romanian wheat flour is subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) to assess the relationship between visco-elastic properties determined by Alveograph device and flour analytical characteristics (moisture content, wet gluten content, gluten deformation index, ash content, falling number index). Two principal components which accounted for more than 93% of the variance of data were found. The results from correlation analysis indicate significant correlations between most of the Alveograph parameters, maximum pressure (P), extensibility (L), index of swelling (G), deformation energy (W), Alveograph ratio (P_L) and quality of gluten given by wet gluten (WG) and gluten deformation index (GDI). This assessment may be used in order to get information about the relationship between Alveograph dough rheological parameters and wheat flour analytical characteristics in order to reduce the sampling time and cost for reagent used in analyses.
... The monitored alveograph parameters were as follows: maximum overpressure needed to blow the dough bubble (P index of resistance to extension), average abscissa at bubble rupture (L index of dough extensibility) and deformation energy (W index of dough strength). These characteristics were used to evaluate the wheat flour bread-making quality (Indrani et al. 2007). ...
Article
This study was undertaken with the objective of formulating composite bread using pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours . Rheological and bread making properties of composite flours were evaluated. Mixolab results revealed torque increased and dough stability time decreased upon incorporation of pearl millet flour in wheat flour. The incorporation of millet flour at optimum level (5 %) led to an increase of the dough strength (W) and the elasticity-to-extensibility ratio (P/L) by 31 % and 65 % respectively. The bread texture and volume were also improved. These findings indicated the potentiality of using millet flour in bread making.
... There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in flour samples among the most parameters of alveograph. Dough resistance to deformation or tenacity (P) is a predictor of the ability of the dough to retain gas and this parameter increased by increasing the bran content (Indrani et al., 2007). In samples 64%, 82% and 90% extraction rate which the extraction rate increases respectively, P factor increases consequently. ...
Article
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A study of the rheological behavior of the wheat flour dough with different extraction rates (64%, 82% and 90%) was conducted by using three different instruments namely alveograph, extensograph, and farinograph. The lower bran concentration (with high extraction rate 64%) in flours showed a better pronounced effect on dough properties. In spite of the fact that no significant correlation among all parameters of the methods was observed, some parameters of the measuring methods had very strong correlation (P < 0.01) that included farinograph water absorption (WA), tenacity (P), extensibility (L), P/L, swelling index (G) of alveograph, energy and the resistance to constant deformation after 50 mm stretching (R50) of extensograph. Among the applied methods, most of the alveograph parameters had significant correlation (r=1, P < 0.01) together. So choosing a suitable extraction rate can develop the quality of final product because of the effect of extraction rate on wheat's properties.
... The alveograph parameters were automatically recorded using the Chopin Alveolink-NG software; these parameters included the maximum overpressure or tenacity (P) needed to blow the dough bubble; abscissa at rupture (L), which measures dough extensibility; index of swelling (G) (measured as the square root of the volume of air necessary to inflate the dough bubble until it ruptures); deformation energy of dough (W), which represents the energy necessary to inflate the dough bubble to the point of rupture; deformation curve (P/L), and elasticity index (Ie). The alveograph W value could be considered as the indicator of gluten strength, whereas the alveograph P/L value represents the balance of elasticity and extensibility [36]. ...
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Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium fungi, which is found in a wide range of agricultural products, especially in wheat, barley, oat and corn. In this study, the distribution of DON in the wheat kernel and the effect of exposure time to ozone on DON detoxification were investigated. A high concentration of toxin was found in the outer part of the kernel, and DON was injected from the outside to the inside. The degradation rates of DON were 26.40%, 39.16%, and 53.48% after the samples were exposed to 75 mg/L ozone for 30, 60, and 90 min, respectively. The effect of ozonation on wheat flour quality and nutrition was also evaluated. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in protein content, fatty acid value, amino acid content, starch content, carbonyl and carboxyl content, and swelling power of ozone-treated samples. Moreover, the ozone-treated samples exhibited higher tenacity and whiteness, as well as lower extensibility and yellowness. This finding indicated that ozone treatment can simultaneously reduce DON levels and improve flour quality.
... As rheological characteristics of wheat dough are generally more reproducible among laboratories, and relate fairly well to end-use functionality, most of the world's wheat of commerce is traded based upon farinograph, extensigraph and alveograph values rather than to the results of baking test (Duyvejonck et al., 2012;Ferrari et al., 2014). In the case of alveograph (Chopin Technologies, 2000), dough baking strength (W), tenacity (P), extensibility (L), and the balance between them (P/L) are very important for assessing dough rheological properties (Indrani et al., 2007;Codină et al., 2012;Li et al., 2013). ...
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Literature has unveiled that a paper has not been published yet on using non-parametric stability statistics (NPSSs) for evaluating genotypic stability in dough properties of wheat. Accordingly, the effects of genotype (G), environment (E) and GE interaction (GEI) on alveograph parameters, i.e. dough baking strength (W) and its tenacity (P)/extensibility (L), of 18 wheat (T. aestivum L.) genotypes were studied under irrigated field conditions in an 8-year trial (2006-2014) in central Turkey. Furthermore, genotypic stability for W and P/L was determined using 8 NPSSs viz. RM-Rank mean, RSD-Rank’s standard deviation, RS‑Rank Sum, TOP-Ranking, Si(1), Si(2), Si(3) and Si(6) rank statistics. The ANOVA revealed that W and P/L were primarily controlled by E, although G and GEI also had significant effects. Among the 8 NPSSs, only RM, RS and TOP statistics were suitable for detecting the genotypes with high stable and bread making quality (e.g. G1 and G17). In conclusion, using RM, RS and TOP statistics is advisable to select for dough quality in wheat under multi-environment trials (METs). © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, SBCTA. All rights reserved.
... These products are becoming increasingly popular and are normally consumed with adjuncts in house holds, industrial canteens, restaurants, etc. Protein supplementation of traditional flat breads like South Indian parotta has great potential in improving the nutritive value of these commonly consumed items (Indrani et al., 2007). ...
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GOCMEN , D ., A. N. INKAYA and E. AYDIN, 2009. Flat breads. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 15: 298-306 Flat breads are produced most of the world. But some of them are made mostly by traditional methods in Turkey, Middle East and Northern African countries. Flat breads are either one (single) layered or two (double) layered. Another two sub-groups for single layered flat breads are leavened or unleavened. Two layered flat breds are leavened. The most significant characteristic of flat bread that differs from other loaves or pan ones is that they have lower specific volumes. In this article, you will find a brief summary of the mainly ingredients used in flat bread production, production steps of flat bread, some flat breads produced all over the world and the production methods of the most common Turkish flat breads such as lavas, pide and yufka.
... The balance of the doughs, is the product of the relation between tenacity and extensibility (P/L); the ω-3P type gives higher values, due to the high tenacities and low extensibilities. Previous studies have found that there is a positive correlation between (P/L) and the diameter of the cookie (10,24). This could predict that with the ω-3P it would be obtained a smaller diameter from the regular. ...
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The present work aims at develop of a cookie with added omega 3. Three different commercial forms of omega 3 were evaluated as docosahexaenoic acid and ecoisapentaenoic acid (emulsion, powder and oil) at different omega 3 (ω3): omega 6 (ω6) ratios (1:5, 1:8, 1:10). A multistage factorial system was used to evaluate, in general, the rheology of the dough, along with the texture, moisture, color, and aw of the cookies after baking. During the storage, the concentration of ω3 is evaluated as linolenic acid, ω6 as linoleic acid. Docosahexaenoic acid, ecoisapentaenoic acid and sensory attributes of the final product are also evaluated. Through the elaboration of the dough, it was encountered that the emulsion and oil commercial forms of ω3 best performed the rheological test, at the ratios of 1:8 and 1:10, while for the cookies elaboration the best combination is emulsion form at ratio of 1:10; which is stored under extreme conditions (40 ± 2°C y 75 ± 5% RH) for a 60 days period, presenting good acceptance from a semi-trained panel and a decrease in the concentration of ω3 fatty acids as docosahexaenoic acid plus ecoisapentaenoic acid of approximately 6%.
... Many research workers have correlated the farinograph and alveograph parameters of flour with cookie sensorial properties (Saeed, et al. 2009), bread making properties (Addo, et al. 1990), bread and cookie baking (Bettge, et al. 1989) and Parrotta making properties (Indrani, et al. 2007). A significant correlation was observed in dough softening and all sensory attributes of the cookie. ...
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Current study is based on the fortification of lentil in dough as a substitute of fat in soft dough cookies. Fat replacement in "Low Calorie Foods" is major challenge for food processors. The chemical composition of lentil-wheat composite flour was analyzed with NIR. The composite flour of lentil was used in accordance with the quantity of fat used in cookies' formulation i.e. 10, 20, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50%. The changes in rheological behavior of the dough, due to elevated level of lentil, were studied by the Farinograph and Alveograph. Present studies significantly correlate with the overall quality score with Alveograph characteristics (P, L and W). Cookies made with composite flour were acceptable upto 50% and were showing an appealing sensory score, without any significant adverse effect on taste, aroma or the texture. Functional properties of composite flour, such as foaming capacity, foaming stability and swelling power suggest the use of lentil as a fat substitute may be beneficial.
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Effect of adding foxtail millet flour (FMF) (10, 20, and 30% w/w) to refined wheat flour (RWF) on physicochemical and rheological properties of dough was studied. Qualitative properties of Brotchen bread including moisture, ash, crude fibre, specific volume, and colour of the breads were evaluated. Adding FMF to the flour increased crude fibre, fat, ash, and protein contents and reduced falling number, damaged starch and wet gluten contents, and sample lightness. Consistograph test indicated that addition of the FMF decreased water absorption capacity, maximum pressure, and tolerance, however, drops in pressure at 250 and 450 s became greater. Alveograph test revealed that with adding FMF, dough resistance to extension and dough strength decreased but an increase in dough extensibility was obtained at FMF30%. Increasing the amount of FMF resulted in a decrease in the volume of the bread, and the FMB (foxtail millet bread) 30% had the highest browning index and b* . The FMB20% had the highest resilience and springiness, while higher level of foxtail (30%) increased chewiness.
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The physicochemical, pasting, dynamic rheology and muffin making properties of air classified fractions obtained from original wheat flour (OWF) and after stone grinding the OWF were evaluated and compared. Fractions from stone ground flour (SGF) showed higher proportions of fine particles and protein content but lower ash content than their counterpart fractions from OWF. The stone grinding showed significant impact on lactic acid solvent retention capacity (SRC) and water SRC. Fractions from SGF showed significantly lower breakdown and setback viscosity and higher pasting temperature than their counterpart fraction from OWF. Muffins made from different SGF fractions were lighter in color (lower L′, a′ and b′ values) and softer in texture than those from fractions obtained from OWF. The study demonstrated that fractionation of OWF and SGF can be employed to produce fractions with varied composition and baking potential.
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A key issue in breadmaking is to select the optimal milling strategy, as this has a significant impact on the quality of flour. Therefore, this work assesses if flour recovered from: (i) the break system, and (ii) the sizing and reduction system of the roller mill differ from control flour. Differences in flour yield, flour composition, dough rheology and bread characteristics for an ancient cultivar (Conte Marzotto) and a modern cultivar (Nogal) were evaluated. For break system flour, lower fibre and higher starch content were found. Sizing and reduction system flours had higher fibre and phenolic content, and lower starch. Moreover, dough stability was higher for break system flour and, in the case of Nogal, a significant increase in bread specific volume was found. These results highlighted that the proposed strategy can be effective in producing diverse flours for different markets (e.g. consumers and bakers). In particular, break system flours have better rheological performance and improved bread characteristics, while sizing and reduction system flours have a more interesting nutritional profile. Further advantages of the method include its ease of application, no additional expenditure, no lengthening of milling time, increased profits, better product differentiation, and the expansion of the potential clientele.
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Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) are known to possess good antimicrobial properties. In the present work, spice-infused frozen parathas were formulated to investigate the effect of fennel and coriander on microbial (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mould, and Bacillus cereus) reduction and sensory acceptability of frozen paratha throughout the storage at -18°C. The present work was also aimed at determining the relationship between spice concentrations and storage durations on microbiological quality of the samples. Fennel and coriander seed powder were used at concentrations of 2, 4 and 6% of wheat flour (w/w). The microbiological analysis was performed by total plate count, yeast and mould count, and Bacillus cereus count after 9, 12 and 15 weeks of storage. Sensory evaluation was conducted using hedonic scales at the end of storage durations. Results showed that spice infusion in frozen paratha significantly delayed the growth of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Bacillus cereus during storage. The lowest log count was demonstrated by coriander at 6% in total plate count (3.85, 3.90 and 3.91 log10 CFU/g), and yeast and mould count (2.54, 2.59 and 2.60 log10 CFU/g) after 9, 12 and 15 weeks, respectively. Bacillus cereus was not detected throughout the storage durations. Fennel exhibited minimum activity against Bacillus cereus with no significant difference on log count reduction when compared with control. Coriander showed the highest decrease in both total plate count and Bacillus cereus count during the storage duration. Sensory evaluation result indicated that control sample exhibited the highest preference over all attributes when compared with fennel and coriander. Coriander-infused paratha was slightly darker in colour due to high concentration of 6%. Fennel yielded the lowest score in terms of taste among all samples. Fennel and coriander showed no significant difference for sensory acceptability. Overall, all frozen parathas were in good quality after 15 weeks of frozen storage. It can thus be concluded that fennel and coriander can be used as potential natural preservatives to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in paratha during frozen storage. Nevertheless, the optimum spice concentration should be determined to minimise the effects on the sensory attributes.
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of some microbial enzymessuch as Xylanase (XY), glucose oxidase (GO) and α amylase (AM) to improve quality aspects, sensory attributes and rheological properties of pan bread produced from commercial wheat flour (82% ext.). The three enzymes were added by three doses. XY and GO added at 10, 15 and 20 ppm, While AM was added at 5, 10 and15 ppm. The obtained data revealed that the enzymes have been given a marked improvement todough characters and bread quality. Specific volumewas increased with XYby3.5, 3.7 and 3.8%, and by 2.9, 2.9and 3.2 for AM, while it was by 3.1, 3.0 and 3.6 for GO respectively.Compared with a control sample. The staling of breadwas decreasedwith theadding of these enzymes, this decrease was linear with increase the doses of enzymes alike. Adding of any doses of any enzymes had apositive effect of the bread texture profile and this effect were linear, which showeda decreasein the firmness, gamenessand resilience, whilethe cohesiveness, chewiness, and springiness characteristics was decreased, this refers to increase of softness and chewness of bread. Also, this improving was maintained alveogram.
Chapter
South Indian parotta is wheat flour-based circular, unleavened, multilayered flat bread. It is one of the staple food items in the southern states of India. Parotta is made from wheat flour, salt, water, and oil for spreading of the dough; however, optional ingredients such as sugar and egg are also used in the preparation of parotta. A parotta with creamish white color, having light brown spots on the surface, a circular shape, a soft and pliable handfeel, a soft and slightly chewy texture, with distinct layers, optimum oiliness, easy breakdown in the mouth, and typical pleasant taste and aroma is considered to be highly desirable. Protein quantity and quality are the best indices for predicting the quality of parotta. Alveograph index of swelling and deformation energy of dough are considered to be indicators of the overall quality of parotta. Use of additives such as L-cysteine hydrochloride, proteinase, xylanase, sodium stearoyl-2- lactylate, and guar gum separately modifies the rheological properties of the dough and improves the overall quality of parotta.
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The impact of NaCl reduction and replacement by CaCl2 : CaCO3 (50:50) on dough and bread characteristics is addressed in this study. Three recipes of white bread were formulated with different percentage of NaCl substitution; all doughs had 1.8 g of total salts added per 100 g flour weight basis. Comparison was performed against control bread containing 1.8 g of NaCl per 100 g flour weight basis. Alveograph and farinograph results indicated that addition of calcium decreased dough extensibility, stretchability and stability time, keeping strong flour characteristics. Calcium salts increased hardness of upper crust and decreased hardness of lower crust. An increase of calcium salts promoted lighter crumb and crust color. Descriptive sensory analysis indicated that 16 out of 25 traits showed significant differences between control and recipes. Principal component analysis using variables such as texture, color and sensory traits indicated that breads produced with 50% NaCl substitution were comparable with the control.
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Keeping in view the present day demand for foods with healthy fats, the effect of different fats namely hydrogenated fat (HF) and bakery fat (BF); oils—sunflower oil (SFO), soyabean oil (SBO), olive oil (OLO), palm oil (POO) and coconut oil (CNO) separately at the level of 7.5 % on the rheological, fatty acid profile and quality characteristics of parotta was studied. Addition of fats and oils decreased Farinograph water absorption, Amylograph peak viscosity, Alveograph resistance of dough to deformation and increased average abscissa at rupture. In the micrographs of parotta dough with fats, the protein matrix appeared thick and intact, whereas in the case of parotta dough with oils the protein matrix appeared slightly less intact. The spread ratio and overall quality of parotta with oils were higher than fats. The highest overall quality score was observed for parotta with OLO, followed in decreasing order by SFO, SBO, CNO, POO, HF and BF. Determination of fatty acid profile showed that the parottas with fats contained a high amount of trans fatty acids (TFA), while parottas with oils had no TFA. During storage up to 48 h, the parottas with oils remained softer than the parottas with fats.
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Background: Grain texture is one of the most important characteristics of bread wheat and has a significant influence on end-use qualities. Results: Forty-three Chinese cultivars were tested under three environments and used to characterise kernel hardness, Puroindoline-D1 alleles and Alveograph and Mixolab parameters. The results indicated that SKCS hardness was positively correlated with Alveograph tenacity and P/L and Mixolab protein weakening (C2) and water absorption and negatively correlated with Mixolab starch gelatinisation (C3), amylasic activity (C4) and starch gelling (C5). Variance analysis showed that Puroindoline-D1 had a significant impact on SKCS hardness and most Alveograph and Mixolab parameters. Furthermore, among three Puroindoline-D1 genotypes, PINA-null/Pinb-D1a possessed the highest SKCS hardness, Alveograph tenacity and W and Mixolab stability and water absorption but the lowest Alveograph extensibility and G and Mixolab C3, C4 and C5. Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1a had the lowest SKCS hardness, Alveograph tenacity and W and Mixolab C2, water absorption and stability but the highest Alveograph extensibility and G and Mixolab C3, C4 and C5. Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b possessed the lowest Mixolab C2 - C1, C3 - C2, C4 - C3 and C5 - C4. Conclusion: Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1a was softer and had lower tenacity and water absorption. PINA-null/Pinb-D1a was harder and had higher tenacity and water absorption. Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b had lower difference values among Mixolab parameters.
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In the present study, we search to improve the viscoelastic properties of wheat flour characterized by a low bread-making quality. Six regulators were tested: broad bean flour, gluten, monodiglyceride (MDG), ascorbic acid, sodium alginate and a mixture of amylase and xylanase. A hybrid design was carried out in order to study the effect of these regulators on the alveographic properties of wheat flour dough. Two alveographic responses (W: deformation energy and P/L: elasticity-to-extensibility ratio) were studied and simultaneously optimized via the desirability functions. An optimal mixture, containing 13.17 g/kg of broad bean flour, 15.13 g/kg of gluten, 0.155 g/kg of ascorbic acid, 3.875 g/kg of MDG, 2.75 g/kg of sodium alginate and 0.3 g/kg of enzyme mixture, was obtained and tested in a Tunisian flour. It led to a dough characterized by a W = 274 × 10−4 J and P/L = 0.74 versus 191 × 10−4 J and 0.40, respectively, for the Tunisian flour without improvers.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSIn this work, we developed a new flour improver mixing formula intended to be used with wheat flour characterized by a low bread-making quality. This improver mixture is in powder form and contains 13.17 g of broad bean flour, 15.13 g of gluten, 0.155 g of ascorbic acid, 3.875 g of monodiglyceride, 2.75 g of sodium alginate and 0.3 g of enzyme mixture per kilogram of wheat flour. The incorporation of this improver mixture in low bread-making quality wheatflour leads to an increase of its deformation energy (W) of about 43% and produces large volume bread.
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BACKGROUND: In Romania, the Alveograph is the most used device to evaluate the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, but lately the Mixolab device has begun to play an important role in the breadmaking industry. These two instruments are based on different principles but there are some correlations that can be found between the parameters determined by the Mixolab and the rheological properties of wheat dough measured with the Alveograph. RESULTS: Statistical analysis on 80 wheat flour samples using the backward stepwise multiple regression method showed that Mixolab values using the ‘Chopin S’ protocol (40 samples) and ‘Chopin + ’ protocol (40 samples) can be used to elaborate predictive models for estimating the value of the rheological properties of wheat dough: baking strength (W), dough tenacity (P) and extensibility (L). The correlation analysis confirmed significant findings (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) between the parameters of wheat dough studied by the Mixolab and its rheological properties measured with the Alveograph. CONCLUSION: A number of six predictive linear equations were obtained. Linear regression models gave multiple regression coefficients with for P, for W and for L, at a 95% confidence interval. Copyright
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The field of rheology has seen a wider application in the food industry recently although, it is a complex concept and that most food systems possess non-ideal characteristics. Nevertheless, the rheological behavior of foods are able to be determined using various techniques and equipment. Studies on rheological properties related to dough and gluten are often challenging due to its variance in nature and high dependence on many factors. This study attempts to give a review on the various types of experimental techniques and set-up used in quantifying rheological properties of dough and gluten. The rheological properties are defined and the behaviors are described by inducing stress and strains in small and large deformation studies.
Article
Cereal Chem. 66(2):81-86 A total of 73 wheat samples (23 soft white winter, 20 soft white spring, 15 plus protein. In hard wheats, loaf volume was predicted (r= 0.950; SE= 49 club, seven hard red winter, six hard red spring, and two hard white winter) cm 3 ) using alveograph L plus protein. Specific volume (an index of protein were milled and analyzed for gross composition and flour texture (by quality) could be predicted in hard wheats (r= 0.946; SE= 3.1 cm 3 /% near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy). The wheat flours were baked into protein) using alveograph P, W, and hardness. In soft wheats, specific cookies and bread and evaluated on an alveograph. A multivariable model volume was predicted (r = 0.855; SE = 6.56 cm 3 /% protein) using produced the highest correlation coefficient using combinations of protein, alveograph L and W plus hardness. The equations were verified using hardness, and alveograph values P, L, and W to predict loaf volume, wheat flours with known gross composition and end-use parameters. specific volume, and cookie diameter. Cookie diameter was predicted from Cookie diameter in soft wheat flour was predicted with r = 0.934 and an P and protein (r 0.797; standard error (SE) = 0.14 cm). Loaf volume was average residual of 0.06 cm. Loaf volume was predicted in hard wheat predicted (r= 0.914; SE= 68 cm 3) in soft wheats using alveograph L and W flours with r = 0.939 and an average residual of 33 cm 3 . Since the early studies of Chopin (1927), the alveograph has been used mainly to evaluate breadmaking quality of wheat flours (Bennett and Coppock 1956, Bloksma 1957, Chen and D'Appolonia 1985, Chopin 1927, Dubois 1984, Khattak et al 1974, Marcelle 1955). Some studies were conducted on the use of the alveograph in determination of cookie-making quality (Grebaut 1984, Rasper et al 1986) with rather limited success. Rasper et al (1986) suggested that the failure to relate alveogram indexes to cookie-baking performance reflects the limited sensitivity of the latter rather than the inadequacy of the rheological test to respond to quality differences in tested wheats. In studies of breadmaking quality of U.S. and Canadian (as in European) wheats, the main emphasis has been on the W value (Bloksma 1957, Faridi and Rasper 1987). It is of interest that Shogren et al (1963a,b) pointed to the low L values of U. S. hard red winter wheat flours. Chen and D'Appolonia (1985) reported that all three alveograph values (P, L, and JW) were highly correlated with extensigraph values. However, only the P value was correlated (negatively) with flour protein, wet gluten, and loaf volume. The objective of this study was to determine whether alveograph values alone or in combination with other parameters (such as protein content and hardness), could be used to develop algorithms to predict bread- and cookie-making properties of Pacific Northwest wheats. The results were also used to determine whether there were differences in alveograph parameters between winter and spring wheats. Determination of appropriate end-use properties of wheat flours should be considered both for differentiation between low-protein soft and high-protein hard wheats and for fine differentiation among samples within each class. While the hard wheats are not likely to be used in production of cookies and cakes, soft and relatively high-protein wheats are used widely in bread production. Consequently, our statistical evaluation encompassed testing hard and soft wheats in breadmaking and soft wheats only in cookie- making.
Article
Cereal Chem. 67(l):64-69 hile recording unit of an alveograph was modified by attaching a corn of good and poor breadmaking potential) and 22 Pacific Northwestern puterized unit for automatic computation and storage of data. The modi- hard white winter and hard red spring wheat flours (covering a wide fication allowed comparison of data collected manometrically with that range of breadmaking potential). DM gave the highest correlations with obtained by the computer. The stored data was used via a software program both loaf volume and specific loaf volume for the 22 Pacific Northwestern to determine the first derivative of the alveograph curve. A new parameter flours (-0. 897 and -0.899, respectively, P < 0.001). Stepwise regression (I)M) based on the first derivative of the alveograph curve was developed. analysis produced a model in which DM, P, and water absorption Alveograph indices of P. L, W, and DM were used to assess the baking explained over 90% of the variability in loaf volume potential. qualities of six Midwestern hard red winter wheat flours (three, each, The alveographic technique, originally developed in France as an empirical physical test to assess the breadmaking quality of soft wheat flours, is currently finding increasing use in many parts of the world. Much of the available information was summarized recently in The Alveogralph Handbook by Faridi and Rasper (1987). Earlier attempts to relate alveograph parameters with baking quality of hard, high-protein wheat flours met with limited success and/or contrasting results. Khattak et al (1974) used the alveograph to evaluate hard red spring (H RS) wheats and reported low and nonsignificant correlations with loaf volume. It was con- cluded that the alveograph was not suitable for evaluating the breadmaking quality of HRS flours. Preston et al (1987) suggested that part of the problem in assessing the quality of HRS wheats with the alveograph under standard conditions (50% dough absorption) was related to the high starch damage levels in the flours. As starch damage increases, extensibility (L) of dough decreases and overpressure (P) increases. Such changes would normally be interpreted as an increase in inherent flour strength, rather than an increase in water absorption requirements due to increased starch damage. Weipert (1981), comparing the loaf volume of breads baked from German flours by the rapid-mix test, found considerable differences in correlations between alveogram indices and baking quality of tested flours. The strong- est correlation was reported between loaf volume and swelling index, G, whereas P and W values appeared to be somewhat less reliable predictors of baking quality. However, the correla- tions involving P and W could be greatly improved by extending the dough mixing and resting times of the standard alveograph procedure (total 28 min) to 65 and even 135 min. More recently, Bettge et al (1988) used the alveograph to evaluate the bread- making qualities of soft and hard wheat flours from the Pacific Northwest. In both wheat flour types, L produced the highest correlation with loaf volume and specific loaf volume. In addition to the conventional alveograph indices, investigators have examined other quantitative aspects of the alveogram to relate the shape of the curve to the rheological and functional properties of dough. Bloksma (1957, 1958), using some simplifying assumptions, calculated the shapes of alveograms of viscous (Newton body), viscoelastic (Maxwell body), and plastic (Bingham body) substances and concluded that no physical reason exists for characterizing an alveogram by means of the maximum height of the curve as previously suggested by Scott Blair and Potel (1937). Instead, he suggested it be characterized by the volume (V,,,) at which the maximum curve height occurs, because this
Article
Studies on the changes in quality of parotta during storage from 0.25 to 48 h indicated a decrease in alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC) from 257.4 to 127.7%, in total water solubles (TWS) from 8.25 to 6.24%, in soluble starch (SS) from 2.11 to 1.19%, in solubilised amylose from 0.39 to 0.13% and in solubilised amylopectin from 1.72 to 1.06%. The pasting characteristics of stored parotta measured using a rapid visco analyser showed a decrease in maximum viscosity at 95 degrees C from 54 to 37 RVU. The overall quality score of parotta based on colour, nature of spots, shape, oiliness, handfeel, texture, layers, mouthfeel, taste and aroma decreased from 75 to 43 while the shear and compression force of parotta increased from 12.3 to 21.6 N and 304 to 711 N respectively, with storage time. The AWRC, SS, amylopectin and viscosity at 95 degrees C showed a highly significant correlation (r greater than or equal to 0.955, P<0.001) with overall quality score. The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) characteristics of stored parotta samples indicated an increase in the enthalpy of the endotherms with storage time, implying different degrees of starch retrogradation. Avrami methodology was applied to determine Avrami exponents tinder of crystal type) and time constants (reciprocal of rate constant); an Avrami exponent value of 1.18 and a time constant (k x 10(3)) of 24.56 h(-1.18) was obtained for parotta.
Article
Six flours differing in quality were analysed for their chemical and rheological parameters. South Indian parottas were prepared and evaluated for their textural characteristics using an Instron universal testing machine (UTM) and their sensory characteristics by a trained panel. The correlation coefficient data indicated that among the chemical characteristics of flours, dry gluten, protein and SDS sedimentation value were found to be the best indices in predicting the quality of parotta. The rheological characteristics, such as farinograph water absorption, extensograph ratio figure and area, and Instron apparent biaxial extensional viscosity (ABEV), hardness and cohesiveness were found to be highly correlated to the overall quality score of parotta. Sensory texture of parotta was found to be highly correlated to shear force as well as compression force (r=0.99, P ≤ 0.001) indicating that shear and compression forces could be considered as the best indices of sensory texture of parotta.
SF, shear force; OC, other characteristics are combined scores of parotta evaluated for colour, nature of spots, shape, oiliness, mouthfeel and taste and aroma; HF, handfeel; TX, texture
  • Sr
SR, spread ratio; SF, shear force; OC, other characteristics are combined scores of parotta evaluated for colour, nature of spots, shape, oiliness, mouthfeel and taste and aroma; HF, handfeel; TX, texture; LY, layers;
The alveograph hand book American Association of Cereal Chemistry Changes in the physical–chemical and organoleptic characteristics of parotta during storage
  • H A Faridi
  • V F Rasper
Faridi, H. A., & Rasper, V. F. (1987). The alveograph hand book. American Association of Cereal Chemistry, St. Paul, MN. Indrani, D., Rao, S. J., Sankar, K. U., & Rao, G. V. (2000). Changes in the physical–chemical and organoleptic characteristics of parotta during storage. Food Research International, 33, 323–329.
Effect of chemical composition of wheat flour and functional properties of dough on the quality of south Indian parotta
  • Indrani
The alveograph hand book. American Association of Cereal Chemistry
  • H A Faridi
  • V F Rasper