Mushroom polysaccharide extracts delay progression of carcinogenesis in mice

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology 02/2008; 7(2):147-52.
Source: PubMed


Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body's immune system increasing a patient's risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting that these extracts may be useful as adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.

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    • "Therefore, naturally occurring anticancer compounds present in human diets have important implication of chemotherapy and chemoprevention, especially for those with low toxicity and high potency such as resveratrol [34] and tea polyphenols [35]. More interestingly, the Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts have been reported to delay the progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice [36]. In this study, we found that both i.p injection and oral administration of PP remarkably inhibited the tumor growth. "
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    ABSTRACT: Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Conventional chemotherapies are limited by the development of drug resistance and various side effects. Because of its non-toxicity and potent biopharmacological activity, metabolites derived from mushrooms have received more attention in cancer therapy. Our previous studies have demonstrated the anticancer effects of polysaccharide-protein complexes derived from the Pleurotus mushrooms. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of a hot water extract containing a polysaccharide-protein complex isolated from Pleurotus pulmonarius (PP) in liver cancer cells. Our results indicated that exposure of liver cancer cells to PP not only significantly reduced the in vitro cancer cell proliferation and invasion but also enhanced the drug-sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic drug Cisplatin. Both oral administration and intraperitoneal injection of PP significantly inhibited the tumor growth in xenograft BALB/c nude mice. PP triggered a marked suppression of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and overexpression of the constitutively active form of AKT, Myr-AKT, abrogated this effect and the inhibited proliferation and invasion by PP. Both western blot and ELISA results showed that PP-treated liver cancer cells had reduced expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Addition of recombinant human VEGF attenuated the inhibitory effects of PP on PI3K/AKT pathway and the cancer phenotypes. Our results demonstrated that PP suppressed the proliferation, invasion, and drug-resistance of liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, mediated by the inhibition of autocrine VEGF-induced PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This study suggests the potential therapeutic implication of PP in the treatment of human liver cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Numerous reports demonstrate beneficial in vivo effects of cultivated and wild edible mushrooms. It has been proven that the polysaccharide extract of Pleurotus pulmonarius delays the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma [2]; polysaccharide from Pholiota nameko has anti-inflammatory properties in rodents [3]; Agaricus bisporus inhibits prostate tumor growth in mice [4]; Pleurotus eryngii, Grifola frondosa , and Hypsizygus marmoreus protect apolipoprotein- E deficient mice from development of atherosclerosis [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the nutritional benefits of mushrooms is the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites which have been reported to exert various beneficial effects in vivo. Therefore, we selected thirteen frequently consumed species of Polish mushrooms and determined the concentration of polyphenols, flavonoids, β-carotene, and lycopene in aqueous and methanolic extracts of dried fruiting bodies as well as their reducing power and ability to scavenge ABTS cation radical. We found that the concentration of antioxidants is different in different species and in various parts of the fruiting body of mushrooms. We observed a strong correlation (r > 0.9) between the concentration of total phenolics and reducing power/scavenging effects in both aqueous and methanolic extracts, while this correlation was moderate for flavonoids. Beta-carotene did not contribute discernibly to the antioxidative properties of the extracts, while lycopene had a significant contribution to the scavenging activity of methanolic mushroom extracts.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of nutrition and metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the antinociceptive effect of (1→3),(1→6)-linked β-glucan (GL) isolated from Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel. in mice and its possible mechanism of action. Intraperitoneal administration of GL inhibited glutamate-induced licking with an ID(50) of 0.34 mg/kg and inhibition of 96% ± 3%. The treatment of animals with GL (1 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited nociception induced by intrathecal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, kainate and interleukin -1β in 67% ± 13%, 89% ± 11%, 74% ± 9%, and 75% ± 7%, respectively, but not the nociceptive response induced by (±)-1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, substance P, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Moreover, GL (30 mg/kg i.p.) also reduced mechanical allodynia caused by partial sciatic nerve ligation for 2 hours, with inhibition of 47% ± 10% observed 0.5 hours after treatment. When given chronically (twice a day) over 7 days, GL reversed the mechanical allodynia caused by partial sciatic nerve ligation (inhibition of 45% ± 13% to 60% ± 8%). Interestingly, GL did not affect the locomotor activity of mice in an open field test with doses that produce antinociceptive effects. Our findings show that GL inhibits acute and neuropathic pain in mice through mechanisms that involve the inhibition of ionotropic glutamate receptors and the interleukin -1β pathway. PERSPECTIVE: This article presents the antinociceptive activity of GL in acute and neuropathic pain with participation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β). After further experiments, this compound may represent a new pharmacological agent for the treatment of clinical pain.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society
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