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Educational Attainment among Venezuelan Youth: An Analysis of Its Determinants

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Abstract

The paper uses data from the 1987 Household Survey to analyze the determinants of educational attainment among those aged from 10 to 18. Two-thirds of the children in the sample are still in school, and 12% of those who have left school are illiterate. Two percent of the sample have never attended school and 42% have repeated at least one school grade. The mean educational attainment of those who left school is five years of education. The major factor relating to whether a child is in school or not is urban residence, evidently reflecting parental income. Males are especially at risk of not being in school, repeating a grade and being illiterate. The implications of the findings is that greater attention has to be given to providing incentives to male youth to remain in school, perhaps in the form of targeted subsidies to potential dropouts of the primary school system in rural areas.

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... In accordance with the human capital theory, higher income inequality of the existing household will lead to higher educational inequality of their children in the future; since income inequality reduces access of children to better educational institutes, thus blocking their educational attainment (Psacharopoulos & Yang, 1991;Checchi, 2001;Chang, 2018;Rahman, Chaudhry, & Farooq, 2018). Therefore, Similarly, Mayer (2001) found that a one standard deviation increase in income inequality led to 10% fall in higher education enrollment in the US. ...
... This model concludes the debate on who is most affected by educational inequality. Cortina & Stromquist (2019) insisted that females are discouraged from getting an education based on cultural norms, whereas, Psacharopoulos and Yang (1991) opined that male students end up being first to drop out of school at an early age for the sake of job in case of any income constraint. The estimation results revealed that in male students, inequality increased by 3.87%, on average. ...
... The estimation results revealed that in male students, inequality increased by 3.87%, on average. Hence, the results support the proposition by Psacharopoulos and Yang (1991) for Pakistan. ...
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When firms do not know which labor is capable of efficient work, then paying all employees their average product as wage seems a feasible option. This simplest of ways discourages good workers and makes bad workers costly. Spence proposed to use educational attainment as the indicator of the labor force's capability to solve this problem. Since workers are randomly distributed in terms of their ability, Akerlof would lead us to believe that the level of educational attainment should be proportional to the individual's ability, which is not valid, practically. This study strives to find the determinants of educational inequality, where income inequality of the household is the prime suspect, and other indicators include gender, household size, and age. GMM instrumental variable approach was used to study the effect of income inequality on educational inequality. The results showed that it is income inequality, which restricts people from attaining higher education.
... Knowledge is still missing on the issue in other developing countries, including Nigeria. Specifically, the literature holds that children who belong to the ethnic group(s) that was historically excluded from their nations' educational system face higher risk of repeating than non-excluded children (Psarcharopoulos 1997;Psarcharopoulos and Yang 1991). It is unclear whether this premise holds across all developing countries. ...
... Prior research also finds that repetition is more common among rural children and children living in poverty than children who lack the preceding attributes (Psarcharopoulos 1997;Psarcharopoulos and Yang 1991). The results of the gender gap in repetition at the primary school stage are mixed. ...
... Following Psarcharopoulos and Yang (1991), an age-grade-distortion variable is used to operationalize progress through school. The variable is comprised of children whose age is above the standard for the grade they may have just completed or are currently attending. ...
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This study examines the role of ethnicity, gender, urban–rural residence, and socioeconomic status on children’s progress through school. It also investigates other correlates of progress through school within the categories of ethnicity, gender, urban–rural residence, and socioeconomic status. The study finds ethnic and income gaps in progress through school. In particular, the results show that Hausa–Fulani children and poor children are less likely on average to progress through school than Yoruba children and non-poor children. The preceding results have numerous policy implications. To address the lack of progress through school that arises from late entry, policies must implement early childhood nutrition and food programs. To reduce lack of progress through school among poor children, policy makers must focus on poverty eradication, learning enhancement, and remedial education programs. To address the problem of lack of progress through school among Hausa–Fulani children, it is vital for policies to establish mobile schools, visiting female teachers, and separate school facilities, especially for Hausa–Fulani girls. Results also indicate that work interferes with children’s progress through school; particularly among poor children, rural children, and Hausa–Fulani children. To address this problem, policies need to implement educational stipends that are given to the households in which these children belong on the condition that they are released from work-related distractions during school time.
... INTRODUCTION q-he relationship between investment in education and economic development is well known (see, for example, Psacharopoulos and Woodhall, 1985). Among the many benefits is the power of schooling to raise the income of the poor, to increase productivity, and to promote social equity. ...
... He found that when substitutes for child labor are available in the household, children's schooling activity increases. Psacharopoulos and Yang (1991) found that .participation in schooling and years of school° mg attainment for Venezuelan children and youths was positively related to father's school-ing, more so than was family income. Parental education was found to have a positive association with school attendance in Guatemala as well (Balderston, 1984). ...
... Jamison and Lockheed (1987) found that in addition to parental schooling, important factors determining child schooling participation in Nepal include caste, modern attitudes, and gender, while school availability was found to have no effect on school participation. Other indicators of school performance, such as repetition and dropout, have also been found to be influenced by parental schooling (Patrinos and Psacharopoulos, 1992;Psacharopoulos and Arriagada, 1989;Psacharopoulos and Velez, 1993;Psacharopoulos and Yang, 1991). Of course, the incidence of dropout and repetition is also related to child employment (Balderston, 1984;Bowman and Goldblatt, 1984a). ...
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In this paper, the schooling attainment and labor characteristics of those aged 12-19 years is assessed using data from the 1990 household survey from Paraguay. Although schooling is compulsory to age 13, it was found that 28% of those 12 years of age are already out of school. Among those out of school, 19% work formally in the labor market and contribute about a quarter of total family income. Among the 12-year-olds still in school, one-quarter have repeated a grade or more. The analysis suggests that language strongly influences school attainment and performance. Those who speak only Guarani at home may receive equal access to schooling, but their performance in school (in terms of years of attainment and grade repetition), is considerably inferior to that of Spanish-only and bilingual pupils. The number of siblings was found not to have had much of an effect on school enrollment, although it did have a significant impact on the probability of child labor. These findings may be evidence of 'specialization' in the household, whereby some children work, while their siblings are permitted to attend school and concentrate on studying. The results indicate that subsidies to poor households may be necessary to enable them to maintain their children in school for at least the duration of the primary cycle.
... We also performed two sensitivity analyses using different definitions of school trajectory disruption: 1) academic delay of 2 or more years or early school dropout; 2) age-grade delay as proposed by Psacharopoulos & Yang [28] using the following school-for-age (SAGE) formula: ...
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Background Adolescents living with perinatal HIV often experience difficult living circumstances that can impact educational achievement and thus their transition to adult life. We explored their school trajectories and evaluated the contribution of perinatal HIV-infection, in Thailand, where education is free and compulsory until the age of 15. Methods We used data from the Teens Living with Antiretrovirals (TEEWA) study, a cross-sectional case-control study conducted from 2011 to 2014 in Thailand. Participants were 707 adolescents living with perinatal HIV (ALPHIV, cases) aged 12–19 receiving antiretroviral therapy in 19 hospitals throughout Thailand and 689 HIV-uninfected adolescents (controls) living in the same institutions or, for those living in family settings, randomly selected from the general population and individually matched for sex, age, and place of residence. School trajectory disruption was defined as ≥1 year of academic delay or as early school dropout (before 15 years of age). Logistic regression models were used to assess factors independently associated with disrupted school trajectory and to estimate the proportion of school disruption attributable to HIV-infection. We used multivariate imputations by chained equations (MICE) to manage missing data and performed two sensitivity analyses to evaluate the main model’s reliability. Results The study population’s median age was 14.5 years (58% female). School trajectory disruption was experienced by 37% of ALPHIV and 12% of the controls. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, ALPHIV were 5 times more likely to experience disruption than controls ( OR A =5.2 [3.7–7.2]). About 50% of school trajectory disruption was attributable to HIV-infection. Males and adolescents living in institutions were more likely to experience school trajectory disruption ( OR A =1.8 [1.3–2.4] and OR A =11.0 [7.7–15.8], respectively). Among ALPHIV, neurocognitive difficulties and growth delay were significantly associated with disruption ( OR A =3.3 [2.1–5.2] and OR A =1.8 [1.3–2.6], respectively). For those living in families, disruption was also associated with having a caregiver who had less than a secondary-level education ( OR A =2.1 [1.1–3.9]) or having experienced stigmatization ( OR A =1.9 [1.2–3.1]). Conclusions HIV and contextual factors combine to aggravate the educational disadvantage among ALPHIV. The impact of this disadvantage on their life prospects, especially regarding access to higher education and professional achievement, should be further explored.
... Most studies consider poverty the primary reason, but many other empirical and theoretical analyses show that other factors, such as school quality, parental education, family income or wealth and labor market opportunities play equal roles in child schooling and child labor decisions. For example, children from a family with a high level of income tend to stay in school rather than going into the labor market (Psacharopoulos, G., & Hongyu Yang, 1991). Parental education has a positive and significant effect on child schooling (Holmes, 2003). ...
Article
Schooling has been expanded in recent years. The country has high levels of primary and secondary school enrolment for both boys and girls. However, a substantial proportion of children are not enrolled in school or are economically exploited. This paper tries to determine the factors influencing a family’s decision to send their children to the labor market or to enroll them in school in the cases of 1,210 children aged 6-15 in Samangan, Balkh, and Jawzjan provinces. A logit model was employed for the data analysis. The analysis suggests that parental education and parental employment positively affected child schooling and negatively affected child labor. However, a mother’s employment has a negative association with child schooling. The number of employed family members has a positive effect on the probability of child schooling and a negative effect on the probability of child labor, while the number of unemployed members has a negative effect on child schooling and a positive effect on child labor. The number of siblings in different age groups also influences child labor and child schooling. In a larger family, younger children have a higher chance of going to school. The probability of child schooling increases and the probability of child labor decreases with an increase in GDP per capita of the household. Child labor and child schooling can also be determined by age and gender.
... For education, we use children's enrolment at school as an indicator. We also use the SAGE of Psacharopoulos & Yang (1991) to measure progress at school. The indicator normalises the year of schooling by the dierence between the child's age and the normal schooling entry age. ...
... In this study, the outcome variable for assessing the progress of children in the school system is the number of years lag in education, a modification of Psacharopoulos and Yang (1991)'s schooling-for-age (SAGE) measurement. A child beginning school in Tajikistan needs to be seven years old at the start of the school year in September. ...
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In Tajikistan, a Central Asian country with high rates of emigration, there is little systematic empirical research on the education of children in transnational households. In this study, I use national representative data from 2011 to examine the number of years lag in education of boys (N=1110) and girls (N=1140) aged 7 to 17 who live in different transnational care arrangements compared with those living in non‐migrant households. I demonstrate that being in a transnational household reduces the risk of an educational lag, although there are gender differences when measuring this relationship. In particular, girls are less likely to have an educational lag if the mother or both parents migrate, if the duration of parental absence is shorter rather than longer, and if migrants send remittances home. The legal status of parents abroad and maternal migration are advantageous for boys’ education. These findings highlight the importance of looking at complex transnational forms of living and at gender when assessing the educational outcomes of children in migrant sending contexts.
... A child is identified as education-deprived with respect to SAGE, if her/his grade progression at school occurs at a rate below normal. In other words, this indicator measures school deprivation as an age-grade distortion (Psacharopoulos and Yang, 1991): where E represents the normal schooling entry age, which is 7 in Tanzania. A child is identified as below normal progression if SAGE 100 < . ...
Article
We analyse the causal effect of parental education on the potential mismatch between child monetary poverty and multidimensional deprivations. First, in a simple model of parental investment in child outcomes, we demonstrate that the misalignment between household monetary resources and parental education causes a mismatch. Indeed, a match between poverty and deprivation occurs whenever household consumption expenditure and parental education are correlated. Second, using micro-level data from Tanzania, we find that parental education has a negative effect on the probability that a monetarily non-poor child suffers some basic deprivations, and a positive effect on the likelihood that a monetarily poor child suffers no basic deprivations.
... -Some were centered on aspects related to differential attainment', as in the research carried out by Davie, Butler and Goldstein (1972), others were concerned with failure2, When examining the research findings related to attainment, it is important to keep in mind the fact that the relationship between attainment and failure is complex, as pointed out by Wolff, Schiefelbein and Valenzuela (1994, p. 20). as in the study by Psacharopoulos and Yang (1991); -Some included the analyses of several variables related to children's and families' background such as the work by Dauber, Alexander and Entwisle (1993), others were restricted to the examination of the effects of only one or a small number of these variables as exemplified by Gottfried, Gottfried and Bathurst (1988); -Some of the multivariate studies included school variables, as, for instance, the Coleman Report (Coleman et al., 1966), others were restricted to individual and family factors such as the investigation of Bianchi (1984). ...
Thesis
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This thesis is a study of academic failure among Primeiro Grau children in Southern Brazil. The empirical basis of the thesis is constituted by two investigations: a study of risk factors for failure in a birth cohort of 6,000 children from the city of Pelotas, through a correlation approach, and case-studies of two Primeiro Grau (Primary) schools - from the same city - that presented contrasting rates of academic failure (high and low). The thesis pursues the argument that academic failure cannot be fully understood through a correlation model. Such an approach is important to identify the children at risk. Nevertheless, it offers little in terms of insights into the intra-school processes associated with failure. The second investigation aimed at making a contribution to the understanding of academic failure among Primeiro Grau children through exploring such intra-school processes. Their identification and investigation are of particular importance in the light of the extensive long-term epidemiological research tradition in the area, which the thesis critiques. The theoretical basis of the second study is derived from Vygotsky's and Bakhtin's accounts of the social formation of mind, which privilege communicative means of mediation, and Bernstein's model of educational transmission, which speaks of the specialization of communication in schools. This study investigates the characteristics of the cultures of the two schools and suggests that the high rates of educational failure in one of the schools is associated with the privileging of the regulative aspects of education over its instructional aspects: teachers' beliefs that poverty affects children's attainment, negatively combined with teachers' impressions that the children attending their school were very needy, resulted in teachers stressing the socialization purposes of schooling to the detriment of its academic purposes.
... However, we would need to see under which conditions the index properties proposed by Bourguignon and Chakravarty are satisfied. a 'normal' achievement rate (see, Psacharopoulos and Yand, 1991). A score under 1 is considered as being below normal progress in the school system because of late entry or dropping out and/or re-enrollment and the further away it is below 1 the lower the performance of the child. ...
Article
This paper proposes a model-based index for quantifying capability deprivation using multiple indicators for multiple dimensions. The proposed index, derived from a structural latent variable model, is a 'two-level' index which can be interpreted as a measure of the lack of freedom to achieve a minimal set of functionings. Applying our methodology to data on the two dimensions of knowledge and living conditions for Bolivian children, we find that deprivation is more intense among girls than boys and in rural areas, and the gender gap is slightly higher in the knowledge domain. Due to its model-based nature, our index enables us to identify the key explanatory factors of deprivation: in particular, parental education in the case of knowledge, and income level and economic diversification for living conditions. Comparison with traditional functionings-based measures confirm that outcome deprivation is different from choice-deprivation.
... However, we would need to see under which conditions the index properties proposed by Bourguignon and Chakravarty are satisfied. a 'normal' achievement rate (see, Psacharopoulos and Yand, 1991). A score under 1 is considered as being below normal progress in the school system because of late entry or dropping out and/or re-enrollment and the further away it is below 1 the lower the performance of the child. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This paper proposes a model-based index for quantifying capability deprivation using multiple indicators for multiple dimensions. The proposed index, derived from a structural latent variable model, is a 'two-level' index which can be interpreted as a measure of the lack of freedom to achieve a minimal set of functionings. Applying our methodology to data on the two dimensions of knowledge and living conditions for Bolivian children, we find that deprivation is more intense among girls than boys and in rural areas, and the gender gap is slightly higher in the knowledge domain. Due to its model-based nature, our index enables us to identify the key explanatory factors of deprivation: in particular, parental education in the case of knowledge, and income level and economic diversification for living conditions. Comparison with traditional functionings-based measures confirm that outcome deprivation is different from choice-deprivation.
... The second dependent variable is estimated using tobit because GAGE has observed zero values for more than 35 percent of children. 22 Following Psacharopoulos and Yang (1991), age-adjusted measure of educational attainment ( ) is defined as follows: ...
Article
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The paper examines the causal effect of child labour hours on child education using the collective model of the household. By drawing on Bangladesh National Child labour Survey data for 2002, we find that children"s work, even in limited amounts, does adversely affect child human capital. This is reflected in reduced school attendance and age-adjusted school attendance rates. We find that parents do not have identical preferences towards boys" and girls" schooling decisions. While both, educated mother and father shifts the trade-off towards girls" schooling as opposed to market work, the differential impact of mother"s education on girls is significantly larger. These conclusions persist even after allowing for sample selection into child"s work. From a policy perspective, the results suggest that empowerment of women can have a significant effect on raising the level of schooling of girls in Bangladesh.
... A maioria dos estudos correlacionais revisados indicava que quanto maior o nível de escolaridade dos pais melhor o desempenho acadêmico de seus filhos (DAVIE; BUTLER;GOLDSTEIN, 1972;BIANCHI, 1984;YANG, 1991;ILON; MOOK, 1991;DAUBER;ALEXANDER;ENTWISLE, 1993;PATRINOS;PSACHAROPOULOS, 1996). ...
Article
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This paper presents the findings of an investigation which, in its first part, identified risk factors for school failure (understood as grade retention and/or drop-out) in a cohort of all children born in the city Pelotas (RS) hospitals, in 1982. This was accomplished through a multivariate model which examined the risk for failure associated to children's personal and family variables. The results confirm findings from other research, suggesting the important influence exerted by factors such as ethnic group, family income, number of siblings, parents' level of schooling, type of dwelling, among others, over children's academic attainment. The second part of the investigation reports case studies of two schools (attended by populations that presented the same risk factors) with contrasting rates of repetition and dropout among their students (high in one and low in the other). The results indicate that the institutions differ among themselves and point out to the importance of intra-school factors, especially schools' pedagogic discourse (concept defined by Bernstein) for children's attainment. The emphasis on the academic aspect of schooling (instructional discourse), observed in the school that presented lower failure rates, enabled an effect modification over the important correlation (encountered in other research) between children's failure and parents' low level of schooling. The school which presented the highest rates of failure was characterized by a regulative discourse.
... The schooling-for-age (SAGE) formula (see Psacharopoulos and Yang 1991;Psacharopoulos 1995, 1996) measures age-grade distortion: ...
... Further insight into the degree of over-age students is gained by examining grade for age. Here we construct the grade-for-age index used by Psacharopoulos and Yang (1991). The progress of a young person in the school system is assessed using the formula: ...
Chapter
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Although enrollment rates are increasing in Guatemala, educational attainment continues to be among the lowest in Latin America as a result of late entry, repetition, and early dropout. Vast inequalities in access and attainment— linked to ethnicity, gender, poverty, and geography—remain. Adult literacy, estimated at 85 percent in Latin America, is just 70 percent in Guatemala (UNDP 2004). While indigenous peoples generally have less schooling than nonindigenous peoples throughout Latin America, ethnic differences are greatest in Guatemala, where indigenous adults have less than half the schooling of nonindigenous adults (2.5 years of education compared with 5.7 years) (Hall and Patrinos 2005). Recent trends show the ethnic gap narrowing among younger people, but large inequalities remain. Among 10- to 19-year-olds, the indigenous literacy This chapter was commissioned by the Center for Global Development, Washington, D.C. Funding was also provided by the Department for International Development (U.K.), the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The authors benefited from the comments of participants at the 2004 annual meeting of the
... The indicators for educational achievements include literacy, level of education, and schooling for age (SAGE). The SAGE variable reflects the lag in a child's schooling with reference to a 'normal' achievement rate (see, Psacharopoulos and Yand, 1991). A score under 1 is considered as being below normal progress in the school system because of late entry or dropping out and/or re-enrollment and the further away it is below 1 the lower the performance of the child. ...
Article
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Abstract This paper,proposes,a multidimensional,capability deprivation,index based on a structural economic,model,(SEM) that explains the capability/deprivation levels in different dimensions, accounting for their multidimensionality and their "unobservable" (latent) nature. Under this framework, the freedom of choice in each capability domain is represented by a latent variable, partially observed through a group of indicators (achievements), and explained by a col- lection of exogenous,variables. The estimators,of the different latent variables (scores) provide a measure,of the capability levels of the population,observed,in each,dimension.,Single and multi-dimensional capability deprivation,indices are derived,using these scores. The proposed,indices are ordinal and fulfill a set of desirable,properties,in the capability framework.,The methodology,is applied,to analyse the deprivation,situation of children in Bolivia in the knowl- edge and living conditions,domains. Keywords: Capability Approach, Structural Equation Model (SEM), Poverty,
... A maioria dos estudos correlacionais revisados indicava que quanto maior o nível de escolaridade dos pais melhor o desempenho acadêmico de seus filhos (DAVIE; BUTLER;GOLDSTEIN, 1972;BIANCHI, 1984;YANG, 1991;ILON; MOOK, 1991;DAUBER;ALEXANDER;ENTWISLE, 1993;PATRINOS;PSACHAROPOULOS, 1996). ...
Article
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Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de uma investigação que, em sua primeira parte, identificou os fatores de risco para fracasso escolar (entendido como repetência e/ou evasão) em uma coorte formada por todas as crianças nascidas nos hospitais da cidade de Pelotas (RS), em 1982. Isto foi levado a cabo por meio de um modelo multivariado que examinou o risco de fracasso associado a diferentes variáveis pessoais e familiares das crianças. Os resultados confirmam os encontrados em outras pesquisas, indicando a importante influência de fatores como grupo étnico, renda familiar, número de irmãos, escolaridade dos pais, tipo de moradia, entre outros, sobre o desempenho das crianças. A segunda parte do trabalho relata estudos de caso de duas escolas (que atendem populações com os mesmos fatores de risco) cujas taxas de reprovação e evasão eram contrastantes (altas em uma escola e baixas na outra). Os resultados indicam que as instituições de ensino diferem entre si e apontam para a importância de fatores intra-escolares, em especial o discurso pedagógico das escolas (conceito definido por Bernstein), para o desempenho das crianças. A ênfase nos aspectos acadêmicos da escolarização (discurso instrucional), verificada na escola com menores taxas de reprovação e evasão, possibilitou a modificação de uma das importantes correlações, encontrada também em outras pesquisas, entre fracasso escolar dos estudantes e baixo nível de escolarização de seus pais. A escola que apresentava maiores taxas de fracasso era caracterizada por um discurso pedagógico regulativo (assistencialista).
... adjusted measure of educational attainment ( ) is defined as follows (Psacharopoulos and Yang 1991): ...
... Further insight into the degree of over-age students is gained by examining grade for age. Here we construct the grade-for-age index used by Psacharopoulos and Yang (1991). The progress of a young person in the school system is assessed using the formula: ...
... Starting from the pioneering work of Rosenzweig and Evenson (1977), where the joint family decision regarding fertility and children's time allocated to schooling and work are analysed by fitting a simultaneous equations model to Indian data, a large number of other papers have followed on this subject analysing the relationship between child work, school attendance, fertility, and other household characteristics (Cigno and Rosati, 2005; Patrinos and Psacharopoulos, 1995; Psacharopoulos and Yang, 1991; Standing, 1981a, 1981b; Silva de la Luz, 1981; Singh and Schuh, 1986; Tienda, 1979 for a book review on child labor; Brown et al. 2002 and Edmonds, 2007 for article reviews on child labor; Orazem and Gunnarsson, 2004 for an article review on the impact of child work on school attainment). There are several papers on the effect of supply constraints on young children's labor supply and school enrollment or attendance in developing countries. ...
In this paper we present evidence on the impact of distance to school and school availability on households' decisions concerning time allocation of primary-age children between work, schooling, and household chores activities using data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey 1998–99. Our results indicate that the increased and eased access to school has a well‐defined impact on children's time use. In particular, reducing the distance to primary school encourages children school attendance and reduces children work. Interestingly, the distance to middle school discourages children's work and boosts household chores activities. Moreover, the availability of both primary and middle schools has a positive effect on schooling decisions, and having a primary school nearby discourages household chores activity. Our results are robust to controlling for the endogeneity of school placement and per capita expenditures. We also find that household decisions about children's time use differ by children's sex, suggesting that girls may be differently responsive to policy measures aimed at reducing work and household chores activities and at increasing their school attendance.
... tter than boys, gender differences have been diminishing over time (Schiefelbein 1992: 8). Schiefelbein (1992 Schiefelbein ( , 1989 Schiefelbein ( , 1975) adds some further explanatory factors, such as children with learning disabilities, "age heterogeneity' in the classroom (see below), language and, in some cases, the lack of bilingual education. Psacharopoulos and Yang (1991), in their study of educational attainment in Venezuela, also examined the problem of repetition. Using a 1987 sample of school children aged 10 to 18 years, they found that grade repetition was associated with urban areas (negative) and with being male (positive). They also established that family background (father's education) has a s ...
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After reviewing the literature on repetition (students repeating grades in schools) in developing countries, the authors examine factors related to repetition in Bolivia and Guatemala. They develop a model to estimate the incidence and determinants of repetition. The use multivariate logistic regression analysis to estimate the determinants of repetition, using the results in simulations to determine probabilities of who is more likely to repeat. Their empirical analysis shows that certain populations are more likely to repeat a grade: children from less wealthy households and children of indigenous origins. This suggests that any targeting activities could be directed to the poor and could have an indigenous component, such as bilingual education.
... ii Illahi (2000), Psacharopoulos and Yang (1991), Patrinos and Psacharopoulos (1995) also used grade-for-age for schooling attainment. ...
Article
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The paper examines the linkages between child work and both school attendance and school attainment of children aged 5–17 years using data from a survey based in rural Bangladesh. This paper first looks at school attendance as an indicator of a child’s time input in schooling; then it measures the “schooling-for-age” as a learning achievement or schooling outcome. The results from the logistic regressions show that school attendance and grade attainment are lower for children who are working. The gender-disaggregated estimates show that probability of grade attainment is lower for girls than that of boys. Household permanent income, parental education and supply side correlates of schooling (presence of a primary (grade 1-6) school and secondary (grade 6-10) school in the village) are appeared to be significant determinants of schooling in rural Bangladesh. The results of this study further show that the effect of household permanent income, parental education and presence of secondary school is higher for grade attainment than school attendance.
... The schooling-for-age (SAGE) formula (see Psacharopoulos and Yang 1991;Psacharopoulos 1995, 1996) measures age-grade distortion: ...
Article
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This paper analyzes the effects of being indigenous, number of siblings, sibling activities and sibling age structure on child schooling progress and child non-school activity. The analysis is based on the Peru 1991 Living Standards Survey. The analysis shows that family size is important. However, the analysis also demonstrates the importance of taking into consideration the activities of siblings. The number of siblings not entrolled in school proves to be an important control variable in at least one specification of the empirical model. However, more research is needed on the interactions between siblings, their activities and their age structure. In other words, an attempt must be made to find ways of taking into account the “life cycle effects” of one‘s siblings on their schooling performance and labor force activity. The analysis also shows that the age structure of siblings is important, but in conjunction with their activities. That is, having a greater number of younger siblings implies less schooling, more age-grade distortion in the classroom and more child labor. JEL classification: J22, J23, I21
... Chernikovsky analyzed the activities of youth in Botswana and rejected the hypothesis that there is a tradeoff between child schooling and the number of children in the household. A plethora of other papers have followed on the subject analyzing parts or the whole of the relationship between child labor, school attendance, fertility and other household characteristics (Ennew 1982; Levy 1985; Patrinos and Psacharopoulos 1995; Psacharopoulos and Arriagada 1989; Psacharopoulos and Yang 1991; Rodgers and Standing 1981 a, b; Rosenzweig 1981; Salazar 1988; Silva 1981; Sinclair and Trah 1991; Singh and Schuh 1986; Tienda 1979 ). This literature is difficult to summarize as most studies are unique in their findings because of the particular variables the researchers had at their disposal, the nature of the samples, the elusive definition of " child labor " and its non-symmetry to school attendance, and, most of all, the econometric intricacies of separating cause from effect in this quandary. ...
Article
The paper addresses the issue of child labor in relation to the educational attainment of working children. The empirical analysis is based on household surveys in Bolivia and Venezuela. It was found that labor force participation is non-trivial among those below the legal working age or supposed to be in school. Working children contribute significantly to total household income. The fact that a child is working reduces his or her educational attainment by about 2 years of schooling relative to the control group of non-working children. Grade repetition, a common phenomenon in Latin America, is closely associated with child labor. JEL classification: J13, J21, I21
... We have three indicators for educational achievements: literacy, level of education and schooling for age (SAGE). The SAGE variable reflects the ''lag'' or the lack of progress in a child's schooling with reference to a ''normal'' achievement rate (see Psacharopoulos & Yand, 1991). It is computed 998 WORLD DEVELOPMENT using the following formula: SAGE = (S/ (A À E)) where S refers to years of completed schooling, A refers to age and E represents the usual school entry age in Bolivia (6 years). ...
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Summary This paper proposes a suitable theoretical framework for operationalizing the capability approach using the latent variable methodology. A structural equation model is specified to account for the unobservable and multidimensional aspects characterizing the concept of human development and to capture the mutual influence among different capabilities. The model is applied to Bolivian data for studying two "basic" capability domains relating to children: knowledge and living conditions. Individual capability indices are constructed from the estimation results and their empirical distributions analyzed. Our results show a strong interdependence between the above capabilities and confirm the role of exogenous factors in their determination.
... where α is the parameter of interest, η is the error term assumed to be normally distributed with mean zero and homoscedastic variance σ 2 and with the following observability criteria, Psacharopoulos and Yang (1991), age adjusted measure of educational attainment (GAGE) is defined as follows. ...
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This paper examines determinants of work participation and school attendance for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. To this effect, a bivariate probit model that addresses the interrelatedness of the two decisions is employed. Given the agrarian nature of the economy, especial focus is given to child labour on family farms and within the household. The trade-off between child labour and educational attainment is also analysed by estimating an equation for age-adjusted educational attainment of children. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than female children implying gender bias. There is also some 'specialization' in child labour with females having a higher likelihood and intensity of participation in domestic chores while males having a higher likelihood as well as intensity of participation in market work. Besides, while male children are more likely to combine schooling with market work, their female counterparts are more likely to combine domestic work and schooling. With regard to household characteristics, large family size and the number of dependents increase the probability of combining schooling with both work activities. While education of the head increases the likelihood of school attendance, large livestock population increases the likelihood of combining schooling and market work. More importantly, long hour of work is found to reduce educational attainment of working children.
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Background: Adolescents living with perinatal HIV often experience difficult living circumstances that can impact educational achievement and thus their transition to adult life. We explored their school trajectories and evaluated the contribution of perinatal HIV-infection, in Thailand, where education is free and compulsory until the age of 15. Methods: We used data from the Teens Living with Antiretrovirals (TEEWA) study, a cross-sectional case-control study conducted from 2011 to 2014 in Thailand. Participants were 707 adolescents living with perinatal HIV (ALPHIV, cases) aged 12–19 receiving antiretroviral therapy in 19 hospitals throughout Thailand and 689 HIV-uninfected adolescents (controls) living in the same institutions or, for those living in family settings, randomly selected from the general population and individually matched for sex, age, and place of residence. School trajectory disruption was defined as ≥ 1 year of academic delay or as early school dropout (before 15 years of age). Logistic regression models were used to assess factors independently associated with disrupted school trajectory and to estimate the proportion of school disruption attributable to HIV-infection. We used multivariate imputations by chained equations (MICE) to manage missing data and performed two sensitivity analyses to evaluate the main model’s reliability. Results: The study population’s median age was 14.5 years (58% female). School trajectory disruption was experienced by 37% of ALPHIV and 12% of the controls. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, ALPHIV were 5 times more likely to experience disruption than controls ( =5.2 [3.7-7.2]). About 50% of school trajectory disruption was attributable to HIV-infection. Males and adolescents living in institutions were more likely to experience school trajectory disruption ( =1.8 [1.3-2.4] and =11.0 [7.7-15.8], respectively). Among ALPHIV, neurocognitive difficulties and growth delay were significantly associated with disruption ( =3.3 [2.1-5.2] and =1.8 [1.3-2.6], respectively). For those living in families, disruption was also associated with having a caregiver who had less than a secondary-level education ( =2.1 [1.1-3.9]) or having experienced stigmatization ( =1.9 [1.2-3.1]). Conclusions: HIV and contextual factors combine to aggravate the educational disadvantage among ALPHIV. The impact of this disadvantage on their life prospects, especially regarding access to higher education and professional achievement, should be further explored.
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Background: Adolescents living with perinatal HIV often experience difficult living circumstances that can impact educational achievement and thus their transition to adult life. We explored their school trajectories and evaluated the contribution of perinatal HIV-infection, in Thailand, where education is free and compulsory until the age of 15. Methods: We used data from the Teens Living with Antiretrovirals (TEEWA) study, a cross-sectional case-control study conducted from 2011 to 2014 in Thailand. Participants were 707 adolescents living with perinatal HIV (ALPHIV, cases) aged 12–19 receiving antiretroviral therapy in 19 hospitals throughout Thailand and 689 HIV-uninfected adolescents (controls) living in the same institutions or, for those living in family settings, randomly selected from the general population and individually matched for sex, age, and place of residence. School trajectory disruption was defined as ≥ 1 year of academic delay or as early school dropout (before 15 years of age). Logistic regression models were used to assess factors independently associated with disrupted school trajectory and to estimate the proportion of school disruption attributable to HIV-infection. We used multivariate imputations by chained equations (MICE) to manage missing data and performed two sensitivity analyses to evaluate the main model’s reliability. Results: The study population’s median age was 14.5 years (58% female). School trajectory disruption was experienced by 37% of ALPHIV and 12% of the controls. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, ALPHIV were 5 times more likely to experience disruption than controls ( =5.2 [3.7-7.2]). About 50% of school trajectory disruption was attributable to HIV-infection. Boys and adolescents living in institutions were more likely to experience school trajectory disruption ( =1.8 [1.3-2.4] and =11.0 [7.7-15.8], respectively). Among ALPHIV, neurocognitive difficulties and growth delay were significantly associated with disruption ( =3.3 [2.1-5.2] and =1.8 [1.3-2.6], respectively). For those living in families, disruption was also associated with having a caregiver who had less than a secondary-level education ( =2.1 [1.1-3.9]) or having experienced stigmatization ( =1.9 [1.2-3.1]). Conclusions: HIV and contextual factors combine to aggravate the educational disadvantage among ALPHIV. The impact of this disadvantage on their life prospects, especially regarding access to higher education and professional achievement, should be further explored.
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Background: Adolescents living with perinatal HIV often experience difficult living circumstances that can impact educational achievement and thus their transition to adult life. We explored their school trajectories and evaluated the contribution of perinatal HIV-infection, in Thailand, where education is free and compulsory until the age of 15. Methods: We used data from the Teens Living with Antiretrovirals (TEEWA) study, a cross-sectional case-control study conducted from 2011 to 2014 in Thailand. Participants were 707 adolescents living with perinatal HIV (ALPHIV, cases) aged 12–19 receiving antiretroviral therapy in 19 hospitals throughout Thailand and 689 HIV-uninfected adolescents (controls) living in the same institutions or, for those living in family settings, randomly selected from the general population and individually matched for sex, age, and place of residence. School trajectory disruption was defined as ≥ 1 year of academic delay or as early school dropout (before 15 years of age). Logistic regression models were used to assess factors independently associated with disrupted school trajectory and to estimate the proportion of school disruption attributable to HIV-infection. We used multivariate imputations by chained equations (MICE) to manage missing data and performed two sensitivity analyses to evaluate the main model’s reliability. Results: The study population’s median age was 14.5 years (58% female). School trajectory disruption was experienced by 37% of ALPHIV and 12% of the controls. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, ALPHIV were 5 times more likely to experience disruption than controls ( =5.2 [3.7-7.2]). About 50% of school trajectory disruption was attributable to HIV-infection. Boys and adolescents living in institutions were more likely to experience school trajectory disruption ( =1.8 [1.3-2.4] and =11.0 [7.7-15.8], respectively). Among ALPHIV, neurocognitive difficulties and growth delay were significantly associated with disruption ( =3.3 [2.1-5.2] and =1.8 [1.3-2.6], respectively). For those living in families, disruption was also associated with having a caregiver who had less than a secondary-level education ( =2.1 [1.1-3.9]) or having experienced stigmatization ( =1.9 [1.2-3.1]). Conclusions: HIV and contextual factors combine to aggravate the educational disadvantage among ALPHIV. The impact of this disadvantage on their life prospects, especially regarding access to higher education and professional achievement, should be further explored.
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Background: In the HIV/AIDS pandemic, the perinatally HIV-infected children, who are surviving to adolescence, constitute a particular group, with specific needs to manage HIV disease and to prepare their future. Adolescents living with perinatal HIV (ALPHIV) often experience difficult living circumstances that can impact educational achievement and thus, insertion in the adult life. We explore the school trajectories of ALPHIV and determine the relative contribution of HIV-infection and the contextual environment to their schooling situations. Methods: We used data from the Teens Living With Antiretrovirals (TEEWA) study, a cross-sectional case-control study, conducted from 2011 to 2014 in Thailand. We analysed data for 707 ALPHIV (cases) aged 12–19 years, receiving antiretroviral therapy in 20 hospitals throughout Thailand and 689 HIV-uninfected adolescents (controls) living in the same institutions or, for those living in family settings, randomly selected in the general population and individually matched for sex, age and residence. Schooling disruption was defined as ≥1 year academic delay or early school dropout. Logistic regression was used to assess factors independently associated with schooling disruption and to estimate the attributable fraction of school disruption related to HIV-infection. We used multivariate imputations by chained equations to manage missing data and we performed two sensitivity analyses to evaluate the reliability of our main model. Results: ALPHIV were 5 times more likely to experience schooling disruption than controls after adjustment on sociodemographic factors ( ORA=5.2 [3.7-7.2]). About 50% of schooling disruption could be attributed to HIV-infection. Boys and adolescents living in institutions were more likely to experience schooling disruption (ORA =1.8 [1.3-2.4] and ORA =11.0 [7.7-15.8], respectively). Among ALPHIV, mental and growth delays were significantly associated with schooling disruption (ORA =3.3 [2.1-5.2] and =1.8 [1.3-2.6], respectively). For ALPHIV living in family, schooling disruption was also associated with stigmatization experiences (ORA =1.9 [1.2-3.1]) and caregiver’s low education (ORA =2.1 [1.1-3.9]). Conclusions: HIV and contextual factors combine to aggravate ALPHIV educational disadvantage. Further research is needed to clarify the pathways leading to a disrupted school trajectory among ALPHIV. The impact of this educational disadvantage on their life prospects, especially regarding access to higher education and professional achievement, should be explored in future research.
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