Article

Improved effectiveness of nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab) paclitaxel versus polysorbate-based docetaxel in multiple xenografts as a function of HER2 and SPARC status

Abraxis BioScience, LLC, Los Angeles, California 90025-1506, USA.
Anti-Cancer Drugs (Impact Factor: 1.78). 10/2008; 19(9):899-909. DOI: 10.1097/CAD.0b013e32830f9046
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel (Abraxane) is an albumin-bound 130-nm particle form of paclitaxel that demonstrated higher efficacy and was well tolerated compared with solvent-based paclitaxel (Taxol) and docetaxel (Taxotere) in clinical trials for metastatic breast cancer. Nab-paclitaxel enhances tumor targeting through gp60 and caveolae-mediated endothelial transcytosis and the association with the albumin-binding protein SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) in the tumor microenvironment. The overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) in breast cancer has been shown to correlate with resistance to paclitaxel. To evaluate the importance of HER2 and SPARC status in determining the relative efficacy of nab-paclitaxel compared with polysorbate-based docetaxel, nude mice bearing six different human tumor xenografts were treated with nab-paclitaxel (MX-1: 15 mg/kg, once a week for 3 weeks; LX-1, MDA-MB-231/HER2+, PC3, and HT29: 50 and 120 mg/kg, every 4 days three times ; MDA-MB-231: 120 and 180 mg/kg, every 4 days three times) and polysorbate-based docetaxel (15 mg/kg). HER2 and SPARC status were analyzed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. MDA-MB-231 and MX-1 breast and LX-1 lung cancers were HER2 negative and low in SPARC expression. Nab-paclitaxel at submaximum-tolerated dosage was significantly more effective than polysorbate-based docetaxel at its maximum-tolerated dosage in these three HER2-negative tumors. The HER2-positive tumors had variable SPARC expression, with MDA-MB-231/HER2+ <PC3 <HT29. In these HER2-positive tumors, nab-paclitaxel was equal to or better than polysorbate-based docetaxel in tumors with medium to high SPARC levels (PC3 and HT29), but not in MDA-MB-231/HER2+ tumors with low SPARC expression. These results demonstrated that the relative efficacy of nab-paclitaxel was significantly higher compared with polysorbate-based docetaxel in HER2-negative tumors (three of three) and in HER2-positive tumors with high levels of SPARC. HER2 and SPARC expression may be useful biomarkers in determining antitumor effectiveness for taxanes.

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    • "By stabilizing beta-tubulin, the taxanes sequester Smad3 and reduce TGF-beta signaling [20]. Nab-paclitaxel's uptake is facilitated by SPARC212223, which was highly expressed in the patient's tumor, suggesting that the tumor may have been sensitive to this cytotoxic agent. In a xenograft model of human osteosarcoma with high SPARC expression, nab-paclitaxel showed a tumor inhibition rate of 98.8%, which was greater than those of doxorubicin (46.1%) or paclitaxel (40.8%) [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite advances in molecular medicine over recent decades, there has been little advancement in the treatment of osteosarcoma. We performed comprehensive molecular profiling in two cases of metastatic and chemotherapy-refractory osteosarcoma to guide molecularly targeted therapy. Patients and methods: Hybridization capture of >300 cancer-related genes plus introns from 28 genes often rearranged or altered in cancer was applied to >50 ng of DNA extracted from tumor samples from two patients with recurrent, metastatic osteosarcoma. The DNA from each sample was sequenced to high, uniform coverage. Immunohistochemical probes and morphoproteomics analysis were performed, in addition to fluorescence in situ hybridization. All analyses were performed in CLIA-certified laboratories. Molecularly targeted therapy based on the resulting profiles was offered to the patients. Biomedical analytics were performed using QIAGEN's Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis. Results: In Patient #1, comprehensive next-generation exome sequencing showed MET amplification, PIK3CA mutation, CCNE1 amplification, and PTPRD mutation. Immunohistochemistry-based morphoproteomic analysis revealed c-Met expression [(p)-c-Met (Tyr1234/1235)] and activation of mTOR/AKT pathway [IGF-1R (Tyr1165/1166), p-mTOR [Ser2448], p-Akt (Ser473)] and expression of SPARC and COX2. Targeted therapy was administered to match the P1K3CA, c-MET, and SPARC and COX2 aberrations with sirolimus+ crizotinib and abraxane+ celecoxib. In Patient #2, aberrations included NF2 loss in exons 2-16, PDGFRα amplification, and TP53 mutation. This patient was enrolled on a clinical trial combining targeted agents temsirolimus, sorafenib and bevacizumab, to match NF2, PDGFRα and TP53 aberrations. Both the patients did not benefit from matched therapy. Conclusions: Relapsed osteosarcoma is characterized by complex signaling and drug resistance pathways. Comprehensive molecular profiling holds great promise for tailoring personalized therapies for cancer. Methods for such profiling are evolving and need to be refined to better assist clinicians in making treatment decisions based on the large amount of data that results from this type of testing. Further research in this area is warranted.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Oncotarget
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    • "However, there is no evidence that SPARC mediates albumin uptake into tumors. It has been postulated that the ability of SPARC to bind albumin in the tumor interstitium enhances the accumulation of albumin-bound drugs within the tumor space (Desai et al., 2008, 2009). Moreover, a preliminary clinical trial demonstrated that SPARC expression correlated with the response to paclitaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticle (nab-paclitaxel or Abraxane®) treatment, with SPARC-positive patients having a better clinical outcome (Desai et al., 2009). "
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    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Frontiers in Physiology
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    • "Better bioavailability of nab-paclitaxel compared to serum-bound paclitaxel was noted in other studies as well.24 Desai et al demonstrated in nude mice bearing human xenograft tumors, that intratumoral accumulation, absorption, binding to the endothelial cells, and transportation were higher for nab-paclitaxel compared with paclitaxel.25,26 "
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