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Supporting Communicative Development of Infants and Toddlers with Hearing Loss

Authors:
  • Idaho State University, Meridian, United States

Abstract

Newborn hearing screening has increased the number of families enrolled in early intervention during a sensitive period of communication development. The primary role of the speech-language pathologist in early intervention is to facilitate natural parent-infant interactions and support parents' feelings of confidence in communicating with their child. Feelings of self-efficacy can be increased when parents understand how hearing loss impacts their child's communication development, understand how to monitor hearing technology and hearing status, and receive consistent feedback related to their child's progress. This article reviews the evidence behind benefits of early parent-child interactions and outlines strategies and resources for speech-language pathologists to use in supporting communication development with infants and toddlers with hearing loss.
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... Given the amount of time children who are later diagnosed may have had without aiding and necessary access to sound, lower listening scores and higher levels of variability in scores would be expected. The FLI-P scores of children diagnosed with a hearing loss following newborn screening in this study is consistent with the large body of evidence that early diagnosis enables the early development of auditory skills to support language acquisition [27][28][29]. In this study, variation in listening skill development as measured by the FLI-P was observed particularly for children at older ages who passed screening. ...
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(1) Background: There is clear evidence supporting the need for individualized early intervention in children with hearing loss. However, relying on hearing thresholds and speech and language test results to guide intervention alone is problematic, particularly in infants and young children. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of a tool to monitor the development of functional listening skills to inform early and ongoing decisions by parents and professionals. (2) Methods: The FLI-P® is a 64-item checklist completed by parents and/or a child’s team. The listening development of 543 children with hearing loss enrolled in an early intervention and cochlear implant program was tracked with the FLI-P over a 6-year period. The scores for individual children were grouped according to hearing loss, device, additional needs, and age at device fitting. (3) Results: Results indicate that the FLI-P is a feasible and viable clinical measure that can be used to identify and track a child’s developing listening skills. Its use across a wide range of children supports its broad application. Children’s individual scores and aggregated group data were consistent with indicated expected differences and variations. Children’s individual scores and aggregated group data indicated expected differences and variations. (4) Conclusions: Information provided by children’s listening scores on the FLI-P can guide and support discussions and intervention decisions and bridge the gap between information from audiological assessments and language measures.
... Children who are identified as having hearing loss by the time they reach the age of 6 months and receive appropriate intervention have significantly better language scores than those who are identified at a later age, irrespective of sex, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, associated disabilities and severity of the hearing loss [41,40,78]. Furthermore, these earlyidentified children go on to have average language scores that fall within the normal range by the time they reach the ages of 1 to 5 years, matching the scores of their peers who have no hearing loss [5, 13,41,44,56,[78][79][80][81][82]. This observation gets even better when the children are identified between the ages of 0 and 2 months [79]. ...
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This chapter will highlight the common causes of hearing loss in children and emphasize on the fact that most of the hearing loss is due to causes that are preventable. We know that hearing loss in childhood not only impacts on the child’s learning and social interaction with the child’s peers and society, but also has economic implications when the child grows into an adult. Public health awareness is therefore paramount in preventing a large chunk of the hearing gloss and therefore greatly contributes to making sure that the child grows into a productive citizen of the society that the child grows or lives in.
... Wissensvermittlung zur Erkrankung und krankheitsbedingten kindlichen Verhaltensweisen erhöht die mütterliche Selbstwirksamkeit (Kuhn & Carter, 2006). Blaiser (2012) stellte fest, dass Eltern ihre gehörlosen Kinder selbstwirksamer unterstützen, wenn sie wissen, wie sich der Hörverlust auf die Sprachentwicklung ihres Kindes auswirkt (Blaiser, 2012). Erfolgversprechend sind auch Edukationsangebote, die Hausbesuche, telefonische Rufbereitschaft und digitale Informationen kombinieren (Abdeyazdan, Shahkolahi, Mehrabi & Hajiheidari, 2014;Aksu, Kucuk & Duzgun, 2011;Gu, Zhu, Zhang & Wan, 2016). ...
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Background and objectives Parents of children with life-limiting diseases are central informal care providers. They fill out their role as co-producers of the health care system in different ways, as empirically reconstructed parent type's show. In this article, the heterogeneous social practice of physiotherapeutic care provision is reflected from the perspective of self-regulation theory. The aim is to identify starting points for how parental self-efficacy can be positively influenced by educational support. Method The types of parents reconstructed by means of the Documentary Method according to Ralf Bohnsack serve as a starting point for the theoretical consideration. First, the theory of self-regulation and findings from research on increasing parental self-efficacy are presented. In the following, we will discuss how parents of children with life-limiting illnesses regulate themselves or develop self-efficacy when taking over care. Finally, it is shown which findings result from the theoretical consideration for an educational concept development. Results This theory-guided consideration of empirically generated parent types shows that their self-perception and situation perception, motivation and level of participation, self-regulation processes and trained self-efficacy vary significantly. There is evidence that parent-oriented information, observation of peers in groups and the possibility of positive experiences have a positive influence on self-efficacy. Conclusion These elements should be taken up in the development of educational intervention concepts for this target group and systematically tested for their effects.
... Understanding how parents prioritise hearing health when children are DHH with DS can have implications for how audiologists and other professionals communicate and partner with parents to enhance outcomes for language and auditory development. Early parent-child interactions are critical for language development (Blaiser 2012). For children who are DHH, interactions may be intermittent, given parents' lower sense of involvement or self-efficacy in managing the child's hearingrelated needs (DesJardin and Eisenberg 2007). ...
Article
Objective This study qualitatively explored the factors that influence how parents of children who are Deaf or hard-of-hearing with Down syndrome prioritise hearing care and management and developed an associated theory to explain that priority. Design Grounded theory was used for the purposes of this qualitative study. Data were collected using in-depth interviews which were analysed using a three-tiered qualitative coding process. Study Sample Eighteen mothers of children who are Deaf or hard-of-hearing with Down syndrome participated in this study. Results The higher the extent of engaged professional support, perception of benefit for child, parent activation, and family engagement, the higher the priority for hearing care and management will likely be among parents of children who are Deaf or hard-of-hearing with Down syndrome. Conclusions Understanding how parents of children who are Deaf or hard-of-hearing with Down syndrome decide to prioritise hearing care and management has implications for how hearing health providers and others provide care to parents to enhance priority for hearing-related needs.
... Nowadays, thanks to the newborn hearing screening programs, diagnosis age of hearing loss has been decreased from 2.5-3 years to 2-3 months. Thus, early intervention services can be initiated within the age period critical for language speech and communication [8]. In many of the relevant studies, early diagnosis and early intervention are stated to have positive effects on speech, language, social, and emotional development of children with hearing loss. ...
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Purpose The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of hearing loss during early childhood on the development of children according to the age of diagnosis, amplification and training. Methods In the study, a total of 169 children with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, who have the chronological average age of 26.4 months, have been examined. All children are unilateral cochlear implant users and have no known additional impairments and/or diseases other than their hearing loss. The development of children with hearing loss, divided into three groups according to age of diagnosis, amplification, and training has been identified using the Denver Development Screening Test-II (DDST-II), and then, general development and sub-development results of these age characteristics have been compared accordingly. Results As a result of the study, 105 (62.1%) out of 169 children identified with DDST-II have been found to be normal, 48 (28.4%) of them suspicious, and 16 (9.5%) children are found to be abnormal. It appears that the children who have been diagnosed before 6 months, instrumented between 3 and 6 months, and started to auditory-verbal training are revealed to have normal skills in their personal–social, language, fine, and gross motor field capabilities. As the age of diagnosis and intervention is delayed, the rate of delay in the development domains seems to be increasing, which is statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions Children with hearing loss develop similar outcomes in comparison with their normal auditory peers once they are diagnosed before 6 months and benefit from early intervention services.
... The importance of access to sound for children with hearing loss is critical for language development during sensitive developmental periods (Blaiser, 2012;Moeller, 2014;Stelmachowicz, Pittman, Hoover, Lewis, & Moeller, 2004;Yoshinaga-Itano, 1998). Phonological and morphological development can be particularly vulnerable for children with hearing loss. ...
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Purpose This study investigated average hours of daily hearing aid use and speech-language outcomes for children age 3 to 6 years of age with hearing loss. Method Objective measures of hearing aid use were collected via data logging. Speech and language measures included standardized measures GFTA-2, CELF Preschool-2 and additional item analyses for the word structure subtest CELF Preschool-2 and the GFTA-2. Results Hearing aid use was full time for 33% of the children (n=3; M=8.84 hours; Range: 2.9–12.1) at the beginning of the study, and for 78% at the end of the study (n=7; M=9.89 hours; Range 2.6–13.2). All participants demonstrated an improvement in articulation and language standard scores and percentiles however continued to demonstrate areas of weakness in sounds high-frequency in nature. Conclusions Through early identification and fitting, children gain access to speech sounds. Both standardized measures and individual language analysis should be used to identify and support children with hearing loss in language and subsequent literacy development.
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Chapter
Hearing impairment or loss may occur in isolation or in association with other developmental disorders and can be due to numerous causes. The screening and early diagnosis of hearing impairment represents an important public health concern as early intervention is associated with better long-term outcomes. With advances in technology, interventions for hearing impairment are becoming more sophisticated; however, available treatments also have to contend with definitions of health and cultural sensitivity. Hearing impairment is a chronic condition with multi-dimensional characteristics and its management requires a well-coordinated interdisciplinary approach.
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This article investigates the basis for the frequently reported statement that ten percent of deaf persons are born to families with one or more deaf parents. The prevalence of deaf children born to deaf parents (deaf-of-deaf) is important because it is often cited when describing linguistic and educational advantages, along with social and cultural differences, associated with deaf children born to deaf parents compared to deaf children of hearing parents. This analysis provides a current estimate for the distribution of parental hearing status among deaf and hard of hearing students in United States using data from the Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children and Youth (1999–2000). This is the first national estimate that fully utilizes the distinction between children having deaf parents and hard of hearing parents, as well as hearing parents. The authors propose that the key demographic to report, other than that the overwhelming majority of deaf and hard of hearing students have hearing parents, is whether the child has one or two deaf parents. The annual survey findings indicate that less than five percent of deaf and hard of hearing students receiving special education are known to have at least one deaf parent, which is less than half of the presumed ten percent. Reasons for the difference between the present and previous estimates are suggested.
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