CRM1 Blockade by Selective Inhibitors of Nuclear Export (SINE) attenuates Kidney Cancer Growth.

ArticleinThe Journal of urology 189(6) · October 2012with14 Reads
Impact Factor: 4.47 · DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2012.10.018 · Source: PubMed

    Abstract

    Purpose:
    Renal cell carcinoma often presents asymptomatically and patients are commonly diagnosed at the metastatic stage, when treatment options are limited and survival is poor. Since progression-free survival using current therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma is only 1 to 2 years and existing drugs are associated with a high resistance rate, new pharmacological targets are needed. We identified and evaluated the nuclear exporter protein CRM1 as a novel potential therapy for renal cell carcinoma.

    Materials and methods:
    We tested the efficacy of the CRM1 inhibitors KPT-185 and 251 in several renal cell carcinoma cell lines and in a renal cell carcinoma xenograft model. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were quantified and localization of p53 family proteins was assessed using standard techniques.

    Results:
    KPT-185 attenuated CRM1 and showed increased cytotoxicity in renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro with evidence of increased apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest. KPT-185 caused p53 and p21 to remain primarily in the nucleus in all renal cell carcinoma cell lines, suggesting that the mechanism of action of these compounds depends on tumor suppressor protein localization. Furthermore, when administered orally in a high grade renal cell carcinoma xenograft model, the bioavailable CRM1 inhibitor KPT-251 significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo with the expected on target effects and no obvious toxicity.

    Conclusions:
    The CRM1 inhibitor protein family is a novel therapeutic target for renal cell carcinoma that deserves further intensive investigation for this and other urological malignancies.