The Epidemiology of US High School Basketball Injuries, 2005-2007

Ohio State University, College of Public Health, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
The American Journal of Sports Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.36). 10/2008; 36(12):2328-35. DOI: 10.1177/0363546508322893
Source: PubMed


With more than a million high school athletes playing during the 2006-2007 academic year, basketball is one of the most popular sports in the United States.
Basketball injury rates and patterns differ by gender and type of exposure.
Descriptive epidemiology study.
Basketball-related injury data were collected during the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 academic years from 100 nationally representative US high schools via Reporting Information Online.
High school basketball players sustained 1518 injuries during 780 651 athlete exposures for an injury rate of 1.94 per 1000 athlete exposures. The injury rate per 1000 athlete exposures was greater during competition (3.27) than during practice (1.40; rate ratio, 2.33; 95% confidence interval, 2.10-2.57) and was greater among girls (2.08) than among boys (1.83; rate ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.26). The ankle/foot (39.7%), knee (14.7%), head/face/neck (13.6%), arm/hand (9.6%), and hip/thigh/upper leg (8.4%) were most commonly injured. The most frequent injury diagnoses were ligament sprains (44.0%), muscle/tendon strains (17.7%), contusions (8.6%), fractures (8.5%), and concussions (7.0%). Female basketball players sustained a greater proportion of concussions (injury proportion ratio, 2.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-3.91) and knee injuries (injury proportion ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.30), whereas boys more frequently sustained fractures (injury proportion ratio, 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.77) and contusions (injury proportion ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.31). The most common girls' injury requiring surgery was knee ligament sprains (47.9%).
High school basketball injury patterns vary by gender and type of exposure. This study suggests several areas of emphasis for targeted injury prevention interventions.

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    • "In 2011, nearly 1 million adolescent athletes were members of basketball teams at over 18,000 US high schools.23 Ankle injuries are the most common musculoskeletal injury sustained in high school basketball2 (US Consumers Product Safety Commission, Directorate of Economic Analysis, written communication, September 7, 2012) and impose severe monetary consequences on the US health care system with an estimated $2 billion in total costs spent to treat these injuries in 2010.24 Repeated ankle injuries are associated with development of chronic ankle instability, increased likelihood for the onset of osteoarthritis, decreased levels of physical activity, and lower quality of life.1,9,12,13,17,25 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Ankle injuries are the most common high school basketball injury. Little is known regarding the utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies in high school settings.Objective:To determine high school basketball coaches’ utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies, including prophylactic ankle bracing (PAB) or an ankle injury prevention exercise program (AIEPP).Study Design:Cross-sectional survey.Methods:The survey was distributed to all high school basketball coaches in Wisconsin. Fisher exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine if the injury prevention strategies utilized differed according to school size, sex of the team, years of coaching experience, and the coach’s education level.Results:Four hundred eighty (55%) coaches from 299 (74%) high schools completed the survey. Thirty-seven percent of the coaches encouraged or required their players to use PAB. School enrollment of the coaches’ teams did not affect their stance on the use of PAB (P = 0.30), neither did the sex of the team (P = 0.16), years coaching (P = 0.09), nor the coach’s education (P = 0.49). Fifty percent (n = 242) of the coaches indicated they do not utilize an AIEPP, with no difference based on school enrollment (P = 0.47), team sex (P = 0.41), years coaching (P = 0.78), or the education level (P = 0.44). Barriers to utilization of AIEPP included a lack of time, awareness, and expertise. Coaches preferred an AIEPP that was specific to basketball, combined injury prevention and performance enhancement components, was performed 2 to 3 days per week, and lasted 5 to 15 minutes.Conclusion:Less than half of the coaches encouraged use of PAB, and half did not utilize an AIEPP. Coaches had specific preferences for the type of AIEPP they would implement.Clinical Relevance:Sports medicine providers should promote ankle injury prevention strategies but need to address why prevention strategies may not be utilized in high school basketball settings.
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    • "The constant practice of this sport involves repetitive motor actions and excessive joint load, which increases the vulnerability to injury [2]. Although practiced by millions of individuals, including adolescents [1,2], there is a lack of information to enable the determination of associations between sports injuries and personal and training characteristics as well as position on the court. "
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    • "There are still some controversies on the most frequently injured anatomical site in basketball. While some authors [15,16] reported the knee as most commonly injured body part, most other authors [9-14] reported the ankle to be the most commonly injured body site. Repetitive jumping in basketball imposes recurring consistent vertical ground reaction forces of up to four times body weight on the weight-bearing knee joint [19]. "
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