An Algorithm for Treatment of Patients With Hypersensitivity Reactions After Vaccines

Johns Hopkins Hospital, CMSC 1102, 600 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 09/2008; 122(3):e771-7. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2008-1002
Source: PubMed


Concerns about possible allergic reactions to immunizations are raised frequently by both patients/parents and primary care providers. Estimates of true allergic, or immediate hypersensitivity, reactions to routine vaccines range from 1 per 50000 doses for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis to approximately 1 per 500000 to 1000000 doses for most other vaccines. In a large study from New Zealand, data were collected during a 5-year period on 15 marketed vaccines and revealed an estimated rate of 1 immediate hypersensitivity reaction per 450000 doses of vaccine administered. Another large study, conducted within the Vaccine Safety Datalink, described a range of reaction rates to >7.5 million doses. Depending on the study design and the time after the immunization event, reaction rates varied from 0.65 cases per million doses to 1.53 cases per million doses when additional allergy codes were included. For some vaccines, particularly when allergens such as gelatin are part of the formulation (eg, Japanese encephalitis), higher rates of serious allergic reactions may occur. Although these per-dose estimates suggest that true hypersensitivity reactions are quite rare, the large number of doses that are administered, especially for the commonly used vaccines, makes this a relatively common clinical problem. In this review, we present background information on vaccine hypersensitivity, followed by a detailed algorithm that provides a rational and organized approach for the evaluation and treatment of patients with suspected hypersensitivity. We then include 3 cases of suspected allergic reactions to vaccines that have been referred to the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment network to demonstrate the practical application of the algorithm.

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Available from: Rosanna W Setse, Dec 26, 2013
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    • "It has been reported that the average rate for immediate type reactions in children and adolescents is 0.22 per 100,000 doses of vaccinations [2]. A total of 31% of these patients reported immediate type reactions after the first vaccination. "
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, the increasing numbers of vaccine administrations are associated with increased reports of adverse vaccine reactions. Whilst the general adverse reactions including allergic reactions caused by the vaccine itself or the vaccine components, are rare, they can in some circumstances be serious and even fatal. In accordance with many IgE-mediated reactions and immediate-type allergic reactions, the primary allergens are proteins. The proteins most often implicated in vaccine allergies are egg and gelatin, with perhaps rare reactions to yeast or latex. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the injectable influenza vaccine can be safely administered, although with appropriate precautions, to patients with severe egg allergy, as the current influenza vaccines contain small trace amounts of egg protein. If an allergy is suspected, an accurate examination followed by algorithms is vital for correct diagnosis, treatment and decision regarding re-vaccination in patients with immediate-type reactions to vaccines. Facilities and health care professionals should be available to treat immediate hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis) in all settings where vaccines are administered.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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    • "En cas d'allergie a ` la gélatine lors d'une première vaccination, le rappel de vaccination doit e ˆtre discuté au cas par cas, en fonction du rapport bénéfice/risque [16]. Dans tous les cas, un vaccin alternatif, dépourvu de l'allergène en cause doit e ˆtre recherché mais il n'existe pas toujours. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine is often postponed in egg-allergic patients due to fear of anaphylactic reaction at the time of injection of this vaccin produced on egg derivates. However, this vaccine is recommended by health authorities, especially in case of increased measles incidence, and international recommendations indicate that there is no need for predictive allergological work-up and that the MMR vaccine is well tolerated in egg-allergic patients. We report on the case of a 12-year-old child with severe immediate-type egg allergy. Immediate-reading intradermal skin tests performed prior to the MMR vaccine were positive. Subsequent allergological work-up revealed a gelatin sensitization, and the child tolerated injections of the vaccine given according to a tolerance induction protocol. Gelatin is used as a stabilizer in numerous vaccines and may be responsible for immediate-type hypersentivity reactions to gelatin-containing vaccines. In case of reaction induced by the MMR vaccine, one needs to explore a potential gelatin sensitization/allergy. The MMR vaccine should be given and is well tolerated in patients with immediate-type egg hypersensitivity, even when gelatin sensitization is combined.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Archives de Pédiatrie
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    • "Skin testing revealed the seafood to be the cause of the reaction, and not the vaccine. A publication by CISA investigators titled " An Algorithm for Treatment of Patients with Hypersensitivity Reactions after Vaccines " presents a more detailed description of the steps involved in evaluating patients with possible immediate hypersensitivity reactions following the administration of vaccines [30]. 3b. "
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    ABSTRACT: Assessing individual reports of adverse events following immunizations (AEFI) can be challenging. Most published reviews are based on expert opinions, but the methods and logic used to arrive at these opinions are neither well described nor understood by many health care providers and scientists. We developed a standardized algorithm to assist in collecting and interpreting data, and to help assess causality after individual AEFI. Key questions that should be asked during the assessment of AEFI include: Is the diagnosis of the AEFI correct? Does clinical or laboratory evidence exist that supports possible causes for the AEFI other than the vaccine in the affected individual? Is there a known causal association between the AEFI and the vaccine? Is there strong evidence against a causal association? Is there a specific laboratory test implicating the vaccine in the pathogenesis? An algorithm can assist with addressing these questions in a standardized, transparent manner which can be tracked and reassessed if additional information becomes available. Examples in this document illustrate the process of using the algorithm to determine causality. As new epidemiologic and clinical data become available, the algorithm and guidelines will need to be modified. Feedback from users of the algorithm will be invaluable in this process. We hope that this algorithm approach can assist with educational efforts to improve the collection of key information on AEFI and provide a platform for teaching about causality assessment.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Vaccine
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