Article

Music during lecture: Will students learn better?

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Abstract

We investigated the influence of music during learning on the academic performance of undergraduate students, and more particularly the influence of affects induced by music. Altogether 249 students were involved in the study, divided into a control group and an experimental group. Both groups attended the same videotaped lecture, with the addition of classical music for the experimental group. Just after the lecture, both groups had to fill out a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ) aimed to assess their learning during the lecture. The MCQ score of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Affect just before the exam predicted significantly the MCQ-score, however music accounted for an additional part of variance. The effect of music on academic performance is not only about affects, and further research should investigate the underlying mechanisms resulting from a change in the perception of the learning environment.

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... Also, research conducted in Estonia showed positive changes in the evaluation of public school students who listened to classical music in the educational process [13]. Similarly, students achieved significantly higher scores in tests after the lecture where at the same time listened to classical music (Mozart, Vivaldi, Bach, Tchaikovsky, Beethoven, Strauss) [3]. In spite of studies that have showed the importance of music to improve efficiency of short-term memory, especially during test examining cognitive tasks, learning and spatio-temporal abilities, so called the Mozart effect not yet been demonstrated or explained the mechanisms of the action of music. ...
... In spite of studies that have showed the importance of music to improve efficiency of short-term memory, especially during test examining cognitive tasks, learning and spatio-temporal abilities, so called the Mozart effect not yet been demonstrated or explained the mechanisms of the action of music. Therefore, the investigation of the impact of music on learning results should be continued using available equipment and knowledge as well as examining the impact of acoustic stimuli to very specific abilities [3]. In the light of this expectation the aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of music on the effectiveness of performing mathematical-logical tasks. ...
Chapter
The article is the result of studies on the effects of music on human characteristics, with particular emphasis on the effectiveness of the performance of mathematical and logical operations. The material describes briefly some problems in the field of music therapy and presents results of a pilot study concerning possible improving of the intellectual work efficiency. A group of students who was faced with performance-related stress (standardized psychological tests and mathematical tasks) under music (Mozart and Beethoven) and no music condition was examined. Analyses showed that there was no significant difference in time of solving the tasks in silent and Mozart’s music condition. Also, time of performing exercises was longer during Beethoven stimulation than during silent condition. It may be concluded that commonly applied Mozart’s work does not always give the expected results and the other work can have stronger (but not necessarily better) effect on human being.
... The stability of the positive and negative affect students experience in studying across two consecutive semesters was found to be moderate (Rogaten and Moneta 2015b), indicating that affect in studying is a process variable. Consistent with the outlined theories of emotions, students' positive affect in studying was found to correlate positively with academic performance, whereas negative affect was found to correlate negatively (e.g., Dosseville et al. 2012;Rogaten et al. 2013). Therefore, it was hypothesized that: ...
... Positive affect in studying was the strongest and sole psychological and direct predictor of students' academic performance. This finding is consistent with prior empirical studies (e.g., Dosseville et al. 2012;Rogaten et al. 2013) and various theories of emotions. ...
Article
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This study proposed and tested a comprehensive, chained mediation model of university students’ academic performance. The hypothesized model included adaptive-positive and maladaptive-negative submodels. The structures and processes in the adaptive-positive submodel were hypothesized to facilitate students’ academic performance, whereas the structures and processes in the maladaptive-negative submodel were hypothesized to undermine it. A sample of 373 university students completed a set of questionnaires measuring their approaches to studying, positive and negative affect, evaluation anxiety, use of creative cognition, motivational orientations, and adaptive and maladaptive metacognitions. Participants’ end-of-semester and prior semester academic performance was retrieved from the university registry. A structural equation model explained 90 % of the variance in students’ future academic performance, supported all but one hypothesized intermediate paths, and revealed that only positive affect in studying and prior academic performance predict directly future academic performance. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are outlined.
... Of notice, the video had a background music that was kept in the video condition but removed in the other two conditions for technical constraints. Although some studies has shown that music may be beneficial for learning, this may apply to complex material, such as lectures (Dosseville et al., 2012), or anxiety-inducing contexts, such as foreign language learning (Dolean, 2016), mostly by inducing positive emotions in the students. Given the characteristics of the learning material (i.e., short videos or texts) and the task (low-anxiety task) we hypothesized that the background music would not play a confounding effect. ...
... Past studies have suggested that background music may have an influence on students' learning performances. For instance, Dosseville, Laborde, and Scelles (2012) tested the effect of classic music on the learning performances of undergraduate students. According to their results, the students in the experimental group, who watched a 1-hour video-lecture with classic music in the background, had a higher learning performance than the students in the control group, who watched the same video-lecture without music. ...
Article
The present study investigated the influence of media (text, video, or subtitled video) on students’ learning outcomes. Past studies have raised concerns about the effectiveness of learning from online videos over content-equivalent texts. Moreover, subtitled videos place additional demands on learning. Two-hundred and forty-seven undergraduate students were randomly assigned to a text, video, or subtitled-video condition, in a pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest design. The topic assigned was stem cells. Literal, inferential, and transfer questions were used to assess comprehension and learning outcomes. Results from the study confirmed the substantial equivalence of all conditions in immediate comprehension. Conversely, results confirmed the disadvantage of subtitled videos for deep learning outcomes.
... Additionally, studies have found that students who heard music played during class lectures earned higher scores on an exam than students who did not (Schlichting & Brown, 1970). Other studies have found that undergraduate students who listened to classical music during a pre-recorded lecture had significantly higher scores on a subsequent multiple-choice exam (Dosseville, Laborde, & Scelles, 2012). Further, although music accounted for additional incremental variance, positive and negative affect was a significant predictor of test scores. ...
... Ein Vergleich mit anderen Studien fällt hier schwer, die deutliche Variabilität der Studienbedingungen (Musikstücke, Testaufgaben, Lautstärke etc.) erlaubt nur sehr eingeschränkte Aussagen [17]. Während einige Studien einen positiven Effekt von Musik auf kognitive Leistungen von Probanden feststellten [10,14], konnten andere Studien keinen Zusammenhang zwischen kognitiver Leistung und Musik herstellen [16]. Einige Studien wiederum fanden sogar einen negativen Effekt von Musik auf die zu erbringende Leistung beim Schreiben kurzer Aufsätze [24]. ...
Article
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Background Listening to music is also starting to gain influence in the daily working life; however, particularly in cognitively challenging situations the influence of background music is highly controversial. Aim of the study Analysis of the impact of relaxing music as background music on individuals in cognitively challenging situations based on the cognitive performance achieved and selected subjective and objective stress factors. Material and methods A total of 41 students (23.7 ± 2.8 years) solved different cognitively demanding tasks (e. g., alertness, concentration) in complete silence and while listening to self-selected relaxing background music. In addition to the assessment of cognitive performance, subjective and objective stress parameters were recorded. Results Both the cognitive performance of the subjects and the subjective evaluation of the motivation and strain when working under cognitive pressure proved to be independent of the test parameters (working in silence vs. while listening to background music) after each test sequence. Only the heart rate, one of the objective parameters, showed a significant difference (p = 0.019) between working in silence and while listening to relaxing music. Conclusion An impact of relaxing music could not be detected neither when assessing the cognitive performance data nor the subjective evaluation of the test subjects. The elevated heart rate while listening to relaxing music indicates that even though the music was self-selected and considered to be relaxing, it constitutes an additional strain to the individual. This observation should be the basis for further studies using a larger sample of test subjects and longer exposure to background music.
... Although the students' reading comprehension performances did not significantly differ from each other as a function of the group membership, the results revealed that the reading comprehension performances of those who read the article without music slightly higher than that of those who read the same article either music with lyrics or without lyrics. More recently, Dosseville, Laborde and Scelles (2012) examined the influence of music during learning on the undergraduate students' academic performance. The participants were assigned randomly to two groups. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to examine the effects of listening to music while reading on reading comprehension performance. A total of 129 eighth grade students participated voluntarily in the study. The randomized posttest-only control group design was adopted in the study. The results demonstrated that the reading comprehension performance of the students who read the text while listening to their non-favored music without lyrics, non-favored music with lyrics, and favored music with lyrics were significantly poorer than those who did not listen to music while reading the same text. The results also showed that the reading comprehension performance of the students who read the text while listening to their favored music without lyrics did not significantly differ from the reading performance of the students who read the same text without music. Implications for education and directions for future studies were also discussed.
... -Classical music played during lectures seems to improve retention of information directly following the lecture, as measured through MCQ (Dosseville, Laborde & Scelles, 2012). ...
... We did not find any interactions with task conditions, or acoustic environment in either test, suggesting that task-related learning remained unaffected by classical music and white noise in their respective sessions. Investigations into whether listening to music during study can ameliorate learning processes have generally indicated that when individuals feel positive toward its presence, benefit in a variety of tasks can be derived (Miskovic et al., 2008;Dosseville et al., 2012;Kang and Williamson, 2013). Our findings, where classical music of mixed valence (and therefore unlikely to consistently appease listeners) did not affect withinsession learning, further supports the idea that these reported improvements arose from participants' subjective enjoyment of the music, and not from other aspects of its perception and processing. ...
Article
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Auditory stimuli, encompassing a continually expanding collection of musical genres and sonic hues, present a safe and easily administrable therapeutic option for alleviating cognitive deficits associated with neuropsychological disorders, but their effects on executive control are yet to be completely understood. To better understand how the processing of certain acoustic properties can influence conflict processing, we had a large of cohort of undergraduate students complete the Stroop colour and word test in three different background conditions: classical music, white noise, and silence. Because of pandemic guidelines and the necessity to run the experiment remotely, participants also completed the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), so that the reliability and consistency of acquired data could be assessed. We found that white noise, but not classical music increased the response time difference between congruent (low conflict) and incongruent (high conflict) trials (conflict cost), hence impairing performance. Results from the WCST indicated that home-based data collection was reliable, replicating a performance bias reported in our previous laboratory-based experiments. Both the auditory stimuli were played at a similar intensity, thus their dissociable effects may have resulted from differing emotional responses within participants, where white noise, but not music elicited a negative response. Integrated with previous literature, our findings indicate that outside of changes in tempo and valence, classical music does not affect cognitive functions associated with conflict processing, whilst white noise impairs these functions in a manner similar to other stressors, and hence requires further research before its implementation into neuropsychiatric care.
... Additionally, studies have found that students who heard music played during class lectures earned higher scores on an exam than students who did not (Schlichting & Brown, 1970). Other studies have found that undergraduate students who listened to classical music during a pre-recorded lecture had significantly higher scores on a subsequent multiple-choice exam (Dosseville, Laborde, & Scelles, 2012). Further, although music accounted for additional incremental variance, positive and negative affect was a significant predictor of test scores. ...
Article
The effects of music on human performance have been studied across many disciplines. Music has been shown to impact task performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, and learning (i.e., training), but the implications of the study of music in the workplace have not yet been fully realized. Therefore, we conduct an interdisciplinary review of research on music relevant to the field of management. We also offer a solution to the lack of theoretical grounding in previous work by applying activation theory to understand the effects of music in the workplace. Taken together, the literature shows that music works through the mediator of mood and emotion. Findings also illustrate the consequences of extraversion, task complexity, and listening autonomy in relation to individual affective reactions to music. While the evidence suggests music may potentially have significant value in the workplace, more research is needed to understand how music might be effectively utilized by organizations.
... Furthermore, musical training in early childhood has been found to help children outperform their non-musical peers in speech-in-noise perception (Strait, Parbery-Clark, Hittner, & Kraus, 2012), indicating a significant impact of musical training on phonological awareness. In addition, simply adding background music to a learning environment, such as a lecture, was proven to enhance the learning performance of students compared to their peers who were exposed to the same lecture but without the musical background (Dosseville, Laborde, & Scelles, 2012). Recently, Ludke, Ferreira and Overy (2014) conducted what appears to be the first empirical investigation to indicate that singing can facilitate learning of an unfamiliar foreign language compared with speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. ...
Article
Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) has been the subject of several studies aimed to optimize learning of a foreign language in the classroom. However, few studies provide specific curriculum-based methodological strategies to be used in the classroom in order to lower the anxiety level. In this article, two experimental classes of 8th-grade students participated in a 5-week intervention program aimed to teach French as a foreign language through music during the regular French classes. One class had a higher anxiety average (ExpHi) compared with the other (ExpLo). The self-reported level of anxiety of the two experimental classes was compared after the intervention program with the self-reported level of anxiety of two control classes with similar levels of anxiety (CtrHi and CtrLo). The study also compared the opinions of students from the experimental classes regarding their overall experience of the foreign language classes. Findings indicated that teaching songs during FL classes was perceived as an enjoyable experience by students from classes with both high and low anxiety; however, this teaching method decreased the FLCA average of classes of students with rather high anxiety, but not of the ones with a rather low anxiety.
... High levels of stress can have severe consequences in university students related to academic performance and school dropout (Andersson et al. 2009;Lilleholt et al. 2019;Sawatzky et al. 2012), as well as mental health, including increase risk of anxiety and depression (Romo-Nava et al. 2016; Van den Berg et al. 2018). High stress has a negative effect on students' academic achievement, both in the short-termwhen considering impact on single exams (Dosseville et al. 2012;Laborde et al. 2010)and the long-termwhen considering impact on average results (McIntyre et al. 2018;Reid et al. 2019;Sharp and Theiler 2018). High stress levels are also known to contribute to student dropout regardless of specific mental health issues (Andersson et al. 2009). ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the associations between individual difference factors (chrono-type, Big Five, emotional competences) and perceived stress in French university students. In total, 362 students agreed to take part (M age = 20.19 ± 1.75 years). Participants completed the Caen Chronotype Questionnaire, Big Five Inventory, the Profile of Emotional Competences, and the Perceived Stress Scale. Results showed that chronotype amplitude (+), eveningness chronotype (+), neuroticism (+), conscientiousness (-), and intrapersonal emotional competences (-) were important for perceived stress. These findings have theoretical and practical implications in terms of identifying students who might benefit most from stress management interventions. ARTICLE HISTORY
... 2 (Dosseville et al. 2012;Purnell-Webb and Speelman 2008), to not interfering with learning (Cauchard et al. 2012), and finally to no effect at all (Jancke and Sandmann 2010). Another cohort of studies concentrated on the effects of music experience on various types of pathology, and the majority of these studies reported results in support of the beneficial effects of music on verbal memory, for instance, in individuals with Williams Syndrome (Martens et al. 2011) or Alzheimer Disease (Moussard et al. 2012). ...
Conference Paper
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Music is regarded as an essential part for universal human adaptation, which involves a harmonious development. Considering its interdisciplinary character, the teacher can use listening to music as an important instrument in the process of developing the socio-emotional abilities. The experimental research has analyzed the level of socio-emotional abilities at primary school children, comparing the results from tests applied before and after listening to music, during the arts classes and technological classes. The results answered the research question on the effect of music listening during arts and technological classes, regarding socio-emotional behavior and situation resolution. Listening to music has proven to be an external contextual influence with positive effects on socio-emotional behavior in primary school children.
... The current issue contains a number of studies that use a variety of approaches to investigate this category of noncognitive skills. Dosseville, Laborde, and Scelles (2012– ...
Article
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Meta-analyses have demonstrated that other-ratings of Conscientiousness are stronger predictors of academic achievement than are self-ratings. The current study (N = 410 high school students) examined whether this effect applies for all facets of Conscientiousness. Compared to self-reports, parent-reports showed stronger prediction of GPA and of other school life variables such as disciplinary infractions and involvement in school clubs. The difference between parent- and self-reports was stronger for outcome-linked facets such as Industriousness than for process-linked facets such as Tidiness. We suggest that this difference is due to the different types of information used by the self as compared to observers when rating personality items. Our results help to explain the reporting biases evident in self- and parent-ratings, have implications for the appropriateness of self- and parent-report personality protocols in applied settings (e.g., training, selection), and should provide guidance for educational interventions focused upon goals, habits and motivations. FOR FREE DOWNLOAD UNTIL SEP 30 2015, GO TO: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S104160801500148X?np=y
... A klasszikus zene számos jótékony hatással bír az egészségre nézve: csökkenti a stresszt, javítja a hangulatot, az interperszonális kapcsolatok minőségét, segíti a jobb alvást, csökkenti a depressziós tüneteket és az agyi teljesítőképességet is serkenti (lásd Chafin et al., 2004;Harmat et al., 2008;Dosseville et al., 2012;Jensen, 2001;Boer & Fischer, 2011). ...
Article
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A kutatás egy újszerű terület feltárásának kezdeti lépéseit teszi meg, valamint az üzleti szemlélet fontosságát mutatja be a művészetek területen. A szerzők az elméleti összefoglalást követően a zeneipari trendeket és a XXI. századi szimfonikus zenekarokkal szemben támasztott igényeket vizsgálják meg, majd pedig a Berlini Filharmonikusok, a London Symphony Orchestra, a San Francisco Symphony, a Budapesti Fesztiválzenekar, végül pedig a Budafoki Dohnányi Zenekar működését állítják kutatásuk fókuszába. A zenekarok hasonló missziót eltérő üzleti modellekkel valósítanak meg. A zenekarok közötti legnagyobb különbség a finanszírozásukra vezethető vissza: míg az amerikai zenekar piaci alapon működik, addig az európaiak esetében jelentős a közpénzből történő támogatás. A vizsgált zenekarok felismerték, hogy napjaink gyorsan változó világában egy üzleti modell sem örökérvényű: igyekeznek a fogyasztók változó igényeire reagálni és a technológia adta lehetőségeket minél nagyobb mértékben kihasználni.
... 57). Another study (Dosseville, Laborde, & Scelles, 2012) includes individual music lessons, and background music for classroom study concluded that music had no reliable results for the Mozart effect. By definition, the Mozart effect is an effect caused by playing background music in the classroom to improve students' spatial abilities. ...
Research
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The research that supports the US Congressional statement that music belongs in the curriculum of American students has been primarily based in the research findings suggesting that participation in school band enhances students’ academic achievements, attendance, and their social behaviors (Trandahl, 2004). Benefits unrelated to test scores or reading skill improvements include the development of students’ coping mechanisms, self-concepts, self-confidence, and self-efficacy; to mention a few. The primary focus of this literature review is to determine if participation in learning music can potentially benefit students’ social and emotional wellbeing. The literature review examines the literature pertaining to music education and identifies research studies that measure to what degree that it is or is not beneficial to students ability to cope, gain efficacy, and manage their emotions to list a few. The literature addressing music education and academic achievement is plentiful; however, there appears to be a lack of research on the matter of interpersonal skills (i.e. coping, cognitive behavior) and social development of students in the band room.
... 57). Another study (Dosseville, Laborde, & Scelles, 2012) includes individual music lessons, and background music for classroom study concluded that music had no reliable results for the Mozart effect. By definition, the Mozart effect is an effect caused by playing background music in the classroom to improve students' spatial abilities. ...
Research
Full-text available
Music education across America has been federally supported in public school systems since 1963 for the benefit of students (K12academics.com, July 6, 2020).Increased academic achievements are researched synonymously in music students, but there is a lack of research into the social and emotional development benefitting students specifically in public high school band. This study is a self-assessment of participating local Tennessee public high school band students in order to help researchers determine if there are social and emotional health benefits gained by students participating in school band class. A total of 81 high school band students completed a self-reporting survey that evaluated their experiences in high school band. Students filled out a 16-question survey, which entailed Likert-scale questions and 5 open-response questions. Results indicate that most students reported experiencing social and emotional development during their time in band by developing close friends, increased self-confidence, and a variety of other experiences expressed by students.
... En este contexto, la escucha simultánea de una conferencia junto con música como la "Oda a la Alegría" de la Sinfonía nº 9, Op. 125, entre otras composiciones, mejoró las respuestas que se ofrecían en un cuestionario realizado con posterioridad, basado en los contenidos de la citada ponencia (Dosseville, Laborde & Scelles, 2012). Una idea similar subyace en el método de "reactivación de la memoria dirigida", que consiste en asociar una señal externa -en este caso musical-con información recientemente aprendida. ...
Article
La percepción musical produce cambios fisiológicos en los sistemas nerviosos central, autónomo y somático, que pueden verse reflejados en alteraciones del flujo sanguíneo y eléctrico a nivel cerebral, en conjunción con modificaciones de las respuestas cardiovasculares, respiratorias, térmicas, musculares o electrodérmicas, entre otras. La ciencia actual proporciona las herramientas precisas que permiten medir estas variables, ofreciendo un marco único para estudiar la influencia de la música en el ser humano. En este trabajo se analizan las investigaciones que han utilizado la música L. V. Beethoven como estímulo para registrar la actividad biológica humana.
... By enabling emotion-driven services and products, the VEE-loop opens the way to a wide spectrum of applications. We envision these potential applications to fall in three main areas, which we refer to as: 1) service delivery, such as education [14] and human-machine interaction and familiarization (https://v-machina.supsi.ch/), 2) customer experience, e.g., in marketing to understand what creates favourable and unique consumer-brand relationships [15,5], 3) research and development, both from academics and industries. ...
Preprint
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The importance of emotions in service and product design is well known. Despite this, however, it is still not very well understood how users' emotions can be incorporated in a product or service lifecycle. In this paper, we argue that this gap is due to a lack of a methodological framework for an effective investigation of the emotional response of persons when using products and services. Indeed, the emotional response of users is generally investigated by means of methods (e.g., surveys) that are not effective for this purpose. In our view, Virtual Reality (VR) technologies represent the perfect medium to evoke and recognize users' emotional response, as well as to prototype products and services (and, for the latter, even deliver them). In this paper, we first provide our definition of emotion-driven services, and then we propose a novel methodological framework, referred to as the Virtual-Reality-Based Emotion-Elicitation-Emotion-Recognition loop (VEE-loop), that can be exploited to realize it. Specifically, the VEE-loop consists in a continuous monitoring of users' emotions, which are then provided to service designers as an implicit users' feedback. This information is used to dynamically change the content of the VR environment (VE), until the desired affective state is solicited. Finally, we discuss issues and opportunities of this VEE-loop, and we also present potential applications of the VEE-loop in research and in various application areas.
... Meanwhile photographs and music were chosen. Classical music without lyrics was chosen in order not to disturb the students' attention and to make the process more enjoyable and interesting (Brewer, 1995;Dosseville et al., 2012) since listening to music engages the entire brain (Jensen, 1998). Kolb Learning Style Inventory III and Revised Two Factor Study Process Questionnaire were administered before the study in order to determine students' learning styles and approaches and for arranging instruction and informing students (see Table 1). ...
Article
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This study investigates the effectiveness of a brain based teaching approach on biology achievement, attitude, critical thinking disposition and self-efficacy scores of science teacher trainees. Also, science teacher trainees' opinions about brain based teaching were investigated. A mixed method approach was used in the current research and it was composed of two parts: Part A and Part B. Part A was comprised of a sample of 65 science teacher trainees and Part B was composed of nine science teacher trainees. The results of Part A revealed no significant effect of the teaching method on achievement, attitude, critical thinking disposition and self-efficacy scores. On the other hand, the results of Part B showed brain based teaching to some extent affects cognitive, affective and metacognitive features. This is similar to the results of some other studies. This study also indicated that various factors may affect students' cognitive and affective features besides the teaching method.
... The current issue contains a number of studies that use a variety of approaches to investigate this category of noncognitive skills. Dosseville, Laborde, and Scelles (2012– ...
... Dozierende sollten nicht alles, was jemals in einer empirischen Einzelstudie funktioniert hat, in ihrer Lehre umsetzen. Beispielsweise zeigte sich in einer Untersuchung, dass eine mit Musikstücken von Mozart unterlegte Vorlesungssitzung zu größeren Lernzuwächsen führte als dieselbe Vorlesungssitzung ohne Musik ( Dosseville et al. 2012). Es wäre nun trotz der empirisch sauber durchgeführten und ausgewerteten Studie ein Fehler, wenn alle Dozierenden ihre Vorlesungen mit Musik von Mozart unterlegen würden. ...
Chapter
Fragen der Gestaltung effektiver Hochschullehre werden mehr und mehr mit den Mitteln der empirischen Lehr-Lern-Forschung untersucht und in internationalen Fachzeitschriften mit Peer Review publiziert. Diese Forschung zeigt, dass es Gestaltungsprinzipien für Lehre gibt, die ihre Wirkung unabhängig von Hochschultypen, Studiengängen und Studienphasen entfalten. Das vorliegende Buch gibt einen anwendungsorientierten Überblick über die empirische Forschung zu diesen Gestaltungsprinzipien und ihren Wirkmechanismen. Eine komplexe Kompetenz wie die Fähigkeit zu effektivem Lehren erfordert sog. deliberate practice, also Jahre der praktischen Übung und des gezielten Arbeitens an den eigenen Schwächen. Die Teilnahme an hochschuldidaktischen Weiterbildungen erhöht die Lehrkompetenz von Dozierenden umfassend, wobei insbesondere Weiterbildungsmaßnahmen mit sog. microteaching-Methoden effektiv sind, also mit Video- und Kollegenfeedback zu den Details der Durchführung einer Unterrichtseinheit.
Conference Paper
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This study aimed to examine the effects of listening to music while reading on reading comprehension performance. A total of 129 eighth grade students participated voluntarily in the study. The randomized posttest-only control group design was adopted in the study. The results demonstrated that the reading comprehension performance of the students who read the text while listening to their non-favored music without lyrics, non-favored music with lyrics, and favored music with lyrics were significantly poorer than those who did not listen to music while reading the same text. The results also showed that the reading comprehension performance of the students who read the text while listening to their favored music without lyrics did not significantly differ from the reading performance of the students who read the same text without music. Implications for education and directions for future studies were also discussed. Keywords: reading, music, student, learning, comprehension, experimental design. * Acknowledgements This study was based on the first Author’s master thesis. The full version of the thesis was published by the Lambert Academic Publishing. The paper was presented at World Conference on Design, Arts, and Education 01-03 May 2012, Antalya, Turkey.
Article
Reading ability is the basic skill to enhance the competitiveness of the national economy. Through a large number of reading content, students can develop high-level thinking skills. Anxiety is an import factor to affect students' learning when they are reading materials. Some studies found suitable music can reduce people stress feeling. In order to investigate the effectiveness of music on learning, this study used Mozart music in a reading process with Chinese storybook. The results show that Mozart music has an impact on the improvement of students' reading comprehension. However, we also found that the Mozart music couldn't reduced the students' learning anxiety in our study.
Chapter
To deliver excellent virtual education experiences, design thinking educators adapt along all three “P”s: of People, Place, and Process. This book chapter provides the theoretical foundations for delivering virtual education experiences and, relying on both relevant streams of research and the authors’ own expertise, derives six areas of action—(Digital) Engagement, Embodied Cognition, Safe Space, Atmosphere, Random Inspiration, and Managing Workshops. The theories linked to these areas also inspire questions for further research and, together with the specific suggestions provided, give practitioners a rich resource for enhancing their virtual DT education.
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This research examined the influence of multimedia presentations on content retention and satisfaction of business administration students when subjected to different didactic standards. For this study we used experimental procedures with 147 undergraduate students of Business Administration at a university in southern Brazil. As for the retention of the contents, statistical differences were found between the experimental groups; classes with dynamic slides showed better results. As for the influences of teaching tools in students' satisfaction, the survey indicated that dynamic slides facilitate the logical and rational development of the discipline and raise students' motivation. Traditional slides, in turn, can disperse the interest of the student and suppress attention to the teacher.
Chapter
We might like to think we are rational but emotions direct and colour most of what we do. Academic study is no exception. While all students are subject to the interaction of thinking and feeling, some are likely to experience particular emotions, like anxiety, more often or more strongly than others. Students who are older or who see themselves as less capable than others can be amongst these, and they can be adversely affected by those emotions. This chapter describes the cause of such emotions, their effects, their implications for teaching and learning, and it offers some practices which can make teaching and learning more productive and help the students become more resilient.
Conference Paper
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Müzik Eşliğinin Yaratıcı Mutfak Uygulamaları Üzerindeki Etkilerinin Belirlenmesi
Thesis
This PhD thesis was aimed to investigate the influence of slow-paced breathing (SPB) without biofeedback on CVA, as well as its action on several self-regulation processes, based on the neurovisceral integration model (Smith et al., 2017; Thayer et al., 2009) and on the resonance model (Lehrer & Gevirtz, 2014). Four studies were conducted, adolescents with individual disabilities (Study 1) and healthy young adults (Study 2, 3, & 4). Both short-term and long-term SPB interventions have been investigated, and positive effects have been found on stress management (short-term, Study 1), sleep (long-term, Study 2), and executive functions (short-term, Studies 3 and 4), however results related to executive functions were not mediated by CVA. These results are encouraging regarding the use of SPB in acute and chronic interventions, as a “quick-fix” or daily routine, however future research has to clarify the underlying mechanisms, in particular with brain imaging methods. To conclude, SPB is a technique that is free, non-invasive, easy to implement, and with little side effects, which makes it an appropriate intervention to recommend to address a large range of self-regulation phenomena.
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The present investigation mainly focus on improvement in social science among tribal children through development of folk music for teaching the subject with their own interest because tribal children normally having the interest in hearing folk related music. Therefore the investigator made an attempt to developed folk music which has administered for teaching the social science subject among tribal school children because it provides real naturalistic exposure among tribal students to understand the social science concept with accurate knowledge. The Tribal children who want to perform better in their education and resolve contemporary social and individual problems in the education. Moreover it gives training in handling controversial issues to promote the national feelings and also useful in developing some skills on the part of Tribal children. If social science is taught along with music in the school environment, students will memorize the concepts easily and at the same time the process of inculcating social values in their minds. Tribal children who are generally eager to hear the different types of song with need based. In considering the same, the investigator has made the contribution to prepare the motivational song to teach social science among tribal children. The present study strongly concludes that motivational song was prepared by the investigator is considered as very much important among the tribal children who learn their social science subject in strong manner in school.
Article
The effect of background music (BGM) on cognitive task performance is a popular topic. However, the evidence is not converging: experimental studies show mixed results depending on the task, the type of music used and individual characteristics. Here, we explored how people use BGM while optimally performing various cognitive tasks in everyday life, such as reading, writing, memorizing, and critical thinking. Specifically, the frequency of BGM usage, preferred music types, beliefs about the scientific evidence on BGM, and individual characteristics, such as age, extraversion and musical background were investigated. Although the results confirmed highly diverse strategies among individuals regarding when, how often, why and what type of BGM is used, we found several general tendencies: people tend to use less BGM when engaged in more difficult tasks, they become less critical about the type of BGM when engaged in easier tasks, and there is a negative correlation between the frequency of BGM and age, indicating that younger generations tend to use more BGM than older adults. The current and previous evidence are discussed in light of existing theories. Altogether, this study identifies essential variables to consider in future research and further forwards a theory-driven perspective in the field.
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Advancements in the fields of education and psychology have continued to develop more complex and nuanced understandings of how emotions function to regulate and modulate human response. In educational psychology, there has been a keen interest in developing the next generation of tools and theoretical imperatives to explore how to best help learners maintain peak emotional and learning performance through the use of adaptive tools. Similarly, advancements in music science have come to explore music as a valuable tool in the modulation of felt and expressed emotion. This literature review examines a cross section of the fields of psychology, music cognition and educational technology to understand how music can modulate emotions and optimizes performance. This review synthesizes relevant literature in these areas and suggests how practitioners and researchers can use advances in musical stimulation to help develop our capabilities for learning theory and performance.
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The authors investigated predictive relationships among student characteristics that influence motivation for learning and achievement. Participants were students (N = 900) from all 4 grade levels in 18 rural public high schools in the south-western United States. The authors used AMOS 4.0 (J. L. Arbuckle & W. Wothke, 1996) to test a hypothesized path model in development and validation subsamples. Variables included perceptions of classroom climate, perceived ability, perceived instrumentality of instruction, and achievement goals as predictors of engagement and effort in school. The model fit the data reasonably well, with relatively minor variations in the strength of the paths between subsamples. The authors discuss implications for research and classroom practice.
Article
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The “Mozart effect” refers to claims that people perform better on tests of spatial abilities after listening to music composed by Mozart. We examined whether the Mozart effect is a consequence of between-condition differences in arousal and mood. Participants completed a test of spatial abilities after listening to music or sitting in silence. The music was a Mozart sonata (a pleasant and energetic piece) for some participants and an Albinoni adagio (a slow, sad piece) for others. We also measured enjoyment, arousal, and mood. Performance on the spatial task was better following the music than the silence condition, but only for participants who heard Mozart. The two music selections also induced differential responding on the enjoyment, arousal, and mood measures. Moreover, when such differences were held constant by statistical means, the Mozart effect disappeared. These findings provide compelling evidence that the Mozart effect is an artifact of arousal and mood.
Article
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We examined effects of tempo and mode on spatial ability, arousal, and mood. A Mozart sonata was performed by a skilled pianist and recorded as a MIDI file. The file was edited to produce four versions that varied in tempo (fast or slow) and mode (major or minor). Participants listened to a single version and completed measures of spatial ability, arousal, and mood. Performance on the spatial task was superior after listening to music at a fast rather than a slow tempo, and when the music was pre-sented in major rather than minor mode. Tempo manipulations affected arousal but not mood, whereas mode manipulations affected mood but not arousal. Changes in arousal and mood paralleled variation on the spatial task. The findings are consistent with the view that the "Mozart effect" is a consequence of changes in arousal and mood.
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This study aimed at measuring the effects of a university educational reform project on student learning, and individual differences in students' responses to similar instructional measures. The reforms mainly failed to influence reported learning strategies in the direction of more deep and self-regulated learning. One explanation for this could be that the instructional measures were not powerful enough to create more deep-level learning strategies. In a second study, a different explanation was explored. It was found that student groups with different learner characteristics tend to use instructional measures in different ways, such that they suit their own habits, ideas and preferences of learning well. This makes it quite clear that direct influence of instructional measures on learning processes does not take place. We explore suggestions for adapting instructional practice.
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In this paper the influence of the learning context is considered when learning to program. For the purposes of this study, the lectures, study process, previous knowledge or teaching experience and tests comprised the learning context. The article argues that students’ experiences of the learning context have important implications for teaching and learning. Therefore, the solutions that most students work towards in order to solve a problem are an indication of an essential aspect: the learning context. The study attempts to understand the influence that the learning context has on pre- and in-service teachers learning to program. The participants who took a course in Java programming were asked to keep a journal, which indicated their reflections throughout the course. These reflections together with interview transcripts of some participants were used in the analysis. The instructors of the course were also part of this qualitative study. Activity theory was used as a basis for the analysis. It was found that both the problem and the learning context have a profound effect on students’ understanding and performance.
Article
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What can be done to promote student–instructor interaction in a large lecture class? One approach is to use a personal response system (or “clickers”) in which students press a button on a hand-held remote control device corresponding to their answer to a multiple choice question projected on a screen, then see the class distribution of answers on a screen, and discuss the thinking that leads to the correct answer. Students scored significantly higher on the course exams in a college-level educational psychology class when they used clickers to answer 2 to 4 questions per lecture (clicker group), as compared to an identical class with in-class questions presented without clickers (no-clicker group, d = 0.38) or with no in-class questions (control group, d = 0.40). The clicker treatment produced a gain of approximately 1/3 of a grade point over the no-clicker and control groups, which did not differ significantly from each other. Results are consistent with the generative theory of learning, which predicts students in the clicker group are more cognitively engaged during learning.
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A new measure of motivation toward education has been developed in French, namely the Echelle de Motivation en Education (EME). The EME is based on the tenets of self-determination theory and is composed of 28 items subdivided into seven sub-scales assessing three types of intrinsic motivation (intrinsic motivation to know, to accomplish things, and to experience stimulation), three types of extrinsic motivation (external, introjected, and identified regulation), and a motivation. The purpose of this investigation was to cross-culturally validate in English the EME. The EME was translated in English through appropriate methodological procedures and completed by university students. Results revealed that the English version of the scale renamed the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), has satisfactory levels of internal consistency (mean alpha value = .81) and temporal stability over a one-month period (mean test-retest correlation = .79). In addition, results of a confirmatory factor analysis (LISREL) confirmed the seven-factor structure of the AMS. Finally, gender differences obtained with the EME were basically replicated with the AMS. In sum, the present findings provide adequate support for the factorial validity and reliability of the AMS and support its use in educational research on motivation.
Article
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The Experience Sampling Method was used to explore emotions to music as they naturally occurred in everyday life, with a focus on the prevalence of different musical emotions and how such emotions are related to various factors in the listener, the music, and the situation. Thirty-two college students, 20 to 31 years old, carried a palmtop that emitted a sound signal seven times per day at random intervals for 2 weeks. When signaled, participants were required to complete a questionnaire on the palmtop. Results showed that music occurred in 37% of the episodes, and in 64% of the music episodes, the participants reported that the music affected how they felt. Comparisons showed that happiness-elation and nostalgia-longing were more frequent in episodes with musical emotions, whereas anger-irritation, boredom-indifference, and anxiety-fear were more frequent in episodes with nonmusical emotions. The prevalence of specific musical emotions correlated with personality measures and also varied depending on the situation (e.g., current activity, other people present), thus highlighting the need to use representative samples of situations to obtain valid estimates of prevalence.
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Research indicates that people value music primarily because of the emotions it evokes. Yet, the notion of musical emotions remains controversial, and researchers have so far been unable to offer a satisfactory account of such emotions. We argue that the study of musical emotions has suffered from a neglect of underlying mechanisms. Specifically, researchers have studied musical emotions without regard to how they were evoked, or have assumed that the emotions must be based on the "default" mechanism for emotion induction, a cognitive appraisal. Here, we present a novel theoretical framework featuring six additional mechanisms through which music listening may induce emotions: (1) brain stem reflexes, (2) evaluative conditioning, (3) emotional contagion, (4) visual imagery, (5) episodic memory, and (6) musical expectancy. We propose that these mechanisms differ regarding such characteristics as their information focus, ontogenetic development, key brain regions, cultural impact, induction speed, degree of volitional influence, modularity, and dependence on musical structure. By synthesizing theory and findings from different domains, we are able to provide the first set of hypotheses that can help researchers to distinguish among the mechanisms. We show that failure to control for the underlying mechanism may lead to inconsistent or non-interpretable findings. Thus, we argue that the new framework may guide future research and help to resolve previous disagreements in the field. We conclude that music evokes emotions through mechanisms that are not unique to music, and that the study of musical emotions could benefit the emotion field as a whole by providing novel paradigms for emotion induction.
Book
This edited book examines some of the current inquiry related to the study of emotions in educational contexts. There has been a notable increased interest in educational research on emotions. Emotion in Education represents some of the most exciting and current research on emotions and education, and has the potential to impact research in this area. This combination of variety, timeliness, potential for transformation of the field, and uniqueness make this a "must-have" resource for academics in the fields of education, educational psychology, emotion psychology, cultural psychology, sociology, and teacher education. The chapters have been written for scholars in the area, but authors also wrote with graduate students in mind. Therefore, the book is also be a great volume for graduate seminars. *Provides in-depth examination of emotions in educational contexts *Includes international roster of contributors who represent a variety of disciplines *Represents a number of different research approaches.
Article
It is an ancient, and very pervasive, idea that music expresses emotion. Apart from the copious literature to this effect contributed by composers, musicologists, and philoso- phers, there is also solid empirical evidence from psychological research, reviewed in chapters of this book (e.g. Gabrielsson & Lindström, this volume; Juslin, this volume), that listeners often agree rather strongly about what type of emotion is expressed in a particular piece. It is also a pervasive belief that music can, at times, actually produce emotion in listeners. The distinction between perception and production is related to the distinction between cognitivism and emotivism proposed by philosophers in their analysis of emotion in music (e.g. Kivy 1989). Whereas 'emotivists' hold that music elicits real emotional responses in listeners, 'cognitivists' argue that music simply expresses or represents emotions. Our view is that it would be premature to prejudge the issue and that both positions may be perfectly appropriate depending on a number of factors out- lined below. Our purpose in this chapter is to provide a formalization of the processes whereby music produces emotional effects in the listener that go beyond the cognitive inference of what the music can be said to express. In addition, we review the pertinent evidence to date and suggest ways in which future research might investigate these processes in a systematic fashion. We state at the outset that our discussion and the review of the available evidence are largely based on Western classical music, thereby restricting the generalizability of our claims to other kinds of music and other cultures. Our attempt at a formalization of emotional effects of music will consist in defining the affective changes that music is supposed to produce in the listener and to identify the determinants of the listening situation (features such as the musical structure of the piece listened to, the interpretation by the performer, relevant state and trait character- istics of the listener, and the respective context). An important issue for discussion will be the relative weighting of the different determinants and the type of their interaction in producing the affective outcome. We follow the senior author's attempt to define the emotional meaning of music in analogy to Bühler's Organon model of language, postu- lating composition, expression, perception, and production rules to model the different facets of emotional meaning (Scherer, 2000d). In this context, the term rule is used to denote a certain regularity or lawfulness of the effects discussed that can be expressed in concrete predictions or hypotheses. It is not excluded that these rules can be integrated into attempts at computational modelling of the underlying mechanisms (in fact, we consider this a highly desirable option), but we do not feel that the current state of the
Article
Proponents of positive psychology have argued for more comprehensive assessments incorporating positive measures (e.g., student strengths) as well as negative measures (e.g., psychological symptoms). However, few variable-centered studies have addressed the incremental validity of positive assessment data. The authors investigated the incremental validity of positive emotions relative to negative emotions in predicting adolescents' adaptive school functioning. Positive emotions demonstrated significant incremental validity in predicting school satisfaction, adaptive coping, and student engagement, but not self-reported GPA. The findings offer some support for the utility of positive measures in psychoeducational assessments.
Article
Academic emotions have largely been neglected by educational psychology, with the exception of test anxiety. In 5 qualitative studies, it was found that students experience a rich diversity of emotions in academic settings. Anxiety was reported most often, but overall, positive emotions were described no less frequently than negative emotions. Based on the studies in this article, taxonomies of different academic emotions and a self-report instrument measuring students' enjoyment, hope, pride, relief, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom (Academic Emotions Questionnaire [AEQ]) were developed. Using the AEQ, assumptions of a cognitive-motivational model of the achievement effects of emotions, and of a control/value theory of their antecedents (Pekrun, 1992b, 2000), were tested in 7 cross-sectional, 3 longitudinal, and 1 diary study using samples of university and school students. Results showed that academic emotions are significantly related to students' motivation, learning strategies, cognitive resources, self-regulation, and academic achievement, as well as to personality and classroom antecedents. The findings indicate that affective research in educational psychology should acknowledge emotional diversity in academic settings by addressing the full range of emotions experienced by students at school and university.
Article
The present study examined to which extent different motivational concepts contribute to the prediction of school achievement among adolescent students independently from intelligence. A sample of 342 11th and 12th graders (age M=16.94; SD=.71) was investigated. Students gave self-reports on domain-specific values, ability self-perceptions, goals, and achievement motives. Hierarchical regression and relative weights analyses were performed with grades in math and German as dependent variables and intelligence as well as motivational measures as independent variables. Beyond intelligence, different motivational constructs incrementally contributed to the prediction of school achievement. Domain-specific ability self-perceptions and values showed the highest increments whereas achievement motives and goal orientations explained less additional variance. Even when prior achievement was controlled, some motivational concepts still proved to contribute to the prediction of subsequent performance. In the light of these findings, we discuss the importance of motivation in educational contexts.
Article
Studies on the development of creativity have highlighted the impact of learning environments. In particular, pedagogical approaches are hypothesized to differ concerning their emphasis on individual initiative, and action-based learning. A semi-longitudinal study was conducted during two consecutive years with 210 children in elementary schools with traditional and alternative pedagogical approaches. Our results highlight (1) an influence of pedagogy on children's creative performance; (2) a positive influence of alternative pedagogy on creative development from year 1 to year 2 mainly for Montessori school. Children's creative performance was influenced not only by the type of task but also by the type of school.
Article
The transient enhancement of performance on spatial tasks in standardized tests after exposure to the first movement “allegro con spirito” of the Mozart sonata for two pianos in D major (KV 448) is referred to as the Mozart effect since its first observation by Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993). These findings turned out to be amazingly hard to replicate, thus leading to an abundance of conflicting results. Sixteen years after initial publication we conduct the so far largest, most comprehensive, and up-to-date meta-analysis (nearly 40 studies, over 3000 subjects), including a diversity of unpublished research papers to finally clarify the scientific record about whether or not a specific Mozart effect exists. We could show that the overall estimated effect is small in size (d=0.37, 95% CI [0.23, 0.52]) for samples exposed to the Mozart sonata KV 448 and samples that had been exposed to a non-musical stimulus or no stimulus at all preceding spatial task performance. Additionally, calculation of effect sizes for samples exposed to any other musical stimulus and samples exposed to a non-musical stimulus or no stimulus at all yielded effects similar in strength (d=0.38, 95% CI [0.13, 0.63]), whereas there was a negligible effect between the two music conditions (d=0.15, 95% CI [0.02, 0.28]). Furthermore, formal tests yielded evidence for confounding publication bias, requiring downward correction of effects. The central finding of the present paper however, is certainly the noticeably higher overall effect in studies performed by Rauscher and colleagues than in studies performed by other researchers, indicating systematically moderating effects of lab affiliation. On the whole, there is little evidence left for a specific, performance-enhancing Mozart effect.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A great deal of popular attention has been given to the Mozart effect--an increase in spatial ability following listening to Mozart. Three hypotheses have been advanced to explain this association: Mozart priming the neural pathways used for spatial reasoning, Mozart generally increasing mood and arousal and thus performance, or individuals' preference for Mozart, a different form of music, or even silence leading to an optimal mood for test-taking. The current study sought to differentiate among these three hypotheses. Data were collected from 41 college students (20 male, 21 female) assessed on a spatial relations subtest from the Stanford-Binet following exposure to either music or silence. Participants self-reported how awake they felt and their preference for their particular condition. Results indicated a positive effect of listening to Mozart, although arousal mediated this association. No effect of preference was evident. Implications for theory and application are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two studies examined associations between college students' help seeking and perceptions of their classes' achievement goal structure. Study 1 established that students' help seeking (N = 883 in 6 chemistry classes) could be parsimoniously described by distinct approach (intentions to seek autonomous help from teachers) and avoidance patterns (threat, avoidance intentions, seeking expedient help). In Study 2, after controlling for students' personal achievement goal orientations (N = 852 in 13 psychology classes), within-class differences in perceived class emphasis on mastery positively predicted help-seeking approach and negatively predicted help-seeking avoidance patterns, whereas perceived class emphasis on performance-avoid goals positively predicted help-seeking avoidance. Students in classes with greater perceived emphasis on performance-avoid goals had higher levels of help-seeking avoidance patterns. Results complement previous research on help seeking and achievement goals with younger learners and provide support for the role of classroom achievement goal structure in student motivation and performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tested 54 undergraduates on a multiple-choice test when they were flanked and fronted by either the same test form, a form in which the order of the questions had been arranged randomly, or a form in which both questions and answers had been rearranged randomly. Using an index of answer copying developed by the present author (see record 1979-27832-001), it was found that rearranged questions alone did not reduce answer copying, whereas rearrangement of both questions and answers effectively eliminated detectable cheating. Alternate test forms were related to loci as well as amounts of answer copying. (5 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The objective of the present study was to compare alternative factorial structures of the French-Canadian version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) across samples of athletes at different stages of a sport competition. The first sample (N=305) was used to assess, compare, and improve the measurement model of the PANAS. The second sample (N=217) was used to cross-validate the model that provided the best fit with the calibration sample. Results of confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a modified three-factor model with cross-loadings provided a better fit to the data than either the hypothesized or the modified two-factor models. This model was partially replicated on the second sample. Results of a multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis have shown that the model was partially invariant across the two samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden and build theory postulates that the experience of frequent positive emotions serves to broaden humans' thoughts and behaviors, resulting in accrual of resources, including coping resources, which catalyze upward spirals toward future well-being. Initial research supports the tenets of broaden and build; however, few if any, studies have examined this theory with children or adolescents, particularly in the context of school experiences. This study explored the role of positive emotions during school, coping, and student engagement among a sample of 293 students in grades 7 to 10. As expected, frequent positive emotions during school were associated with higher levels of student engagement and negative emotions with lower levels of engagement. Positive emotions, but not negative emotions, were associated with adaptive coping, which was then associated with student engagement. The association between positive emotions and engagement was partially mediated by adaptive coping. Results support the broaden and build theory and the role of positive emotions in students' engagement at school and with learning. Implications and future directions for research are discussed. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
This study was aimed to explore the influence of trait emotional intelligence (Trait EI) and of preference for intuition (PID-I) and deliberation (PID-D) on short-term academic performance (i.e. an experimental task involving learning and decision-making). We recruited 219 sport science freshman students (168 males and 51 females). They had to watch a 45 min videotaped lecture followed by a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ), which was aimed to assess their comprehension. Moreover, they had to fill out the PANAS (before and after the lecture), the TEIQue and the PID. We found that: (1) trait EI predicted significantly positively the MCQ-Score; (2) PID-D predicted significantly positively positive affect (PA) before and after the exam; (3) trait EI predicted significantly negatively negative affect (NA) before and after the exam; (4) PID-I predicted significantly positively NA before and after the exam. Findings supported the idea that trait EI plays a role in academic performance, certainly with stress appraisal, but the influence of intuition on the MCQ-Score was not confirmed. Interesting findings about the links between the PID and affect are discussed.
Article
Emotional intelligence (EI) has received very scant attention from researchers in the sport domain to date, yet emotions are key to sport performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the influence of trait EI in athletes when they have to face the stress of competition. Thirty male handball players (MAge = 22.5 years; SD = 1.7) were exposed to a competition-like stressor in the laboratory consisting of 20 min of negative imagery coupled with the sound of a crowd hissing. Their trait EI was measured with the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, and a mental stress indicator, the low-frequency/high-frequency (LF/HF) ratio, was calculated from their heart rate variability. A repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant Time of Measurement × Trait EI interaction, F(1, 28) = 6.036, p = .020, , indicating that high trait EI athletes experienced a lower increase of stress compared to their low trait EI counterparts. Through its influence on the LF/HF ratio, trait EI may help athletes cope better with stress.
Article
The benefit of PowerPoint™ is continuously debated, but both supporters and detractors have insufficient empirical evidence. Its use in university lectures has influenced investigations of PowerPoint’s effects on student performance (e.g., overall quiz/exam scores) in comparison to lectures based on overhead projectors, traditional lectures (e.g., “chalk-and-talk”), and online lectures. Thus far, comparisons of overall exam scores have yielded mixed results. The present study decomposes overall quiz scores into auditory, graphic, and alphanumeric scores to reveal new insights into effects of PowerPoint presentations on student performance. Analyses considered retention of lecture information presented to students without the presence of PowerPoint (i.e., traditional lecture), auditory information in the presence of PowerPoint, and visual (i.e., graphic and alphanumeric) information displayed on PowerPoint slides. Data were collected from 62 students via quiz and questionnaire. Students retained 15% less information delivered verbally by the lecturer during PowerPoint presentations, but they preferred PowerPoint presentations over traditional presentations.
Article
Defining “emotion” is a notorious problem. Without consensual conceptualization and operationalization of exactly what phenomenon is to be studied, progress in theory and research is difficult to achieve and fruitless debates are likely to proliferate. A particularly unfortunate example is William James’s asking the question “What is an emotion?” when he really meant “feeling”, a misnomer that started a debate which is still ongoing, more than a century later. This contribution attempts to sensitize researchers in the social and behavioral sciences to the importance of definitional issues and their consequences for distinguishing related but fundamentally different affective processes, states, and traits. Links between scientific and folk concepts of emotion are explored and ways to measure emotion and its components are discussed.
Article
The authors propose a theoretical model linking achievement goals and achievement emotions to academic performance. This model was tested in a prospective study with undergraduates (N = 213), using exam-specific assessments of both goals and emotions as predictors of exam performance in an introductory-level psychology course. The findings were consistent with the authors' hypotheses and supported all aspects of the proposed model. In multiple regression analysis, achievement goals (mastery, performance approach, and performance avoidance) were shown to predict discrete achievement emotions (enjoyment, boredom, anger, hope, pride, anxiety, hopelessness, and shame), achievement emotions were shown to predict performance attainment, and 7 of the 8 focal emotions were documented as mediators of the relations between achievement goals and performance attainment. All of these findings were shown to be robust when controlling for gender, social desirability, positive and negative trait affectivity, and scholastic ability. The results are discussed with regard to the underdeveloped literature on discrete achievement emotions and the need to integrate conceptual and applied work on achievement goals and achievement emotions.
Article
It was assumed that the effect of motivational regulation strategies on achievement is mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence. A sample of 231 11th and 12th grade German high-school students provided self-reports on their use of motivational regulation strategies and effort management and completed an intelligence test. Students' half-year grades (GPA) were assessed six months later. As expected, motivational regulation strategies were not directly related to GPA but showed positive effects on students' effort management which in turn predicted students' GPA. Intelligence and effort management were equally strong direct predictors of GPA. Also as expected, more intelligent students benefitted more from using some, but not all, motivational regulation strategies in terms of increased effort management. Implications of these findings regarding the effectiveness of motivational regulation strategies are discussed.
Article
The variability in deep and surface learning has been discussed as part of the trait vs. state debate. However, the question is to what extent students change strategies as a function of course demands. This study focused on discerning subgroups of learners with respect to variability in learning strategies and the role of students' learning environment perceptions in it. Data from 124 second-year university students in three consecutive courses were collected. Cluster analysis on the variability of learning strategies re-vealed two groups of students: a restricted one and a variable one. Differences in variability of learning between the restricted and variable clusters can be explained by the impact of learning environment perceptions on learning strategies and by the variation in the perceptions of the learning environment factors.
Article
The article describes the management of akathisia by a mental health nurse (MHN) prescriber, working in partnership with the patient. A single-case design was used to evaluate this. It highlights three features: first, MHN can safely prescribe psychiatric medication in combination with concordance therapy. Second, the value base underpinning prescribing practice is partnership, honesty and choice for the patient. Finally, the pharmacological mechanism of antipsychotic medication, which contributes towards akathisia, requires further analysis.
Article
ObjectivesTo assess whether exercise was associated with increased positive and decreased negative affect for university students during academically demanding times.DesignWithin-subjects daily diary study.MethodsFifty-nine university students completed the LTEQ [Godin, G., & Shephard, R.J. (1985). A simple method to assess exercise behavior in the community. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 10, 141–146], cognitive appraisals of daily events [Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. New York: Springer], and the PANAS [Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070] for 14 days immediately prior to the final examination period.ResultsOur hypotheses were partially supported as threat appraisals were significantly associated with decreased positive affect on days closer to the final examination period. Contrary, to our hypotheses exercise was not independently associated with increased positive and decreased negative affect. However, the interaction between exercise and day was significant as participants experienced increased positive affect during the last 3 days of data collection immediately preceding the final exam period. There was also a significant exercise by threat interaction with follow-up tests showing the exercise/negative affect relationship was significantly moderated by threat appraisals only when academic events were appraised as mildly threatening.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that exercise behavior might be an effective way for college students to cope with stress especially during academic demanding times.
Article
In educational research, characteristics of the learning environment (e.g., social climate, instructional quality, goal orientation) are often assessed via student reports, and their associations with outcome variables such as school achievement or student motivation then tested. However, studying the effects of the learning environment presents a series of methodological challenges. This article discusses three crucial elements in research that uses student reports to gauge the impact of the learning environment on student outcomes. First, from a conceptual point of view, it is argued that ratings aggregated at the relevant level (e.g., class or school level), and not individual student ratings, are of primary interest in these studies. Second, the reliability of aggregated student ratings must be routinely assessed before these perceptions are related to outcome variables. Third, researchers conducting multilevel analyses need to make very clear which centering option was chosen for the predictor variables. This article shows that conclusions about the impact of learning environments can be substantially affected by the choice of a specific centering option for the individual student ratings.
Article
A multilevel approach was used to analyse relationships between perceived classroom environments and emotions in mathematics. Based on Pekrun's (2000) [A social-cognitive, control-value theory of achievement emotions. In J. Heckhausen (Ed.), Motivational psychology of human development (pp. 143–163)] social-cognitive, control-value theory of achievement emotions, we hypothesized that environmental characteristics conveying control and value to the students would be related to their experience of enjoyment, anxiety, anger, and boredom in mathematics. Multilevel modelling of data from 1623 students from 69 classes (grades 5–10) confirmed close relationships between environmental variables and emotional experiences that functioned predominantly at the individual level. Compositional effects further revealed that classes' aggregate environment perceptions as well as their compositions in terms of aggregate achievement and gender ratio were additionally linked to students' emotions in mathematics. Methodological and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Article
This study examined test-related experiences of enjoyment, anger, anxiety, and boredom in a sample of 2059 German school students (50% female) from grade 6, and how they relate to students' abstract reasoning ability (ARA). Emotions were assessed immediately before, during, and after a mathematics achievement test. Analysis of variance showed that emotions experienced during the test situation differed based on students' ARA level, with correspondence analysis revealing substantial differences between the emotional profiles of different ability groups. Enjoyment proved to be most prominent in students with high ARA, whereas anger and anxiety were predominant for students with low ARA. Boredom was found to be highest among students in the intermediate ARA group. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
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The purpose of this study was to consider the efficacy and popularity of “Virtual Lectures” (text-based, structured electronic courseware with information presented in manageable “chunks”, interaction and multimedia) and “e-Lectures” (on-screen synchrony of PowerPoint slides and recorded voice) as alternatives to traditional lectures. We considered how three modes of delivery compare when increasingly deeper forms of learning are assessed and also student reaction to electronic delivery. Fifty-eight students in three groups took three topics of a human genetics module, one in each delivery style. Results indicated no overall greater efficacy of either delivery style when all question types were taken into account but significantly different delivery-specific results depending on which level of Bloom’s taxonomy was assessed. That is, overall, questions assessing knowledge consistently achieved the highest marks followed by analysis, comprehension, evaluation and application. Students receiving traditional lectures scored significantly lower marks for comprehension questions. Students receiving Virtual Lectures scored high for knowledge, comprehension and application but significantly lower for analysis and evaluation questions. The e-Lectures scored high for knowledge questions and were the median for all question types except application. Questionnaire analysis revealed a preference for traditional lectures over computer-based but nevertheless an appreciation of the advantages offered by them.
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The effects of accompanying lectures with computer-mediated PowerPoint presentations or PowerPoint generated overheads on students’ self-efficacy, attitudes, course performance, and class-related behaviors were examined. Two Introduction to Developmental Psychology sections were initially taught with lectures accompanied by either overheads or computer-mediated presentations. The teaching format was switched halfway through the semester. Students reported higher self-efficacy and more positive attitudes toward the class with computer-mediated presentations. They also claimed that the website was more interesting and useful under these teaching conditions, indicating a halo effect of the computer-mediated presentations. However, the teaching format did not appear to affect course-related behavior, such as performance on exams, class attendance, participation in class discussions, or course website usage.
Article
The current study examined the effects of non-interactive computer assisted instruction on students’ performance, self-efficacy, motivation, and attitudes. Half the lectures presented to two Introduction to Psychology college classes were taught in a traditional lecture format and half were accompanied by PowerPoint multimedia. Lecture order was counterbalanced across classes. Whereas lecture style did not affect academic performance, students had more positive attitudes about the course and greater self-efficacy with PowerPoint. In the class that started with PowerPoint lectures, student motivation declined after PowerPoint stopped accompanying lectures. However, student motivation did not increase after PowerPoint was added in the other class.
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In this paper we describe a study of the effectiveness of mobile learning (m-learning) in the form of podcasting, for teaching undergraduate students in Higher Education. Podcasting involves downloading a series of audio or video broadcasts (files) onto a digital media player, via a computer, over a period of weeks. These can then be watched or listened to when, where and as often as students choose. The use of digital media players, popularised by Apple’s iPod™, is widespread amongst undergraduate students. A pilot survey of Business and Management students indicated that over 74% owned some form of digital media player, with a further 7% indicating that they intended to purchase one in the next six months.
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A holistic learning environment is one that nurtures all aspects of students' learning. The environment is safe, supportive, and provides opportunities to help students deal with nonacademic as well as academic factors that impact their learning. Creation of such an environment requires the establishment of a supportive learning community. For a variety of reasons, establishing such a learning community of first-year medical students can be challenging. This communication presents one approach to meeting this challenge in a medical school Human Physiology course. Steps were taken at the beginning of the course to create the community, and activities designed to reinforce these efforts were incorporated into the course as it progressed. Two pilot studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that providing students with a participatory music experience may help to promote a holistic learning environment by helping them restore a sense of balance to their emotional well-being as well as reinforce a sense of community in the classroom. Student response to these activities indicated that these efforts provided emotional support during stressful periods during the quarter, helped promote a feeling of safety within the environment, and re-energized the class during long class sessions. This project illustrates that each instructor, within the confines of his/her own classroom, can make a significant contribution to achieving a holistic learning environment for his/her students.
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This meta-analysis synthesized 102 effect sizes reflecting the relation between specific moods and creativity. Effect sizes overall revealed that positive moods produce more creativity than mood-neutral controls (r= .15), but no significant differences between negative moods and mood-neutral controls (r= -.03) or between positive and negative moods (r= .04) were observed. Creativity is enhanced most by positive mood states that are activating and associated with an approach motivation and promotion focus (e.g., happiness), rather than those that are deactivating and associated with an avoidance motivation and prevention focus (e.g., relaxed). Negative, deactivating moods with an approach motivation and a promotion focus (e.g., sadness) were not associated with creativity, but negative, activating moods with an avoidance motivation and a prevention focus (fear, anxiety) were associated with lower creativity, especially when assessed as cognitive flexibility. With a few exceptions, these results generalized across experimental and correlational designs, populations (students vs. general adult population), and facet of creativity (e.g., fluency, flexibility, originality, eureka/insight). The authors discuss theoretical implications and highlight avenues for future research on specific moods, creativity, and their relationships.
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Multiple-choice questions are among the most common components of medical exams. They are potentially very reliable and are easy and accurate to mark. Their validity leaves much to be desired, however, and the common practice of negative marking is ill considered.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.