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From Disgust to Desire: How Products Elicit Emotions

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... Few studies however have addressed the issue of designing products eliciting predefined emotions and to prove that those emotions are experienced by consumers. Desmet [11] states that emotions elicited by product appearance are often considered to be intangible and therefore impossible to manipulate. This persistent preconception is partly caused by some typical characteristics of these 'product emotions.' ...
... In the case of surprise in product design, the concept of novelty is closely related to unexpectedness [25]. Any product (feature) that is appraised as 'novel,' i.e., sudden and unexpected, will elicit a surprise response [11]. This might have happened when people assessed the stimuli. ...
Conference Paper
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In recent years, the processes of how consumers experience emotions in products have become prominent topics in design research. However, to embody emotions in products still remains an elusive issue for designers. A reason for this is that, although designers might argue they have strived to predefine a certain emotion in a product, studies indicate that the emotions consumers experience when interacting with products, often are unclear. Does this mean that the idea of ‘designing’ emotions is artificial? Or, is it possible to improve the chance that consumers actually experience what designers say they have predefined? This paper addressed this issue and presents a research through design project that investigated the question if designers can predefine specific emotions into visual product appearance that people will actually experience later. Two stimuli were designed with a focus to gain theoretical insights as well as empirical research findings. The reported study shows that to some degree designers could elicit the actual emotions that were predefined for the visual product appearance.
... Products can elicit emotions through the aesthetics of the product, associated meanings and other aspects. Accordingly, emotions are considered the mechanisms that indicate when an event is favourable or harmful to ones concerns (Desmet, 2003a). Facial expressions can be assessed through observation, but are very difficult to be observed objectively. ...
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Prior to wide adoption, a product must find social approval, which is especially true for near-body products as they are considered part of the human body. Based on a theoretical foundation, this study aims to provide an overview of methods to assess natural behaviour towards users of visible near-body products in uncontrolled environments, i.e. in the wild. Approaching the matter from a product design perspective, this article is primarily intended for designers of near-body products who wish to gain insights into the social behaviour of people towards users wearing their design proposals.
... Previous studies used various methods to induce emotions (movies, pictures, recall of emotional events, reading) and a meta-analysis suggested that the effect size of movie clips was greater than that of other methods (Angie et al., 2011). However, as consumers seem to experience emotions most frequently (and repeatedly) in response to passively viewing images (e.g., packages, products, pictorial advertisements) (Holbrook and Batra, 1987;Desmet, 2004;Reimann et al., 2010), it is important to determine whether the passive viewing of pictures changes preferences for appraisal-dependent goods. Taken together, our results showed that repeatedly presented emotional images, which are probably similar to those consumers experience during shopping, were enough to shift consumer preferences for the informational goods depicted. ...
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According to the affect-as-information framework, consumers base judgments on their feelings. Disgust is associated with two kinds of appraisal: one in which the consumer avoids and distances him/herself immediately from the object concerned, and another in which the consumer is disgusted due to contamination and impurities within the environment. The first instance indicates that disgust can decrease a consumer’s preference for a product, regardless of its category. In contrast, the second case suggests that a product’s degree of depreciation is greater in products vulnerable to contamination, such as foods. However, it remains largely unknown how incidental disgust affects product preferences in accordance with the two appraisal-related goals. The present research investigates how incidental disgust (as opposed to sadness, an equally valenced but distinct emotion of appraisal) influences consumer preferences for products with or without a risk of contamination. Twenty-four participants repeatedly judged foods or household products after seeing an emotional image (conveying disgust, sadness, or neutrality). Foods and household products are the two representative product categories in grocery stores, but only foods are associated with a risk of contamination. The results showed that incidental disgust led to negative evaluations of both types of products; however, compared to sadness, incidental disgust demonstrated a stronger negative effect on preference for foods than household products. These findings elucidate that disgust and the appraisal of contamination specifically devalue foods, and broaden the application of the appraisal-information framework in consumer settings.
... These are surprise, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and anger (Ekman, 2014). These 6 emotions are defined as 'basic', 'universal' or 'primary', because they are the ones that we learn earlier in life and the ones that are also common to most mammals; and from these all other emotions are made to derive (Desmet, 2004). ...
Chapter
In everyday language a surprise is a sudden or unexpected event; psychologically though the emotions of surprise is the reaction to the sudden or unexpected event. Surprise is one of the six primary emotions and it heightens attention to prepare us to react. If the surprise happens to be a positive one that positive emotion will also be heightened by the surprise and the surprise will make the event more memorable. The way we interpret the world is tied to narrative; we not only remember and recall events as stories, but we interpret them as stories as they are happening. In a similar way, product experiences have a narrative element because the series of events that make up the experience happen in time, and narrative helps us to make sense of time. Adding a surprise to a product experience creates a timeline of before and after the surprising event, and this can help to structure the experience as a story in our mind. In addition this story is emotionally charged because of the surprise, so it will stay with us longer, and the object itself will evoke that emotion and that narrative, and it will be an object we become more attached to and are less likely to dispose of. Analysis of design examples help to show how this works from a user perspective, and a design technique to incorporate meaningful surprises into the product experience is described. The chapter concludes by showing how surprise, when designed into the product experience, can contribute to the longevity of a product.
... If the aim is to measure specific emotions, LemTool (Huisman and van Hout 2008) or PrEmo (Desmet 2004) may be used. However, both tools are so far only validated for specific application areas: Lemtool for websites and PrEmo for non-interactive products. ...
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Based on cross-disciplinary approaches to Embodied Conversational Agents, evaluation methods for such human-computer interfaces are structured and presented. An introductory systematisation of evaluation topics from a conversational perspective is followed by an explanation of social-psychological phenomena studied in interaction with Embodied Conversational Agents, and how these can be used for evaluation purposes. Major evaluation concepts and appropriate assessment instruments – established and new ones – are presented, including questionnaires, annotations and log-files. An exemplary evaluation and guidelines provide hands-on information on planning and preparing such endeavours.
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The Packaging of artefacts, at the present time, is becoming more and more important. The visual quality of packages has a direct effect on their appeal and satisfaction for customers. One of the issues in presenting the Iranian handicrafts at local and international markets is the lack of consideration of the aesthetic and brand values. In this paper, the limited efforts in designing and packaging of the handicrafts have been researched. The aim was to explore the success of designed packages in fulfilling the branding objectives. In the first step, two samples of packages were chosen from the Iranian handicrafts and two from the international products. In order to understand the emotions of customers/users towards the new designs and whether they convey the branding objectives, we conducted number of research methods, including literature reviews and empirical methods. The study was carried out among 28 university students (20-30 years) as our volunteer samples who were asked to evaluate 2 Iranian packages in comparison to 2 international package in 2 different stages of investigation. Data was gathered through interview and the Genova Emotion Wheel questionnaire, as a new verbal method in extracting the emotions of the customers. The emotions evoked from the studied products have been compared. Our findings of this study suggested that presenting a branded package and handicraft stimulated more positive emotions than the time when the product judged in the absence of branded package. In addition, in the international samples, the appropriate design of packages and the consideration of branding objectives received more positive emotions among the participants. In conclusion, in order to increase the longevity of a brand in the mind of the costumers and enhance the image of a handicraft, paying attention to the branding features in designing packages is an essential factor.
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The objective of this study is to understand customer experience which is a construct made up of experiential elements created by the organization such as product, service scape, and brand and that of consumer’s personal values and preferences. When the experiential element interacts with the consumer construct, it starts an involvement process that makes the consumer evaluate the product (as a measure) on hedonic and utilitarian dimensions. The product/brand, when used, elicits emotions that lead to purchase intention behavior which is presented in the structural model. The authors have followed Tan, Foo and Kwek (2004) nested model approach in order to achieve the best fitting model for testing our hypothesis. Keywords: customer experience, personality traits, consumer involvement, product evaluation, emotions and satisfaction. JEL Classification: M3, D11, D12
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in our discussion of emotion and dysfunction, we have intimated that emotions are instructive about persons because both emotions and the personality are organized around the problem of surviving, getting along, and flourishing over the life course begin by addressing the question of what an emotion is / describe our own [the authors'] recent work directed at illuminating what we see as one of the important issues in emotion theory—the role of cognitive appraisal embed this work in a general model of emotion, which identifies the key variables and processes within a systems framework emphasizing person-environment relationships and cognitive mediation illustrate how emotion theory makes firm contact with a variety of topics currently being pursued across diverse psychological disciplines, especially personality and social psychology the adaptational problem and the evolution of emotion / appraisal theory / personality, society, and biology in emotion (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Arnold, M.B., 1960, Emotion and personality, (New York: Colombia University Press).
Structured diaries for emotions in daily life
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Oatley, K. and Duncan, E., 1992, Structured diaries for emotions in daily life. In International review of studies in emotion, Vol. 2, edited by Strongman, K.T., (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 250-293.