Kleine-Levin syndrome: Functional imaging correlates of hypersomnia and behavioral symptoms
Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of hypersomnia associated with perception, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances, such as hyperphagia and hypersexuality.(1) Episodes are separated by intervals of normal alertness, cognition, and behavior. Primary KLS predominantly affects adolescent males, with a prevalence of 2-10 per million, although this is probably underestimated. KLS diagnosis does not rely on any reliable biological marker, while its pathophysiology remains elusive. It was suggested that KLS could result from viral or postinfectious autoimmune encephalitis(2) with a primary involvement of the hypothalamus because of the important role of this structure in regulating sleep and behavior.(1).
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