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Tall claims? Sense and nonsense about the importance of height of US presidents

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... In addition, research has shown positive effects of stature on fighting ability [9,10]. This association between height and social status is still relevant in modern Western society, as height is positively associated with career success, political success, and authority [11][12][13]. Perhaps unsurprisingly, these size-status associations are also present in our social perceptions: men of tall stature are perceived as being more competent [11,14], more leader-like [15], and are more attractive [16][17][18] (but see [19]) than men of short stature. ...
... Likewise, adults generally tend to see taller individuals as more dominant, intelligent, competent, persuasive, and as better leadership material overall than they do shorter individuals [15,16,30,31]. Furthermore, tall leaders are perceived as more charismatic than shorter leaders are [32], and taller US presidents are rated as having more 'presidential greatness' than their shorter counterparts [12]. Lastly, people tend to estimate a man's height as greater when they are told he has a higher status as opposed to a lower status [33,34] or when he acts more dominantly instead of submissively [35]. ...
... Political leaders are among the best examples of our current group leaders and as such, are often subject of leadership research concerning height. For example, Stulp and colleagues [12] found that although taller presidential candidates for the US elections are not more likely to actually win an election, taller candidates were more likely to get a larger share of the popular vote and were also more likely to be re-elected than their shorter opponents. As Sorokowski [53] noted, except for his own research on height perception of politicians in a European country (Poland) with a multi-party system (as opposed to the North-American two-party system), most of the height perception research on politicians has been done in North America. ...
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Research shows that perception of physical size and status are positively associated. The current study was developed to replicate and extend earlier research on height perceptions of political leaders, indicating that supporters perceive their leaders as taller than non-supporters do, and winners are perceived as taller after the elections, while losers are perceived as shorter after the elections (winner/loser effects). Individuals use greater height and strength as indications of greater physical formidability. We hypothesized that in-group leaders’ height and strength, but not weight, would be overestimated more compared to out-group leaders’, and that this status-size association is not only driven by dominance, but also by prestige. We also tested whether previously found gender effects in estimates were due to using one’s own height as an anchor, and we used an improved methodological approach by relying on multiple measurements of physical formidability and a within-subject design for testing winner/loser effects. The results of a two-part longitudinal study (self-selected sample via voting advice website; NWave1 = 2,011; NWave2 = 322) suggest that estimated physical formidability of political leaders is affected by motivated perception, as prestige was positively associated with estimated formidability, and in-group leaders were estimated more formidable than out-group leaders. We conclude that distortions in judged formidability related to social status are the result of motivated social perception in order to promote group functioning and leadership. Although we did not replicate a winner-effect (greater estimations of formidability after winning the elections), we did find some evidence for a loser-effect. Earlier suggestions that men make larger estimations than women because of their own larger body size are not supported. Implications for theory and future research are discussed.
... This phenomenon is referred to as the "male-taller norm" (Beigel, 1954;Gillis and Avis, 1980). This effect seems to be driven by women, who prefer tall men much more than men prefer short women (Stulp et al., 2013a(Stulp et al., , 2013b(Stulp et al., , 2013c(Stulp et al., , 2013d. Some studies postulate that the male-taller norm evolved in ancient times, when men's physical strength and violence determined resource allocation, mate access, and thus reproductive success (Murray and Schmitz, 2011;Puts, 2010;Puts et al., 2015;Salska et al., 2008). ...
... Dominance, competitiveness, and masculinity could help a man fulfill his responsibilities in ancient times. These traits can be signaled by the man's physicality: Studies have shown that height is positively associated with masculinity, dominance, authority, prestige, and leadership (Blaker et al., 2013;Knapen et al., 2019;Murray and Schmitz, 2011;Stulp et al., 2012Stulp et al., , 2013aStulp et al., , 2013bStulp et al., , 2013cStulp et al., , 2013d. Furthermore, recent figures show that tall men, on average, benefit from relatively high income, social status, and educational attainment (Böckerman et al., 2017;Case and Paxson, 2008;Cinnirella et al., 2011;Deaton and Arora, 2009;Yamamura et al., 2015). ...
... By contrast, men who place importance on traditional gender-role norms cannot accept female partners who they perceive as too tall or too short, as they have a narrow range of acceptable heights for their female partners. This suggests that men who think gender roles are important are more likely to comply with not only the male-taller norm but also the male-nottoo-tall norm, which holds that people prefer the height difference between a husband and wife to be within a certain positive range (Stulp et al., 2013a(Stulp et al., , 2013b(Stulp et al., , 2013c(Stulp et al., , 2013d. ...
Article
This study used Taiwan’s Panel Study of Family Dynamics (PSFD) 2016 data to investigate the relationship between gender-role ideology and height preference in mate selection, finding that women prefer a tall partner much more than men prefer a short partner. However, when traditional gender norms prevail, men with a high levels of adherence to gender-role ideology cannot accept a female partner who is either too tall or too short. Men’s height preferences are more responsive to social norms than women’s, while women’s height preferences are more sensitive to their own demographic characteristics than men’s. The tallest and shortest female partners accepted by men with strong traditional gender-role ideology are 2.37 cm shorter and 2.21 cm taller, respectively, than men who disagree with gender norms. In marriage, gender-role ideology is not relevant to partner height, regardless of sex.
... Traits are defined as "psychological or biological characteristics that (a) are measurable, (b) vary across individuals, (c) exhibit temporal and situational stability, and (d) predict attitudes, decisions or behaviors, and consequently outcomes" (Antonakis, 2011, p. 270). Leadership researchers have focused mostly on personality traits and, in particular, the Five Factor Model of personality (Judge & Bono, 2000), but more recently interest has grown in biological traits, such as height (Stulp et al., 2013), facial appearance (Olivola & Todorov, 2010) and even voice pitch (Mayew, Parsons & Venkatachalam, 2013). Importantly, the trait theory of leadership suggests that certain individualsdue to their possession of specific traitsare both more likely to achieve leadership roles, and to succeed in them (Judge, Bono, Ilies & Gerhardt, 2002;Zaccaro, 2007). ...
... Discussion of trait-based ascriptions of leadership qualities has largely focused on biological traits such as height, gender or facial appearance, because these are especially salient when there is distance between observers and leaders (Antonakis & Eubanks, 2017;Blaker et al., 2013;Eagly & Karau, 2002;Spisak, Homan, Grabo & Van Vugt, 2012;Stulp et al., 2013). Most studies have investigated the impact of facial appearance on leadership emergence (Olivola & Todorov, 2010), with findings linking appearance to the emergence of both organizational (Bell & McLaughlin, 2006;Hosada, Stone-Romero & Coats, 2003) and political leaders (e.g., Antonakis, 2011;Antonakis & Eubanks, 2017;Johns & Shephard, 2011;Olivola & Todorov, 2010;Sussman, Petkova & Todorov, 2013;Todorov, Mandisodza, Goren & Hall, 2005). ...
... Despite the now considerable body of research on biological traits and leadership emergence, much less work has looked at the relationship between biological traits and leader effectiveness in-role (cf. Graham, Harvey & Puri, 2016;Olivola & Todorov, 2010;Stulp et al., 2013). One would expect facial appearance to have much less impact on effectiveness, as LEADER EMERGENCE AND EFFECTIVENESS IN POLITICS those rating in-role performance are likely to have more opportunity to observe leaders and therefore behavior that contradicts heuristic assumptions. ...
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Are the traits preferred by voters also associated with success in political office? Drawing on the ascription-actuality trait theory of leadership the present study examines whether traits ascribed to politicians predict leadership outcomes differently to the actual traits they possess. We collected self-ratings of politicians' personality (N = 138) using the NEO-PI-R (actual traits) and observer ratings of politicians' facial appearance (ascribed traits) to examine their relationship with (a) leadership emergence, measured using share of vote in election, and (b) in-role leadership effectiveness, rated anonymously by political and local authority colleagues. Facial appearance predicted leadership emergence but not effectiveness. Personality had a more nuanced relationship with leadership outcomes. Conscientiousness predicted effectiveness but not emergence, and Agreeableness revealed a trait paradox, positively predicting emergence and negatively predicting effectiveness. These findings suggest a need to understand the contested nature of political leadership and qualities required for different aspects of political roles.
... Taller men also obtain power and leadership roles and are deferred to in social situations. Male height is associated with high social status, leadership attainment and social mobility, with weaker (Judge & Cable, 2004;Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst, & Pollet, 2013) or null results (Bielicki & Charzewski, 1983;Case & Paxson, 2008;Gawley, Perks, & Curtis, 2009;Hamstra, 2014) for women. Taller men are judged as more dominant by others, and we overestimate the height of more dominant men (Stulp et al., 2013;Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst, & Pollet, 2012). ...
... Male height is associated with high social status, leadership attainment and social mobility, with weaker (Judge & Cable, 2004;Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst, & Pollet, 2013) or null results (Bielicki & Charzewski, 1983;Case & Paxson, 2008;Gawley, Perks, & Curtis, 2009;Hamstra, 2014) for women. Taller men are judged as more dominant by others, and we overestimate the height of more dominant men (Stulp et al., 2013;Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst, & Pollet, 2012). Men manipulated to artificially appear taller to group members exert greater influence over decisions on group tasks and greater dominance in conversations (Huang, Olson, & Olson, 2002). ...
... I controlled for a larger number of possible mediators than is typical for studies of this type, which reduces the unique effects of height compared to previous studies. Height will also have an influence on attitudes indirectly through increasing occupational success, educational attainment and income (Judge & Cable, 2004;Meyer & Selmer, 1999;Stulp et al., 2013). ...
Article
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People vary widely in their attitudes towards how much their government should redistribute wealth. Evolutionary theory may shed light on why this variation occurs. Numerous studies have established an association between upper body strength and attitudes towards equality and wealth redistribution in males, showing that physically stronger men are more likely to hold self-serving beliefs on these issues. This effect is typically weaker or absent in women. A question that has received little attention is whether there are similar associations between other aspects of formidability and attitudes towards wealth redistribution. One such aspect is height. I tested this prediction using data from the European Social Survey, in a sample of 27031 people from 20 European countries. Results show that taller people are more likely to have self-serving attitudes towards government redistribution of wealth. The result was robust to numerous control variables and alternative model specifications, but the direct effects of height were small. Taller individuals were less supportive of government wealth redistribution overall, but were especially averse if they were also wealthier. Post-hoc analyses suggested that for lower income deciles, the association was reversed. For these people, there was a positive association between height and support for wealth redistribution. However, effects were equally strong in males and females, and so are not fully consistent with current evolutionary psychological theories of resource distribution.
... While these were touted as important in early reviews (Stogdill, 1948), they were not included in later reviews. However, beginning with Eagly's meta-analyses of gender and leadership (Eagly & Johnson, 1990;Eagly & Karau, 1991), and continuing with more recent studies on age (Chaturvedi, Zyphur, Arvey, Avolio, & Larsson, 2012;Elgar, 2016), height (Elgar, 2016;Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst, & Pollett, 2013), and appearance (Little, 2014;Re & Perrett, 2014), researchers have returned to examining their role in influencing various leadership outcomes. ...
... The case for height as a foundational trait is grounded in the role predisposition argument. Height has been associated with a greater dominance orientation and consequently more leader role endorsements by followers (Stulp et al., 2013). Studies have also demonstrated significant associations between facial appearance and leadership. ...
Article
In this article, we provide a wide-ranging review of recent research on leader individual differences. The review focuses specifically on the explosion of such research in the last decade. The first purpose of this review is to summarize and integrate various conceptual frameworks describing how leader attributes influence leader emergence and leader effectiveness. The second purpose is to provide a comprehensive review of empirical research on this relationship. Also, most prior reviews primarily examined leader personality traits; this review includes a broader array of leader attributes, including cognitive capacities, personality, motives and values, social skills, and knowledge and expertise. The final broad purpose of this paper is to review and integrate situational and contextual parameters into our conceptual framing of leader individual differences. Few, if any, prior reviews have systematically accounted for the critical role of such parameters in cuing, activating, or delimiting the effects of particular leader attributes. We do so in this article.
... For example, among the Tsimané, an Amazonian small-scale society, physically stronger individuals gained more social support and higher status than weaker individuals (N ¼ 57, von Rueden et al., 2008). Also, taller candidates in the U.S. presidential elections received more popular votes than their opponents and were also more likely to be reelected (N ¼ 46 elections, Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst, & Pollet, 2013). These examples indicate that men's bodily dominance is an influential characteristic regarding their potential for achieving and maintaining high status and leadership positions. ...
... Leadership evolved primarily for coordinating physical tasks such as group movement, coalitional aggression, and defense, whereas contemporary conflicts and status contests are less physical and aggressive (Li, van Vugt, & Colarelli, 2018). The fact that physical dominance signals are still associated with status and leadership in modern, large-scale societies (e.g., height, Stulp et al., 2013;facial maturity, Re et al., 2013) can be thought of as an evolutionary mismatch. According to the evolutionary mismatch hypothesis (Li et al., 2018;Schlaepfer, Runge, & Sherman, 2002), human psychology is adapted to past environments which markedly differ from modern contexts in some regard, creating a partial mismatch between evolved psychological mechanisms and the modern environment (but see Hagen, 2014 for claims that in some respects modern contexts are comparable to past environments). ...
Article
Recent studies suggest that both facial and bodily dominance promote high status positions and predict status-seeking behaviors such as aggression and social dominance. An evolutionarily relevant context in which associations between these dominance signals and status outcomes may be prevalent are face-to-face status contests. The present study examined whether facial and bodily dominance predicted success in dyadic competitions (one physical discipline, arm wrestling, and three nonphysical disciplines) in men (N = 125) in a controlled laboratory setting. Men's bodies and faces were independently rated for physical dominance, and associations of these ratings with contest outcomes as well as mediating and moderating variables (such as physical strength, body height, trait dominance, baseline and reactive testosterone) were examined. Both facial and bodily dominance positively predicted success in the physical discipline, mediated by physical strength, but not in the three nonphysical disciplines. Our findings demonstrate that facial and bodily physical dominance may be honest signals for men's formidability and hence status potential, at least in a physically competitive context.
... In particular, there has been found a non-linear relationship between height and wages [31,32]. The height premium has been explained by various factors like cognitive and noncognitive skills [33] and perceptions associated with height [34]. ...
... For job market and human resource management, Agerström [69] found height predicted recruiters' hiring intentions, Egolf and Corder [70] found that employees occupying management positions were significantly taller, and Gawley et al. [71] found significant positive relationships between height and holding a position of authority for male Canadian workers. Even in the US presidential elections, height is indeed an important factor [34]. Similarly, Yamamura et al. [72] found that taller people are more likely to be a Communist Party member in China. ...
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Height premium has been revealed by extensive literature, however, evidence from China based on large-scale data remains still lacking. In this paper, we study how height conditions salary expectations by exploring a dataset covering over 140,000 Chinese job seekers. By using graphical and regression models, we find evidence in support of height premium that tall people expect a significantly higher salary in career development. In particular, regression results suggest stronger effects of height premium on female than on male, however, the gender differences decrease as the education level increases and become insignificant after holding all control variables fixed. Further, results from graphical models suggest three promising ways in helping short people: (i) to accumulate more working experiences, since one year seniority can respectively make up about 3 cm and 7 cm shortness for female and male; (ii) to increase the level of education, since one higher academic degree may eliminate all disadvantages that brought by shortness; (iii) to target jobs in regions with a higher level of development. Our work provides a cross-culture supportive evidence of height premium and contributes two novel features to the literature: the compensation story in helping short people, and the focus on salary expectations in isolation from discrimination channels.
... The question has continued to intrigue researchers and there is some support for the notion that tall men are more likely to attain leadership positions compared to shorter men (Judge & Cable, 2004;Lindqvist, 2011), although there is a probable bias in reporting (Elgar, 2016). The possible association has been linked to psychological research suggesting that tall people are seen as more persuasive, impressive and capable (Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst, & Pollet, 2013). Interestingly enough there also seems to be evidence of a reciprocal connection in the sense that people in prestigious positions are perceived to be taller than they are (Lindqvist, 2011). ...
... We were only able to include measures of physical characteristics in the analysis of leadership assessment in connection with the draft. As has been noted in other studies body height is strongly associated with perceptions of leadership (Stulp et al., 2013). The body height bonus was noteworthy, with a 0.3 increase on the assessment scale for every 10-cm increase in height. ...
Article
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Research on leadership emergence has mainly focused on adulthood and relied on retrospective accounts of childhood factors. Based on a prospective cohort study of 7719 boys born in 1953, of which 5928 were later drafted, we explored individual differences in leadership emergence in childhood and early adulthood. The data set consisted of register data from different time points and a survey of the cohort in the 6th grade. As expected, cognitive ability, tallness and muscular power were decisive for assessment of military officer suitability. However, we also found a moderate to strong impact on this assessment score from social class, leadership aspirations in childhood, birth order, self-regulatory skills in school, parental support, and previous participation in extracurricular activities. Similarly, social class, cognitive ability, developmental experiences, and birth order were important for nominations as class party organizer in the 6th grade. Delay of gratification was not associated with these nominations at all and was neutralized by cognitive ability in relation to officer suitability. The results strongly support a life-cycle approach to leadership emergence.
... The dimension of height has been closely studied in relation to leadership styles [4], career progression [5], income [6], decision making [7], and risk taking [8][9][10]. Research examining the height of United States (US) Presidents-even with a sample size of fewer than 50 males-highlights the direct and indirect influences that people expect to be associated with being tall or short [11,12]. As an illustration of the generally positive relationship that has been found between height and leadership-especially but not exclusively for men [13], Murray and Schmitz [14] report that men who are relatively tall are more likely to view themselves as qualified to serve in leadership positons. ...
... Our studies provide convergent lines of evidence that suggest that people tend to view extra weight or size, at least, to be a positive contribution for men but not women. Against the backdrop of studies showing discrimination against overweight or obese individuals-especially women with above-average body mass index [78,79], our studies suggest that the perception of influential leadership (as measured by persuasiveness ratings) tends to be associated with above-normal weight or size, for men, complementary with prior research showing the benefits of relative tallness for men [11,12]. ...
Article
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Height has been closely studied as a factor that influences myriad measures of leadership; however, the potential influence of weight on socially beneficial traits has been neglected. Using the anthropological concept of “big men” who relied on influence to lead their communities, we examine the role of weight upon persuasiveness. We present the results of six studies that suggest a tendency for raters to expect larger body mass to correspond with more persuasiveness among men. In the sixth, pre-registered study, we find evidence that fits the hypothesis that weight among men is positively associated with perceived persuasiveness. While the “big man” leadership concept is based on studies of pre-industrial societies where weight embodied status, our findings suggest an evolved bias to favor moderately big men–with respect to perceived persuasiveness–even in environments where there is no reason to interpret over-consumption of food and conservation of energy as a signal of wealth. Our studies contribute novel perspectives on the relevance of weight as an understudied dimension of “big” and offer an important qualification informed by evolutionary perspectives for the stigmatizing effects of relatively large body mass.
... Psychological mechanisms related to leadership include preferences for leaders based on physical characteristics and reputations for fairness and prosociality. Across diverse organizations, male leaders are often taller than non-leaders (Hamstra, 2014;McCann, 2001;Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst, & Pollet, 2013), suggesting that physical height has been an adaptive characteristic of male leaders across evolutionary history. Biases towards physically formidable leaders may stem from dominance-based leadership, or the ability of taller, stronger leaders to promote within group cooperation (Lukaszewski, Simmons, Anderson, & Roney, 2016;von Rueden et al., 2014). ...
... The relationships between leadership, physical formidability, and mating provide particularly clear examples. Leaders are often tall (Hamstra, 2014;Stulp et al., 2013), for instance, which suggests that physical formidability is a desirable leader quality even in organizations in which physical fighting plays no role and leader-follower relationships are rarely faceto-face. There also is likely an evolved male psychology that seeks to take advantage of leadership roles to pursue mating opportunities (Barkow, 1989;Schmitt, 2015;Tiger & Fox, 1971). ...
Article
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Existing approaches within leadership studies often share a bias towards industrialized societies and lack broader cross-cultural and ethological reference. Meanwhile, cross-cultural and evolutionary approaches within anthropology are actively working to unify research on leadership and followership across the biological and social sciences. This review provides a novel and thorough view of political leadership as investigated by evolutionary anthropologists and highlights the benefits of incorporating findings from the evolutionary social sciences into leadership studies generally. We introduce the anthropological approach to leadership; describe evolutionary anthropology, its subdisciplines (including primatology, paleoanthropology, paleogenetics, human behavioral ecology, and gene-culture coevolution), and its complementary disciplines (particularly evolutionary psychology); review leadership and hierarchy in nonhumans, including our extinct hominid ancestors; review female leadership and sex-differences; and, primarily, discuss the relationships between evolution, ecology, and culture as they relate to the observed patterns of political leadership and followership across human societies. Through evolutionary anthropology's diverse toolkit, a deeper insight into the evolution and cross-cultural patterning of leadership is realized.
... Daha uzun adayların avantajı, uzun boya dair yerleşik algılar ile açıklanabilir, daha uzun başkanlar, uzmanlar tarafından "daha büyük" olarak derecelendirilir ve daha fazla liderlik ve iletişim becerisine sahip olduğu söylenir. Çalışma ile siyasi liderlerin seçilmesinde ve değerlendirilmesinde boyun önemli bir özellik olduğu anlaşılmıştır (Stulp, 2013). ...
... **** Gaziantep University, Department of Public Relations and Publicity, E-mail:oguzgoxsu@gmail.com Interpreting Persuasion in Politics Through the Works of Robert B. Cialdini praise (compliment), familiarity and cooperation (Cialdini, 2006). Following studies confirm his claim (Efrain, 1974;Marlowe, 1996;Judge, 2004;Stulp, 2013;Emswiller, 1971;Woodside, 1974;Seiter, 2007;Burger, 2004;Grant, 2010;Bornstein, 1987;Sherif, Harvey, White, Hood and Sherif, 1961). The following studies show that people obey orders when they are under pressure of an authority figure. ...
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Siyaset hakkında neredeyse herkesin bir fikri ve söyleyecek bir sözü vardır. Siyasetin insanların gündelik hayatını doğrudan etkilemesi sebebiyle bireyler de bu konular hakkında görüşlerini açıkla-makta, eyleme geçmekte ve bir araya gelerek çeşitli şekillerde baskı grupları oluşturmaktadır. Oy verme davranışı, kitle psikolojisiyle yakından ilişkilidir. Çünkü bireyler kendi kararlarını verirken kimi zaman çoğunluğun kararlarını dikkate alırlar. Böylece çoğunluğun kararlarına göre hareket etmek kişiye yalnız olmadığı hissini vermektedir. Başta kararsız seçmenler olmak üzere seçmenlerin önemli bir kısmı kendi kararlarının yanı sıra çevrelerinin kararlarını da ölçmekte, kitle iletişim araçlarını ta-kip etmekte ve buna bağlı olarak bir karara varmaktadır. İkna kavramının ilk kullanımı Antik Yunan dönemine kadar uzanmakta ve bir çalışma alanı olarak ikna konusu günümüzde hala popülerliğini korumaktadır. Araştırma, Robert Cialdini'inin Dünya' da çeşitli dillere çevrilen ve yüzbinlerce okuyucuya ulaşan "İknanın Psikolojisi" kitabında anlatılan 6 ikna tekniği üzerine inşa edilmiştir. İkna olgusunu siyasi bir perspektiften ele alan bu çalışmanın örneklemini Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi, Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi ve Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı, yakın geçmişte Robert Cialdini'nin belirlediği 6 ikna tekniğinin siyasette nasıl karşılık bulduğunu ortaya koymaktır. Gerçekleştirilen literatür taraması karşılık yaratma, tutarlılık ve bağlılık, toplumsal kanıt, beğeni, otorite ve azlık ilkelerinin Türk seçmeni üzerinde çeşitli şekillerde yansıdığını göstermiştir. Cialdini'nin tespit ettiği 6 ikna tekniğinin Türkiye'nin siyasi pratikleri bağlamında ilk kez değerlendirilmesi çalışmayı önemli kılmaktadır.
... The values for r.squared in the last column are for the complete model. (Huchard et al. 2016), and the observation that network hubs are preferentially occupied by tall people (Stulp et al. 2013;Hermanussen & Scheffler 2016) inspired us to perform this study. Therefore we investigated in more detail the possible effect of migration on the secular trend if migration is biased on height. ...
... The Swiss type networks for instance responded only marginally on this effect induced by migration. Such effects may be important in social networks where taller individuals might be more present in hubs than in marginal positions (Stulp et al. 2013). We hope that the published observations in this article might convince the reader that a secular trend mediated through "tall by migration" could be a plausible scenario in certain situations of human history. ...
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Background: Recent research reported height biased migration of taller individuals and a Monte Carlo simulation showed that such preferential migration of taller individuals into network hubs can induce a secular trend of height. In the simulation model taller agents in the hubs raise the overall height of all individuals in the network by a community effect. However, it could be seen that the actual network structure influences the strength of this effect. In this paper the background and the influence of the network structure on the strength of the secular trend by migration is investigated. Material and methods: Three principal network types are analyzed: networks derived from street connections in Switzerland, more regular fishing net like networks and randomly generated ones. Our networks have between 10 and 152 nodes and between 20 and 307 edges connecting the nodes. Depending on the network size between 5.000 and 90.000 agents with an average height of 170cm (SD 6.5cm) are initially released into the network. In each iteration new agents are regenerated based on the actual average body height of the previous iteration and, to a certain proportion, corrected by body heights in the neighboring nodes. After generating new agents, a certain number of them migrated into neighbor nodes, the model let preferentially taller agents migrate into network hubs. Migration is balanced by back migration of the same number of agents from nodes with high centrality measures to less connected nodes. The latter is random as well, but not biased by the agents height. Furthermore the distribution of agents per node and their correlation to the centrality of the nodes is varied in a systematic manner. After 100 iterations, the secular trend, i.e. the gain in body height for the different networks, is investigated in relation to the network properties. Results: We observe an increase of average agent body height after 100 iterations if height biased migration is enabled. The increase rate depends on the height of the neighboring factor, the population distribution, the relationship between population in the nodes and their centrality as well as on the network topology. Networks with uniform like distributions of the agents in the nodes, uncorrelated associations between node centrality and agent number per node, as well as very heterogeneous networks with very different node centralities lead to biggest gains in average body height. Conclusion: Our simulations show, that height biased migration into network hubs can possibly contribute to the secular trend of height increase in the human population. The strength of this "tall by migration" event depends on the actual properties of the underlying network. There is a possible significance of this mechanism for social networks, when hubs are represented by individuals and edges as their personal relationships. However, the required high number of iterations to achieve significant effects in more natural network structures in our models requires further studies to test the relevance and real effect sizes in real world scenarios.
... Tall men experience many advantages in their lives, and high stature is associated with a positive social perception. For example, tall men are more likely to win political elections (McCann, 2001), since they are considered to communicate better and to have more leadership skills than shorter candidates (Persico et al., 2004;Stulp et al., 2013). ...
... Moreover, research findings may support the conclusion that taller men are more successful (McCann, 2001;Persico et al., 2004;Stulp et al., 2013;Subramanian et al., 2011). The outcomes suggest a positive association between the height of the men, and owning a car, having children, and living in a single-family detached unit. ...
Article
Numerous studies have demonstrated that in western societies women are perceived as more attractive with weight drop (proxied by the BMI measure, where BMI = WEIGHT ( kg ) HEIGHT 2 ( meter 2 ) , while men are perceived as more attractive with height rise. The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that as BMI rises for a woman, she has to compromise and marry shorter men. The study is based on the 2016 wave of the Israeli longitudinal survey. We observe the cross-sectional correlation between the married couples' height, weight, BMI, age, number of children, and proxies for accumulated wealth. The first part of the analysis tests the research hypothesis directly, while the second part of the analysis adds control variables. Research findings support the research hypothesis. Under equal conditions, the projected drop in the height of the male’ corresponds to an increase in the female’s BMI and age. Moreover, research findings may support the conclusion that taller men are more successful. The outcomes suggest positive association between the height of the men, and owning a car, having children, and living in a single family detached unit.
... This study tests that assertion using individual assessments of the relative physical formidability of competing leaders, which research suggests is an important adaptive factor in leader evaluations. 20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27 According to some scholars, this preference for physically formidable leaders is borne out of the need for physically formidable combat allies in the violent ancestral environment in which individuals had to compete for and protect adaptively important resources such as food, shelter, and mates. 23,24 This article begins by offering a review of pertinent research regarding group-related behavior, including evolved and partisan behavior. ...
... 22 Indeed, a number of studies have indicated that citizens prefer taller and more physically formidable national leaders. 23,24,26,27 Evolutionary theory and neuroscientific evidence 35 suggest that modern human brains are still ''wired'' to solve the small-group adaptive problems that human ancestors faced thousands of years ago. 29 The environment was difficult and violent 28,29 as individuals and groups competed for land, food, and status. ...
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Partisan identification is a fundamental force in individual and mass political behavior around the world. Informed by scholarship on human sociality, coalitional psychology, and group behavior, this research argues that partisan identification, like many other group-based behaviors, is influenced by forces of evolution. If correct, then party identifiers should exhibit adaptive behaviors when making group-related political decisions. The authors test this assertion with citizen assessments of the relative physical formidability of competing leaders, an important adaptive factor in leader evaluations. Using original and novel data collected during the contextually different 2008 and 2012 U.S. presidential elections, as well as two distinct measures obtained during both elections, this article presents evidence that partisans overestimate the physical stature of the presidential candidate of their own party compared with the stature of the candidate of the opposition party. These findings suggest that the power of party identification on political behavior may be attributable to the fact that modern political parties address problems similar to the problems groups faced in human ancestral times.
... These studies provide some evidence as to the abstract physiological axes of, and preferences guiding, status distinction, and some of these features (e.g. physical strength and size) correlate with increased social status in observational settings (this has, however, only been investigated in samples of men [18,80]). While these experimental examinations are often framed around relational narratives and aim to reduce complex status processes to manipulable quantities, their analytical framework generally treats status as an attribute of the individual. ...
Article
Across species, social hierarchies are often governed by dominance relations. In humans, where there are multiple culturally valued axes of distinction, social hierarchies can take a variety of forms and need not rest on dominance relations. Consequently, humans navigate multiple domains of status, i.e. relative standing. Importantly, while these hierarchies may be constructed from dyadic interactions, they are often more fundamentally guided by subjective peer evaluations and group perceptions. Researchers have typically focused on the distinct elements that shape individuals' relative standing, with some emphasizing individual-level attributes and others outlining emergent macro-level structural outcomes. Here, we synthesize work across the social sciences to suggest that the dynamic interplay between individual-level and meso-level properties of the social networks in which individuals are embedded are crucial for understanding the diverse processes of status differentiation across groups. More specifically, we observe that humans not only navigate multiple social hierarchies at any given time but also simultaneously operate within multiple, overlapping social networks. There are important dynamic feedbacks between social hierarchies and the characteristics of social networks, as the types of social relationships, their structural properties, and the relative position of individuals within them both influence and are influenced by status differentiation. This article is part of the theme issue 'The centennial of the pecking order: current state and future prospects for the study of dominance hierarchies'.
... One's seniority or region clearly are biased in the Tullockian sense. And electoral margin, in turn, is subject to a number of biases, including incumbency bias (Gelman and King 1990), attractiveness bias (Stulp et al. 2013;Todorov et al. 2005), and name-recognition bias (Kam and Zechmeister 2013). ...
Article
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One might obtain special favor or avoid disfavor by winning a competitive contest, a socially wasteful process that has been studied extensively in the rent-seeking literature. But favor or disfavor might also be uncontestable. In that case it will be efficient along some dimensions but grossly inequitable. The rent-seeking literature, in focusing on contest success functions, has tended to ignore the institutional roots of uncontestable rent-creation and rent-extraction. But casual observation suggests that institutional rules and cultural norms often ensure that favor and disfavor cannot be easily contested. Understanding that observation helps to resolve the Tullock paradox and explains the evolutionary persistence of inequitable social arrangements. It also illuminates economic and philosophical tradeoffs.
... Males prefer facial symmetry, a low hip-to-waist ratio, long hair, clear skin, and average weight (Nevid & Rathus, 2009). Women look for tall men, muscular builds, and tend to give more emphasis to bodily scent (Furlow, 1996;Stulp, Buunk & Pollet, 2013). In our study, we will investigate the role of various senses in physical attraction (see study 4 ...
Thesis
The main goal of this thesis is to explore the romantic feelings of passionate love widely defined as a state of longing with another. This construct is generally considered to be a universal experience strongly associated with sexual arousal and capable of having a strong effect in emotional, cognitive and behavioral dimensions. The main goal of this project is to provide further evidence about the contention that although subjective experiences of passionate love are culturally and contextually determinate, people all over the world present the same symptoms of passionate love with the same intensity when they consider being in love. Plus, the influences of passionate love on cognitive processes were tested in other studies. A total of 1000 college students participated in 4 different studies. The Passionate Love Scale (PLS) was administrated on Brazilian and French subjects in order to explore their evaluation of passionate love through cognitive, emotional and behavioral components. The social representations of these same groups about passionate love were explored with a structural analysis of word associations. Cognitive processes were tested through one study about the relationship between passionate love and sensory experience and another one about the effect of passionate love in creative productions. The results found with the PLS indicated the same psychometric properties in France and in Brazil. In both cases, the factorial analysis indicated one stronger dimension with high internal consistencies. Subjects in love seemed to love with equal passion in both cultures but gender differences were found in Brazil. The analysis of the word association revealed contextual, cultural and gender differences. Passionate love had a positive effect in low cognitive processes (physical attraction and sensory experience) but no effect in high cognitive tasks (divergent and convergent thinking). The results of these different studies are presented and discussed in the light of cross-cultural, neuropsychological and evolutionary perspectives on romantic love. Passionate love might be experienced in a number of ways but its manifestation is universally the same. It is concluded that passionate love might be mainly a biological phenomenon with minor cultural variations directed to insure reproductive success in our species.
... In addition, taller individuals report higher levels of life satisfaction because they are viewed to be more dominant and productive within society (Blaker et al. 2013). Assessing data from all previous presidential elections, Stulp et al. (2013) found that Bcandidates that were taller than their opponents received more popular votes … [and were] also more likely to be re-elected^(p.159). ...
Article
Over the past decade there has been growing interest in the determinants of life satisfaction. Within this literature, a new strand has emerged that investigates the link between appearance and subjective wellbeing. This paper contributes to this avenue of research by exploring the association between height and life satisfaction in Russia. Data for this study was taken from the RLMS, a series of nationally representative surveys designed to monitor the effects of Russian reforms on the health and economic welfare of households and individuals in the Russian Federation. Our sample covering more than 90,000 observations shows that there is inverted U-shaped association between height and life satisfaction. Controlling for potential antecedents of life satisfaction, we found that the turning point for height was around 177 cm.
... Stulp et al. (2015) showed that height influences the outcome of non-verbal confrontations between individuals, and suggested that irrespective of sex and age, height is positively related to interpersonal dominance. Moreover, research has shown that height is associated with high-ranked occupations (Judge & Cable, 2004;Lechelt, 1975) and plays an important role in the leadership and social rank, as taller political leaders tend to be more popular among the voters (Sorokowski, 2010;Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst, & Pollet, 2013). Likewise, powerful people tend to incorrectly perceive themselves taller than they are in reality (Duguid & Goncalo, 2012). ...
Article
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Previous research has associated men’s physical features such as height and Shoulder-to-Hip Ratio (SHR) with dominance. Proxemics literature has suggested that the interpersonal space (comfort distance) increases in threatening and uncomfortable situations and decreases in unthreatening and comfortable situations. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effect of different heights and SHRs on comfortable interpersonal distance by systematic manipulation of virtual confederates bodily features. More specifically, participants determined their comfort distances from virtual male confederates with different heights and SHRs in a virtual environment. We hypothesized that a virtual confederate’s height and SHR influences the perception of interpersonal dominance; and consequently interpersonal space increases for taller and broader confederates as a result of increased interpersonal dominance. Results showed that comfortable interpersonal distance was positively associated with height for male participants, but not for female participants. No effect was found for shoulder width, neither for male nor female participants. Results were discussed in terms of the importance of height as a signal of dominance and fighting ability.
... There are scientific analyses that examine claims that tall men gain advantage in the workplace in terms of salary and promotion, and tall candidates have advantages over smaller ones in elections. For example, height has been correlated with various social and economic attributes with taller businessmen tending to receive more frequent promotion (Melamed and Bozionelos 1992), higher starting salaries (Loh 1993) and claims that taller candidates tend to be more successful than shorter ones in US Presidential elections (Stulp et al 2013). None of these analyses uses any distinctions between what constitutes being tall. ...
Preprint
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We introduce the distinction between ambiguity and vagueness. We argue that sometimes conceptual dispute in political philosophy can due to ambiguity. However, that is relatively easy to solve by disambiguation and the subscript gambit. Doing so can reveal any underlying substantive disagreement. We then argue that many political concepts are vague. We introduce two types of vagueness. For the first type, vague terms can be precisified by what we call coding decisions. Again, this can involve a version of the subscript gambit. When precisifying by coding decisions we can find several, different but equally valid versions of the same vague concept. However, those coding decisions are often trivial and so judgements about, say, the relative freedom of individuals or societies would not be affected much by those coding decisions. This is semantic vagueness. The second notion of vagueness is more problematic. Here vague terms are incoherent in the sense that they involve normative judgements or desiderata or we have moral intuitions about what the term entails and these cannot all be satisfied under all conditions. Here the term is referential vacuous. There is ontic vagueness. Here too the term can be precisified in different but equally valid versions of the vague concept. However, none can be defended as being the best representation of the vague concept and so must be judged on other criteria. We point out that despite incoherence and referential vacuity, there are still advantages in terms of efficiency and rhetorical value in using vague terms in moral and political theory. 2
... 2. These findings are in line with numerous studies that have documented positive associations between actual height and various indicators of success; see Case and Paxson (2008) for career success; Judge and Cable (2004) for income; Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst, and Pollet (2012) for referees' authority; Young and French (1996) for perceived competence of U.S. presidents; and Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst, and Pollet (2013) for election chances of presidential candidates. ...
Article
Research has demonstrated that in addition to minor changes in goalkeepers' position or height, goalkeeper reputation seems to influence penalty takers' shot placement. However, this evidence is based on correlative designs. Here, the authors experimentally manipulated both height and reputation to examine their causal impact on actual shot placement. Penalty takers performed kicks facing goalkeepers of different height (tall vs. short) and reputation (high vs. low) projected on a life-size screen. Results showed that tall goalkeepers were judged as taller than short goalkeepers. Likewise, high-reputation goalkeepers were judged as taller than low-reputation goalkeepers. An important finding was that reputation also influenced shot placement. When facing high-reputation goalkeepers, penalty takers aimed farther away from the goalkeeper and missed the goal more often. It follows that reputation affects both height estimates of goalkeepers and, most important, shot placement. Consequently, manipulating perceived reputation of goalkeepers provides an avenue for sport professionals to subtly influence shot placement of penalty takers.
... Hill, 1982), resolving intragroup conflicts (Boehm, 2001), or conflicts and warfare with other groups (Van Vugt, Cremer, & Janssen, 2007). Due to the nature of these group problems, individuals with greater physical capabilities were more often successful in those activities and it is argued, that this, among other things, has led to the overrepresentation of male and more formidable group leaders (e.g., Blaker et al., 2013;Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst, & Pollet, 2013;Van Vugt et al., 2008a). In other words, natural selection might have selected for certain features related to physical formidability to be associated with competent leadership. ...
Article
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Previous studies have shown that voters rely on sexually dimorphic traits that signal masculinity and dominance when they choose political leaders. For example, voters exert strong preferences for candidates with lower pitched voices because these candidates are perceived as stronger and more competent. Moreover, experimental studies demonstrate that conservative voters, more than liberals, prefer political candidates with traits that signal dominance, probably because conservatives are more likely to perceive the world as a threatening place and to be more attentive to dangerous and threatening contexts. In light of these findings, this study investigates whether country-level ideology influences the relationship between candidate voice pitch and electoral outcomes of real elections. Specifically, we collected voice pitch data for presidential and prime minister candidates, aggregate national ideology for the countries in which the candidates were nominated, and measures of electoral outcomes for 69 elections held across the world. In line with previous studies, we found that candidates with lower pitched voices received more votes and had greater likelihood of winning the elections. Furthermore, regression analysis revealed an interaction between candidate voice pitch, national ideology, and election type (presidential or parliamentary). That is, having a lower pitched voice was a particularly valuable asset for presidential candidates in conservative and right-leaning countries (in comparison to presidential candidates in liberal and left-leaning countries and parliamentary elections). We discuss the practical implications of these findings, and how they relate to existing research on candidates’ voices, voting preferences, and democratic elections in general.
... Yuk-Chien Liu and Detlef Groth presented network simulations to explore the structural prerequisites for a secular trend on body height initiated by height biased migration. Recent publications suggest that network hubs are preferentially taken by taller individuals (41,42). In view of possible height biased migration (43), the authors created several networks with different structures to perform a Monte Carlo simulation of height biased migration. ...
Article
Twenty-two scientists met at Krobielowice, Poland, to discuss the impact of the social environment, spatial proximity, migration, poverty, but also psychological factors such as body perception and satisfaction, and social stressors such as elite sports, and teenage pregnancies, on child and adolescent growth. The data analysis included linear mixed effects models with different random effects, Monte Carlo analyses, and network simulations. The work stressed the importance of the peer group, but also included historic material, some considerations about body proportions, and growth in chronic liver, and congenital heart disease.
... Tall men experience many advantages in their lives, and high stature is associated with a very positive social perception. For example, tall men are more likely to win political elections (McCann 2001), since they are considered to communicate better and to have more leadership skills than shorter candidates (Persico et al. 2004;Stulp et al. 2013). What is more, height of capable leaders is estimated as greater than stature of those who do not perform well in the position of power (Sorokowski et al. 2014). ...
Article
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The stereotype of a tall man has been reported in numerous studies. High stature is commonly associated with advantages such as leadership skills, wealth, intelligence or social status, and actual differences between the short and the tall men were indeed found for these traits, mainly in favor of the tall men. It is not certain, however, whether the height-related effects are biologically determined or if they result from socially-driven mechanisms. In this study we wanted to explore whether congenitally blind individuals, who are unable to perceive other people’s stature through the most salient, visual channel, share the positive, height-related stereotype. Thirty-four congenitally blind and forty-three sighted men and women rated four positive characteristics of a tall or a short man. It was found that none of the traits assigned to the tall man by the sighted people was assigned to this person by the blind individuals. In the congenitally blind group, no differences between the assessments of the tall and the short man were revealed. We discuss our findings in the context of social perception and stereotypes research.
... As one example, body height was found to predict important life outcomes such as economic success both in men and women in such diverse cultures as Germany (Hübler, 2009) and Indonesia (Sohn, 2015). Stulp et al. (2013b) analyzed body height in presidents of the United ...
Thesis
Social attention is a ubiquitous, but also enigmatic and sometimes elusive phenomenon. We direct our gaze at other human beings to see what they are doing and to guess their intentions, but we may also absorb social events en passant as they unfold in the corner of the eye. We use our gaze as a discrete communication channel, sometimes conveying pieces of information which would be difficult to explicate, but we may also find ourselves avoiding eye-contact with others in moments when self-disclosure is fear-laden. We experience our gaze as the most genuine expression of our will, but research also suggests considerable levels of predictability and automaticity in our gaze behavior. The phenomenon’s complexity has hindered researchers from developing a unified framework which can conclusively accommodate all of its aspects, or from even agreeing on the most promising research methodologies. The present work follows a multi-methods approach, taking on several aspects of the phenomenon from various directions. Participants in study 1 viewed dynamic social scenes on a computer screen. Here, low-level physical saliency (i.e. color, contrast, or motion) and human heads both attracted gaze to a similar extent, providing a comparison of two vastly different classes of gaze predictors in direct juxtaposition. In study 2, participants with varying degrees of social anxiety walked in a public train station while their eye movements were tracked. With increasing levels of social anxiety, participants showed a relative avoidance of gaze at near compared to distant people. When replicating the experiment in a laboratory situation with a matched participant group, social anxiety did not modulate gaze behavior, fueling the debate around appropriate experimental designs in the field. Study 3 employed virtual reality (VR) to investigate social gaze in a complex and immersive, but still highly controlled situation. In this situation, participants exhibited a gaze behavior which may be more typical for real-life compared to laboratory situations as they avoided gaze contact with a virtual conspecific unless she gazed at them. This study provided important insights into gaze behavior in virtual social situations, helping to better estimate the possible benefits of this new research approach. Throughout all three experiments, participants showed consistent inter-individual differences in their gaze behavior. However, the present work could not resolve if these differences are linked to psychologically meaningful traits or if they instead have an epiphenomenal character.
... Empirical evidence from psychology and political science confirms this prediction. Trait impressions are influenced by physical attributes of leaders, such as their formidability (Murray, 2014;Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst, & Pollet, 2013), race (Livingston & Pearce, 2009;Moskowitz & Stroh, 1994), gender (Cassese & Holman, 2017;Huddy & Terkildsen, 1993;Winter, 2010) and facial appearance (Laustsen & Petersen, 2016;Todorov, Mandisodza, Goren, & Hall, 2005;Van Vugt & Grabo, 2015). They are also updated based on the views that politicians express, such as leftist views yielding better warmth ratings, whereas rightist views increase perceived competence (Bittner, 2011;Laustsen, 2017;Rapoport, Metcalf, & Hartman, 1989). ...
Article
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Leaders’ persona and the state of the economy are among the two most salient topics during election campaigns. Existing scholarship treats these as two independent or even competing factors. Economic perceptions are overlooked as cues for leader evaluations, while leader evaluations rarely enter considerations of the economic vote. This article builds on evolutionary leadership theory to bridge these distant literatures. It proposes that evaluating leaders’ performance based on the resources available to group members may have improved followers’ fitness ancestrally. Accordingly, it predicts that the effect of economic perceptions on vote choice is mediated by leaders’ warmth and competence impressions in modern democracies. To test these predictions, the article first analyzes representative survey data from seventeen elections in three countries (USA, Australia and Denmark). Second, it relies on two original, well-powered manipulation-of-process experiments to test the validity of the causal claims.
... Ako se odnos vođa-sljedbenik uspostavlja po načelima koja su bila bitna našim precima iz pleistocena, može se očekivati da neki aspekti tog odnosa predstavljaju nesklad s modernim okruženjem te je moguće da i danas biramo vođe na temelju fizičkih i psihičkih karakteristika koji su nekada signalizirali uspješno vodstvo (Van Vugt i sur., 2008). U modernom svijetu, posao vođe uglavnom ne zahtijeva fizički kompetentnije pojedince, stoga bi hipoteza nesklada mogla objasniti neke osobine vođa u modernom vremenu, poput toga da ljudi preferiraju snažne (Sell, Tooby i Cosmides, 2009) i visoke muškarce (Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst i Pollet, 2013) za svoje vođe. ...
Article
Vodstvo je sveprisutno u organizaciji života ljudskih grupa. Istraživanje vođa i vodstva bilo je u središtu interesa raznih društvenih znanosti poput psihologije, eko-nomije ili politologije. Dosadašnja literatura iz spomenutih područja uglavnom se bavi opisivanjem kako vodstvo funkcionira i primarno je usmjerena na vođe. U novije vrije-me, pojavljuje se interes za primjenu principa evolucijske psihologije u ovom području te se neki istraživači usmjeravaju na pitanje kako je vodstvo nastalo. Pri tome, važan naglasak se stavlja na adaptivnu vrijednost vodstva od kojega korist imaju svi članovi grupe te u samim teorijskim postavkama bitnu ulogu zauzimaju i sljedbenici vođa, koji u društvu čine većinu. Smatra se da je uspostavljanje odnosa vođa-sljedbenik adaptacija nastala tijekom evolucijske prošlosti koja je bila usmjerena na rješavanje problema koordinacije grupnih zadataka. U ovom preglednom članku prikazat će se tri skupine istraživanja koja idu u prilog navedenim pretpostavkama. Prvo, prikazat će se različiti oblici vodstva i organizacije životinjskih grupa, od insekata do primata. Drugo, opisat će se antropološka istraživanja na plemenima lovaca-sakupljača, čiji je životni stil najsličniji onomu koji su vodili ljudski preci tijekom evolucijske prošlo-sti. Zatim, prikazat će se niz istraživanja na modernim ljudima, a koja pokazuju da u ljudskim grupama postoji pristranost prema osobinama vođa koje su vjerojatno našim precima signalizirale dobro vodstvo, a koje nisu u skladu s modernim uvjetima života.
... Likewise, taller individuals may enjoy higher levels of life satisfaction since they are perceived, by society-at-large as being more attractive due to their height (Becker, 1971;Salahodjaev & Ibragimova, 2018;Stulp et al., 2015). For instance, after studying US presidential candidates, Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst, and Pollet (2013) concluded that taller candidates received more votes and were more likely to win elections. Taller individuals may also enjoy higher levels of life satisfaction insofar as people may perceive them as being more powerful and productive, especially when actual productivity is not predictable, and taller individuals have one of the more easily observable features (height) as an indicator of productivity (Arrow, 1973;Mavisakalyan, 2018). ...
Article
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of height on life satisfaction. Methods: We use data from a recent multi-country survey that was conducted in 27 nations. Results: Our main finding is that height does have a strong positive effect on life satisfaction. These findings remain positive and significant when we use a comprehensive set of well-known covariates of life-satisfaction at both the individual and country levels. These findings also remain robust to alternative statistical specifications. Conclusions: From a theoretical standpoint, our findings suggest that height is important in explaining life-satisfaction independent of other well-known determinants. From a methodological standpoint, the findings of this study highlight the need to explicitly control for the effect of heights in studies on subjective well-being, happiness, and life-satisfaction.
... This aspect is crucial as it also refers to the entanglement of a set of confounders: is height important because it is a good predictor of health and intelligence (absolute value) or is it important for selecting the individuals who are taller than their peers and therefore perceived as more dominant (relative value)? Previous studies indicate that this relative measure can be of great relevance and deserves more attention from researchers (Stulp et al., 2013). ...
Article
To better explicate the well-researched finding that taller individuals have higher wages on average, potential mechanisms should be studied in detail. The present analysis investigates the relationship between height and the probability of being in a leadership position in the workplace using multinational European Social Survey data from 19 countries. Studying full-time, employed individuals between 20 and 55 years of age reveals considerable country differences which is beneficial for the estimated multilevel models as variation is increased. The results indicate a statistically significant effect whereby women are 0.15 percentage points more likely to be in a leadership position for each additional centimetre of absolute height when controlling for education and occupational position whereas there is no effect for men. In order to study the relevance of absolute vs relative height, which is the difference to the local peer-group, regional data is utilized. The main findings are that there is no effect of relative height for men but a statistically significant effect for women. For them, absolute and relative effects are about equally strong.
... The second external factor as a contingency factor is political issues. Political studies cited ten times in the LQ articles discuss on characteristics (Ellen, Ferris & Buckley, 2013) and physical traits (Stulp, Buunk, Verhulst & Pollet, 2013;Yammarino, Mumford, Serban & Shirreffs, 2013) of political leaders (especially US presidents) and explore how these traits affect the election and voting processes. The last external factor cited four times in the articles is culture. ...
Chapter
There is a growing body of theoretical and practical studies conducted on a variety of subjects under the multifaceted leadership concept. In this chapter, the authors first explain recently discussed concepts in the Leadership Quarterly by category (leader, contingency, outcome, and leadership development) and subcategory (traits; leader-subordinate interaction, leadership style, organizational; leader, followers, organizational), explore current leadership trends at practice by analyzing Harvard Business Review articles, and then compare them. The essential objective of this chapter is to explore the current trends emerging from real business life in comparison to theoretical development in the leadership field and to highlight common concepts coming from the theory and practice of leadership. From this aspect, this chapter may provide a basis for comparative leadership studies and contribute to the related literature and practical studies. The strength of this study is to present a comparison between current theoretical and practical leadership trends by conducting a content analysis.
... Consequently, taller men are more likely to hold positions of power, authority, and social status [13,14], a trend that has been observed cross-culturally [2]. Most notably, taller presidential candidates receive more popular votes and are more likely to be re-elected than their shorter opponents [15]. Indeed, nonverbal cues that increase perceived status may do so by increasing the apparent size of the individual displaying them [16]. ...
Article
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Background: Male height is positively associated with social dominance, and more agonistic/competitive behaviours. However, the 'Napoleon complex' or 'small man syndrome' suggests that smaller males are more assertive and punitive to compensate for lack of height and social dominance. Here, we assess possible relationships between height and punitive behaviours in a real-world setting. Methods: Using a non-experimental correlational design, we analysed data on 61 male association football referees from four professional leagues in England, and explored relationships between their height and punitive behaviours in the form of yellow cards, red cards and penalties given during an entire season. Results: Overall there was no effect of referee height on fouls awarded. However, there was a main effect of height on yellow cards awarded, with shorter referees issuing more yellow cards. The same effect was found for red cards and penalties, though this was moderated by league. In the lower leagues, more red cards and penalties were awarded by relatively shorter referees, but in the higher leagues more red cards and penalties were awarded by relatively taller referees. Conclusions: These findings from real-life public dominance encounters show that height is associated with punitive behaviours, but is sensitive to context.
... Still, the union of these representations may not be entirely groundless. Some physical features like height are positively associated with professional success and income (Judge and Cable 2004), and tallness is surprisingly common to some powerful positions like the US presidency (Stulp et al. 2012). However, people's expectations about the predictive value of these cues may substantially outweigh their actual utility (Carney 2020;Hall et al. 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Adults’ mental representations of the physical appearance of people that are “strong” and people that are “in charge” are remarkably similar. Some have explained this feature of adults’ thinking by positing innate mental representations. However, specific details about the nature and structure of these representations, and an appropriate empirical foundation for these claims has been lacking. In this review, my objective is to provide a high-level summary of recent research exploring infants’ and young children’s intuitions about the physical manifestations of power. I argue that the social responses and judgments of these young participants are more informative about the existence and nature of putatively innate mental content. Methods: Narrative review of developmental studies.ResultsPreverbal infants exhibit a remarkably early sensitivity to the relative power of two agents. By early childhood, children exhibit increasingly adult-like intuitions about powerful appearance. However, there are significant revisions in the appearance-to-power correspondences that people detect between childhood and adulthood. Conclusions: These complex developmental patterns are inconsistent with the idea that adults’ intuitions about the physical manifestations of power are straightforward outputs of an innate psychology. Rather, despite an early-emerging sensitivity to appearance-based cues to power, significant conceptual development and change precede adults’ judgments about powerful appearance.
... Self-confidence plays an important role in the determination of leaders (Shamir et al., 1993) because it is a quality people favors in their leaders (Hogan et al., 1994). People are attracted to leaders that display cues of confidence such as low pitch voices (Klofstad et al., 2012;Tigue et al., 2012) and high height (Blaker et al., 2013;Stulp et al., 2013) and can recognize leaders by their facial features with above-chance accuracy (Todorov et al., 2015). In turn, confident leaders are perceived as more knowledgeable (Price and Stone, 2004) as well as more trustworthy (Penrod and Cutler, 1995), and exert greater influence (Van Swol and Sniezek, 2005). ...
Thesis
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Standard economic models assume that individuals collect and process information in a way that gives them a relatively accurate perception of reality. However, this assumption is often violated. Data shows that individuals often form positively biased beliefs about themselves, which can have detrimental economic con-sequences. This thesis aims to explain the persistence of overconfidence in social interactions by showing the existence of strategic benefits of being overconfident that offset its social cost.Using a series of laboratory experiments, this thesis shows that (i) overconfidence emerges primarily when it provides an advantage in social interactions (Chapter2) and (ii) identify situations in which overconfidence is likely to be socially detrimental (Chapter 3 and 4). This thesis contributes to the literature by enhancing our understanding of the situational determinants of overconfidence in social interactions and lay the foundations to improve policies intended to prevent or limit its negative effects
... More recent studies have further linked dominance with the acquisition of power and leadership in groups and organizations (e.g., Cheng et al., 2013;de Waal-Andrews et al., 2015;Halevy et al., 2012). In a related vein, morphological features indicative of physical dominance and formidability, such as height and strength, have been associated with leadership and influence (Judge & Cable, 2004;Stulp et al., 2013). However, other studies yielded no evidence for the effectiveness of dominance as a strategy for gaining influence (Driskell et al., 1993;Lukaszewski et al., 2016;Ridgeway, 1987), perhaps because people try to avoid autocratic leaders (Van Vugt et al., 2004). ...
Article
Risk-taking can fuel innovation and growth, but it can also have devastating consequences for individuals and organizations. Here we examine whether risk-taking affords social-hierarchical benefits to risk-takers. Specifically, we investigate how risk-taking influences perceived dominance, prestige, and the willingness to endorse risk-takers' leadership. Integrating insights from costly signaling theory and the dominance/prestige framework of social rank, we theorized that risk-taking increases leadership endorsement to the degree that it fuels perceptions of prestige, but decreases leadership endorsement to the degree that it fuels perceptions of dominance. However, we also hypothesized that risk-induced perceptions of dominance do translate into leadership endorsement in competitive (rather than cooperative) intergroup settings. We tested these hypotheses in four studies involving different samples, methods, and operationalizations. In Study 1, participants performed an implicit association test (IAT) that revealed that people associate risk with leader positions, and safety with follower positions. Study 2 was a longitudinal field survey conducted during the September 2019 Israeli elections, which showed that voters' perceptions of politicians' risk-taking propensities prior to the elections positively predicted perceived dominance and prestige as well as voting behavior during the elections. Finally, Studies 3 and 4 demonstrated that people are willing to support risk-takers as leaders in the context of competitive (as opposed to cooperative) intergroup situations, because perceived dominance positively predicts leadership endorsement in competitive (but not cooperative) intergroup settings. We discuss implications for understanding the social dynamics of organizational rank and the perpetuation of risky behavior in organizations, politics, and society at large. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Height (in males) has been correlated with various social and economic characteristics. For example, Melamed and Bonzionelos (2012) show that taller men tend to be promoted more often than shorter ones, and Loh (1993) shows they tend to have higher starting salaries, whilst taller candidates tend to be more successful than shorter ones in US presidential elections (Stulp et al. 2013). However, these studies don't divide men into 'tall', 'medium' or 'short'. ...
Article
The major problems for complex multi-dimensional social science concepts is incoherence, often hidden by the fact that they are also vague. Analytically, precisifying can demonstrate we have incompatible intuitions about the meaning of complex normative terms. Simple vague terms can be precisified with ‘coding decisions’. Vagueness differs from ambiguity. Ambiguity occurs when a term is used to mean two quite different things and can be handled by the subscript gambit. Power is neither vague nor incoherent. We can identify a simple sense underlying all accounts of ‘power’. Ambiguous usage concerns the extension to which the simple term is applied.
... Nevertheless, in present Western cultures, height is consistently related to income, the attainment of leadership positions, and other measures of professional success (e.g., Judge & Cable, 2004;Mueller & Mazur, 2001). As a noteworthy example, US presidents are in general taller than the average American man, and the tallest presidential candidate is most likely to win the most popular votes (Stulp et al., 2013a). Even in homogeneous occupational settings, this association is apparent: one study found that full professors were 0.47 inches taller than associate professors, who were 0.26 inches taller than assistant professors, who were 1.24 inches taller than the average nonacademic (Hensley, 1993). ...
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This study among 725 male and 247 female police officers from The Netherlands examined the association between self-reported height and occupational rank from the perspective of sexual selection. Male and female police officers were taller than the average population. A larger percentage of women than of men was found in the lowest ranks, but in the leadership positions, there was a similar percentage of women as of men. Overall, but especially among women, height was linearly associated with occupational rank: the taller one was, the higher one’s rank. These effects were independent of educational level and age. The implications for evolutionary theorizing from the perspective of sexual selection on the effect of tallness on status and dominance among women are discussed.
... As such, more capable individuals have a higher likelihood of enjoying greater levels of autonomy such as making their own decisions regarding tasks and working hours, factors that are more predictably associated with entrepreneurship than with wage employment (Benz & Frey, 2008;Patzelt & Shepherd, 2011). Moreover, height is positively associated with the emergence of leadership and leadership effectiveness, which are both qualities that are necessary for running one's own business (Lindqvist, 2012;Stulp et al., 2013Stulp et al., , 2015. Height is also associated with a higher level of physical power and strength, both of which are required for many types of entrepreneurship, for instance, within the field of agriculture (Sohn, 2015;Thomas & Strauss, 1997). ...
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We examine the association between height and entrepreneurship in 27 nations, finding that the relationship between height and entrepreneurship can be considered to be a two-stage process. During the first stage, individuals make the decision of whether or not to try to set up their own business. At this stage, the effect of height is stronger: each 10-cm increase in height is associated with an approximately 1.4 percentage point increase in the probability of having tried to set up a business. During the second stage, after a positive decision to embark upon entrepreneurship has already been taken, people may find success in setting up their business. At this stage, although taller individuals are still more likely to experience success than their shorter counterparts, the effect of height becomes much weaker. Each 10-cm increase in height is associated with an approximately 0.4 percentage point increase in the probability of having tried to set up a business without success, and an approximately 0.4 percentage point increase in the likelihood of having set up a business in which the respondent is no longer involved, or that is no longer operational. Finally, each 10-cm increase in height is associated with an approximately 1 percentage point increase in the probability of remaining an entrepreneur. At the same time, we found that the effect of height is stronger in magnitude than the effects of gender, health and university education. This finding is remarkable insofar as gender, health and university education are usually considered to be the main determinants of entrepreneurship.
... Male leaders tend, on average, to be taller than followers (Lindqvist, 2012). In US presidential elections, the majority of winners are taller (Stulp et al., 2013;French, 1996, 1998). In a study of US senate races, Todorov et al. (2005) found that politicians with masculine facial features (prominent square jaw, angular face, larger nose, smaller eyes, and low forehead) won 70% of the contests. ...
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We examine core assumptions of I/O and evolutionary psychology—assumptions about human nature, social and organizational systems, and methods for predicting and changing human behavior in organizations. We then review research and theory that integrates ideas from evolutionary psychology into areas of I/O psychology—including organizational design and change, leadership, decision-making, family businesses, women and work, workplace design and well-being, sustainability, and diversity. We also examine some of the possible reasons why I/O psychology (and management more broadly) have been less fertile ground for evolutionary psychology compared with other areas of psychology and the social sciences. We conclude with areas for future directions—where we see evolutionary psychology making an impact, the need for evolutionary psychology to make a greater contribution to I/O psychology, and strategies for increasing the number of scholars studying and making contributions to an evolutionary industrial and organizational psychology.
... Gender-based legitimation refers to the gender role stereotype explanation in height studies that show tallness in males is an indication of power and dominance, thus women have the tendency to prefer tall males for protection and gene selection (Duguid and Goncalo, 2011). They are also perceived to be of higher status (Stulp et al, 2013;Phillip, 2014). Five themes emerged from the study, four of which were in concordance with Yancey and Emerson's (2014) results, and they were: Society, Protection, Masculinity/Femininity and Power. ...
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La altura de una persona se ha convertido en un tema de creciente interés no solo en las ciencias biológicas sino también en las ciencias sociales. La altura de los filipinos rara vez se ha estudiado, y la preferencia de altura en la pareja romántica de filipinos nunca ha sido un tema de investigación. Se recopilaron datos de 100 estudiantes de la Universidad de Filipinas utilizando cuestionarios abiertos de encuestas cualitativas. Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de las mujeres encuestadas (96%) prefieren salir con hombres más altos que ellas. La explicación de las preferencias de altura basada en el género parece más prominente que la legitimación basada en la evolución.
... Second, we use a triangulated approach involving three different raters to determine emergent leaders and then investigate naïve observers' actual behavior (namely their visual attention) when watching dynamic group situations in a natural project setting to shed light on the social attention bias toward emergent leaders. As such, we extend previous work that has relied on (1) observers' perceptions of emergent leadership from thin slices of behavior (e.g., Tskhay, Xu, & Rule, 2014;Tskhay et al., 2017), (2) single nonverbal cues of emergent leaders (e.g., physical height, Judge & Cable, 2004;Stulp et al., 2013), (3) static stimulus material (e.g., pictures, Re et al., 2013;Rule & Ambady, 2008) and (4) controlled laboratory settings (e.g., Cherulnik, Turns, & Wilderman, 1990;Re et al., 2013). ...
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Integrating evolutionary signaling theory with a social attention approach, we argue that individuals possess a fast, automated mechanism for detecting leadership signals in fellow humans that is reflected in higher visual attention toward emergent leaders compared to non-leaders. To test this notion, we first videotaped meetings of project teams and collected leadership ratings for the team members from three rating sources. Second, we provided 18 naïve observers with 42 brief, muted video clips of the team meetings and analyzed their eye gazing patterns. Observers gazed at emergent leaders more often, and for an average longer duration, than at non-leaders. Gender effects occurred such that male emergent leaders received a higher number of fixations than female emergent leaders. Non-verbal behavior analysis indicated that emergent leaders showed a higher amount of active gestures and less passive facial expressions than non-leaders. We discuss theoretical and methodological directions for emergent leadership research in teams.
... How does science actually handle a vague term like 'tallness'? Height has been correlated with various social and economic attributes: taller businessmen tend to receive more frequent promotion (Melamed and Bozionelos, 2012) and higher starting salaries (Loh, 1993); taller candidates tend to be more successful than shorter ones in US presidential elections (Stulp et al., 2013). Scholars analyze such claims without strict definitions of 'tallness'. ...
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Analytic political philosophy tries to make our political language more precise. But in doing so it risks departing from our natural language and intuitions. This article examines this tension. We argue that the ambiguity and vagueness of our political language can be overcome with coding decisions. While vagueness is a deeper philosophical problem than ambiguity, there are important conceptual similarities. Gareth Evans has formally proved that there can be conflicting yet equally valid precisifications of vague terms. We show that this is the case for complex terms in political philosophy, where each precisification captures part of the sense of the complex term. Vagueness can be overcome by eliminating the terms in certain contexts of analysis. Versions of the subscript gambit can be used to resolve both ambiguity and vagueness.
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Democracy was forged in the furnaces of oppression, whether combatting tyranny or affirming the rights of the individual. As democracy is under threat in many parts of the world, there has never been a more urgent need to understand political thoughts and behaviours. This lucid and accessible book brings together a global group of scholars from psychology, political science, communication, sociology, education and psychiatry. The book's structure, based on Abraham Lincoln's well-known phrase 'Of, by and for' the people, scrutinises the psychological factors experienced by politicians as representatives 'of' the electorate, the political institutions and systems devised 'by' those we elect, and the societies that influence the context 'for' us as citizens. From trust to risk, from political values to moral and religious priorities, from the personality and language of leaders to fake news and anti-democratic forces, this book provides vital new insights for researchers, politicians and citizens alike.
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Statistical inference plays a critical role in modern scientific research, however, the dominant method for statistical inference in science, null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), is often misunderstood and misused, which leads to unreproducible findings. To address this issue, researchers propose to adopt the Bayes factor as an alternative to NHST. The Bayes factor is a principled Bayesian tool for model selection and hypothesis testing, and can be interpreted as the strength for both the null hypothesis H0 and the alternative hypothesis H1 based on the current data. Compared to NHST, the Bayes factor has the following advantages: it quantifies the evidence that the data provide for both the H0 and the H1, it is not “violently biased” against H0, it allows one to monitor the evidence as the data accumulate, and it does not depend on sampling plans. Importantly, the recently developed open software JASP makes the calculation of Bayes factor accessible for most researchers in psychology, as we demonstrated for the t-test. Given these advantages, adopting the Bayes factor will improve psychological researchers’ statistical inferences. Nevertheless, to make the analysis more reproducible, researchers should keep their data analysis transparent and open.
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Here an overview of the role of traits related to dominance in ‘alliance politics’ in other species and humans of diverse cultural backgrounds is presented. The importance of alliances from the point of view of evolutionary biology and the technology used to investigate the formation of preferences for other people based on minimal information such as their facial appearance is also presented. A research agenda for future work in this area outlining the importance of understanding how we might seek (or avoid) a dominant-looking individual as an ally then forms the foundation for two specific recommendations for further research. The use of new media presents novel challenges for how we evaluate politicians based on both first impression judgements and our own allegiances.
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Many researchers now approach the understanding of how facial characteristics shape the perception of leadership ability through the lens of human evolution. This approach considers what skills and characteristics would have been valuable for leaders to possess in our evolutionary history, including dominance, masculinity, and trustworthiness. Moreover, it gives an understanding about why rapid categorisation of these social cues from faces is adaptive. In this chapter, I present evolutionary arguments for social inferences based on faces, and discuss how our understanding of this categorisation has shifted away from purely associative phenomena towards evolved, innate processes. I explain how the perception of leadership ability in faces is linked to variance in facial morphology, and how these morphologies tell us something about the individuals who carry them. Specific facial cues relating to leadership-relevant traits are discussed, as well as the underlying biological systems that accompany these traits. I also explain the importance of context and individual differences on the prioritisation of seemingly disparate facial cues to leadership: dominance and trustworthiness. I also discuss recent findings in this area which further extend these concepts to examine cues to leadership in women’s faces, generally overlooked by evolutionary psychologists, and how political ideology can interact with these effects.
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Erfolg in der Führung ist nach dem aktuellen Stand der Forschung das Ergebnis eines komplexen Zusammenspiels von Eigenschaften, Einstellungen und Fähigkeiten der Führungskraft, ihrem Verhalten gegenüber den Geführten, deren Einstellungen und Fähigkeiten, sowie dem Kontext, der sich vor allem aus Merkmalen der Organisation und der Aufgabenstellungen ergibt. Das macht die Suche nach der idealen Führungskraft zu einer entsprechend schwierigen Aufgabe. Gefragt sind deshalb einfache Suchkriterien zur Eingrenzung des Kandidatenkreises, und es scheint, als wäre selbst die Körpergrösse hierzu ein untrügliches Merkmal. Daten aus den Haushaltsbefragungen der öffentlichen Statistik in Deutschland und der Schweiz legen diesen Schluss nahe: Führungskräfte berragen Angestellte ohne Führungsposition im Durchschnitt um mehr als einen Zentimeter. Das gilt vor allem für Männer, teilweise aber auch für Frauen.
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Across species, social hierarchies are often governed by dominance relations. In humans, where there are multiple culturally valued axes of distinction, social hierarchies can take a variety of forms and need not rest on dominance relations. Consequently, humans navigate multiple domains of status, i.e. relative standing. Importantly, while these hierarchies may be constructed from dyadic interactions, they are often more fundamentally guided by subjective peer evaluations and group perceptions. Researchers have typically focused on the distinct elements that shape individuals’ relative standing, with some emphasizing individual-level attributes and others outlining emergent macro-level structural outcomes. Here, we synthesize work across the social sciences to suggest that the dynamic interplay between individual-level and meso-level properties of the social networks in which individuals are embedded are crucial for understanding the diverse processes of status differentiation across groups. More specifically, we observe that humans not only navigate multiple social hierarchies at any given time but also simultaneously operate within multiple, overlapping social networks. There are important dynamic feedbacks between social hierarchies and the characteristics of social networks, as the types of social relationships, their structural properties, and the relative position of individuals within them both influence and are influenced by status differentiation. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The centennial of the pecking order: current state and future prospects for the study of dominance hierarchies’.
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This study examined the relationship between physical height and managerial promotion among 132 British managers from the civil services. The data were analyzed independently for 61 men and 71 women. Analysis suggested that rate of promotion was positively correlated with height. These coefficients were not reduced when the effect of personality profile associated with height was removed
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Research suggests that tall individuals have an advantage over short individuals in terms of status, prestige, and leadership, though it is not clear why. Applying an evolutionary psychology perspective, we predicted that taller individuals are seen as more leader-like because they are perceived as more dominant, healthy, and intelligent. Being fit and physically imposing were arguably important leadership qualities in ancestral human environments—perhaps especially for males—where being a leader entailed considerable physical risks. In line with our expectations, our results demonstrate that by manipulating an individual’s stature height positively influences leadership perception for both men and women, though the effect is stronger for men. For male leaders this height leadership advantage is mediated by their perceived dominance, health, and intelligence; while for female leaders this effect is only mediated by perceived intelligence.
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Formulas to predict presidential greatness on the Maranell index were constructed for 29 presidents from G. Washington to L. Johnson. When a zeitgeist variable, derived from the historian A. M. Schlesinger, Jr's (1986) work on the public purpose–private interest cycle of American political history, served as the initial predictor and stepwise selection was made from a personological pool and then from a situational pool, a 6-variable formula containing 5 personological variables accounted for 91% of the greatness variance. With free stepwise regression, years served and 6 personological predictors accounted for 94% of the greatness variance. Contrary to D. K. Simonton's (1987) attributional interpretation, a dispositional basis for presidential greatness may exist. The results also suggest that public purpose phases bring forth presidents who exhibit the personological characteristics most related to historians' acclaim for presidential leadership. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated the relationship between perceived status in politics and judged physical stature. 177 Ss were interviewed. Comparison of estimated heights of Canadian federal party leaders before and after the 1988 federal election indicated that the losers, Broadbent and Turner, were judged to be shorter afterwards, while the winner, Mulroney, was judged taller. Although the relationship between status and judged height has previously been demonstrated, this result indicates that it is dynamic (i.e., election outcomes alter rated tallness). A gender effect also was noted. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Throughout the animal kingdom, larger males are more likely to attain social dominance. Several lines of evidence suggest that this relationship extends to humans, as height is positively related to dominance, status and authority. We hypothesized that height is also a determinant of authority in professional refereeing. According to the International Football Association Board, FIFA, football ("soccer") referees have full authority to enforce the laws of the game and should use their body language to show authority and to help control the match. We show that height is indeed positively related to authority status: referees were taller than their assistants (who merely have an advisory role) in both a national (French League) and an international (World Cup 2010) tournament. Furthermore, using data from the German League, we found that height was positively associated with authoritative behavior. Taller referees were better able to maintain control of the game by giving fewer fouls, thereby increasing the "flow of the game". Referee height was also positively associated with perceived referee competence, as taller referees were assigned to matches in which the visiting team had a higher ranking. Thus, height appears to be positively related to authority in professional refereeing.
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A small number of previous studies using convenience samples from outside Canada, and mostly for males, show positive relationships between physical height and holding a position of authority as a manager or supervisor. The present study employs Multiple Classification Analysis to assess the generality of these patterns to a representative sample of full-time Canadian workers (2,210 males and 1,815 females) using seven alternative measures of authority status. The results for male workers, after controls, generally show significant positive relationships between height and authority status. The controlled analyses for female workers, however, do not. Additional analyses for males show height to be a comparatively strong predictor relative to other social background predictors of authority status. Alternative interpretations of the patterns of findings are discussed.
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Human male height is associated with mate choice and intra-sexual competition, and therefore potentially with reproductive success. A literature review (n = 18) on the relationship between male height and reproductive success revealed a variety of relationships ranging from negative to curvilinear to positive. Some of the variation in results may stem from methodological issues, such as low power, including men in the sample who have not yet ended their reproductive career, or not controlling for important potential confounders (e.g. education and income). We investigated the associations between height, education, income and the number of surviving children in a large longitudinal sample of men (n = 3,578; Wisconsin Longitudinal Study), who likely had ended their reproductive careers (e.g. > 64 years). There was a curvilinear association between height and number of children, with men of average height attaining the highest reproductive success. This curvilinear relationship remained after controlling for education and income, which were associated with both reproductive success and height. Average height men also married at a younger age than shorter and taller men, and the effect of height diminished after controlling for this association. Thus, average height men partly achieved higher reproductive success by marrying at a younger age. On the basis of our literature review and our data, we conclude that men of average height most likely have higher reproductive success than either short or tall men. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00265-011-1283-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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Male dominance rank, physical strength, indices of reproductive success, and indices of reproductive potential are correlated with masculine characteristics in many animal species, including humans. Accordingly, men generally perceive masculinized versions of men’s faces and voices to be more dominant than feminized versions. Less dominant men incur greater costs when they incorrectly perceive the dominance of rivals. Consequently, it may be adaptive for less dominant men to be particularly sensitive to cues of dominance in other men. Since height is a reliable index of men’s dominance, we investigated the relationship between own height and men’s sensitivity to masculine characteristics when judging the dominance of other men’s faces and voices. Although men generally perceived masculinized faces and voices to be more dominant than feminized versions, this effect of masculinity on dominance perceptions was significantly greater among shorter men than among taller men. These findings suggest that differences among men in the potential costs of incorrectly perceiving the dominance of rivals have shaped systematic variation in men’s perceptions of the dominance of potential rivals.
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Many quadrupedal species stand bipedally on their hindlimbs to fight. This posture may provide a performance advantage by allowing the forelimbs to strike an opponent with the range of motion that is intrinsic to high-speed running, jumping, rapid braking and turning; the range of motion over which peak force and power can be produced. To test the hypothesis that bipedal (i.e., orthograde) posture provides a performance advantage when striking with the forelimbs, I measured the force and energy produced when human subjects struck from "quadrupedal" (i.e., pronograde) and bipedal postures. Downward and upward directed striking energy was measured with a custom designed pendulum transducer. Side and forward strikes were measured with a punching bag instrumented with an accelerometer. When subjects struck downward from a bipedal posture the work was 43.70±12.59% (mean ± S.E.) greater than when they struck from a quadrupedal posture. Similarly, 47.49±17.95% more work was produced when subjects struck upward from a bipedal stance compared to a quadrupedal stance. Importantly, subjects did 229.69±44.19% more work in downward than upward directed strikes. During side and forward strikes the force impulses were 30.12±3.68 and 43.04±9.00% greater from a bipedal posture than a quadrupedal posture, respectively. These results indicate that bipedal posture does provide a performance advantage for striking with the forelimbs. The mating systems of great apes are characterized by intense male-male competition in which conflict is resolved through force or the threat of force. Great apes often fight from bipedal posture, striking with both the fore- and hindlimbs. These observations, plus the findings of this study, suggest that sexual selection contributed to the evolution of habitual bipedalism in hominins.
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Human infants face the formidable challenge of learning the structure of their social environment. Previous research indicates that infants have early-developing representations of intentional agents, and of cooperative social interactions, that help meet that challenge. Here we report five studies with 144 infant participants showing that 10- to 13-month-old, but not 8-month-old, infants recognize when two novel agents have conflicting goals, and that they use the agents' relative size to predict the outcome of the very first dominance contests between them. These results suggest that preverbal infants mentally represent social dominance and use a cue that covaries with it phylogenetically, and marks it metaphorically across human cultures and languages, to predict which of two agents is likely to prevail in a conflict of goals.
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Assortative mating for human height has long attracted interest in evolutionary biology, and the phenomenon has been demonstrated in numerous human populations. It is often argued that mating preferences generate this pattern, but other processes can also induce trait correlations between mates. Here, we present a methodology tailored to quantify continuous preferences based on choice experiments between pairs of stimuli. In particular, it is possible to explore determinants of interindividual variations in preferences, such as the height of the chooser. We collected data from a sample of 200 individuals from France. Measurements obtained show that the perception of attractiveness depends on both the height of the stimuli and the stature of the individual who judged them. Therefore, this study demonstrates that homogamy is present at the level of preferences for both sexes. We also show that measurements of the function describing this homogamy are concordant with several distinct mating rules proposed in the literature. In addition, the quantitative approach introduced here fulfills metrics that can be used to compare groups of individuals. In particular, our results reveal an important disagreement between sexes regarding height preferences in the context of mutual mate choice. Finally, both women and men prefer individuals who are significantly taller than average. All major findings are confirmed by a reanalysis of previously published data.
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Social dominance and physical size are closely linked. Nonverbal dominance displays in many non-human species are known to increase the displayer's apparent size. Humans also employ a variety of nonverbal cues that increase apparent status, but it is not yet known whether these cues function via a similar mechanism: by increasing the displayer's apparent size. We generated stimuli in which actors displayed high status, neutral, or low status cues that were drawn from the findings of a recent meta-analysis. We then conducted four studies that indicated that nonverbal cues that increase apparent status do so by increasing the perceived size of the displayer. Experiment 1 demonstrated that nonverbal status cues affect perceivers' judgments of physical size. The results of Experiment 2 showed that altering simple perceptual cues can affect judgments of both size and perceived status. Experiment 3 used objective measurements to demonstrate that status cues change targets' apparent size in the two-dimensional plane visible to a perceiver, and Experiment 4 showed that changes in perceived size mediate changes in perceived status, and that the cue most associated with this phenomenon is postural openness. We conclude that nonverbal cues associated with social dominance also affect the perceived size of the displayer. This suggests that certain nonverbal dominance cues in humans may function as they do in other species: by creating the appearance of changes in physical size.
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Selection in species with aggressive social interactions favours the evolution of cognitive mechanisms for assessing physical formidability (fighting ability or resource-holding potential). The ability to accurately assess formidability in conspecifics has been documented in a number of non-human species, but has not been demonstrated in humans. Here, we report tests supporting the hypothesis that the human cognitive architecture includes mechanisms that assess fighting ability-mechanisms that focus on correlates of upper-body strength. Across diverse samples of targets that included US college students, Bolivian horticulturalists and Andean pastoralists, subjects in the US were able to accurately estimate the physical strength of male targets from photos of their bodies and faces. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that subjects were extracting cues of strength that were largely independent of height, weight and age, and that corresponded most strongly to objective measures of upper-body strength-even when the face was all that was available for inspection. Estimates of women's strength were less accurate, but still significant. These studies are the first empirical demonstration that, for humans, judgements of strength and judgements of fighting ability not only track each other, but accurately track actual upper-body strength.
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Based on the idea that height serves as a heuristic for judgments about status, dominance, and leadership potential, two hypotheses were tested: (1) Heights of U.S. presidential election winners are positively correlated with estimates of social, economic, and political threat in election years. (2) Height and victory margin are positively correlated regardless of the magnitude of estimates of social, economic, and political threat in election years. Both hypotheses were supported for the 43 elections from 1824 to 1992.
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In this article, the authors propose a theoretical model of the relationship between physical height and career success. We then test several linkages in the model based on a meta-analysis of the literature, with results indicating that physical height is significantly related to measures of social esteem (rho =.41), leader emergence (rho =.24), and performance (rho =.18). Height was somewhat more strongly related to success for men (rho =.29) than for women (rho =.21), although this difference was not significant. Finally, given that almost no research has examined the relationship between individuals' physical height and their incomes, we present four large-sample studies (total N = 8,590) showing that height is positively related to income (beta =.26) after controlling for sex, age, and weight. Overall, this article presents the most comprehensive analysis of the relationship of height to workplace success to date, and the results suggest that tall individuals have advantages in several important aspects of their careers and organizational lives.
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We use new data on entries and exits of US daily newspapers from 1869 to 2004 to estimate effects on political participation, party vote shares, and electoral competitiveness. Our identification strategy exploits the precise timing of these events and allows for the possibility of confounding trends. We focus our analysis on the years 18691928, and we use the remaining years of data to look at changes over time. We find that newspapers have a robust positive effect on political participation, with one additional newspaper increasing both presidential and congressional turnout by approximately 0.3 percentage points. Newspaper competition is not a key driver of turnout: our effect is driven mainly by the first newspaper in a market, and the effect of a second or third paper is significantly smaller. The effect on presidential turnout diminishes after the introduction of radio and television, while the estimated effect on congressional turnout remains similar up to recent years. We find no evidence that partisan newspapers affect party vote shares, with confidence intervals that rule out even moderate-sized effects. We find no clear evidence that newspapers systematically help or hurt incumbents.
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This research examines height stereotypes of women and men in the United States using two methods of stereotype assessment, the trait ratings method and the percentage estimates method. Subjects rated female or male targets who were tall, of average height, or short on seven evaluative dimensions; social attractiveness, professional status, p0ersonal adjustment, athletic orientation, masculinity, femininity, and physical attractiveness. Findings indicated that height stereotypes of men encompassed six of the seven dimensions and suggested that shortness is more of a liability than tallness is an asset. Height stereotypes of women encompassed only two dimensions and again suggested the liabilities of shortness. Stronger stereotypes were obtained with the trait ratings method than with the percentage estimates method, although no differences in the content of the stereotypes were observed. Implications for future research on height effects on person perception and for the interchangeability of different methods of stereotype assessment are discussed.
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This cross-cultural study utilized the full range leadership framework developed by Bass and Avolio and Hofstede's model of culture, and compared leadership styles and cultural values of over 4,000 managerial and non-managerial employees in ten business organizations in Russia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Germany, and the US. Regarding socio-cultural dimensions, the study found that, compared to Germany and the US, the four former USSR countries differed primarily by much lower levels of Power Distance, higher levels of Masculinity and much longer planning horizons. The results on leadership indicate that two dimensions - Contingent Reward and Inspirational Motivation - produced the highest scores in all four countries of the former USSR. Two less efficient leadership styles, Laissez-faire and Management by Exception, have received significantly higher scores in the four former USSR countries, than in the US and Germany. Finally, the study suggests that cross-cultural human resource development issues cannot be described in terms of simplified dichotomies between the East and West. For constructs measured in this study, significant differences were found not only between the two groups of countries but also between individual countries within these groups.
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This study examined the relationship between physical height and managerial promotion among 132 British managers from the civil services. The data were analyzed independently for 61 men and 71 women. Analysis suggested that rate of promotion was positively correlated with height. These coefficients were not reduced when the effect of personality profile associated with height was removed.
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This study examines the relationships of exposure and attention to various news media, including the Internet, with information learned about the issue positions of candidates George Bush and John Kerry, interest in the 2004 election campaign, and intention to vote among a random sample of adult residents of Indiana who were interviewed by telephone in October 2004. The results are compared with our previous studies of the 1988, 1992, 1996, and 2000 U.S. presidential elections. In general, our studies suggest that attention to television news, televised debates, and now Internet news are important predictors, or at least correlates, of voter learning of candidate issue positions and voter interest in the election campaigns. These findings contradict the hypothesis that increased news media use leads to increased voter apathy and alienation from the political process.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Following evolutionary psychology, we argue that physical stature matters in preferences regarding political leadership. Particularly, a preference for physically formidable leaders evolved to promote survivability in the violent human ancestral history. We present two studies of original data to assess individual attitudes regarding the association between physical stature and political leadership. Analytical methods include ordered probit regression. The findings are consistent with the evolutionary theory presented here. Study 1 indicates that individuals tend to prefer leaders with greater physical stature, while Study 2 indicates that males with greater physical stature are more likely to think of themselves as qualified to be a leader and, through this increased sense of efficacy, they are more likely to demonstrate interest in pursuing a leadership position. Consistent with emerging evidence from other research perspectives, political behavior, in this case preferences regarding political leadership, is shaped by both environmental and evolutionary forces.
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presents a set of principles about how teams—and small groups in general—develop and function effectively / these are principles that have been validated in research on small groups and teams over the past 40 years / awareness of this information can guide the team leader who aims to transform a group composed of members who often differ in education, experience, attitudes, and beliefs, into an effective, cooperative, and high-performing team / present selected research findings and principles derived from these findings / examples also will clarify or illustrate applications of the principles to the full range of leadership (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Previous research has found that an electoral candidates' eight is correlated with their image. Many studies have found that height is a great asset for a candidate as height correlates with electoral outcome. In this research the previously obtained results were partially confirmed—in the first study the supporters of a given candidate estimated him as taller than his opponents (confirmed by six out of 10 candidates). The second study, conducted during the presidential elections in Poland, showed that electorate-perceived height of candidates for the Presidency changed after the first phase of elections (confirmed by three from six main candidates). These changes in electoral-perceived height depended more upon their electoral support than attitudes toward them. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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We use new data on entries and exits of US daily newspapers from 1869 to 2004 to estimate effects on political participation, party vote shares, and electoral competitiveness. Our iden-tification strategy exploits the precise timing of these events and allows for the possibility of confounding trends. We find that newspapers have a robust positive effect on political partic-ipation, with one additional newspaper increasing both presidential and congressional turnout by approximately 0.3 percentage points. Newspaper competition is not a key driver of turnout: our effect is driven mainly by the first newspaper in a market, and the effect of a second or third paper is significantly smaller. The effect on presidential turnout diminishes after the introduc-tion of radio and television, while the estimated effect on congressional turnout remains similar up to recent years. We find no evidence that partisan newspapers affect party vote shares, with confidence intervals that rule out even moderate-sized effects. We find no clear evidence that newspapers systematically help or hurt incumbents.
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Two studies examined whether variations in height influence children's impressions of men and women. In Study 1, 28 preschool-aged children judged the strength, dominance, smartness, and concern for others of male and female targets of different heights. Children judged both taller male and female targets as stronger and more dominant, but not to have more concern for others or smartness than shorter targets. In Study 2, 71 preschool-aged children viewed pairs of male and female targets in three height conditions (male target taller, female target taller, targets equal height) and made trait judgments as in Study 1. Again, taller male targets were judged to be stronger, more dominant, and smarter, but not to have more concern for others than shorter female targets. Moreover, disruptions of gender-typical height differences were associated with reversals in impressions of male and female targets. That is, taller female targets were judged to be stronger, more dominant, and smarter when they appeared with shorter male targets. The present findings not only support the claim that physical stature figures importantly in the process by which children form trait impressions but also indicate that covariations between height and gender exert a strong impact on particular traits children attribute to men and women.
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Leadership implies power. We argue, from a social embodiment perspective, that thinking about power involves mental simulation of vertical location. Three studies tested whether judgments of leaders’ power and information on a vertical location are interrelated. In Studies 1a–1c, participants judged a leader’s power after being presented with, among other information, an organization chart containing either a long or a short vertical line. A longer vertical line increased judged power. Study 2 showed that this effect persists when longer (vs. shorter) vertical lines are presented in an independent priming task and not in an organization chart, and that horizontal lines do not have the same effect. Finally, Studies 3a and 3b showed the reverse causal effect: information about a leader’s power influenced participants’ vertical positioning of a leader’s box in an organization chart and of a leader picture into a team picture. Implications for leadership communication are discussed.
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Despite the recognized importance of leadership in organizational contexts, relatively few studies have examined the concept of leadership in various cultures. To better understand cross-cultural leadership, this study compares leadership prototypes across several countries using an attribute-rating task. Subjects (N = 142) from eight countries rated a list of 59 attributes according to how well each fit their prototype of a business leader. Results indicate significant differences among the ratings provided by subjects from different countries of traits identified as high, medium, and low in prototypicality. Subsequent multidimensional scaling aggregated across trait ratings yielded a three-dimensional configuration of countries. The relative distances between countries are discussed with respect to Hofstede's (1980) dimensions of national culture. Potential implications for selection and training of expatriate managers are discussed.
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In this article we examine the association between female height and reproductive success in a US sample and present a review of previous studies on this association. We also outline possible biological explanations for our findings. We used data from a long-term study of 5,326 female Wisconsin high school graduates to examine the association between female height and reproductive success. Twenty-one samples on this association were covered by our literature review. Shorter women had more children surviving to age 18 than taller women, despite increased child mortality in shorter women. Taller women had a higher age at first birth and age at first marriage and reached a higher social status, but the negative effect of height on reproductive success persisted after controlling for these variables. However, while these effects were quite consistent in Western populations, they were not consistently present in non-Western populations. Our review also indicated that child mortality was almost universally higher among shorter women. We conclude that shorter women have a higher number of live births but that final reproductive success depends on the positive effect of height on child survival.
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Because male height is associated with attractiveness, dominance, and reproductive success, taller men may be less jealous. And because female height has a curvilinear relationship with health and reproductive success (with average-height females having the advantages), female height may have a curvilinear relationship with jealousy. In Study 1, male height was found to be negatively correlated with self-reported global jealousy, whereas female height was curvilinearly related to jealousy, with average-height women reporting the lowest levels of jealousy. In Study 2, male height was found to be negatively correlated with jealousy in response to socially influential, physically dominant, and physically attractive rivals. Female height was negatively correlated with jealousy in response to physically attractive, physically dominant, and high-social-status rivals; in addition, quadratic effects revealed that approximately average-height women tend to be less jealous of physically attractive rivals but more jealous of rivals with "masculine" characteristics of physical dominance and social status. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Taller workers earn on average higher salaries. Recent research has proposed cognitive abilities and social skills as explanations for the height-wa