State of the art: Using natriuretic peptide levels in clinical practice

VA San Diego Healthcare System Cardiology, San Diego, CA 92161, USA.
European Journal of Heart Failure (Impact Factor: 6.53). 09/2008; 10(9):824-39. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejheart.2008.07.014
Source: PubMed


Natriuretic peptide (NP) levels (B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP) are now widely used in clinical practice and cardiovascular research throughout the world and have been incorporated into most national and international cardiovascular guidelines for heart failure. The role of NP levels in state-of-the-art clinical practice is evolving rapidly. This paper reviews and highlights ten key messages to clinicians: 1) NP levels are quantitative plasma biomarkers of heart failure (HF). 2) NP levels are accurate in the diagnosis of HF. 3) NP levels may help risk stratify emergency department (ED) patients with regard to the need for hospital admission or direct ED discharge. 4) NP levels help improve patient management and reduce total treatment costs in patients with acute dyspnoea. 5) NP levels at the time of admission are powerful predictors of outcome in predicting death and re-hospitalisation in HF patients. 6) NP levels at discharge aid in risk stratification of the HF patient. 7) NP-guided therapy may improve morbidity and/or mortality in chronic HF. 8) The combination of NP levels together with symptoms, signs and weight gain assists in the assessment of clinical decompensation in HF. 9) NP levels can accelerate accurate diagnosis of heart failure presenting in primary care. 10) NP levels may be helpful to screen for asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction in high-risk patients.

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    • "Recently it has been demonstrated that slowing or reversing the progression of remodeling could become a therapeutic goal of HF patients' management. Circulating plasma concentrations of BNP is currently the most commonly used biomarker in AHF and its level is generally increased in proportion to the severity of the myocardial stretch or overload [19]. However, the applicability of BNP is limited, since its levels substantially vary over the day, and is not related to the underlying cardiac disease process. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Acute heart failure (AHF) is associated with a higher risk for the occurrence of rehospitalization and death. Galectin-3 (GAL3) is elevated in AHF patients and is an indicator in predicting short-term mortality. The total body water using bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) is able to identify mortality within AHF patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term predictive value of GAL3, BIVA, and the combination of both in AHF patients in Emergency Department (ED). Methods: 205 ED patients with AHF were evaluated by testing for B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and GAL3. The primary endpoint was death and rehospitalization at 30, 60, 90, and 180 days and 12 and 18 months. AHF patients were evaluated at the moment of ED arrival with clinical judgment and GAL3 and BIVA measurement. Results: GAL3 level was significantly higher in patients >71 years old, and with eGFR < 30 cc/min. The area under the curve (AUC) of GAL3 + BIVA, GAL3 and BIVA for death and rehospitalization both when considered in total and when considered serially for the follow-up period showed that the combination has a better prognostic value. Kaplan-Meier survival curve for GAL3 values >17.8 ng/mL shows significant survival difference. At multivariate Cox regression analysis GAL3 is an independent variable to predict death + rehospitalization with a value of 32.24 ng/mL at 30 days (P < 0.005). Conclusion: In patients admitted for AHF an early assessment of GAL3 and BIVA seems to be useful in identifying patients at high risk for death and rehospitalization at short and long term. Combining the biomarker and the device could be of great utility since they monitor the severity of two pathophysiological different mechanisms: heart fibrosis and fluid overload.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BioMed Research International
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    • "Regarding organ dysfunctions and failures, various novel biomarkers have shown promise in clinical practice. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been used to successfully aid in the diagnosis of heart failure, and its concentrations correlated with both disease severity and prognosis [9-11]. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been regarded as a sensitive, specific, and early predictive biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI) [12-14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the diagnostic and prognostic utilities of procalcitonin (PCT), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in critically ill patients with suspected sepsis, for whom sepsis was diagnosed clinically or based on PCT concentrations. PCT, BNP, and NGAL concentrations were measured in 340 patients and were followed up in 109 patients. All studied biomarkers were analyzed according to the diagnosis, severity, and clinical outcomes of sepsis. Clinical sepsis and PCT-based sepsis showed poor agreement (kappa = 0.2475). BNP and NGAL showed significant differences between the two groups of PCT-based sepsis (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.0001), although there was no difference between the two groups of clinical sepsis. BNP and NGAL were significantly different according to the PCT staging and sepsis-related organ failure assessment subscores (P < 0.0001, all). BNP and PCT concentrations were significantly higher in the non-survivors than in the survivors (P = 0.0002) and showed an equal ability to predict in-hospital mortality (P = 0.0001). In the survivors, the follow-up NGAL and PCT concentrations were significantly lower than the initial values (148.7 ng/mL vs. 214.5 ng/mL, P < 0.0001; 0.61 ng/mL vs. 5.56 ng/mL, P = 0.0012). PCT-based sepsis diagnosis seems to be more reliable and discriminating than clinical sepsis diagnosis. Multimarker approach using PCT, BNP, and NGAL would be useful for the diagnosis, staging, and prognosis prediction in the critically ill patients with suspected sepsis.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    • "It will be of interest to evaluate plasma biomarkers in detection of cardiac alterations in cancer patients. The utility of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and pro-BNP in detection of HF patients has been proven [74]. Promising evidence exists in regard to high sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI) and BNP in detection of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity [75, 76]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer cachexia is defined as a multifactorial syndrome of involuntary weight loss characterized by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass and progressive functional impairment. It is postulated that cardiac dysfunction/atrophy parallels skeletal muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia. Cardiotoxic chemotherapy may additionally result in cardiac dysfunction and heart failure in some cancer patients. Heart failure thus may be a consequence of either ongoing cachexia or chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity; at the same time, heart failure can result in cachexia, especially muscle wasting. Therefore, the subsequent heart failure and cardiac cachexia can exacerbate the existing cancer-induced cachexia. We discuss these bilateral effects between cancer cachexia and heart failure in cancer patients. Since cachectic patients are more susceptible to chemotherapy-induced toxicity overall, this may also include increased cardiotoxicity of antineoplastic agents. Patients with cachexia could thus be doubly unfortunate, with cachexia-related cardiac dysfunction/heart failure and increased susceptibility to cardiotoxicity during treatment. Cardiovascular risk factors as well as pre-existing heart failure seem to exacerbate cardiac susceptibility against cachexia and increase the rate of cardiac cachexia. Hence, chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity, cardiovascular risk factors, and pre-existing heart failure may accelerate the vicious cycle of cachexia-heart failure. The impact of cancer cachexia on cardiac dysfunction/heart failure in cancer patients has not been thoroughly studied. A combination of serial echocardiography for detection of cachexia-induced cardiac remodeling and computed tomography image analysis for detection of skeletal muscle wasting would appear a practical and non-invasive approach to develop an understanding of cardiac structural/functional alterations that are directly related to cachexia.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
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