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Gratitude and subjective well-being in early adolescence: Examining gender differences

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Abstract

Gratitude was examined among 154 students to identify benefits from its experience and expression. Students completed measures of subjective well-being, social support, prosocial behavior, and physical symptoms. Positive associations were found between gratitude and positive affect, global and domain specific life satisfaction, optimism, social support, and prosocial behavior; most relations remained even after controlling for positive affect. Gratitude demonstrated a negative relation with physical symptoms, but not with negative affect. Relational fulfillment mediated the relation between gratitude and physical symptoms. Gratitude demonstrated strong relations with the following positive affects: proud, hopeful, inspired, forgiving, and excited. The relation between gratitude and family support was moderated by gender, indicating that boys, compared with girls, appear to derive more social benefits from gratitude. Strengths, limitations, and implications are discussed.

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... These relationships have also been found in adolescent samples (e.g. Froh, Yurkewicz, et al., 2009) and in children (e.g. Tian et al., 2015). ...
... For instance, Wood et al. (2007b) found that 18 to 22 year olds' coping style did not mediate the relationship between gratitude and happiness, and only certain thinking styles mediated the link between gratitude and life-satisfaction. Additionally, Froh, Yurkewicz, et al. (2009) found no evidence that prosocial behaviour, social support, gratitude in response to aid, affect or physical symptoms mediated the relationship between children's trait gratitude and their life satisfaction or positive affect. ...
... Therefore, it was the only study which could legitimately make comment on a potential causal pathway from gratitude to well-being outcomes. Four studies considered the impact of confounding variables, controlling for life satisfaction at Time 1 (Armenta et al., 2020), positive affect (Froh, Yurkewicz, et al., 2009), gender (Tian et al., 2015) and trauma severity (Zhou et al., 2019). ...
Thesis
School-based gratitude interventions show evidence of enhancing student well-being but there is limited research suggesting how gratitude increases well-being. There is also the need for a suitable tool to measure children’s gratitude and evaluate the impact of gratitude interventions. The researcher sought to address these literature gaps. A systematic literature review was used to address the question ‘which variables mediate the association between young people’s gratitude and well-being?’. Stronger evidence was found for cognitive and social resources as mediators, compared to mediators related to affect. A lack of experimental and longitudinal studies in the current evidence base was identified, highlighting avenues for future research. In an empirical study, the researcher designed and screened a new questionnaire of children’s gratitude, the Questionnaire of Appreciation in Youth (QUAY). Items were developed using the literature to identify a comprehensive definition of gratitude and its key features, and through discussion with the research supervisors who have extensive experience of studying gratitude. The initial items were screened in a focus group with three children aged eight to nine. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted with responses from 107 children aged eight to 10. This led to the development of an 11-item scale with good reliability and convergent validity with an existing measure of gratitude, the GQ-6. A three-factor structure was retained, with subscales addressing gratitude, appreciation, and sense of privilege. Limitations include the lack of a more diverse sample, the absence of reverse-scored items, positive skew in responses, and the need to establish discriminant validity. Implications include new insights into the structure of children’s gratitude, providing a working tool which could be further developed in order to measure children’s gratitude more effectively.
... Another notable interpersonal strength is gratitude. It holds psychosocial benefits for adolescents (Froh et al., 2014;Tudge & Freitas, 2018) and is integral for their flourishing (Froh et al., 2009). It helps adolescents develop positive emotions, hope, love, forgiveness, empathy, kindness, humility, and a persistent attitude (Froh et al., 2009;Scales et al., 2004). ...
... It holds psychosocial benefits for adolescents (Froh et al., 2014;Tudge & Freitas, 2018) and is integral for their flourishing (Froh et al., 2009). It helps adolescents develop positive emotions, hope, love, forgiveness, empathy, kindness, humility, and a persistent attitude (Froh et al., 2009;Scales et al., 2004). Grateful adolescents are self-compassionate, caring, and less judgmental (Peng et al., 2020). ...
... The cognitive dimension looks at it as an acknowledgement of gain, along with the realization that another person is responsible for it (Chen & Kee, 2008). The affective dimension entails a sense of delight in response to receiving a tangible or intangible gift (Froh et al., 2009). ...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on positive adolescent development and the role of gratitude in particular in promoting adolescent well-being. A global view on the subject is offered, with a specific focus on the Indian cultural context. The chapter consists of three main sections. The first section offers various perspectives on adolescent development, emphasizing a strengths-based approach. It highlights empirical findings on how gratitude benefits adolescents. This section also presents the cross-cultural and indigenous Indian aspects of gratitude. The second part describes an empirical study involving gratitude journaling among Indian adolescents. Study findings and implications are discussed. The third and final section of this chapter presents both Indian and international scenarios towards positive adolescent development and concludes by proposing future recommendations.
... La investigación científica ha demostrado que la experiencia de emociones positivas constituye una de las posibles vías de acceso a la plenitud y el bienestar (Seligman, 2011). Se ha observado que estas emociones tienen la capacidad de amplificar el repertorio de pensamientos y acciones, estimular la memoria asociativa, la flexibilidad, la integración y la eficiencia del razonamiento, predecir el bienestar subjetivo, incrementar la resistencia y robustecer ciertas capacidades personales que optimizan la probabilidad de supervivencia y salud (Boehm & Lyubomirsky, 2008;Cohen, Doyle, Turner, Alper, & Skoner, 2003;Consedine, Magai, & King, 2004;Fredrickson, 2013;Fredrickson & Branigan, 2005;Fredrickson & Joiner, 2018;Froh, Yurkewicz, & Kashdan, 2009;Johnson, Waugh, & Fredrickson, 2010;Madan, Scott, & Kensinger, 2019;Puente-Díaz & Cavazos-Arroyo, 2019;Ren, Hu, Zhang, & Huang, 2010;Vaish, Carpenter, & Tomasello;Van Cappellen, Rice, Catalino, & Fredrickson, 2018;Wood, Maltby, Gillett, Linley, & Joseph, 2008). En el plano interpersonal, favorecen el establecimiento de conexiones sociales extensas y positivas, y promueven una actitud inclusiva, compasiva, cooperativa y tolerante hacia los demás (Fredrickson, 2013;Kok et al., 2013;Rand, Kraft-Todd, & Gruber, 2015). ...
... Respecto a si la experiencia de emociones positivas varía según el sexo de los menores, la investigación es muy limitada y los resultados no muestran una dirección clara, excepto en cierto grado para la gratitud (Cuello & Oros, 2016;Froh et al., 2009;Kiang et al., 2016) y especialmente para la simpatía (Lemos et al., 2015;Malti, Gummerum, Keller, & Buchmann, 2009;Vossen, Piotrowski, & Valkenburg, 2015) donde algunos estudios tienden a coincidir en que las niñas presentan valores más elevados que los varones, como suele ocurrir en población adulta (Bernabé-Valero, García-Alandete, & Gallego-Pérez, 2014; Kashdan, Mishra, Breen, & Froh, 2009). De cualquier manera, hay evidencia que sugiere que cuando las emociones y afectos positivos son evaluados de un modo global o más genérico (por ejemplo, a través del PANAS) no emergen diferencias entre los grupos (Barrón-Sánchez & Molero, 2014;Sandín, 2003;Veronese et al., 2012). ...
... Estudios previos que han referido diferencias por sexo en estas emociones, coinciden en señalar a las niñas como más agradecidas y más simpáticas que los varones (Cuello & Oros, 2016;Froh et al., 2009;Kiang et al., 2016;Lemos et al., 2015;Malti et al., 2009;Vossen et al., 2015). Esto es razonable dado que tanto la simpatía como la gratitud son emociones de naturaleza empática (Lazarus, 2000), y se ha comprobado reiteradamente que las mujeres evidencian mayor empatía (Garaigordobil & García, 2006;Malonda, Llorca, Samper, Córdoba, & Mestre, 2018;Mestre, Samper, Frías, & Tur, 2009) y son más sensibles y expresivas que sus pares del sexo opuesto . ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to assess the validity based on internal structure of the Children's Questionnaire of Positive Emotions (CIEP), and to provide normative data for the interpretation of the scores of Argentinean children, aged from 8 to 12 years old. Participants were 1384 girls, 1376 boys and 1 child who did not identify his sex (M = 10.14; SD = 1.30). All attended to public or private primary schools, from urban and suburban areas of Argentina. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed that the data fit acceptably the five-factor proposed model: joy, gratitude, sympathy, serenity and personal satisfaction. The ANOVA’s revealed differences in the positive emotional experience between girls and boys, being the first who shown greater tendency to be grateful and sympathetic. From these results, the means, standard deviations and percentile values for each sex were calculated.
... This result can also be explained according to the broaden-and-build theory, which pointed out that positive emotions can broaden individuals' thinking and allow them to build psychological, intellectual, and social resources. Additionally, positive emotions, especially gratitude, may play a role in motivating individuals to engage in positive behaviors that lead to their improvement (Armenta et al., 2017;Froh, Yurkewiczb, and Kashdan, 2009). ...
... Grateful states result from the acknowledgment that (a) the person received a positive result; (b) there is an external source for this positive result; (c) the benevolent made an effort to provide them with the benefit. Therefore, gratitude is an empathic emotion (Froh et al., 2009) that leads to feelings of happiness. ...
Article
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The present study aims at identifying the separate and interactive contribution of gratitude and mindfulness in predicting happiness; examining the relationship between these variables; identifying differences between students with high happiness and students with low happiness in gratitude and mindfulness; and identifying the levels of gratitude, mindfulness, and happiness among the students of Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University. The research sample consisted of 447 female students aged 18-25 years. The research instruments included the Toronto Mindfulness Scale, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, as well as the Gratitude, Resentment, and Appreciation Test-Short form. The study found out that gratitude and mindfulness had a significant contribution in predicting happiness among university students (31% and 41.5%, respectively). The interaction between the total scores of mindfulness and gratitude contributed 51.5% of the variance in happiness among university students. The interaction between mindfulness, sense of abundance, and simple appreciation contributed 54.4% of the variance in happiness among university students. The study found a positive correlation between mindfulness, gratitude (sense of abundance, simple appreciation, appreciation of others), and happiness. Additionally, it was found that students at Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University had moderate levels of mindfulness and moderate to high levels of gratitude and happiness. The sense of abundance domain was moderate, the simple appreciation domain was high, and the appreciation of others domain was moderate. Mindfulness, gratitude, sense of abundance, simple appreciation, and appreciation of others increased among the students with high happiness. Received: 8 March 2021 / Accepted: 22 June 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021
... Second, a lot of gratitude intervention studies have demonstrated a reliable effect on improving one's subjective wellbeing. Different forms of gratitude exercises were given in previous studies, such as listing three to five things to be grateful for (Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Geraghty, Wood, & Hyland, 2010a, 2010bSeligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005), contemplating on things or people to be grateful for (Watkins et al., 2003), along with writing and delivering a gratitude letter to their benefactor Froh, Yurkewicz, & Kashdan, 2009;Seligman et al., 2005). ...
... As for short and long-term effects, gratitude intervention can immediately boost positive mood Watkins et al., 2003), and gratitude intervention's positive effects have been shown to last up to six months (Seligman et al., 2005). Gratitude intervention is also proven effective in different groups, such as college students (Study 1 & Study 2, Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Watkins et al., 2003), patients with neuromuscular diseases (Study 3, Emmons & McCullough, 2003), patients with body-image dissatisfaction (Geraghty et al., 2010a), patients with anxiety disorder (Geraghty et al., 2010a(Geraghty et al., , 2010b, adolescents in school Froh, Yurkewicz, et al., 2009), and children in school . ...
Thesis
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Backgrounds: Gratitude and pride are both benefit-related emotions, whereby the pride attributes success to oneself and gratitude to another. Gratitude and pride are vital to the function of a society, allowing one to create interpersonal relationships and build self-confidence. Despite growing interest in the neural underpinnings of positive emotions and subjective feelings, we know very little about how these emotions are represented in the brain and computationally updated over time by new experience. Aims of the study: We aimed to fill the gap by finding the specific neural representations of the dynamic emotional experience of gratitude and pride, and the functional neural substrates for updating positive emotions in general. Furthermore, we also aimed to find the best computational models to give the best explanations how these two emotions are updated as the environmental factors change. Methods: We developed a novel behavioral task based on the gameshow “Who Wants to be a Millionaire”, which we used together with functional MRI, and computational modeling. We investigated which brain regions are involved in representing gratitude and pride, how the human brain keeps track of these emotions over time and how it updates them when new information is available. 13 Results: We found that gratitude was more associated with neural activities in the bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ), which has previously been implicated in Theory of Mind. In contrast, pride was more associated with neural activities in the caudate nucleus, which is part of the reward system, and hippocampus. Importantly, when we look for neural activity parametrically modulated with the reported magnitude of gratitude feelings we found correlations mainly in the motor cortex (precentral gyrus), reward system (ventral striatum, putamen) and Theory of Mind network (temporal pole). In contrast, neural activity pertaining to the strength of the feeling of pride was found in the bilateral putamen. Moreover, activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was related to an emotional prediction error signal, suggesting that this region might be involved in the process of updating our level of gratitude and pride feelings. Computational modeling revealed different models for gratitude and pride. Gratitude model uniquely involved the prediction of others’ behavior, while pride model involved mainly the reward. Implications: Our findings delineate the computational mechanisms and neural circuitry for positive emotions that accompany the attribution of getting reward whether it is due to one's own effort or help of others. Besides, our studies contribute to theories of emotions in several different aspects, especially to the newest theory of constructed emotion. Our findings have clinical implications for developing new psychotherapies for patients with emotional disorders.
... In studies of children and adolescents, girls report being more grateful than boys (Froh, Yurkewicz, & Kashdan, 2009), (Froh, Emmons, Card, Bono, & Wilson, 2011). However, one study found that boys may derive more social benefits from gratitude because they show a stronger link between gratitude and emotional support from family. ...
... However, one study found that boys may derive more social benefits from gratitude because they show a stronger link between gratitude and emotional support from family. However, it is also possible that gratitude may be a consequence of that support rather than its cause (Froh, Yurkewicz, et al., 2009). Adult women also reported more gratitude traits than adult men (Sun & Kong, 2013, (Kong, Ding, & Zhao, 2015), (Morgan et al., 2017), (Yost-Dubrow& Dunham, 2017). ...
Article
Gratitude is an extremely necessary spiritual element in our lives. Grateful people experience life in a more peaceful, and happy way. The study was conducted on 762 students from two clusters of gifted and non-specialized high schools in Da Nang city to describe the current situation, perception of gratitude and factors affecting the level of gratitude in high school students. Research results show that 79% of students are not grateful. A special thing is that the factors such as academic ability, age, and gender do not completely affect the gratitude level of high school students. Based on the findings, the study proposes a number of measures that partially affect the educational methods of schools and families, as well as directly affect the survey subjects.
... Religious values make executing have high hopes and optimism (Ciarrocchi, Liacco, & Deneke, 2008). Gratitude will cause a positive evaluation of life and a desire to maintain and improve positive outcomes (Froh, Yurkewicz, & Kashdan, 2009). ...
... In the early adult age range according to Santrock (1999), these young individuals have entered a period of transition both physically transition intellectual transition, and transition to social roles. Strengthened by the opinion of Erikson (1963) that in the early adult phase individuals will have the need to make a commitment by creating a close and stable interpersonal relationship and being able to actualize themselves fully to maintain that relationship. Developmental aspects faced by individuals in early adulthood, one of which is cognitive development (Santrock, 1995). ...
Article
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At the stage of development, individuals will pass the adolescence stage to the adult stage. At that stage, the individual will be in the early adult phase, where the individual will focus on preparing for his future and evaluating his adolescence so that in adulthood individuals have a quality life. In a quality life, there is an element of religiosity, wherein a Muslim's life gratitude is one aspect of religiosity. The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between gratitude and quality of life in Muslims in early adulthood. The subjects in this study were 101 Muslims in early adulthood consisting of college students and working individuals. Data collection in this study uses a scale in the form of a questionnaire to reveal two variables, namely WHOQOL-BREF scale from WHO (World Health Organization) and then the scale of gratitude is a scale developed by Rusdi (2016). The results of data processing with Pearson Product Moment correlation on 101 subjects showed that quality of life and gratitude were positively correlated significantly (p <0.05) with p = 0.000 and the correlation coefficient of r = 0.450. The research had a limitation that the gratitude scale can only be applied to the subject of a Muslim because the measuring instrument used has a value that is trusted by Muslims and on this research only applied to subjects in a number of regions in Indonesia. It is hoped that this research can be a study of psychology, especially in the study of Islamic psychology.
... Gratitude, another important topic in positive psychology, can be conceptualized as an individual and generalized tendency to recognize the positive things obtained from the grace of others (30). Abundant evidence disclosed that gratitude was positively associated with positive outcomes such as life satisfaction, social support, prosocial behaviors, and subjective wellbeing (31)(32)(33). According to the risk-buffering model (29), as a positive individual factor, gratitude might also play a mediating role in the relationship between cumulative family risks and IGD among adolescents. ...
... In a study of Chinese elementary school students, Bai and Jin (34) revealed that family functioning was significantly correlated with gratitude. Moreover, family support was closely related to gratitude among middle school students (31). Similarly, parental support, especially maternal emotional support, sustains the level of gratitude among adolescents (35). ...
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In the digital era, playing internet games enriches the entertainment forms for young generations. At the same time, it also raises some social issues, and internet gaming disorder (IGD) is one of them. Abundant studies demonstrate that IGD is harmful to individual physiological and psychological health. Therefore, it is necessary to figure out the reasons and mechanisms behind this phenomenon. Based on the ecological systems theory, the present study investigated the cumulative effect of family risks on adolescent IGD and the serial mediating effects of personal growth initiative and gratitude in a chain mediation model. Using random cluster sampling, a sample of 600 Chinese adolescents was recruited to finish the questionnaire. Results of regression analysis suggested that cumulative family risks could positively predict IGD among adolescents. Moreover, personal growth initiative and gratitude mediated the relationship between cumulative family risk and IGD, separately and sequentially. These findings may provide some guidance for the prevention and intervention to prevent or reduce IGD in adolescents.
... Previous studies have found that gender and age are correlated with life satisfaction (Froh et al., 2009;Fugl-Meyer, Melin, & Fugl-Meyer, 2002). Furthermore, several research has suggested that OFSS could positively predict subjective well-being and individual's health (Callan et al., 2015;Kong et al., 2015;Kong et al., 2015;Kong et al., 2015), so we adopted parental education as an index of OFSS and assessed parental education by asking the highest level of parental education, through which the possible categories were raised: 1 = never went to school (education level: 0 year) to 11 = postgraduate (education level: 22 years). ...
... Prior studies have suggested that gender, age and OFSS are related to life satisfaction (Froh et al., 2009;Fugl-Meyer et al., 2002;Kong, Chen, et al., 2015;Kong, Ding, et al., 2015;Kong, Wang, et al., 2015), so we also investigated whether our results would be affected by age, gender and OFSS and used parental education as an indicator of OFSS. The results showed that, after controlling for gender, age and OFSS, the multiple mediation analysis found that, the mediating effects of resilience (indirect effect = 0.01, 95% CI [0.001, 0.02]), self-esteem (indirect effect = 0.06, 95% 3 Study 2 ...
Article
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This paper aimed at examining the mediators of resilience, self-esteem and hope in the link of subjective family socioeconomic status (SFSS) with life satisfaction in two independent samples of Chinese adolescents. In Study 1, 845 adolescents completed a multi-section questionnaire including the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, Brief Resilience Scale, Rosenberg Self–esteem Scale, Children’s Hope Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. The multiple mediation analysis suggested that SFSS could positively predict life satisfaction through three pathways. First, resilience mediated the link of SFSS with life satisfaction. Second, self-esteem mediated the link of SFSS with life satisfaction. Third, hope mediated the link of SFSS with life satisfaction. Moreover, after controlling for age, gender and objective FSS, these findings remained significant. To test whether the above results are stable and replicable, we further conducted a validation study in sample 2 (N = 483) and found all the results remained significant. Together, these findings may provide theoretical evidence for how to enhance life satisfaction with adolescents who have lower SFSS.
... Based on the positive associations of wellbeing with age, gender, and family objective SES (FOSS) (Curhan et al., 2014;Froh et al., 2009;Fugl-Meyer et al., 2002;Kong et al., 2015aKong et al., , 2015bKong et al., , 2015c, we controlled for these three variables in a supplementary analysis. We selected educational attainment to represent FOSS (Attewell and Newman, 2010;Fiske and Markus, 2012;Lareau and Conley, 2008) and measured it by asking "What is the highest level of your parental education, respectively?" ...
... On the basis of prior studies, the positive associations of age, gender, and FOSS with well-being have been well demonstrated (Attewell and Newman, 2010;Froh et al., 2009;Fugl-Meyer et al., 2002). We thus further conducted an additional analysis to explore whether our results would be influenced by age, gender and FOSS. ...
Article
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Empirical evidence based on retrospective measures has shown that family subjective socioeconomic status (FSSS) was connected to well-being, but few studies have examined this relationship using a daily diary design. Here, we examined the link between FSSS and well-being as well as the mediating roles of social support and self-esteem in a total of 220 emerging adults using a 14-day daily diary design. The multilevel regression analysis found that FSSS positively predicted two types of well-being, including hedonic well-being (HWB) and eudaimonic well-being (EWB). Moreover, the multilevel 2-2-1 mediation analysis indicated that social support and self-esteem performed as independent mediators of the associations between FSSS and two types of well-being. The mediating effect of self-esteem also had no significant difference from that of social support. Furthermore, when age, gender, and family objective socioeconomic status were controlled, these findings remained significant. The implications and limitations of the findings are also discussed.
... Meta-analyses have demonstrated that gratitude interventions can result in decreases in depressive symptoms and have benefits for wellbeing, mood, happiness, and life satisfaction [28,29]. Additionally, previous trials have shown positive relations between gratitude and wellbeing in early adolescence [30,37] and late adolescence [38]. ...
Article
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Background Treatments for youth mental disorders are a public health priority, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where treatment options remain limited due to high cost, elevated stigma, and lack of trained mental health professionals. Brief, accessible, and non-stigmatizing community-based interventions delivered by lay providers may help address treatment needs in SSA. One such intervention, the Shamiri Intervention, consisting of three elements (growth mindset, gratitude, and value affirmation) has been tested in randomized controlled trials with school-going Kenyan adolescents. This three-element Shamiri Intervention has been shown to significantly reduce depression and anxiety symptoms and improve social support and academic performance relative to a control group. In this trial, we aim to investigate the effects of each element of the Shamiri Intervention. Methods In this five-arm randomized controlled trial, we will test each of the intervention components (growth mindset, gratitude, and value affirmation) against the full Shamiri Intervention and against a study skills control intervention. Students ( N planned = 1288) at participating secondary schools who are interested in participating in this universal intervention will be randomized in equal numbers into the five groups. The students will meet in groups of 8–15 students led by local high school graduate lay providers. These lay providers will receive a brief training, plus expert supervision once a week throughout the intervention delivery. Multi-level models will be used to compare trajectories over time of the primary outcomes (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, academic performance, and wellness) and secondary outcomes in each intervention group to the control group. Multi-level models will also be used to compare trajectories over time of the primary outcomes (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, academic performance, and wellness) and secondary outcomes of participants in the single-element interventions compared to the full Shamiri Intervention. Finally, effect sizes (calculated as mean gain scores) will be used to compare all groups on all measures. Discussion This trial will shed light on the mechanisms and outcomes targeted by each individual intervention, helping prioritize which mental health interventions are most important to disseminate. Trial registration PACTR Trial ID: PACTR202104716135752. Approved on 4/19/2021.
... . (Hall,2019;Emmons & Mc Cullough, 2003;Emmons & Shetlon, 2002, wood, Froh & Geraphy,2010. . (Hall, 2019;Diener, 1994 Froh, Yurkewicz & Kashdan, 2009;McCullough, Emmons & Tsang, 2002;Park & Peterson, 2006 (Tian,et al.,2013a;Tian,et al.,2013c;Liu, Tian, Huebner, Zheng, & Li, 2014 (Park & Peterson ,2006;Froh, Self & Emmons ,2008;Froh et al.,2010;Owens & Patterson ,2013;Forh et al. Tian, ;Tain, Du & Huebner ,2015Diebel et al.,2015; ) (Park & Peterson ,2006;Froh, Self & Emmons ,2008;Froh et al.,2010;Owens & Tain, Du Patterson ,2013;Forh et al. ,2014;Diebel et al.,2015 ...
... In this vein, gratitude facilitates goal contagion, making people adopt the goal implied by a social other's behavior (Jia et al., 2014). Gratitude is associated with perceived support from peers and family members (Froh et al., 2009a(Froh et al., , 2009b, and predicts increased relationship commitment, quality, maintenance, and satisfaction between the benefactors and the gift recipients (Algoe et al., 2008;Joel et al., 2013;Kubacka et al., 2011;Park et al., 2019). Meanwhile, when people show a reduced intention for social connection and bonding, considering or even acknowledging others' personhood becomes less relevant and thus objectification can occur (e.g., Powers et al., 2014;Waytz & Epley, 2012). ...
Article
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Objectification, treating others merely as things or tools while denying their personhood, results in severe consequences. While prior research predominantly focused on the triggers of objectification, we aimed to investigate a possible intervention. We hypothesized that gratitude could reduce objectification toward general others (i.e., people who are not the benefactors). Across three studies (N = 1007), our hypothesis was supported. Study 1 showed that dispositional gratitude negatively predicted trait objectification. Studies 2 and 3 further found a causal relationship. Specifically, after heightening participants’ state of gratitude, participants showed a lower level of objectification towards others (Study 2). Using a scenario study that described a working context, we further showed the alleviating effect of gratitude on objectification toward a group of factory workers, targets often suffering from objectification (Study 3). Our reported effect is prevalent, such that it is observed across samples from two countries (i.e., the United States and China).
... Les études menées auprès d'adolescents montrent que la gratitude est associée au bienêtre, à l'optimisme, à l'estime de soi et à la satisfaction de vie dans différents domaines comme l'école, la famille ou les amis (Froh, Yurkewicz & Kashdan, 2009 ;Protor, Linley & Maltby, 2010). Ainsi, un niveau élevé de gratitude prédit, trois mois plus tard, le niveau de satisfaction de vie et de comportements solidaires des élèves (Froh, Bono & Emmons, 2010). ...
... Additionally, in a sample of middle schoolers, there was an association between counting blessings and an increased level of gratitude, optimism, life satisfaction, along with decreased negative affect (Froh, Sefick, & Emmons, 2008). Expanding on the previous study, Froh et al. (2009) studied a sample of adolescents and found that relational fulfillment, or satisfaction within one's relationship, mediated the relation between gratitude and physical symptoms. ...
Article
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Previous research has found that gratitude, which is a central concept or practice in many religions and spiritual traditions, benefits an individual's well-being and may reduce symptoms of depression (Emmons & Stern in Journal of Clinical Psychology 69: 846–855, 2013). The current research utilized two different samples from the United States (i.e., undergraduate students at a large, public university, and a national sample of individuals formerly raised by custodial grandparents and/or through foster care obtained through Amazon Mechanical Turk) to examine the relation between religiosity and well-being. Measures used included life satisfaction (Satisfaction with Life Scale), symptoms of depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale-Revised), and gratitude (the Gratitude Questionnaire-6 Item Form, GQ-6; and the Transpersonal Gratitude Scale). The relation between religiosity (the Stearns-McKinney Assessment of Religious Traits) and psychological well-being (i.e., life satisfaction and depression) was mediated by gratitude among adults formerly raised by custodial grandparents and undergraduate college students at a large Southeastern university. These results indicate that gratitude may be an important factor in understanding the relation between religiosity and depressive symptoms and life satisfaction.
... Individu yang bahagia memiliki kreatifitas dan produktifitas yang lebih dan terbukti memiliki umur yang panjang karena kebahagiaan mempengaruhi kesehatan dan berdampak pada sistem imun (Carr, 2004). Froh (2009), menjelaskan bahwa individu yang memiliki sikap bersyukur yang tinggi maka akan mengindikasikan kebahagiaan, optimisme, munculnya perilaku prososial, dan dukungan sosial. Syukur hendaknya tidak sekedar diungkapkan melalui kata-kata, melainkan dinyatakan dengan tindakan Stoltz (1997), bahwa daya juang merupakan kemampuan yang dimiliki individu untuk bertahan dalam menghadapi dan mengatasi segala kesulitan yang terjadi dengan terus ulet dan tekun dalam mencapai tujuan yang diinginkan. ...
... Therefore, this paper aims to examine the adaptability of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) scale in India. The scale has been extensively used by previous researchers (Wood et al., 2008a(Wood et al., , 2008bFroh et al., 2009;Hill & Allemand, 2011;Sun & Kong, 2013;Kong et al., 2017;Hill & Allemand, 2011;Nezlek et al., 2016;Drążkowski et al., 2017). The GQ-6 is a six-item scale that measures one's proneness to gratitude in everyday life. ...
Article
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Due to culture-based differences in conceptualization, expression, and gratitude experience, the GQ-6 scale has been validated in different countries. The present study examines the adaptability of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) scale in India. Two studies are conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of GQ-6 for Indian college students. The first study explores factorial validity, reliability, and measurement invariance of the scale. Appropriate factor loading in exploratory factor analysis and model fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) provides empirical evidence of the scale’s factorial validity. The second study investigates the convergent and criterion validity of the scale. A positive correlation with positive affect (PANAS scale) and life satisfaction (Wheel of Life Scale) and a negative association with negative affect (PANAS scale) establish criterion validity of GQ-6. The results conclude adequate suitability of the GQ-6 scale for Indian college students.
... Gratitude in feminist thought is often linked with activism (Hogan, 2014) and building solidarity around gender equality and rights (Henry, 2006). There are also studies on the gender differences in showing gratitude (Emmons et al., 2019;Froh et al., 2009). The tradition of gratitude in theology shows believers exchanging benevolent acts, prayers, and religious rituals in thanksgiving for a higher power(s) (Krause, 2009;Wilson, 2015). ...
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By pulling from the complex field of fan studies, I hope to show how fan studies, particularly fangirls and their practices, can inform the field of curriculum theory. In this article, through an autobiographical sharing of moments, I consider how fangirl practices have shaped the way I regard scholars, conferences, and relationships. I then introduce a notion of “disruptive gratitude” into understandings of both fandom and curriculum theorizing and discuss how that concept might be used as a way to interrupt those fan(girl) practices that silence, erase, and oppress. Then, I consider three moments of disruptive gratitude that demonstrate my fangirling and reflect on how those moments have shaped my interactions with the community (and a fandom) in scholarship, spaces, and structures. I conclude by theorizing how the notion of disruptive gratitude enacted through fangirl practices serves as a possible way to undertake the necessary work of curriculum theory in order to challenge the structures of the field that standardize education, demoralize the profession, and ignore inequities.
... Si bien se encontró un efecto del género sobre las emociones positivas ya que los varones eran más serenos y las mujeres experimentaban mayores niveles de gratitud, no se halló interacción entre el programa y el género, es decir que fue igualmente eficaz para ambos grupos. Con respecto a las diferencias que puede haber en la gratitud según el género hay resultados contradictorios, por ejemplo, en Argentina se halló que las mujeres presentaban mayores niveles de gratitud tal como se encontró en esta investigación (Cuello & Oros, 2016), pero otros autores no han encontrado tales diferencias entre mujeres y varones (de Lucca Freitas et al., 2011;Froh et al., 2009). Como cuarto objetivo se propuso analizar la eficacia del programa Héroe en la promoción de emociones positivas frente al agresor como un aspecto fundamental de la capacidad de perdón de los adolescentes mexicanos. ...
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Implementation of the Hero Program to promote empathy, positive emotions, forgiving attitudes and prosocial behavior in Mexican adolescents Implementação do Programa Herói para promover a empatia, emoções positivas, atitudes de perdão e comportamento pró-social em adolescentes mexicanos. R E S U M E N El programa Héroe es una intervención virtual con evidencia empírica para favorecer el desarrollo psicosocial positivo de los adolescentes. El presente estudio tenía como objetivo evaluar su eficacia en un contexto nunca antes explorado, como los adolescentes mexicanos. Los objetivos de este trabajo eran determinar si el programa Héroe era efectivo para incrementar la conducta prosocial, la empatía, las emociones positivas y el perdón en adolescentes mexicanos. Para este fin, se constituyó una muestra de 241 participantes de ambos géneros (50.2% eran mujeres y el 49.8%, varones). Todos los participantes eran estudiantes mexicanos de secundaria de entre 12 y 15 años de edad, pertenecientes a dos escuelas secundarias. Los resultados arrojaron que el programa fue eficaz para promover conducta prosocial hacia los extraños, la empatía (en su dimensión cognitiva y emocional), las emociones positivas y el perdón. Estos hallazgos señalan que la combinación de la psicología y la tecnología, a través del desarrollo de sistemas y aplicaciones, pueden contribuir a que los adolescentes desarrollen su potencial.
... Ergenlik döneminde, bu döneme girişe bağlı olarak birtakım problemler (beden imajı, bağımlılık, riskli davranışlar vb.) ortaya çıkabilir. Bütün bunlardan hareketle ergenlerin birtakım zorluklar içinden geçtiği ve bu zorlukları deneyimlerken hayatlarında zaten var olan iyi şeyleri fark etmeye ihtiyaç duydukları söylenebilir (Froh, Yurkewicz, & Kashdan (2009). Pozitif psikoterapiye göre yaşamın beden, ilişki başarı ve maneviyattan oluşan dört boyutunda (Peseschkian, 2000) hali hazırdaki kaynakları fark ederek şükrün gelişmesi ergenlerin bu zor dönemde karşılaştıkları zorluklarla işlevsel şekilde baş edebilmeleri açısından önemli görülebilir. ...
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In this research it is aimed to test the effectiveness of junior high school students writing gratitude journals on gratitude. The research group constitutes students who attend secondary school in a public school and volunteer to participate in the research. The research was carried out on two groups, one experimental group and one control group. There were 23 participants in the experimental group and 24 participants in the control group. In the scope of the research, Gratitude Scale and Subjective Well-Being Scale for Adolescents were used. Data were collected three times in the research process; pre-test, post-test, and follow-up test. After the pre-test was applied, a training seminar on gratitude was given to the experimental group. In this seminar, students were told about what they can be grateful for and how they can be expressed. After the training seminar, the experimental group was asked to write daily in gratitude diaries created by the researchers based on the balance model of positive psychotherapy for 21 days. At the end of 21 days, the last time was collected, and the final test data were collected. Finally, the follow up data were collected 10 weeks after the end of the study and the study was terminated. The data were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U Test and the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and the Friedman Test. Examination of the test results for the experimental and control groups revealed that the experimental group differed significantly from the control group in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being. In addition to these findings, according to the Wilcoxon Test results, the individuals in the experimental group got significantly higher scores in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being in the posttests than in the pretest scores. In the control group, there was no difference between the pretest and posttest scores. According to the Friedman test results used for the follow-up test analysis, the positive effect in the experimental group continues in the follow-up test. It was observed that individuals in the control group got significantly lower scores in the follow-up tests compared to gratitude and subjective well-being scores. According to the results of the follow-up test, it was understood that the effectiveness of the writing exercise continued. According to these findings, it was determined that the practice of writing gratitude diaries increased the gratitude and subjective well-being levels of adolescents.
... This research includes studies of Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org life satisfaction (McCullough et al., 2002;Wood et al., 2008), subjective happiness (Watkins et al., 2003), positive emotions (Emmons and McCullough, 2003;Froh et al., 2009), relationship satisfaction (Gordon et al., 2011), and self-esteem (Lin, 2015). ...
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Introduction Gratitude is commonly known as a positive emotion, but it can also be understood as a disposition—one’s inherent quality that includes being grateful for the positive aspects of one’s life and appreciating altruistic gifts. A growing body of research suggests that having a disposition of gratitude is positively related to wellbeing and psychological adjustment. The present study examined the extent to which acceptance of illness—a measure of adjustment to a distressing condition—mediated relationships between dispositional gratitude and wellbeing among women who had elevated levels of depressive symptoms. Methods Participants were 131 women who, based on scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, were at-risk for experiencing clinical depression. Thirty-five of these participants had been diagnosed as depressed at some point in their lives and 96 had not. Participants completed measures of dispositional gratitude, wellbeing, anxiety, and acceptance of illness. Results Dispositional gratitude was positively correlated with wellbeing and was negatively correlated with depression and anxiety. Dispositional gratitude was also positively correlated with acceptance of illness. Mediational analyses found that acceptance of illness mediated relationships between dispositional gratitude and wellbeing, between dispositional gratitude and anxiety, and between dispositional gratitude and depression. Moreover, such mediation varied as a function of whether women had ever been diagnosed as depressed. Acceptance of illness was related more strongly to wellbeing for women who had been diagnosed as depressed at some time in their lives than it was for women who had never been diagnosed as depressed. Conclusion Women with elevated depressive symptoms who were more grateful (compared to those who were less grateful) were more accepting of their condition, which was related to increased wellbeing and decreased feelings of depression and anxiety.
... Mengenai sisi afeksi dari ekspresi rasa syukur, mayoritas remaja melaporkan afek positif ketika mengekspresikan rasa syukur. Sejalan dengan apa yang disampaikan Froh et al. (2009) mengenai dampak kebersyukuran terhadap afek remaja. Namun yang menjadi kendala adalah kesulitan yang dialami beberapa remaja dalam mengungkapkan perasaan yang dirasakan, terutama pada konsep yang abstrak seperti rasa syukur ini. ...
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The concept of gratitude that was used generally refered to a concept from Western culture or a concept applied to adults. This study aimed to explore the concept of gratitude in early adolescents using qualitative methods. Respondents consisted of 22 boys and 45 girls aged 12 to 15 years. The instrument used was an open-ended questionnaire about the meanings, objects, forms of expression, along with the affective sides of gratitude. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The result of this study indicated that the concept of gratitude interpreted by early adolescents was represented by four major categories, namely thanking and praising God, accepting, enjoying, and appreciating. The objects of gratitude were gifts of God, valuable objects, academic achievements, and social relations. Whereas expressions of gratitude were expressed by praying, verbalizing, worshiping God, developing oneself, and doing positive things to others. These finding showed that the concept of gratitude for early adolescents in Indonesia is closely related to divinity and morals but still intact with the characteristics of adolescent development.
... Ergenlik döneminde, bu döneme girişe bağlı olarak birtakım problemler (beden imajı, bağımlılık, riskli davranışlar vb.) ortaya çıkabilir. Bütün bunlardan hareketle ergenlerin birtakım zorluklar içinden geçtiği ve bu zorlukları deneyimlerken hayatlarında zaten var olan iyi şeyleri fark etmeye ihtiyaç duydukları söylenebilir (Froh, Yurkewicz, & Kashdan (2009). Pozitif psikoterapiye göre yaşamın beden, ilişki başarı ve maneviyattan oluşan dört boyutunda (Peseschkian, 2000) hali hazırdaki kaynakları fark ederek şükrün gelişmesi ergenlerin bu zor dönemde karşılaştıkları zorluklarla işlevsel şekilde baş edebilmeleri açısından önemli görülebilir. ...
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In this research it is aimed to test the effectiveness of junior high school students writing gratitude journals on gratitude. The research group constitutes students who attend secondary school in a public school and volunteer to participate in the research. The research was carried out on two groups, one experimental group and one control group. There were 23 participants in the experimental group and 24 participants in the control group. In the scope of the research, Gratitude Scale and Subjective Well-Being Scale for Adolescents were used. Data were collected three times in the research process; pre-test, post-test, and follow-up test. After the pre-test was applied, a training seminar on gratitude was given to the experimental group. In this seminar, students were told about what they can be grateful for and how they can be expressed. After the training seminar, the experimental group was asked to write daily in gratitude diaries created by the researchers based on the balance model of positive psychotherapy for 21 days. At the end of 21 days, the last time was collected, and the final test data were collected. Finally, the follow up data were collected 10 weeks after the end of the study and the study was terminated. The data were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U Test and the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and the Friedman Test. Examination of the test results for the experimental and control groups revealed that the experimental group differed significantly from the control group in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being. In addition to these findings, according to the Wilcoxon Test results, the individuals in the experimental group got significantly higher scores in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being in the posttests than in the pretest scores. In the control group, there was no difference between the pretest and posttest scores. According to the Friedman test results used for the follow-up test analysis, the positive effect in the experimental group continues in the follow-up test. It was observed that individuals in the control group got significantly lower scores in the follow-up tests compared to gratitude and subjective well-being scores. According to the results of the follow-up test, it was understood that the effectiveness of the writing exercise continued. According to these findings, it was determined that the practice of writing gratitude diaries increased the gratitude and subjective well-being levels of adolescents
... Les études menées auprès d'adolescents montrent que la gratitude est associée au bienêtre, à l'optimisme, à l'estime de soi et à la satisfaction de vie dans différents domaines comme l'école, la famille ou les amis (Froh, Yurkewicz & Kashdan, 2009 ;Protor, Linley & Maltby, 2010). Ainsi, un niveau élevé de gratitude prédit, trois mois plus tard, le niveau de satisfaction de vie et de comportements solidaires des élèves (Froh, Bono & Emmons, 2010). ...
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The 5-item Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-5) is one of the most commonly used instruments to measure dispositional gratitude in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to verify the longitudinal measurement invariance (LMI) and gender measurement invariance (GMI) of the GQ-5 that was administered to an adolescent sample twice over the course of 18 months ( N = 669). Single-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was adopted to examine the LMI and multiple-group CFA was conducted to assess the GMI. The results showed that the GQ-5 had strong invariance (i.e., equality of factor patterns, loadings, and intercepts) across time and gender. Validation of latent factor mean differences showed that females had higher gratitude scores than males. In addition, the GQ-5 exhibited good internal consistency indices across time and a moderate stability coefficient was also found across an 18-month time interval in adolescents. In summary, our study showed that LMI and GMI of the GQ-5 are satisfactory and the GQ-5 is a reliable instrument for measuring gratitude in adolescents.
Chapter
Gratitude is an emotion and state of being that recognizes a positive outcome as the result of external factors, thereby prompting internal and external responses of appreciation. As a positive psychology intervention (PPI), gratitude not only encourages positive affect and savoring of positive life experiences, it is associated with a reduction in psychological distress, improved sleep, better relationships, more engagement at work, and fewer physical ailments. In Islam, shukr (gratitude) is a fundamental virtue which, along with sabr (patience), provides a formula for Muslim wellbeing. In this chapter, we review the positive psychology literature on gratitude and define the concept of shukr from an Islamic perspective. We also provide suggestions for increasing gratitude through Islamically-integrated PPIs and discuss how such interventions can provide useful tools for Muslim wellness.
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Examinations of the influence of culture on how gratitude is experienced are sparse, as are studies that simultaneously explore developmental differences in understandings of gratitude. This paper presents three studies that examine whether perceptions and experiences of gratitude differ across children, adolescents and adults in two individualistic, WEIRD and Commonwealth cultures—Australia and the UK. Studies 1a ( N = 88, ages 17–39) and 1b ( N = 77, ages 17–25) provide initial insights into “features of gratitude” in Australia through two stages of a prototype analysis. These features are compared to a previous prototype study of gratitude in the UK, alongside a further comparison to the US. Study 2 employs vignettes to examine how perceptions of the benefactor, benefit and mixed emotions influence the degree of gratitude experienced across adolescents and adults in Australia ( N = 1937, ages 11–85), with a comparison to the UK ( N = 398, ages 12–65). In Study 3, factors examined in Study 2 are adapted into accessible story workbooks for younger children (Australia N=135, ages 9–11; UK N=62, ages 9–11). Results across these studies demonstrate similarities and differences in understandings and experiences of gratitude across cultures. While adults across Australia and the UK responded similarly to gratitude scenarios, cross-cultural differences are observed between children and adolescents in these two countries. Developmental differences are noted in relation to more sophisticated reasoning around gratitude, such as recognition of ulterior motives. These findings highlight the need for gratitude research and interventions to be cross-culturally, and developmentally, responsive.
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Parent-child conversations are a widely recognized socializing mechanism, linked to children’s developing moral agency, empathy, and emotional competence. Similarly, parent-child conversations about gratitude have been linked to growth in children’s gratitude. However, the messages that parents and children exchange in conversations about children’s gratitude have yet to be investigated in depth. In the current study, we investigate the types of events that parents discuss with their children during times when they saw displays of children’s gratitude and events when the children missed the opportunity to display gratitude, along with the messages that parents and children share during these conversations. The study involved a thematic analysis of the gratitude conversations of 43 parent-child dyads (88% mothers, 77% European American, 51% boys, child Mage = 10.62, SD = 1.15) living in the United States. Gratitude and missed opportunity events primarily involved situations in which the child had the opportunity to attend an event or to receive a material gift, food, or assistance. Three themes characterized parent and child messages. First, parents suggested that being happy was a sign of being grateful, a way to make others happy, and the goal of benefactors’ behavior. Second, parents suggested that children should focus on what they receive rather than on what they did not receive. Finally, children conveyed that they could not always be grateful, but that in several cases they were able to both feel and display their excitement and gratitude. In particular, children reported feeling grateful when they received something they thought was special or enjoyable, unique or unexpected, that they knew would make their parent happy or that they felt lucky to have since others did not have it. Together these findings suggest the importance of future research investigating how children and parents coordinate and prioritize the various elements of gratitude moments in deciding how to be grateful and to socialize children’s gratitude.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We investigated the relationship between the emotional states of gratitude and indebtedness in two studies. Although many have suggested that these affects are essentially equivalent, we submit that they are distinct emotional states. Following Heider (1958), we propose that with increasing expectations of return communicated with a gift by a benefactor, indebtedness should increase but gratitude should decrease. The results of two vignette studies supported this hypothesis, and patterns of thought/action tendencies showed these states to be distinct. In addition, we found that with increasing expectations communicated by a benefactor, beneficiaries reported that they would be less likely to help the benefactor in the future. Taken together, we argue that the debt of gratitude is internally generated, and is not analogous to an economic form of indebtedness.
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Two studies are reported on the question of whether children acquire concepts for more complex emotions, such as jealousy and pride, in an all-or-nothing manner rather than feature by feature. In the first study, 96 children between 4 and 7 years of age were asked to describe situations that would evoke happiness, pride, gratitude, shame, worry, and jealousy. Children were also asked whether each emotion felt good or bad. In the second study, 4 and 5-year-olds rated the same emotions for feelings of pleasure and arousal. Together, the results suggested that before a complete concept, children attain a partial conceptualisation of each complex emotion: They understand the pleasure and arousal associated with the emotion, but have no knowledge of the kind of situation that evokes it. Even 4-year-olds knew the pleasure and arousal associated with pride, gratitude, shame, worry, and jealousy-thus demonstrating that children's understanding quickly moves beyond the simpler emotions.
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The purpose of these studies was to develop a valid measure of trait gratitude, and to evaluate the relationship of gratitude to subjective well-being (SWB). Four studies were conducted evaluating the reliability and validity of the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT), a measure of dispositional gratitude. This measure was shown to have good internal consistency and temporal stability. The GRAT was shown to relate positively to various measures of SWB. In two experiments, it was shown that grateful thinking improved mood, and results also supported the predictive validity of the GRAT. These studies support the theory that gratitude is an affective trait important to SWB.
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Presents a theoretical analysis of the representational mechanism underlying a child's ability to pretend. This mechanism extends the power of the infant's existing capacity for (primary) representation, creating a capacity for "metarepresentation." It is this, developing toward the end of infancy, that underlies the child's new abilities to pretend and to understand pretense in others. There is a striking isomorphism between the 3 fundamental forms of pretend play and 3 crucial logical properties of mental state expressions in language. This isomorphism points to a common underlying form of internal representation that is here called metarepresentation. A performance model, the "decoupler," is outlined embodying ideas about how an infant might compute the complex function postulated to underlie pretend play. This model also reveals pretense as an early manifestation of the ability to understand mental states. Aspects of later preschool development, both normal and abnormal, are discussed in the light of the new model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Gratitude is conceptualized as a moral affect that is analogous to other moral emotions such as empathy and guilt. Gratitude has 3 functions that can be conceptualized as morally relevant: (a) a moral barometer function (i.e., it is a response to the perception that one has been the beneficiary of another person's moral actions); (b) a moral motive function (i.e., it motivates the grateful person to behave prosocially toward the benefactor and other people); and (c) a moral reinforcer function (i.e., when expressed, it encourages benefactors to behave morally in the future). The personality and social factors that are associated with gratitude are also consistent with a conceptualization of gratitude as an affect that is relevant to people's cognitions and behaviors in the moral domain.
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The acquisition of routines is one aspect of language development. Routines such as Bye-bye, in contrast to more referential language, appear to be among the earliest acquisitions and are congruent with the sensori-motor child's capacities. This study investigates performance of the highly constrained Hallowe'en Trick or treat routine in 115 children from 2 to 16 years of age. Changes in competence and the role of parental input are examined in relation to cognitive and social factors. (First routines; the Hallowe'en interaction; children's production; adult participation; adult metalanguage; implications for ethnographic research.)
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The effect of large and small favors on gratitude was tested using a behavioral measure. Participants were 149 undergraduates (120 female, 29 male). Half received raffle tickets for a US$100 prize, and half received tickets for a US$10 prize. Some received tickets from another (fictitious) student, and others received tickets by chance. Participants receiving a favor subsequently distributed more tickets to the other student; participants receiving a more valuable favor also distributed more (ps < 0.05). Self-reported grateful motivation predicted distribution better than did indebtedness. Grateful motivation mediated the relationship between favor and distribution (p < 0.05). Results provide validity for a behavioral measure of gratitude, tentatively support favor value as a determinant of gratitude, and further differentiate between gratitude and indebtedness.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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We demonstrate that incidental emotions (e.g. anger stemming from an argument with your spouse) influence trust in unrelated settings (e.g. the likelihood of trusting a co-worker). Incidental happiness and gratitude increase trust, and incidental anger decreases trust. Other-person control appraisals mediate this relationship, and trustee familiarity moderates this relationship.
Chapter
This chapter examines the feeling of being grateful. It suggests feeling grateful is similar to other positive emotions that help build a person's enduring personal resources and broaden an individual's thinking. It describes various ways by which gratitude can transform individuals, organizations, and communities in positive and sustaining ways. It discusses the specific benefits of gratitude including personal and social development, community strength and individual health and well-being.
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Do women express their feelings more than men? Popular stereotypes say they do, but in this provocative book, Leslie Brody breaks with conventional wisdom. Integrating a wealth of perspectives and research--biological, sociocultural, developmental--her work explores the nature and extent of gender differences in emotional expression, as well as the endlessly complex question of how such differences come about. Nurture, far more than nature, emerges here as the stronger force in fashioning gender differences in emotional expression. Brody shows that whether and how men and women express their feelings varies widely from situation to situation and from culture to culture, and depends on a number of particular characteristics including age, ethnicity, cultural background, power, and status. Especially pertinent is the organization of the family, in which boys and girls elicit and absorb different emotional strategies. Brody also examines the importance of gender roles, whether in the family, the peer group, or the culture at large, as men and women use various patterns of emotional expression to adapt to power and status imbalances. Lucid and level-headed, Gender, Emotion, and the Family offers an unusually rich and nuanced picture of the great range of male and female emotional styles, and the variety of the human character. Reviews of this book: Gender, Emotion, and the Family focuses on gender differences in the experience and expression of emotion...[Brody] has gathered an amazing amount of data from innumerable studies...[and gives] a balanced account of the effect of environmental variables on the development of emotion. --Lucy Horwitz, Boston Book Review Reviews of this book: Finally, an accurate and well-balanced discussion of topics that are on everybody's mind. Brody integrates research on the socialization of violence in boys and of the caretaking role for girls. Both this book and actual scientific research strongly support the role of nurture rather than nature in gender socialization...[A] highly recommended book. --F. Smolucha, Choice Reviews of this book: Drawing on a wealth of information, [Leslie Brody] illuminates the ways in which men and women, boys and girls, develop and express emotions in the context of the family...This in-depth research addresses many issues, from power in relationships to the physiological expression of emotion; evidence of contradictory findings is detailed. This is a valuable addition to the ever-changing frontiers of behavior research. --Margaret Cardwell, Library Journal Reviews of this book: Beyond the main points about the complexities and contingencies of gender differences and their development, the book contains accounts of many, many fascinating studies and intriguing points of view. . . . Brody ultimately succeeds in articulating a comprehensive, thoughtful, and intellectually rigorous review of the research literature on gender differences in emotional expression, from a feminist empiricist perspective. This is an important book to own . . . . a valuable reference for researchers and professionals. --Contemporary Psychology Brody has formidable mastery of this burgeoning field. Gender, Emotion, and the Family offers new theoretical insights for lay readers and fellow scholars alike. Highly readable, responsible, and original, this will be the major work on the socialization of emotion for a long time to come. --Judith A. Hall, Northeastern University A beautifully written text that integrates theory and research in a sophisticated yet highly readable way. Brody examines the development of emotional experience and expression in the family and the intimate connections between emotion, familial relationships, and gender. Brody's tremendous breadth of scholarship shows in every chapter, and her thoughtful, comprehensive, and insightful responses to the complex questions in the field are a must read for students and scholars alike. --Amy G. Halberstadt, North Carolina State University Leslie Brody provides a careful evaluation of the research data on precisely what the gender differences are--and are not--in emotional experience and expression, but that is only the first strength of her book. With an original and complex transactional theory, she shows how physiological, relational and cultural factors interact in creating gender differences in emotion, and reminds us how peculiar it is to try--as psychologists have!-- to make much of any single factor. Gender, Emotion, and the Family outlines a compelling research agenda that will move the next generation of empirical studies to a new and much more exciting level. --Abigail Stewart, Professor of Psychology and Women's Studies, University of Michigan An invaluable resource for researchers on all aspects of the psychology and sociology of gender, Gender, Emotion, and the Family comprehensively synthesizes and re-analyzes the enormous research literature on supposed gender differences in emotional expression. Leslie Brody offers a clear and compelling critique of the widespread belief that males and females have essentially different emotional styles. Arguing that apparent gender differences in emotion are closely related to gender differences in dominance and power, Brody illuminates the great diversity of experience and behavior found among members of the same sex, and reminds us of the powerful role played by stereotypes in dictating emotions that men and women should display, and the pressures they feel to conform to those stereotypes. --Elizabeth Aries, Amherst College Brody has formidable mastery of this burgeoning field. Gender, Emotion, and the Family offers new theoretical insights for lay readers and fellow scholars alike. Highly readable, responsible, and original, this will be the major work on the socialization of emotion for a long time to come. --Judith A. Hall, Northeastern University Leslie Brody provides a careful evaluation of the research data on precisely what the gender differences are--and are not--in emotional experience and expression, but that is only the first strength of her book. With an original and complex transactional theory, she shows how physiological, relational and cultural factors interact in creating gender differences in emotion, and reminds us how peculiar it is to try--as psychologists have!-- to make much of any single factor. Gender, Emotion, and the Family outlines a compelling research agenda that will move the next generation of empirical studies to a new and much more exciting level. --Abigail Stewart, University of Michigan
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In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
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In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Chapter
This chapter explores the philosophical and theological foundations of gratitude. It examines the place of gratitude in the history of ideas, focusing primarily on the influential writings of philosopher and economist Adam Smith. It provides a scholarly overview of several other philosophers for whom gratitude was central in their thinking, including Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel Pufendorf and evaluates the importance of gratitude in civic society.
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Abstract Traditional assessments of children’s mental health have focused on measuring symptoms,of psychopathology. A growi ng body of empirical evidence supports widening assessment to include measures ofindividual and environmental,protective assets. One personal strength that merits study among,children and adolescents is life satisfaction, which represents peoples’ subjective judgments ofthe quality of their lives as a whole orquality of specific domains,within their lives. This paper reviews the psychometric,properties and research histories of two brief life satisfaction measures available for use with youth. The Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (Huebner, 1991) is a 7- item measure of global life satisfaction; the Brief MultidimensionalStudents’ Life Satisfaction Scale is a 5-item measure of adolescents’ satisfaction with important
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In two studies, the development of children's knowledge of the situations that provoke emotion was examined. In the first study, English and Dutch children aged 5, 7, 10 and 14 years were presented with 20 common emotion terms and asked to describe situations likely to provoke each emotion. For children of both nationalities, knowledge of the determinants of emotion was not restricted to emotions that can be easily linked with a discrete facial expression. It rapidly extended to more complex emotions such as pride, worry, or jealousy. A second study undertaken with children living in an isolated Himalayan village confirmed and extended these basic findings. Additional analysis of both the accuracy with which children suggested determinants, and inter-relationships among those determinants suggested that children acquire such knowledge quite abruptly for any given emotion term.
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The authors surveyed 212 university students in Japan and 284 university students in Thailand, using a multiaspect questionnaire that was designed to investigate cultural similarities and differences in gratitude. The questionnaire included the items involved in hypothetical helping situations: (a) perceived gains of recipients, cost to benefactors, and obligation to help as antecedent variables of gratitude; (b) both positive feelings of gratitude and feelings of indebtedness; and (c) requital to benefactors and increased prosocial motivation of recipients as an outcome of gratitude. In both Japanese and Thai students, positive feelings cor-related with facial and verbal expressions of gratitude and increased prosocial motivation. However, the variable of feelings of indebtedness was positively related to increased prosocial motivation only in Japanese male students.
Book
This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Perhaps beginning with Cicero, who called gratitude "the parent of the virtues," scholars in the humanities have associated gratitude with morality and prosocial behavior. The limited amount of social scientific research on gratitude that has accumulated over the last century demonstrates these assertions to be generally accurate, with some qualifications. The emotion of gratitude functions as a moral barometer, a moral motive, and (when people express their grateful emotions in words or actions) a moral reinforcer. Furthermore, we hypothesized that, because gratitude is so closely tied to moral and prosocial behaviors, personality differences in gratitude would be positively associated with traits that facilitate interpersonal relations, and negatively associated with traits that interfere with maintaining stable, positive relationships (see Roberts, chap. 4, this volume, for details on the distinction between emotional and dispositional gratitude). In this chapter, we elaborate on each of these hypotheses and briefly describe the strength of supporting research evidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A child version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; D. Watson et al, see record 1988-31508-001), the PANAS-C, was developed using students in Grades 4–8 ( N = 707). Item selection was based on psychometric and theoretical grounds. The resulting Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA) scales demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with existing self-report measures of childhood anxiety and depression; the PANAS-C performed much like its adult namesake. Overall, the PANAS-C, like the adult PANAS, is a brief, useful measure that can be used to differentiate anxiety from depression in youngsters. As such, this instrument addresses the shortcomings of existing measures of childhood anxiety and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Despite the recent surge in interest in the concept of gratitude, those who study this emotional experience largely rely on the norm of reciprocity to explain the phenomenon. However, I argue that this view is not enough to explain either the causes or full consequences of feelings of gratitude. Instead, I believe that the feeling of gratitude is based in our fundamental need to belong, which incorporates the norm of reciprocity, but more completely explains the experience. Using three different methods, I will test hypotheses about the determinants of gratitude, as well as consequences beyond simple reciprocity. The purpose of Study 1 is to demonstrate the ecology of grateful experiences (versus other positive experiences) in daily life; Study 2 takes advantage of naturally-occurring occasions of gift-giving in sororities to test hypotheses about the determinants and long-term effects of gratitude; and Study 3 will test the hypothesis that gratitude can create positive interactions between recipient and benefactor with roommate pairs. Grounding this research in two important theoretical traditions---relationships and emotions---allows me to broaden the scope of hypotheses from which to draw. Beyond the theoretical contributions to these two literatures, I believe that this research will have implications for understanding one important component of our social life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study investigated whether preschoolers would spontaneously say thank you in a familiar context without their parents' presence. Two hundred and fifty 3 1/2- to 4 1/2-year-olds played a game with their teachers and received a reward from either an unfamiliar peer or adult. Across conditions, 37 percent of the children said thank you spontaneously, more than in previous studies. The frequency of the spontaneous use of thank you was assessed as a function of sex, socioeconomic status, and listener status. Preschool-aged girls said thank you spontaneously more than boys, χ2(1) = 7.95, p < .01. Also, children from families of low economic status said thank you spontaneously more than children from middle income families, χ2(1) = 7.17, p < .01. This finding does not appear to be due to racial differences. Finally, the preschoolers said thank you spontaneously more to the adult than to the peer, χ2(1) = 4.27, p < .05. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for pragmatic socialization and the acquisition of politeness formulas such as thank you. (Routines, politeness formulas, pragmatic socialization, sex differences, socioeconomic differences, language and status)
Article
Are emotions essentially an individual-subjective phenomenon, or are they broader in scope? Do emotions mainly represent what the individual feels ‘inside’ or do they also carry implications for the social context? Questions such as these were in the background of the present research that has examined the way emotions are viewed, understood, and experienced by young and older adult men and women (ranging in age from 18 to 50) in two cultural environments, Germany and the US. Overall, the results revealed distinctly different patterns of age and sex differences in the evaluation and experience of emotions for Americans and Germans. In addition, the study identified specific emotions (e.g. gratitude, despair, rage) that seem to have different connotations and associations for individuals in the two cultural groups. Interpretation of the findings emphasizes connections between the emotional life and emotional understanding of the individual and broad sociocultural themes. It is argued that social context is an important feature of emotion requiring more extensive consideration is psychological theory and research on emotion.
Article
Stereotypes about gender and emotional expression tend to be imprecise and misleading. They fail to acknowledge situational, individual, and cultural variations in males' and females' emotional expressiveness. They also tend to generalize across emotional intensity and frequency, as well as across different modalities of emotional expression, e.g. verbal vs. behavioral modalities. Moreover, they tend to exaggerate the extent of gender differences in emotional expression. I argue that when gender differences in emotional expression do occur, they can be traced to social processes such as dissimilar gender roles, status and power imbalances, and differing socialization histories of males and females. These processes may predispose some males and females to express emotions differently in some cultures and in some contexts. To support this argument, I present data from two studies, one showing that the amount of time fathers spend with their children relates to the gender stereotypic nature of their children's emotional expressiveness; and the other showing that gender differences in emotional expressiveness are culturally specific in a sample of Asian international, Asian-American, and European-American college students. Finally, I note the potentially destructive limitations imposed by stereotypes on males' and females' interpersonal functioning as well as on their mental and physical health.
Article
Although theorists have proposed the existence of multiple distinct varieties of positive emotion, dispositional positive affect is typically treated as a unidimensional variable in personality research. We present data elaborating conceptual and empirical differences among seven positive emotion dispositions in their relationships with two core personality constructs, the ''Big Five'' and adult attachment style. We found that the positive emotion dispositions were differentially associated with self-and peer-rated Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Neuroticism. We also found that different adult attachment styles were associated with different kinds of emotional rewards. Findings support the theoretical utility of differentiating among several dispositional positive emotion constructs in personality research.
Article
In a quasi-field experiment 479 subjects (beneficiaries) were observed as experimenters (benefactors) performed an altruistic act for them. Their responses were classified mainly into shows of gratitude, such as saying Thank you. Such amenities are expected in a traditional model of courtly chivalry, i.e., the door-opening ceremony. Experimenters were randomly assigned in a three-factor design, setting sex of experimenter sex of subject, with approximately 60 subjects per cell. The town-gown setting (university vs. community library) unexpectedly produced no difference. Traditional pairs (i.e., male benefactors and female beneficiaries) elicited most thanks. Estimated physical attractiveness of subject interacted strikingly with sex in affecting level of thanks shown. Most thankful were plain female beneficiaries for whom male benefactors held doors open. Overall, the data conformed best with a traditional model but also hinted at anomie (tradition in transition).
Book
While most books on missing data focus on applying sophisticated statistical techniques to deal with the problem after it has occurred, this volume provides a methodology for the control and prevention of missing data. In clear, nontechnical language, the authors help the reader understand the different types of missing data and their implications for the reliability, validity, and generalizability of a study’s conclusions. They provide practical recommendations for designing studies that decrease the likelihood of missing data, and for addressing this important issue when reporting study results. When statistical remedies are needed--such as deletion procedures, augmentation methods, and single imputation and multiple imputation procedures--the book also explains how to make sound decisions about their use. Patrick E. McKnight's website offers a periodically updated annotated bibliography on missing data and links to other Web resources that address missing data.
Article
Two studies investigated the psychometricproperties of the Brief MultidimensionalStudents' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS: Huebner, 1994). In Study 1, 221 middle schoolstudents completed the Brief MultidimensionalStudents' Life Satisfaction Scale (BMSLSS),Multidimensional Students' Life SatisfactionScale, Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS:Huebner, 1991a), Positive and Negative AffectSchedule-Children's Version (Laurent et al.,1999), Children's Social Desirability Scale(Crandall et al., 1965), and a one-item globallife satisfaction rating (GLLS). Students alsorated the importance of the BMSLSS five lifesatisfaction domains (Family, Friends, School,Self, Living Environment). The results revealedacceptable internal consistency reliability,criterion-related validity, and constructvalidity for the BMSLSS Total score forresearch purposes. Furthermore, evidence ofconvergent and discriminant validity for theBMSLSS domain scores was also obtained throughmultitrait-multimethod analyses. Finally, theresults failed to provide strong support forthe usefulness of importance scores inpredicting overall life satisfaction;unweighted BMSLSS scores were highly related toglobal life satisfaction (GLLS) scores. InStudy 2, 46 high school students completed theBMSLSS and MSLSS to test the generalizabilityof the convergent and discriminant validityfindings with older adolescents. The findingsrevealed stronger evidence of validity withthis age group. Overall, the findings offered preliminary support for the reliability andvalidity of the BMSLSS, suggesting that it canserve as a useful alternative to the longerMSLSS in studies with adolescents in whichbrevity is an important consideration.
Article
We analyzed the content of school-aged children's responses to a countywide in-class essay assignment in which they described what they are thankful for. Accounts were written in November of 2000 (n = 152) and 2001 (n = 196). We identified the most prominent themes of children's gratitude as well as differences in the themes that emerged before and after the September 11 terrorist attacks. We also examined sex and developmental differences in the gratitude themes. The most common themes were family, basic needs, friends, and teachers/school. Rescue workers, the United States and its values (e.g., freedom) appeared more frequently in 2001 than 2000. Girls expressed more gratitude than boys for a variety of interpersonal relationships; boys were more grateful for material objects. Older children mentioned several themes more frequently than younger children. Implications are discussed in the context of positive psychology.
Article
This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual's physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed.
Article
This chapter examines the imperative nature of gratitude. It provides evidence for the "gratitude imperative" in cross-cultural studies of gift giving and receiving and describes the ways by which gratitude compels people to return the benefit that they have received. It also evaluates how gratitude can be complicated by issues of power, social status, and dependence in instances of asymmetrical reciprocity.
Article
Previous work suggests women might possess an advantage over men in experiencing and benefiting from gratitude. We examined whether women perceive and react to gratitude differently than men. In Study 1, women, compared with men, evaluated gratitude expression to be less complex, uncertain, conflicting, and more interesting and exciting. In Study 2, college students and older adults described and evaluated a recent episode when they received a gift. Women, compared with men, reported less burden and obligation and greater gratitude. Upon gift receipt, older men reported the least positive affect when their benefactors were men. In Studies 2 and 3, women endorsed higher trait gratitude compared with men. In Study 3, over 3 months, women with greater gratitude were more likely to satisfy needs to belong and feel autonomous; gratitude had the opposite effect in men. The willingness to openly express emotions partially mediated gender differences, and effects could not be attributed to global trait affect. Results demonstrated that men were less likely to feel and express gratitude, made more critical evaluations of gratitude, and derived fewer benefits. Implications for the study and therapeutic enhancement of gratitude are discussed.