Adamantyl-Substituted Retinoid-Derived Molecules That Interact with the Orphan Nuclear Receptor Small Heterodimer Partner: Effects of Replacing the 1-Adamantyl or Hydroxyl Group on Inhibition of Cancer Cell Growth, Induction of Cancer Cell Apoptosis, and Inhibition of Src Homology 2 Domain-Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-2 Activity

ArticleinJournal of Medicinal Chemistry 51(18):5650-62 · September 2008with62 Reads
DOI: 10.1021/jm800456k · Source: PubMed
(E)-4-[3-(1-Adamantyl)-4'-hydroxyphenyl]-3-chlorocinnamic acid (3-Cl-AHPC) induces the cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of leukemia and cancer cells. Studies demonstrated that 3-Cl-AHPC bound to the atypical orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP). Although missing a DNA-binding domain, SHP heterodimerizes with the ligand-binding domains of other nuclear receptors to repress their abilities to induce or inhibit gene expression. 3-Cl-AHPC analogues having the 1-adamantyl and phenolic hydroxyl pharmacophoric elements replaced with isosteric groups were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibition of proliferation and induction of human cancer cell apoptosis. Structure-anticancer activity relationship studies indicated the importance of both groups to apoptotic activity. Docking of 3-Cl-AHPC and its analogues to an SHP computational model that was based on the crystal structure of ultraspiracle complexed with 1-stearoyl-2-palmitoylglycero-3-phosphoethanolamine suggested why these 3-Cl-AHPC groups could influence SHP activity. Inhibitory activity against Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (Shp-2) was also assessed. The most active Shp-2 inhibitor was found to be the 3'-(3,3-dimethylbutynyl) analogue of 3-Cl-AHPC.
    • "SHP-2 has previously been considered as a potential drug target for cancer therapy3435. Recent studies indicate that the inhibition of SHP-2 can enhance the anti-melanoma activity of IFNα-2b in human melanoma cells36. "
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    • "Compounds (13) and (14) are orally bioavailable and have protective effect on dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in mice [90]. In an effort to develop retinoid-derived orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partners that induce apoptosis in leukemic cells, compound (15) was found to inhibit Shp2 (IC 50 : 0.45 μM) [91]. "
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