Immune responses elicited by a fourth dose of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in previously vaccinated adult women
Background: Vaccines are now available for the prevention of HPV-16/18-related cervical infections and pre-cancers, primarily targeting adolescent girls. Since the risk of HPV exposure potentially persists throughout a woman's sexual life, vaccine-derived immunity should be long-term. The current study, HPV-024 (NCT00546078, http://clinicaltrials.gov), assessed the immune memory in North American women who received three doses of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine 7 years earlier in HPV-001 (NCT00689741). Methods: Women vaccinated in HPV-001 received a 4th-dose of the HPV-16/18 vaccine (024-4DV group, N=65). Post 4th-dose immune responses were compared with post 1st-dose immune responses in cross-vaccination controls (024-3DV group, N=50). Reactogenicity was compared between the 4th-dose and the 1st-dose administration. Results: Pre 4th-dose, 100% of subjects in the 024-4DV group remained seropositive for anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies (ELISA). Compared to pre 4th-dose, GMTs for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies were respectively 9.3-fold and 8.7-fold higher at day 7, and 22.7-fold and 17.2-fold higher at month 1. Compared to post 1st-dose, GMTs for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 were respectively 80.5-fold and 205.4-fold higher at day 7, and 11.8-fold and 20.5-fold higher at month 1. Furthermore, 68.2% and 77.3% of women had HPV-16/18 specific memory B-cells, respectively, pre 4th-dose, rising to 100% one month post 4th-dose vaccination. The 4th-dose was generally well tolerated. Conclusion: A 4th-dose of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine triggered a rapid and strong anamnestic response in previously vaccinated women, demonstrating vaccine-induced immune memory.