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Abstract

Aging is a natural and complex physiological process influenced by many factors, some of which are modifiable. As the number of older individuals continues to increase, it is important to develop interventions that can be easily implemented and contribute to "successful aging". In addition to a healthy diet and psychosocial well-being, the benefits of regular exercise on mortality, and the prevention and control of chronic disease affecting both life expectancy and quality of life are well established. We summarize the benefits of regular exercise on longevity, present the current knowledge regarding potential mechanisms, and outline the main recommendations. Exercise can partially reverse the effects of the aging process on physiological functions and preserve functional reserve in the elderly. Numerous studies have shown that maintaining a minimum quantity and quality of exercise decreases the risk of death, prevents the development of certain cancers, lowers the risk of osteoporosis and increases longevity. Training programs should include exercises aimed at improving cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function, as well as flexibility and balance. Though the benefits of physical activity appear to be directly linked to the notion of training volume and intensity, further research is required in the elderly, in order to develop more precise recommendations, bearing in mind that the main aim is to foster long-term adherence to physical activity in this growing population.

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... It is accepted that engagement in regular PA can lead a better health and a long life (12,19,21,22) . For example, when the level of PA is increased, the risk of mortality might reduce by 20-35%. ...
... Regular exercise stimulates several physiological, biochemical and morphological adaptations in athletes (21,24) . Athletes have to develop several physical fitness components, such as cardiorespiratory endurance and strength, to meet the demands of the sport. ...
... It has been reported that there are several reasons why former athletes do not participate in physical activities: for example, long-term injuries might prevent former athletes from carrying out physical activity (19) . Furthermore, the process of ageing may play a significant role in increasing the body composition and reducing the cardiorespiratory functions (21,24,25) . ...
... Chimps use intimidation, bluffs, isolation tactics, and obtrusive social maneuvers to challenge and undermine others and dethrone the leader. 26 Similarly, human glory-seeking behaviors, personal vendettas, crimes, and even large-scale political conflicts almost always involve efforts by individuals to improve their rank. Innate tendencies to resist social defeat form the basis of human egotism, hubris, false pride, and insecurity. ...
... This is because when you breathe out longer than you breathe in, you activate the vagus nerve, the parasympathetic system, and the body's relaxation response. 26 The longer you can extend your exhalations, the more your autonomic nervous system will be pacified, and the more your heart will decelerate. To augment this calming effect, try to consciously relax during the exhalations. ...
... The damage reduces learning ability, problem solving, creativity, impulse control, and long-and short-term memory. 26 Like muscle cells, brain cells perform well under acute stress but falter under chronic stress. ...
Book
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"Did you know the most dominant apes and monkeys are usually the kindest? They share the most food, groom others more often, break up fights, are slow to anger, and breathe in a relaxed manner. Those on the bottom of the social hierarchy are the opposite. They are stingy, combative, irritable, anxious, depressed, and they breathe shallowly. It is not easy for a submissive primate to become dominant. They have mindsets, mannerisms, and muscle tension that keep them from escaping their subordinate social strategy and the chronic stress it produces. All of this generalizes to people. If you want to be free of negative emotion, you need to rehabilitate physical trauma in your breath, eyes, face, voice, heart, gut, spine, and brain. Program Peace will coach you to do precisely this by first retraining your breathing pattern, and then walking you through dozens of innovative and effective self-care exercises. After creating new mindsets and mannerisms, and learning to reinvigorate muscles you never knew you had, you will find yourself more confident, healthier, kinder, and reprogrammed for peace."
... Aging is a natural and complex process with decline in physiological and cognitive functions, the velocity of establishment depends on intrinsic (genetics) and extrinsic (environment and lifestyles) factors. It also depends largely by the burden of chronic diseases throughout life (2,3). ...
... The benefits of physical activity and exercise include pulmonary, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, neurophysiologic, metabolic, and musculoskeletal adaptations. Which protect against chronic diseases and along with a healthy diet and mental well-being, contribute to successful aging (2,4,5). Physical activity is associated with reduction in all-cause mortality and mortality of cardiovascular causes by 33% and 35% respectively, extending lifespan by one to two years (6)(7)(8) Detraining refers to total or partial loss of exercise induced adaptations in response to a lack or reduction in training stimulus (9, 10). ...
... With increasing age, a vicious circle is generated between deconditioning, perception of loss of functionality, physical inactivity, and sedentary lifestyle. Thus, in older adults where the burden of chronic diseases is higher, knowledge of detraining becomes as important as knowing the benefits and adaptations of physical activity, because it regulates the time frame of protective effects loss, and will be associated with greater fragility, morbidity and mortality typical of this age group (2,(14)(15)(16). ...
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With population aging, physical activity is among the factors that determine quality of life. A considerable number of elders do not meet the minimum requirements for physical activity or are sedentary. Moreover, adults who were physically active can decrease their activity due to diseases or even the confinement generated by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Therefore, it is important to describe the characteristics of detraining in the elderly population to determine how detraining impacts the biological systems of human body, and the deleterious effects that converge with aging per se, making it difficult to determine the influence of each in the physical health of individuals.
... A higher risk of disease has been attributed to a less healthful diet and sedentary lifestyle (2,3). Furthermore, the benefits of a healthy diet and frequent exercise on health and longevity are well-established (4)(5)(6)(7)(8). ...
... We further limited our cohort to those who had complete information about their diet and physical activity (8,664). Since NHANES collected fibrinogen levels only from participants 40 years or older, our data only consisted of this age group (4,738). From this age group, we excluded women who reported being pregnant at the time of NHANES data collection because pregnant women have disparate activity levels compared to non-pregnant women (45). ...
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Background Among women in the United States, cancer is the second leading cause of death. Prior studies have examined how lifestyle factors, such as diet and physical activity, influence cancer mortality. However, few have evaluated if diet or physical activity has a stronger protective effect for cancer mortality. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate and compare the impacts of diet and physical activity on women's cancer mortality. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional data were abstracted from the Third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) on female respondents from 1988 to 1994. Physical activity was derived from the CDC's metabolic equivalent (MET) intensity levels. Dietary classifications were derived from the USDA's healthy eating index (HEI). We utilized the National Death Index to obtain mortality follow-up information on our cohort until December 31, 2015. Chi-squared, multivariable Cox regression, and Kaplan–Meier estimates were employed for statistical analyses. Results Of 3,590 women (median age: 57, range: 40–89), 30% had an obese BMI (BMI≥30 kg/m ² ). Additionally, 22% of participants self-reported a healthy diet, 69% needed dietary improvement, and 9% had a poor diet. Furthermore, 21% reported physical inactivity, 44% did not meet physical activity guidelines, and 35% met guidelines. On multivariate analysis, healthy diet (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51–0.98; p = 0.04), but not physical activity (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.55–1.38; p = 0.55), independently predicted for lower cancer mortality. Participants with a healthy diet but low exercise had decreased cancer mortality compared to participants with an unhealthy diet but high exercise ( p = 0.01). Conclusions A healthful diet was associated with lower cancer mortality in women, even after adjusting for obesity, inflammation, and other covariates. In addition, diet may play a stronger role in reducing cancer mortality in women than physical activity.
... Regardless of this limitation, numerous studies have shown that maintaining a minimum quantity and quality of exercise improves cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function, flexibility and balance [22]. Current guidelines recommend a minimum of 150 min/week of moderate intensity aerobic activity for maximum longevity benefits, with higher duration and intensity increasing cardiovascular and metabolic effects. ...
... Longevity and healthspan • Decreased risk of death [21,22] Cardiopulmonary • Improved maximal oxygen uptake (↑VO2 max) • Improved atherosclerotic plaque composition (calcification only) • Prevention of post-MI complications • Improved functional outcome in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction • Improved progenitor cell functional capacity • Decreased endothelial oxidative stress, improves vascular endothelial function • Increased hematopoietic stem cells [28,[32][33][34][35][36][37] Muscle/bone/skin • Prevention of age-associated muscle degeneration • Reduced physical disability • Reduced sarcopenia • Improved muscle endurance • Enhanced balance and motor coordination • Improved skin structure • Increased bone formation, decrease osteoporosis [45,47,48] Peripheral and central nervous systems ...
Article
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The natural aging process is carried out by a progressive loss of homeostasis leading to a functional decline in cells and tissues. The accumulation of these changes stem from a multifactorial process on which both external (environmental and social) and internal (genetic and biological) risk factors contribute to the development of adult chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Strategies that can slow cellular aging include changes in diet, lifestyle and drugs that modulate intracellular signaling. Exercise is a promising lifestyle intervention that has shown antiaging effects by extending lifespan and healthspan through decreasing the nine hallmarks of aging and age-associated inflammation. Herein, we review the effects of exercise to attenuate aging from a clinical to a cellular level, listing its effects upon various tissues and systems as well as its capacity to reverse many of the hallmarks of aging. Additionally, we suggest AMPK as a central regulator of the cellular effects of exercise due to its integrative effects in different tissues. These concepts are especially relevant in the setting of T2D, where cellular aging is accelerated and exercise can counteract these effects through the reviewed antiaging mechanisms.
... Exercise is an excellent therapeutic intervention for obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancer, and many other chronic diseases (Pedersen & Saltin, 2015). It also has an impact on life expectancy (Gremeaux et al., 2012), yet the physiological mechanisms that may mediate these effects are not fully understood. ...
... Although the role of exercise in the aging process is well established (Gremeaux et al., 2012;Pedersen & Saltin, 2015), few studies have analysed the acute and chronic effects of exercise on S-Klotho plasma levels (Amaro-Gahete et al., 2018a). Some studies reported significant increases in S-Klotho plasma levels after a single bout of exercise, concluding that healthy young well-trained individuals registered a greater improvement than the elderly untrained counterparts (Mostafidi, Moeen, Nasri, Ghorbani-Hagjo, & Ardalan, 2016;Saghiv, Goldhammer, Sagiv, & Ben-Sira, 2015;Santos-Dias et al., 2017). ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the effects of different training modalities on the SKlotho plasma levels in sedentary middle-aged adults. A total of 74 middle-aged adults (53.4±5.0 years old; 52.7% women) were enrolled in the FIT-AGEING study. We conducted a 12-week randomised controlled trial. The participants were randomly assigned to 4 different groups: (i) a control group (no exercise), (ii) a physical activity recommendations from the World Health Organization group (PAR), (iii) a high intensity interval training group (HIIT), and (iv) a whole-body electromyostimulation training group (WB-EMS). S-Klotho plasma levels, anthropometric measurements, and body composition variables were measured before and after the intervention programme. All exercise training modalities induced an increase in the S-Klotho plasma levels (all P≤0.019) without statistical differences between them (all P≥0.696). We found a positive association between changes in lean mass index and changes in the S-Klotho plasma levels, whereas a negative association was reported between changes in fat mass outcomes and changes in the S-Klotho plasma levels after our intervention study. In conclusion, our results suggest that the link between exercise training and the increase in S-Klotho plasma levels could be mediated by a decrease of fat mass and an increase of lean mass
... In humans, exercise can be correlated with longevity [35][36][37][38], and thus we compared relative survival of 3+3+2+2 exercised and non-exercised populations to address overall health. Our survival assays revealed that a 3+3+2+2 swim exercise regimen does not change the maximum lifespan of C. elegans population (Fig. 5). ...
... Early life exercise can extend median lifespan of an active population. A majority of human exercise studies support that exercise can reduce mortality risk and increase longevity of healthy subjects, patients, and elite athletes, although some studies suggest a negative or neutral association between exercise and lifespan in humans [35][36][37][38]. Thus, a fair generalization may be that the extent of the exercise benefits is variable and dependent in part on the type of exercise, the population studied, and the particular outcomes recorded. ...
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Exercise can protect against cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, cancer, and age-associated declines in muscle, immune, and cognitive function. In fact, regular physical exercise is the most powerful intervention known to enhance robustness of health and aging. Still, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate system-wide exercise benefits remain poorly understood, especially as applies to "off target" tissues that do not participate directly in training activity. Elaborating molecular mechanisms of whole-animal exercise benefits is therefore of considerable importance to human health. The development of exercise protocols for short-lived genetic models holds great potential for deciphering fundamental mechanisms of exercise trans-tissue signaling during the entire aging process. Here, we report on the optimization of a long-term swim exercise protocol for C. elegans and we demonstrate its benefits to diverse aging tissues, even if exercise occurs only during a restricted phase during early adulthood. We found that multiple daily swim sessions are essential for exercise adaptation in C. elegans , leading to body wall muscle improvements in structural gene expression, locomotory performance, and mitochondrial morphology. Swim exercise training enhances whole-animal health parameters such as mitochondrial respiration and mid-life survival and increases the functional healthspan of pharynx and intestine. Importantly, we show that swim exercise also enhances nervous system health: exercise increases learning ability of adult animals and protects against neurodegeneration in C. elegans models of tauopathy, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. An important point is that swim training only during C. elegans early adulthood induces long-lasting systemic benefits that in several cases are still detectable well into mid-life. Overall, our data reveal the broad impact of swim exercise in promoting extended healthspan of multiple C. elegans tissues, underscore the potency of early exercise experience to influence long-term health (even after cessation of exercise), and establish the foundation for exploiting the powerful advantages of this genetic model to dissect the exercise-dependent molecular circuitry that confers long-lasting system-wide health benefits to aging or diseased adults.
... The improvement in mitochondrial function we documented at the whole-animal level raised the question of whether swim exercise is able to improve additional organismal-wide health measures. In humans, exercise can be correlated with longevity (33)(34)(35)(36), and thus we compared relative survival of 3+3+2+2 exercised and nonexercised populations as an indicator of overall health. Our survival assays revealed that a 3+3+2+2 swim exercise regimen does not change the maximum lifespan of C. elegans population (Fig. 3H). ...
... Longevity. A majority of human exercise studies support that exercise can reduce mortality risk and increase longevity of healthy subjects, patients, and elite athletes, although some studies suggest a negative or neutral association between exercise and lifespan in humans (33)(34)(35)(36). A fair generalization may be that the extent of the exercise benefits is variable and dependent in part on the type of exercise, the population studied, and the particular outcomes recorded. ...
Article
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Regular physical exercise is the most efficient and accessible intervention known to promote healthy aging in humans. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate system-wide exercise benefits, however, remain poorly understood, especially as applies to tissues that do not participate directly in training activity. The establishment of exercise protocols for short-lived genetic models will be critical for deciphering fundamental mechanisms of transtissue exercise benefits to healthy aging. Here we document optimization of a long-term swim exercise protocol for Caenorhabditis elegans and we demonstrate its benefits to diverse aging tissues, even if exercise occurs only during a restricted phase of adulthood. We found that multiple daily swim sessions are essential for exercise adaptation, leading to body wall muscle improvements in structural gene expression, locomotory performance, and mitochondrial morphology. Swim exercise training enhances whole-animal health parameters, such as mitochondrial respiration and midlife survival, increases functional healthspan of the pharynx and intestine, and enhances nervous system health by increasing learning ability and protecting against neurodegeneration in models of tauopathy, Alzheimer’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. Remarkably, swim training only during early adulthood induces long-lasting systemic benefits that in several cases are still detectable well into midlife. Our data reveal the broad impact of swim exercise in promoting extended healthspan of multiple C. elegans tissues, underscore the potency of early exercise experience to influence long-term health, and establish the foundation for exploiting the powerful advantages of this genetic model for the dissection of the exercise-dependent molecular circuitry that confers system-wide health benefits to aging adults.
... It is accepted that engagement in regular physical activity can lead to a better health and a long life (8,(10)(11)(12) . However, several studies have reported that the risk of long-term diseases increase when the athletes adopted a sedentary lifestyle after ceasing to participate in competitive sport (9,13) . ...
... It has been reported that there are several reasons why former athletes do not participate in physical activities: for example, long-term injuries might prevent former athletes from carrying out physical activity (8) . Furthermore, the process of ageing may play a significant role in increasing the body composition and reducing the cardiorespiratory functions (11,15,16) . ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to investigate dietary habits in retired athletes in Saudi Arabia. Seventy (70) former athletes, aged between 20-60 years old, who had participated in international and national competitions, and had since stopped competitive sport were recruited for this study. Sports history, age, height, and weight, dietary habits were collected using an online questionnaire. The study results showed that 47.14% of the participants are overweight and 22.86% are obese. It also indicated that 84.29% of the former athletes were eating fast food, whereas, the prevalence of drinking fizzy drinks was 71.43%. Also, the results of this study found out that there is no significant relationship between eating fast food and drinking fizzy drinks and obesity.
... Moderate-intensity regular exercise is a well-known nonpharmacological strategy for increasing longevity, as well as treating and preventing a range of diseases [1,2]. Along with other stressful stimuli, physical exercise practice can also disturb the cellular homeostasis, which requires the autophagy mechanism for clearance and renovation of damaged cellular components, such as mitochondria and proteins [3]. ...
... Moderate-intensity regular exercise-induced autophagy is considered a potent nonpharmacological intervention strategy to counteract several pathologies and enhance lifespan [1,2]. Once autophagic regulation can occur in one or more of its five steps (i.e., initiation, elongation, maturation, fusion, and degradation), the evaluation of autophagy flux in vivo is fundamental for a deep understanding of this lysosomal degradation signaling pathway in different experimental approaches [16,22]. ...
Article
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The protective effects of chronic moderate exercise-mediated autophagy include the prevention and treatment of several diseases, as well as the extension of lifespan. Also, the measurement of autophagy flux in vivo is crucial because the effects of physical exercise on this lysosomal degradation signaling pathway may occur in one or more of its five steps. Therefore, for the first time, we investigated the chronic effects of endurance, resistance, concurrent, and overtraining protocols on basal autophagy flux in vivo in mice’s liver, heart, and skeletal muscle samples. Also, the responses of metabolic, performance, and functional parameters, as well as genes and proteins related to the autophagy pathway, were addressed. In summary, even with a range of changes in genes and proteins linked to the autophagy pathway, the different regular physical exercise models did not alter the basal autophagy flux in vivo in the liver and heart tissues. While the endurance and overtraining models reduced the basal autophagy flux in vivo in skeletal muscle, the RES model increased this parameter. Altogether, these results demonstrated that the negative or positive adaptations to diverse chronic exercise protocols were not associated with the activation or inhibition of the basal autophagy flux in vivo.
... Biologically, the nature of this phenomenon and the mechanisms involved remain unknown. Rising life expectancy at birth, and in particular lower mortality at advanced ages, has led to a marked increase in the number and the proportion of centenarians, and to new records in longevity in low mortality countries [3]. Longevity is defined as the capability to survive past the average age of death [4]. ...
... Physical activity (PA) is fundamental, in addition to a healthy diet and psychosocial wellbeing [3]. PA is defined as "any situation employing the skeletal muscles, whatever the aim, accompanied by an increase in energy expenditure compared with the resting state" [12]. ...
Article
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The aim of this review was to explain the literature about the association between physical activity and longevity.The search was carried out in all databases of Web of Science and in all years (1900-2020), until December 31, 2020. The search term was “physical activity longevity” and the search was restricted to title. The inclusion criteria for papers were: 1. Type: Original papers. 2. Language: English. 3. Sample: Human participants. 4. Measures: Longevity and physical activity.A total of 52 papers were found. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 15 papers of these 52 papers were included in this review. The 15 studies found that physical activity have a positive impact on longevity.Physical activity can extend longevity and delay mortality. Future studies should focus on explaining the influence of different types of physical activities on longevity and identifying potential mechanisms. Public health strategies should be implemented to increase the physical activity levels of the population.
... Therefore, the optimal intensity of exercise for the elderly should be moderate intensity, which was consistent with the results of Jansson E et al. (2015) [43] . Physiologically, exercise can partially reverse the effect of the ageing process on the physiological function and maintain the functional reserve of the elderly [44] , and its mechanisms include improving vascular endothelial function [45] , increasing maximal oxygen uptake [45] , increasing muscle strength [46,47] and maintaining bone mass [48] . On the one hand, exercise below the minimum threshold does not produce enough challenge to the body; on the other hand, because the elderly is more vulnerable, strenuous exercise may lead to sudden death or myocardial infarction [50] and cause musculoskeletal injuries [51] . ...
... Therefore, the optimal intensity of exercise for the elderly should be moderate intensity, which was consistent with the results of Jansson E et al. (2015) [43] . Physiologically, exercise can partially reverse the effect of the ageing process on the physiological function and maintain the functional reserve of the elderly [44] , and its mechanisms include improving vascular endothelial function [45] , increasing maximal oxygen uptake [45] , increasing muscle strength [46,47] and maintaining bone mass [48] . On the one hand, exercise below the minimum threshold does not produce enough challenge to the body; on the other hand, because the elderly is more vulnerable, strenuous exercise may lead to sudden death or myocardial infarction [50] and cause musculoskeletal injuries [51] . ...
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Background The strategy of successful ageing is an important means to deal with the challenges of the current ageing society. This paper aims to explore the effects of different intensities of physical activity on the successful ageing of the elderly. Methods Our data were from wave 4 of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS), involving 9,026 residents aged 60 years and older. The intensity of physical activity was divided into three levels: vigorous, moderate and mild. The concept of successful ageing adopted a four-dimensional model of life satisfaction added to the theoretical model of Rowe and Kahn's. Propensity score matching (PSM) with controlling nine confounding factors were used to analyse the effects of different intensities of physical activity. Results The percentage of successful ageing was 1.88% among all subjects. Among them, 30.26%, 29.57% and 29.40% of the elderly often participated in vigorous, moderate and mild physical activity, respectively. The results of PSM showed that participation in moderate activity increased the probability of successful ageing of the elderly by 0.76–0.78% (P < 0.001), while participation in vigorous and mild physical activity had no significant effect on successful ageing (P > 0.05). Conclusion Moderate-intensity physical activity was most beneficial to the successful ageing of the elderly and should be promoted in the elderly population.
... The importance of physical activity for health and well-being during the ageing process is evident [8,9], since it has consistently been associated with better quality of life and life expectancy, lower incidence of ageing-related diseases, and a reduced risk of all-cause mortality [10][11][12]. Furthermore, a recent study that included over 1 million adults reported that high levels of sedentary time increased premature cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk, regardless of physical activity levels [13]. ...
... Physical activity represents a cornerstone in the preservation of health and wellbeing during the senescence process and in the primary prevention of at least 35 ageingrelated chronic diseases [8,9]. Indeed, physical activity levels are strongly associated with higher quality of life and longevity, lower prevalence of ageing-related chronic ...
Article
Objectives: To determine the association between physical activity and physical fitness levels (i.e. cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength) and the shed form of the α-Klotho gene (S-Klotho plasma levels) in middle-aged sedentary adults. Study design and main outcome measures: A total of 74 middle-aged sedentary adults (52.7% women; 53.7 ± 5.1 years old) were enrolled in the FIT-AGEING study. Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed with a wrist-worn accelerometer. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was determined by a maximum treadmill test using indirect calorimetry. Lower- and upper-body muscular strength were assessed by an isokinetic strength test and by the hand grip strength test, respectively. The S-Klotho plasma levels were measured in the EDTA plasma using a solid-phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Based on the principal-component analysis, overall physical activity, moderate and vigorous physical activity levels, and sedentary time (as outcomes included in the 'sedentary time and physical activity' category) explained a total of 17.5% of the cumulative variance in S-Klotho plasma levels, while extension peak torque, hand grip strength, and maximal oxygen uptake (as outcomes included in the 'physical fitness' category) explained a total of 15.5% of the cumulative variance in S-Klotho plasma levels. Based on the loading of variables in these 2 categories, the percentage of the cumulative variance in S-Klotho plasma level explained was 28.9%s; this reached 33.0% of cumulative variance when sex was included in the model. Conclusions: In summary, our results indicate that physical activity and physical fitness levels are associated with S-Klotho plasma levels in middle-aged sedentary adults. Therefore, the S-Klotho protein could be a key factor in the relationship between physical activity and physical fitness and health improvements during the ageing process.
... Besides aging and a sedentary lifestyle deterioration in physical function, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle mass have been established to accelerate physiological decline in later decades of life [54]. An individualized training programme can minimize this decline, thus preventing older adults (age 65+ years) from crossing functional thresholds of inability [55]. ...
Article
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The beneficial effects of exercise are recognized for preventing physical and cognitive decline during the aging process. However, there is still a gap concerning recommended intensity, volume, frequency and mode of exercise especially for older people. The aim of this study was to investigate an appropriate type of physical activity (PA) model for healthy aging. A commentary of the influence of PA and exercise on healthy aging through an online search of the databases Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar. Two living groups can be considered as potential references: modern hunter-gatherer small-scale population and master athletes. Greater physical activity is proposed for healthy aging than that recommended by WHO. Additionally, mindfulness meditation techniques during exercise are recommended especially for persons practicing long-duration exercises. Complex and compound exercise and workouts should include challenging exercises adjusted and balanced to provide clients, especially older people, with noticeable changes and progress.
... A number of studies have provided evidence to support the value of a balanced diet and physical activity to delay or prevent age-related health problems (Warner et al., 2005). Interventions such as caloric restriction, the Mediterranean diet, and moderate levels of physical exercise have been suggested to be effective in attenuating aging-related pathologies and in improving metabolic dysfunction and neurodegenerative disease (Gremeaux et al., 2012;Guarente & Picard, 2005), and have been considered as potential strategies to extend lifespan in human subjects. In addition to behavioral interventions, a number of pharmacological treatments leading to either suppression of chronic inflammation, improvement of insulin sensitivity via the use of antidiabetic compounds (Harrison et al., 2019), or through increased mitochondrial activity have been reported to be beneficial in counteracting age-associated diseases and to extend lifespan (Carrico et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Aging leads to a number of disorders caused by cellular senescence, tissue damage, and organ dysfunction. It has been reported that anti‐inflammatory and insulin‐sensitizing compounds delay, or reverse, the aging process and prevent metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative disease, and muscle atrophy, improving healthspan and extending lifespan. Here we investigated the effects of PPARγ agonists in preventing aging and increasing longevity, given their known properties in lowering inflammation and decreasing glycemia. Our molecular and physiological studies show that long‐term treatment of mice at 14 months of age with low doses of the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone (Rosi) improved glucose metabolism and mitochondrial functionality. These effects were associated with decreased inflammation and reduced tissue atrophy, improved cognitive function, and diminished anxiety‐ and depression‐like conditions, without any adverse effects on cardiac and skeletal functionality. Furthermore, Rosi treatment of mice started when they were 14 months old was associated with lifespan extension. A retrospective analysis of the effects of the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (Pio) on longevity showed decreased mortality in patients receiving Pio compared to those receiving a PPARγ‐independent insulin secretagogue glimepiride. Taken together, these data suggest the possibility of using PPARγ agonists to promote healthy aging and extend lifespan.
... Increasing human health and longevity is of global interest [4]. Human longevity and health are affected by many factors, including gender and genetics [5], natural environment [6][7][8], social support [9], religiousness [10], sleep problems [11] and some individual traits [12][13][14][15][16]. Among these factors, heredity, individual personality and social support are extremely influential. ...
Article
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Increasing human longevity is of global interest. The present study explored the prediction of longevity from both individual perspective and family perspective based on demographic and psychosocial factors. A total of 186 longevous family members and 237 ordinary elderly family members participated in a cross-sectional study, and a sample of 62 longevous elderly and 57 ordinary elderly were selected for comparative research. The results showed that it was three times more female than male in longevous elderly group. Up to 71.2% of longevous elderly had no experience in education, which was significantly lower than that of ordinary elderly. Due to such extreme age, more widowed (81.4%) elderly than those in married (18.6%). Less than one-seventh of the longevous elderly maintained the habit of smoking, and about one-third of them liked drinking, both were significantly lower than that of ordinary elderly. In terms of psychosocial factors, longevous elderly showed lower neuroticism and social support, while higher extraversion, compared with the ordinary elderly. However, there were no significant differences between the two family groups in demographic and psychosocial variables, except longevous families showing lower scores in neuroticism. Regression analysis found that neuroticism, social support and smoking habit had significant impact on individuals’ life span, then, neuroticism and psychoticism were the key factor to predict families’ longevity. We conclude that good emotional management, benign interpersonal support, and moderation of habits are important factors for individual longevity, and the intergenerational influence of personality is closely related to family longevity.
... 4 Engagement in exercise has multiple health benefits and can slow some of the negative effects of ageing. 5 For example, exercise improves physiological outcomes among older people who have gone through long sedentary lifestyle periods, 6 nonagenarians 7 and older individuals with frailty 8 or sarcopenia. 9 Exercise is defined as "planned, structured and repetitive physical activity". ...
Article
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Background: The evidence concerning which physical exercise characteristics are most effective for older adults is fragmented. Methods: We aimed to characterise the extent of this diversity and inconsistency and identify future directions for research by undertaking a systematic review of meta-analyses of exercise interventions in older adults. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science for articles that met the following criteria: (1) meta-analyses that synthesised measures of improvement (e.g., effect sizes) on any outcome identified in studies of exercise interventions; (2) participants in the studies meta-analysed were adults aged 65 + or had a mean age of 70 +; (3) meta-analyses that included studies of any type of exercise, including its duration, frequency, intensity, and mode of delivery; (4) interventions that included multiple components (e.g., exercise and cognitive stimulation), with effect sizes that were computed separately for the exercise component; (5) meta-analyses that were published in any year or language. The characteristics of the reviews, of the interventions, and of the parameters improved through exercise were reported through narrative synthesis. Identification of the interventions linked to the largest improvements was carried out by identifying the highest values for improvement recorded across the reviews. The study included 56 meta-analyses that were heterogeneous in relation to population, sample size, settings, outcomes, and intervention characteristics. Results: The largest effect sizes for improvement were found for resistance training, meditative movement interventions, and exercise-based active videogames. Conclusion: The review identified important gaps in research, including a lack of studies investigating the benefits of group interventions, the characteristics of professionals delivering the interventions associated with better outcomes, and the impact of motivational strategies and of significant others (e.g., carers) on intervention delivery and outcomes.
... Sedentary behavior is associated with poorer health outcomes, even 28 after adjusting for physical activity levels. So, people with diabetes need to 29 consider minimizing the amount of time spent being inactive and periodically breaking up long periods of sitting. ...
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How often should you exercise and what type is best for you? How does physical activity affect your health and mental health? Can you exercise too much? Does being inactive have an independent effect on your health? How does physical activity affect aging and your cognition or thinking skills? What can you do to motivate yourself to be more physically active? In this guide you will learn that being physically active can help you maintain or improve your health and mental health. To help you decide the best approach to being physically active, this guide first discusses the World Health Organization’s 2020 recommendations for physical activity by age group. Then, the guide discusses the health and mental health benefits you can gain from physical activity. This discussion is grounded in the strongest type of research; that is analyses of randomized-controlled trials. There are chapters summarizing the benefits of exercise generally and for people who have certain chronic conditions, such as diabetes; as well as chapters that discuss aging, cognition, and mental health. Finally, you will learn about methods that can help you get the motivation you need to improve your health through physical activity.
... To date, researchers have largely focused on interventions that can delay the ageing process, and in doing so, encourage a healthspan consistent with prolonged positive mental health in later life. Physical exercise is commonly integrated into daily living to build social support and enhance quality of life, resulting in a significant increase to longevity (Gremeaux et al., 2012;Vagetti et al., 2014). Exercise refers to structured and repetitive concentric, eccentric, or isometric muscular activity performed to improve or maintain one or more aspects of physical or psychological health (Caspersen et al., 1985;Winter and Fowler, 2009;Ceria-Ulep et al., 2011). ...
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Background Depression is a chronic condition that affects up to 15% of older adults. The healthogenic effects of regular exercise are well established, but it is still unclear which exercise-related variables characterise the antidepressant effects of exercise. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which exercise-related variables (exercise behaviour, exercise-induced mood, exercise self-efficacy, and social support) can predict depressive symptoms in a cohort of community-dwelling older adults.Methods This study employed a cross-sectional analysis of questionnaire data from a sample of 586 community-dwelling older Australians aged 65 to 96 years old. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, modified CHAMPS Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Adults, Four-Dimension Mood Scale, Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale, and Social Provisions Scale – Short Form. Bivariate correlations were performed, and hierarchical multiple regression was subsequently used to test the regression model.ResultsExercise behaviour, exercise-induced mood, exercise self-efficacy, and social support were all negatively associated with depressive symptoms (r = −0.20 to −0.56). When the variables were entered as predictors into the hierarchical multiple regression model, social support was the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms (β = −0.42), followed by exercise-induced mood (β = −0.23), and exercise self-efficacy (β = −0.07). Exercise behaviour did not explain any additional variance in depressive symptoms. A modest interaction effect was also observed between exercise-induced mood and social support.Conclusion These findings indicate that social support is the strongest predictor of depressive symptomology in community-dwelling older adults, particularly when combined with positive exercise-induced mood states. When addressing the needs of older adults at risk of depression, healthcare professionals should consider the implementation of exercise programmes that are likely to benefit older adults by improving mood, enhancing self-efficacy, and building social support.
... Exercise is among the most impactful interventions for improving overall health. In fact, the beneficial effects of exercise on longevity, overall health, and musculoskeletal health in the elderly are well-documented (159)(160)(161)(162)(163). Evidence that musculoskeletal function (i.e., grip strength, gait speed, fracture) appears a sentinel indicator of age-related frailty has drawn attention to the mechanisms by which musculoskeletal tissues are altered in aging. ...
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The decline in the mass and function of bone and muscle is an inevitable consequence of healthy aging with early onset and accelerated decline in those with chronic disease. Termed osteo-sarcopenia, this condition predisposes the decreased activity, falls, low-energy fractures, and increased risk of co-morbid disease that leads to musculoskeletal frailty. The biology of osteo-sarcopenia is most understood in the context of systemic neuro-endocrine and immune/inflammatory alterations that drive inflammation, oxidative stress, reduced autophagy, and cellular senescence in the bone and muscle. Here we integrate these concepts to our growing understanding of how bone and muscle senses, responds and adapts to mechanical load. We propose that age-related alterations in cytoskeletal mechanics alter load-sensing and mechano-transduction in bone osteocytes and muscle fibers which underscores osteo-sarcopenia. Lastly, we examine the evidence for exercise as an effective countermeasure to osteo-sarcopenia.
... Are runners less likely to be a part of this epidemic? Engaging in physical activity is recommended in public health campaigns as a means to help Americans maintain healthy body weight and reduce the risk of chronic diseases (Tucker et al. 2011;Gremeaux et al. 2012;Bennett et al. 2009;Leitzmann et al. 2007;Haskell et al. 2007;Prohaska et al. 2006;Fulton et al. 2004;Conn et al. 2003;Rafferty et al. 2002). According to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2016 the overall obesity rate, as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than 30, in the U.S. is 39.8% with another third of the population overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0) (Gamble et al. 2017). ...
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Running and jogging are listed as two of the most popular outdoor leisure activities for adults (The Outdoor Foundation 2017). Male and female adult runners attending a four-day workshop conducted by the authors from 2007–2018 indicated that learning how to be lifelong runners was their primary goal for attending the workshop. These recreational runners with an average age of 50 years, who attended one of the 20 workshops, were chosen for the study to see how successful they had been years later in pursuit of their goal of lifelong running and what changes in training and health they had incurred. The study surveyed workshop participants to examine their running frequency, injuries, body weight changes, and supplemental training as they aged. Among respondents there was no difference in the percentage who are still running with regard to age and sex. Comparisons of those runners 60 years old and over with those under 60 years of age were made to see if there were differences in how their running activities had changed over 10 years. Current runners 60 and older reported running “less frequently.” There was no significant difference in running interruption due to injury in those 60 and over compared to those under 60. Two-thirds of the runners had a normal BMI classification in strong contrast to national norms. Nearly ninety percent were cross-training to supplement their running. These former workshop participants have been able to continue their favorite physical activity and enjoy running after the age of 60 and beyond.
... Therefore, the optimal intensity of exercise for the elderly should be moderate intensity, which was consistent with the results of Jansson E et al. [44]. Physiologically, exercise can partially reverse the effect of the ageing process on the physiological function and maintain the functional reserve of the elderly [45], and its mechanisms include improving vascular endothelial function [46], increasing maximal oxygen uptake [46], increasing muscle strength [47,48] and maintaining bone mass [49]. Our analysis results showed that there were more significant improvements at higher levels of exercise while exercise below the minimum threshold did not produce enough challenge to the body ( [51] However, the elderly is more vulnerable, strenuous exercise may lead to sudden death or myocardial infarction [52] and cause musculoskeletal injuries [53]. ...
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Background The strategy of successful ageing is an important means to deal with the challenges of the current ageing society. This paper aims to explore the effects of different intensities of physical activity on the successful ageing of the elderly. Methods Our data were from wave 4 of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS), involving 9026 residents aged 60 years and older. The intensity of physical activity was divided into three levels: vigorous, moderate and mild. The concept of successful ageing adopted a four-dimensional model of life satisfaction added to the theoretical model of Rowe and Kahn’s. Propensity score matching (PSM) with controlling nine confounding factors were used to analyse the effects of different intensities of physical activity. Results The percentage of successful ageing was 1.88% among all subjects. Among them, 30.26, 29.57 and 29.40% of the elderly often participated in vigorous, moderate and mild physical activity, respectively. The results of PSM showed that participation in moderate activity increased the probability of successful ageing of the elderly by 0.76–0.78% ( P < 0.001), while participation in vigorous and mild physical activity had no significant effect on successful ageing ( P > 0.05). Moderate physical activity had statistically significant effects on four components of successful aging, including major disease, physical function, life satisfaction, and social participation ( P < 0.05). Conclusion Moderate-intensity physical activity was most beneficial to the successful ageing of the elderly and should be promoted in the elderly population.
... Whereas the aerobic training preferentially improves cardiovascular fitness, resistance training increases the muscle mass and both training modalities promote loss of body fat mass [9,10]. It is widely accepted that the regular practice of exercise training, both aerobic (endurance) and resistance (anaerobic/strength) sets, is one of the most effective nonpharmacological interventions that can partially reverse the effects of vascular dysfunction, thereby decreasing the risk of death and consequently increase longevity [11][12][13]. Although it has been generally agreed that combined aerobic-resistance exercise training may equally attain both cardiovascular and muscle targets [14], the effects of combined aerobic-resistance exercise training on the lipid profile, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers of atherosclerosis have been scarcely explored in aged subjects. ...
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Cardiovascular benefits for the general population of combined aerobic-resistance exercise training are well-known, but the impact of this exercise training modality on the plasma lipid, inflammatory, and antioxidant status in elderly women that are exposed to a great risk of developing ischemic cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases has not been well investigated. So, we aimed to evaluate the plasma lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines in 27 elderly women (TRAINED group, 69.1±8.1 yrs) that were performing moderate intensity combined aerobic-resistance exercise training (3 times/week for at least 18 months) and in 27 sedentary elderly women (SED group, 72.0±6.4 yrs), not submitted to exercise training for at least 5 yrs. Our results showed that BMI was lower in the TRAINED group than in the SED group (25.1±3.2 vs. 28.7±5.1, p
... It has been well proved that a healthy lifestyle can increase life expectancy in many countries [21]. Gremeaux et al, showed that high levels of physical activity can reduce the process of aging such as immune dysfunction, non-communicable and Neurodegenerative diseases (psychologically and physiologically), as well as early mortality [22][23][24][25]. Li et al, reported that regular physical activity, proper nutrition, and ideal weight led to an increase in life expectancy of 7.4 to 17.9 years in Japan, Britain, Canada, Denmark, Norway, and Germany [21]. ...
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Today, increasing life expectancy and years of life without disease is one of the most important issues in health. The aim of this study was to Investigation of Life Expectancy in Community-Dwelling Elderly Men in Iran and its related factors. 424 men aged over 60 years were randomly assigned to different areas of Tehran participated in the study. First, the subjects' body composition and anthropometric indices, including weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and hip circumference, were measured using Omron's digital scale and tape measure. In order to assess the level of life expectancy, physical activity and nutritional status, Snyder’s Questionnaire of Hope, Physical activity scale for elderly (PASE) and Mini nutritional assessment (MNA) were used, respectively. For statistical analysis software SPSS version 21 was used. The results of statistical analysis of the data showed a direct relationship between the level of education, nutritional status and physical activity and the inverse and significant relationship between comorbidity with life expectancy. According to the findings of this study, the use of strategies to increase the level of physical activity and healthy lifestyle in the elderly plays an effective role in the health of the elderly and increase life expectancy. Keywords: Physical activity; Nutritional status; Comorbidity; Lifestyle; Older adults; Life expectancy
... La inactividad física es el cuarto factor de riesgo en lo que respecta a la mortalidad mundial (Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), 2014). La actividad física es uno de los factores indispensables para la salud y es una de las medidas no farmacológicas más eficaces para la mayoría de las enfermedades asociadas al envejecimiento (Gremeaux et al., 2012). ...
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Human behavior has been influenced by the technological revolution in communications, above all with the emergence of new styles of communication. In an aging society and with the rise in recent years of the use of mobile phones for almost all actions of daily life, it is difficult for this group to adapt to new forms of social interaction. These devices offer through accessibility a socio-technological inclusion as well as an improvement in the cognitive processes of our elderly. In addition, we can direct their use in the utilization of diverse mobile applications to establish healthy life habits to favor active aging.
... Moreover, a 30% reduced risk of mortality can be attained when a well-designed and structured physical exercise program is performed, thus increasing longevity and quality of life during the aging process. 16 Previous scientific evidence has demonstrated the efficacy of physical exercise to prevent and/or delay the deleterious effects of the ageing process on physiological functions. 2 Nevertheless, the molecular and biological pathways remain partially unknown that explain the exercise-related positive influence on human health in old age. ...
Article
Background Vitamin D deficiency is currently endemic worldwide and is considered as an important factor in the development of several chronic conditions. Physical exercise has been postulated as an auspicious strategy to counteract age-related disorders preventing premature mortality. However, the effects of chronic exercise training on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D] is unclear. This 12-week randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate the effects of different training modalities on 1,25(OH) 2 D in healthy sedentary adults. Hypothesis Exercise training will increase 1,25(OH) 2 D in the study cohort. Study Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Level of Evidence Level 1. Methods A total of 89 healthy sedentary adults (53% women; 53.5 ± 4.9 years old) were enrolled in the FIT-AGEING study. The participants were randomized to (1) a control group (no exercise), (2) physical activity recommendation from the World Health Organization (PAR group), (3) high-intensity interval training (HIIT group), and (4) HIIT adding whole-body electromyostimulation training (HIIT + EMS). 1,25(OH) 2 D plasma levels were measured using a DiaSorin Liaison immunochemiluminometric analyzer. Results Compared with the control group, 1,25(OH) 2 D increased in PAR (Δ = 10.99 ± 3.44 pg/mL; P = 0.01), HIIT (Δ = 11.63 ± 3.51 pg/mL; P = 0.009), and HIIT + EMS groups (Δ = 14.01 ± 3.59 pg/mL; P = 0.001) without statistical differences between them (all Ps > 0.1). Conclusion In summary, the results show that a 12-week exercise intervention produced an increment of 1,25(OH) 2 D independently of age, sex, and exercise modality in healthy sedentary adults. Clinical Relevance The implementation of physical exercise could be considered a strategy not only aiming to reverse the seasonal decrease of 1,25(OH) 2 D in winter explained by low sunlight exposure but also for obtaining subsequent increases of this hormone even in these a priori adverse conditions.
... Accordingly, endurance training for higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels (measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing and expressed as maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO 2max )) is associated with numerous health benefits (e.g., longer lifespan, better quality of life, lower declination of functional and aerobic capacity, and reduced risks of allcause and cardiovascular mortality). 7,8 Partly for these reasons, endurance and ultraendurance races, as PA practices, have become very popular, and the number of participants has increased in recent times. 9 However, extreme and competitive endurance events involve a considerably higher level of exercise than is recommended by the official guidelines, without being associated with the benefits that moderate PA could lead to in health status. 10 Short, medium, and long-distance running races differ in terms of volume and intensity, can involve vigorous physical effort, and can generate changes in blood biomarkers caused by physiopathologic events. ...
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Background To finish an endurance race, athletes perform a vigorous effort that induces the release of cardiac damage markers. There are several factors that can affect the total number of these markers, so the aim of this review was to analyze the effect of endurance running races on cardiac damage markers and to identify the factors that modify the levels of segregation of these cardiac damage markers. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases was performed. This analysis included studies where the acute effects of running races on cardiac damage markers (troponin I and troponin T) were analyzed, assessing the levels of these markers before and after the races. Results The effects of running races on troponin I (mean difference = 0.038 ng/mL) and troponin T (mean difference = 0.026 ng/mL) levels were significant. The ages (R² = 14.4%; p = 0.033) and body mass indexes (R² = 14.5%; p = 0.045) of the athletes had a significant interaction with troponin I. In addition, gender, mean speed, time to finish the race, and type of race can affect the level of cardiac damage markers. Conclusion Endurance running races induce the release of cardiac-damage markers that remain elevated for at least 24 h after the race. In addition, young male athletes with high body mass indexes who perform races combining long duration and moderate intensity (i.e., marathons) release the highest levels of cardiac damage markers. Physicians should take into consideration these results in the diagnosis and treatment of patients admitted to the hospital days after finishing endurance running races.
... Evidence showed that most people with the initiative to exercise have an optimistic attitude and participating in physical exercise could enhance an individual's sense of pleasure [38], thereby improving SWB. Gremeaux V et al. [39] found that moderate-intensity exercise not only could partially reverse the effect of the ageing process on the physiological function but also likely to yield emotional benefits. Unfortunately, heavy burden from family and work could limit the time and energy of MAEW in China for conducting physical exercise, which may lead to low health status, resulting in low level of SWB. ...
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Purpose Despite a maturing literature on the association between subjective wellbeing (SWB) and mental condition, little is known regarding the happiness–physical health relation in China, among middle-aged and elderly women (MAEW) in particular. This study aimed to understand the effect of physical health on the SWB of MAEW in China. Methods Data from the 2014 and 2018 China Family Panel Study were used to analyse the SWB of women over the age of 45 years. In addition, descriptive statistics was used to describe the population distribution and panel ordered logit regression for regression analysis. Results Majority of the respondents reported satisfactory SWB, and the proportion of the respondents who were very happy and happy was more than 68%. In terms of health factors, self-rated health, 2-week morbidity and BMI were significantly related to the SWB of MAEW (all P -values < 0.05). Physical exercise ( P -value < 0.01) was positively associated with SWB, whereas smoking status and drinking status were not related to SWB. In addition, demographic indicators, such as registered residence ( P -value < 0.01), income ( P -value < 0.01) and social status ( P -value < 0.01), significantly affected the SWB of MAEW. Conclusion This study showed that MAEW’s physical health could affect their SWB. Increased attention should be paid to the physical health of MAEW to improve their SWB. Policy mechanisms could be designed to motivate MAEW to take the initiative to engage in regular physical activity to improve their SWB. In addition, increased attention be paid to groups with low socioeconomic status and high stress, especially those who are employed, to improve residents’ happiness.
... Entre los motivos de abandono de la práctica de AFD más recurrentes se encuentra la falta de tiempo (Gómez-López, Granero-Gallegos y Baena-Extremera, 2010), aunque las personas de edad más avanzada pueden encontrar una barrera en la aparición de dolores y problemas de salud (Gremeaux et al., 2012), o la insatisfacción corporal (Niñerola i Maymí et al., 2006). Sin embargo, para incentivar la adquisición del hábito saludable de AFD y seguir trabajando en favor de una población activa y sana, resulta necesario hallar el punto de encuentro entre las motivaciones hacia la AFD y las barreras hacia la misma en población sedentaria, es decir, en aquellos en los que las barreras prevalecen sobre la motivación. ...
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RESUMEN: Determinar con exactitud las motivaciones de la población sedentaria hacia la práctica de actividad física resulta fundamental ya que, suponiendo estas un punto de partida para la promoción de hábitos saludables a partir de la AF. El presente trabajo pretende validar la escala denominada Barreras hacia la AF en Población Universitaria (BAFPU) con población sedentaria universitaria. Esta escala está compuesta por 14 ítems repartidos en tres dimensiones acerca de las barreras que impiden la práctica habitual de alguna actividad físico-deportiva. Para validar la escala se ha hecho uso de una población formada por universitarios realizando una análisis factorial confirmatorio, análisis estadístico descriptivos y un análisis de validez de criterio relacionando la escala BAFPU respecto a cuatro perfiles motivacionales (clusters) hacia la práctica de actividad física (Motivados, Desmotivados, Trendy y Healthy). En definitiva, la escala BAFPU es un instrumento válido y fiable y pone de manifiesto que las barreras impiden el desarrollo de una motivación intrínseca hacia la AF, a pesar de la buena percepción que tiene la población hacia esta. ABSTRACT: Accurately determine the motivations of the sedentary population towards the practice of physical activity is essential since, assuming these are a starting point for the promotion of healthy habits from the AF. The present work tries to validate the scale called Barriers to the AF in University Population (BAFPU) with sedentary university population. This scale is composed of 14 items divided into three dimensions about the barriers that prevent the usual practice of any physical-sporting activity. To validate the scale, a population made up of university students was used to perform a confirmatory factor analysis, descriptive statistical analysis and criterion validity analysis relating the BAFPU scale with respect to four motivational profiles (clusters) towards the practice of physical activity (Motivated , Unmotivated, Trendy and Healthy). In short, the BAFPU scale is a valid and reliable instrument and shows that barriers prevent the development of an intrinsic motivation towards FA, despite the good perception that the population has towards it. RESUMO: Determinar com precisão as motivações da população sedentária para a atividade física é essencial porque, supondo que tal ponto de partida para promover hábitos saudáveis, da AF. Este trabalho tem como objetivo validar a escala de chamadas barreiras à AF na Cidade Universitária (BAFPU) formados população sedentária. Esta escala é composta por 14 itens divididos em três dimensões sobre as barreiras que impedem a prática usual de qualquer atividade físico-esportiva. Para validar a escala foi feito uso de uma população que consiste em universidade realização de uma análise factorial de confirmação, a análise estatística descritiva e uma análise de validade critério relativo a escala BAFPU a partir de quatro perfis motivacionais (clusters) para a prática de actividade física (Prompted, Desmotivado, moderno e saudável). Em última análise, a escala BAFPU é um instrumento válido e confiável e destaca os obstáculos que impedem o desenvolvimento de uma motivação intrínseca para AF, apesar da boa percepção da população em relação a este.
... Research has documented the relationship between participation in exercise and improved life expectancy. Gremeaux, et al. (2012) have concluded their review studies which firmly endorse the relationship between exercise, increased life expectancy and better quality of life. ...
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Despite zenith in the field of scientific knowledge, any pin pointed factor behind the phenomenon of longevity and life expectancy has not yet been known. There are so many contributors that work together in affecting the span of life expectancy. Review of the literature reveals that participation in physical activities and exercises, use of proper diet, healthy lifestyle behaviour, avoidance of smoking and obesity are vital and they all have crucial role in determining the length of the life span. This paper is aimed at to review the existing body of literature in perspectives of the factors contributing or otherwise with reference to the longevity and life expectancy. The factors examined in this paper include exercise & physical activity, diet and smoking. In view of the existing literature it has become evident that life expectancy is something that can be extended to a desirable limit provided consolidated efforts are put forth with reference to health care and healthy life style behaviour.
... Lifestyle modification can be done by taking proper amount of sleep as sleep has great impact on mortality [34,35]. Physical exercise may increase life expectancy [36]. Avoidance of chronic stress slows loss of telomeres and decrease cortisol levels [37,38]. ...
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Ageing/ Aging is the process of becoming older. Ageing can refer to single cells within an organism which have ceased dividing (cellular senescence) or tothe population of a species (population ageing). Aging occurs due to accumulation of physical, psychological, and social changes in a human being over time. Ageing is one of the risk factors for most human diseases. Approximately two thirds of the 150,000 of total deaths occurring globally per day is due to age related factors. Aging is characterized by a progressive, generalized impairment of function, resulting in an increasing vulnerability to environmental challenge and a growing risk of disease and death. Ageing and mortality started with evolution of sexual reproduction and emergence of the fungal/animal kingdoms approximately a billion years ago. Normal human cells die after about 50 cell divisions known as Hayflick Limit. There are several theories postulated for the cellular mechanism of ageing. They are broadly divided into two main categories: Programmed and Damagerelated. Cellular senescence has been attributed to the shortening of telomeres at each cell division. DNA damage theory forms the common basis of both cancer and ageing. Intrinsic causes of DNA damage are the most important drivers of ageing. According to Free radical theory oxidative reaction leads to the formation of molecular species with unpaired electrons which makes them highly reactive known as Free radicals. Ageing affects the various systems of our body. Prevention and delay of ageing can be done by lifestyle modification. The amount of sleep has great impact on mortality. Physical exercises may also increase life expectancy. Avoidance of chronic stress slows loss of telomeres and decreases cortisol levels. Caloric restriction also delays ageing.
... Exercise is another intervention that improves health and longevity and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, cognitive disorders, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, and cancer [10,11]. The beneficial effects of exercise are mediated by cellular and physiological responses that increase stress resistance in animals and humans in a manner similar to CR [12,13]. ...
Article
Caloric restriction, intermittent fasting, and exercise activate defensive cellular responses such as autophagy, DNA repair, and the induction of antioxidant enzymes. These processes improve health and longevity by protecting cells and organs against damage, mutations, and reactive oxygen species. Consuming a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, and mushrooms can also improve health and longevity. Phytochemicals such as alkaloids, polyphenols, and terpenoids found in plants and fungi activate the same cellular processes as caloric restriction, fasting, and exercise. Many of the beneficial effects of fruits and vegetables may thus be due to activation of stress resistance pathways by phytochemicals. A better understanding of the mechanisms of action of phytochemicals may provide important insights to delay aging and prevent chronic diseases.
... Despite progression in medicine, social care, and health care, increased life expectancy does not directly commensurate with increased health (St Sauver et al., 2015). Participation in physical exercise brings numerous health benefits and slows the negative health-related effects of aging (Gremeaux et al., 2012). Numerous exercise interventions in either healthy or unhealthy older adults have been performed to find the most effective counter-measures for aging-related challenges. ...
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Background Despite functional and cognitive benefits, few adults and older adults do strength training twice per week with sufficient intensity. Exercise-based active video games (exergaming) may amplify the cognitive benefits of exercise and increase adherence and motivation toward training. However, the benefits of a well-defined and monitored dose of strength training, executed simultaneously or sequentially with a cognitive element, has received little attention. In this study we have two aims: First, to systematically gather the available evidence; second, to suggest possible ways to promote strength exergaming innovations. Methods We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials using simultaneous or sequent combined strength and cognitive training or strength exergaming to improve cognitive or functional outcomes in adults and older adults. Results After screening 1,785 studies (Google Scholar, ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore Library, PsycARTICLES, Scopus, Cochrane Library and PubMed) we found three eligible studies. Of the two studies using sequent strength and cognitive training, one showed improved functionality, but the other showed negative effects on cognition. The third study using simultaneous intervention, reported a positive influence on both cognition and function, when compared with either strength training alone or a control group. Moderate level of evidence was showed on GRADE analysis. Conclusion The existing little evidence suggests that strength and cognitive training improves cognition and function in adults and older adults. The following suggestions may help to promote further innovation: (1) ensure minimal dosage of strength training (30–60 min, 2 × /week), (2) use machine-based strength training devices to control volume and intensity (to prevent cognitive components from interfering with strength training), (3) include power training by using cognitive tasks requiring rapid reactions, and (4) add cognitive memory tasks (to extend the cognitive benefits of strength training per se ), and (5) include motivational exergame elements to increase adherence.
... Conversely, overwhelming evidence confirms the effectiveness of physical activity to counteract sedentarism, enhancing overall physical health, preventing and improving the medical condition in general, and the aging process in particular [5,[20][21][22]. Exercise does not mitigate the aging process, but it attenuates many of its deleterious systemic and cellular effects, slowing many mechanisms involved in aging [5]. ...
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Exercise counteracts aging and pathology symptoms, but there is still scarce research on exercise programs for multimorbid and/or palliative old patients (MPO-Ps). In order to analyze whether the multicomponent physical–cognitive training is beneficial for this population, 17 MPO-Ps (81.59 � 5.63 years) completed a >26 weeks home-based intervention (20–50 min/session, three sessions/week). Twenty-eight supervised and thirty-two autonomous sessions were gradually distributed along three phases: supervised training (ST), reduced supervision training (RST), and autonomous training (AT). Physical function (gait speed, hand grip and lower-limb strength, balance, and agility), mental status (MMSE), and autonomy in daily living (the Barthel Index) were assessed. Categorical analyses regarding the changes in the walking aids used in the test were added to improve the assessment of strength and agility along the intervention. Despite important study limitations, such as the small sample size and lack of a control group, and despite the MPO-Ps’ very low baseline fitness and initial exercise intolerance, they benefited from the dual-tasking approach, especially in autonomy, lower-limb strength, and balance. Agility improvements were shown only by categorical analyses. As expected, most benefits increased the supervision (ST phase). Gait speed and cognitive status maintained despite the total autonomy in training in the last phase. Further research with larger samples should confirm if multicomponent physical–cognitive exercise, individualized and tailored on daily-basis, together with technical assistance and medical supervision, benefits this MPO-Ps population, and if it can be prescribed to them with security, in spite some of them already being palliative patients.
... Given that animals fed CR diets usually consume their daily allocated food rapidly and in a single serving, the effects of CR may in reality be due to long periods of food abstinence (>16 hrs/day; i.e., intermittent fasting) [5,7]. Similarly, exercise improves health markers and is widely believed to improve the healthspan and lifespan in humans [8]. Many plant and fungal compounds found in the diet, such as polyphenols, terpenoids and alkaloids also extend lifespan in model organisms and produce health benefits in humans [9][10][11][12]. ...
Article
The medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum is used as a dietary supplement and health tonic, but whether it affects longevity remains unclear. We show here that a water extract of G. lucidum mycelium extends lifespan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The G. lucidum extract reduces the level of fibrillarin (FIB-1), a nucleolar protein that correlates inversely with longevity in various organisms. Furthermore, G. lucidum treatment increases expression of the autophagosomal protein marker LGG-1, and lifespan extension is abrogated in mutant C. elegans strains that lack atg-18, daf-16, or sir-2.1, indicating that autophagy and stress resistance pathways are required to extend lifespan. In cultured human cells, G. lucidum increases concentrations of the LGG-1 ortholog LC3 and reduces levels of phosphorylated mTOR, a known inhibitor of autophagy. Notably, low molecular weight compounds (<10 kDa) isolated from the G. lucidum water extract prolong lifespan of C. elegans and the same compounds induce autophagy in human cells. These results suggest that G. lucidum can increase longevity by inducing autophagy and stress resistance.
... Another important lifestyle factor highlighted in literature is one's level of physical activity. Exercise has been found to confer protective effects on individuals through various mechanisms that work to slow down the onset of agingrelated health conditions (Gremeaux et al. 2012). Lastly, many studies have noted the significantly lower rates of smoking among centenarians (Da Silva et al. 2020;Rajpathak et al. 2011;Yates et al. 2008). ...
... At present, there is overwhelming evidence attesting to the health benefits of physical exercise. [19][20][21] Moreover, it is acknowledged that exercise can partially reverse the effects of aging of physiologic functions and preserve functional reserve in older adults 22 while also acting as a protective factor and a therapeutic option for anxiety, depression, and insomnia. [23][24][25][26] Ascertaining elderly patients' level of physical activity might also help identify individuals at high risk of developing depressive symptoms. ...
Article
Purpose: We sought to compare the effectiveness of physical exercise with that of treatment with antidepressant drugs routinely used in clinical practice, in terms of decreasing depressive symptomatology in patients aged ≥65 years who present with clinical criteria of a depressive episode. Methods: We conducted a randomized clinical trial in a primary care setting. A total of 347 patients aged ≥65 years with a clinically significant depressive episode were randomized to participation in a supervised physical exercise program or to receive antidepressant treatment by their general practitioners. Results: Intention-to-treat analysis showed that the cumulative incidence of improvement in depressive symptomatology (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score <10) in the physical activity (PA) group after 1 month was not significantly different from that in the antidepressant treatment (AT) group. However, the proportion of those who showed improvement was significantly greater (P <.01) in the AT group (60.6% and 49.7%) compared to the PA group (45.6% and 32.9%) at the end of 3 and 6 months, respectively. The number of withdrawals was greater in the PA group (39.2% and 58.2%) compared to the AT group (22.6% and 40.0%) at 3 and 6 months, respectively, yet the proportion of participants with adverse side effects was greater in the AT group (8.9% vs 22.5%; P = .007). Conclusion: Although improvement was initially similar in both treatment groups, AT was superior in the medium term, despite giving rise to a greater number of adverse effects.
... The quality of the components of the living (informed) matter managed by MIS (Ia) is also important for the health and longevity. The Mediterranean diet is strongly recommended by its abundant composition in legumes, fruits, cereals, vegetables, fish and olive oil, leading to a low risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases, incidence of the mortality from cancer, and incidence of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease [22]. The social life is also an important anti-aging factor, as a natural source, suitable to exercise and improve the efficiency of the sensors, of the memory (CASI (Ik)), of the decisional center (CDC (Iw)) and of the emotional system (IES (Il)), with positive effects on the personal wellbeing and life satisfaction. ...
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The aim of the study is to determine the association between Behavioral Lifestyles (regular physical activity, healthy diet, sleeping, and weight control) and longevity in the elderly. A search strategy was conducted in the PsycInfo, Medline, PubMed, Web of Science (WoS), and Scopus databases. The primary outcome was mortality/survival. Four variables (mean of participant's age at the baseline of the study, follow-up years of the study, gender, and year of publication) were analyzed to evaluate the role of potential moderators. Ninety-three articles, totaling more than 2,800,000 people, were included in the meta-analysis. We found that the lifestyles analyzed predict greater survival. Specifically, doing regular physical activity, engaging in leisure activities, sleeping 7-8 h a day, and staying outside the BMI ranges considered as underweight or obesity are habits that each separately has a greater probability associated with survival after a period of several years.
Chapter
This chapter provides an introduction to the basic science needed for the reader to understand the ensuing chapters that explore the relationship between the health of the Chesapeake Bay, its food system, and the wellbeing of its people. For many readers, high school or college science courses may sit dim in their memories. This chapter will refresh some of those old facts and concepts, as well as introduce some important new ones. It focuses on the most important aspects of physics, chemistry, biology, and ecology needed to understand the subsequent material. Whenever possible the chapters apply the same scientific principles to explain phenomena that are common to human health and that of the Chesapeake Bay Ecosystem.
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The beneficial effects of exercise for the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome pathologies have been related to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Dietary nitrate supplementation is an emerging treatment strategy to alleviate the symptoms of metabolic syndrome affections and to improve vascular function. In this double-blind crossover trial, metabolic syndrome patients performed two exercise tests for 30 min at 60–70% maximal heart rate after the intake of a placebo or a nitrate-enriched beverage. Acute exercise increased the plasma concentration of TNFα, intercellular adhesion molecule ICAM1, PGE1, PGE2 and the newly detected 16-hydroxypalmitic acid (16-HPAL) in metabolic syndrome patients. The cytokine and oxylipin production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and neutrophils could be responsible for the plasma concentrations of TNFα and IL6, but not for the plasma concentration of oxylipins nor its post-exercise increase. The intake of sodium nitrate 30 min before exercise increased the concentration of nitrate and nitrite in the oral cavity and plasma and reduced the oxygen cost of exercise. Additionally, nitrate intake prevented the enhancing effects of acute exercise on the plasma concentration of TNFα, ICAM1, PGE1, PGE2 and 16-HPAL, while reducing the capabilities of PBMCs and neutrophils to produce oxylipins.
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The benefits of physical activity on health are obvious in spite of the effects of participating in vigorous exercises and competitive sports in which they still remain uncertain. The present study examines the widespread presence of the syndrome and its components among former athletes, who were involved in various kind of sports. It also examines the relationship between long-term vigorous exercise training and metabolic syndrome rates and its components. The study examined 18 articles related to epidemiological studies and these articles were grouped based on the type of sport the article focused. The findings have shown that former athletes who participated in endurance training and who also participated in mixed sports have low prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components when compared to the normal population. The findings also indicate that lower cardiovascular disease mortality is one of the main reasons for the lower metabolic syndrome percentages. On the contrary, for the former power athletes the results of researches are inconsistent. When former athletes engage in mixed sports the finding of researches show their metabolic rates are lower than the normal population. To conclude, long-term high intensity training is related to the decreasing rate of metabolic syndrome in specific groups of athletes.
Chapter
Exercise is an activity carried out by all human beings from cradle to old age. It is a necessity for healthy living especially in the practice of lifestyle medicine. There are different types of exercise; they can be classified based on their intensity and effect on the body. Exercise plays a very crucial role in the development and maintenance of good health irrespective of the age of the individuals involved. Also, regular engagement in physical exercise helps in improving one’s quality of life and also in prolonging one’s life. In this chapter, we discussed the importance of exercise on health and longevity. Alongside, we discussed the impact of social media on exercise, health and longevity.
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O processo de envelhecimento é caracterizado por mudanças nos hábitos e estilo de vida. A taxa de inatividade física entre os idosos chega a ser de 32, 3%, o que é um grande desafio para a saúde pública. Objetivo: Nesse contexto, nota-se que há uma necessidade de estudos mais aprofundados acerca da importância da prática regular de atividade física pelo idoso. Assim a presente pesquisa visa descrever a prática de atividade física em idosos e a sua correlação com um envelhecimento saudável. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão bibliográfica integrativa, onde as bases de dados MEDLINE/PUBMED, LILACS, SCIELO, DOT LIB, livros e Revistas Eletrônicas de Saúde foram consultadas para o levantamento de artigos científicos. Como critérios de inclusão utilizou-se: Artigos sem restrição de língua, que estivessem disponíveis nas bases de dados no período de busca, além de estarem dispostos integralmente. Foram utilizados 41 artigos a fim de compor a presente revisão. Para a busca foram selecionados descritores de ciências da saúde: Envelhecimento. Promoção da saúde. Exercício físico. Saúde. Resultados: A prática regular de exercícios físicos em idosos melhora as funções orgânicas e cognitivas, garantindo maior independência pessoal, prevenindo e controlando doenças como diabetes, hipertensão, síndrome sarcopénica, depressão e demência, além de atuar na prevenção de agravos à saúde do idoso como quedas e fraturas. Conclusão: A prática regular de atividades físicas pelo idoso é de suma importância na prevenção, tratamento e redução de algumas doenças, sendo um fator que atua fortemente na qualidade de vida, promoção da saúde e envelhecimento saudável. Palavras chave: Envelhecimento. Promoção da saúde. Exercício físico. Saúde.
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Diet and physical activity (PA) have been studied extensively in epidemiology as single or combined lifestyle factors; however, their interaction has not been studied thoroughly. Studying potential synergisms between lifestyle components with a comprehensive interaction analysis, including additive measures of interaction, provides key insights into the nature of their joint effect and helps target interventions more effectively. First, a comprehensive review was conducted to assess the potential research gap regarding reported interaction analyses conducted in studies assessing the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) in combination with PA on all-cause mortality. Thereafter, we prospectively assessed the joint association of the MedDiet with PA on all-cause mortality in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, followed by both multiplicative and additive interaction analyses. The conjoint effect of low adherence to the MedDiet and low PA observed an increased risk greater than the individual risk factors, suggesting a potential additive interaction or synergism between both exposures, with relative risk due to interaction (RERI) and (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI)) = 0·46 (–0·83 to 1·75) and attributable proportion (95 % CI) due to interaction of 36 % (–0·62, 1·34). No multiplicative interacaltion was detected. Studying interactions between lifestyle factors, such as the MedDiet and PA, is particularly relevant given the current research gaps in studying the complexities of combined aspects of lifestyle in comparison with isolated behaviours. Our findings underline the important public health message of adhering to both the MedDiet and PA for the prevention of premature mortality.
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Introduction Exercise is widely accepted to improve health, reducing the risk of premature mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. However, several epidemiological studies suggest that the exercise-longevity relationship may be ‘J’ shaped; with elite athlete’s likely training above these intensity and volume thresholds. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to examine this relationship in former elite athletes. Methods 38,047 English language articles were retrieved from Web of Science, PubMed and SportDiscus databases published after 1970, of which 44 and 24 were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. Athletes were split into three groups depending on primary sport: Endurance (END), Mixed/Team, or power (POW). Standard mortality ratio’s (SMR) and standard proportionate mortality ratio (SPMR) were obtained, or calculated, and combined for the meta-analysis. Results Athletes lived significantly longer than the general population (male SMR 0.69 [95% CI 0.61–0.78]; female SMR 0.51 [95% CI 0.40–0.65]; both p < 0.01). There was no survival benefit for male POW athletes compared to the general population (SMR 1.04 [95% CI 0.91–1.12]). Although male athlete’s CVD (SMR 0.73 [95% CI 0.62–0.85]) and cancer mortality (SMR 0.75 [95% CI 0.63–0.89]), were significantly reduced compared to the general population, there was no risk-reduction for POW athletes CVD mortality (SMR 1.10 [0.86–1.40]) or END athletes cancer mortality (SMR 0.73 [0.50–1.07]). There was insufficient data to calculate female sport-specific SMR’s. Discussion Overall, athletes live longer and have a reduced incidence of both CVD and cancer mortality compared to the general population, refuting the ‘J’ shape hypothesis. However, different health risks may be apparent according to sports classification, and between sexes, warranting further investigation. Trial registration PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42019130688).
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Age-associated alterations in muscle protein quantity and quality that adversely affect muscle structure, composition, and function have been referred to as sarcopenia. Muscle protein is metabolically active, and the age-associated loss of muscle protein mass is related to a loss of physical function and an inability to perform activities of daily living (physical frailty). It is important to maintain adequate reserves of muscle protein and amino acids as we age. As in all cachectic conditions, sarcopenia can be explained by an imbalance between the rates of muscle protein synthesis and muscle proteolysis, in which net muscle protein balance is negative. This review summarizes evidence that supports the notion that: (a) advancing age and physical frailty are associated with a reduction in the fasting rate of mixed and myosin heavy chain protein synthesis, which contributes to muscle protein wasting in advancing age; (b) this impairment can be corrected because resistance exercise acutely and dramatically increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in men and women aged 76 years and older; and (c) resistance exercise training maintains a modest increment in the rate of muscle protein synthesis and contributes to muscle hypertrophy and improved muscle strength in frail elderly men and women. The cellular mechanisms responsible for these adaptations, as well as the role of nutrition and hormone replacement in reversing sarcopenia, require further investigation.
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Physical activity and fitness are believed to reduce premature mortality, but whether genetic factors modify this effect is not known. To investigate leisure physical activity and mortality with respect to familial aggregation of health habits during childhood and factors that may enable some individuals to achieve higher levels of fitness. Prospective twin cohort study. Finland. In 1975, at baseline, 7925 healthy men and 7977 healthy women of the Finnish Twin Cohort aged 25 to 64 years who responded to a questionnaire on physical activity habits and known predictors of mortality. Those who reported exercising at least 6 times per month with an intensity corresponding to at least vigorous walking for a mean duration of 30 minutes were classified as conditioning exercisers, those who reported no leisure physical activity were classified as sedentary, and other subjects were classified as occasional exercisers. All-cause mortality and discordant deaths among same-sex twin pairs from 1977 through 1994. Among the entire cohort, 1253 subjects died. The hazard ratio for death adjusted for age and sex was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.81) in occasional exercisers and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.45-0.74) in conditioning exercisers, compared with those who were sedentary (Pfor trend <.001). Among the twin pairs who were healthy at baseline and discordant for death (n=434), the odds ratio for death was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.46-0.94) in occasional exercisers and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.23-0.83) in conditioning exercisers compared with those who were sedentary (P for trend, .005). The beneficial effect of physical activity remained after controlling for other predictors of mortality. Leisure-time physical activity is associated with reduced mortality, even after genetic and other familial factors are taken into account.
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De nombreuses études épidémiologiques confirment les bienfaits procurés par l’activité physique en ce qui concerne la diminution du risque de maladie associée à l’âge et de la mortalité quelle qu’en soit la cause. L’analyse de la littérature scientifique centrée sur les caractéristiques principales (intensité, type, quantité) montre que la quantité nécessaire d’activité physique est celle qui améliore la condition cardiorespiratoire, la force musculaire, la puissance et, indirectement, l’équilibre. L’appauvrissement de ces fonctions avec l’âge entraîne des limitations physiques qui conditionnent les activités fonctionnelles journalières. En revanche, un programme d’activité physique peut atténuer ces pertes, évitant ainsi aux personnes âgées (plus de 65 ans) de traverser le seuil de l’incapacité physique. Les études transversales et longitudinales révèlent un lien entre la condition cardiorespiratoire et la capacité fonctionnelle et l’autonomie ; la force musculaire et par surcroît, la puissance musculaire, permettent d’accomplir plus efficacement les activités de tous les jours ; l’équilibre dynamique en combinaison avec la puissance musculaire forment un ensemble de prévention contre les chutes. D’après les études sur les programmes d’intervention, les personnes âgées peuvent améliorer leurs capacités fonctionnelles car elles possèdent la capacité d’adaptation à l’entraînement physique. Les quelques études qui ont analysé les quantités minimale et optimale d’activité physique indiquent qu’il faut faire des exercices dans les plages d’intensité modérée à vigoureuse si on veut atteindre et préserver les gains résultant de la pratique régulière. Par conséquent, on devrait prescrire des activités physiques en spécifiant le type d’activité qui améliorera les variables organiques associées au maintien de la capacité fonctionnelle et de l’autonomie et, de ce fait, on repoussera la maladie et la mort. Une bonne recommandation concernant l’exercice physique chez les personnes âgées devrait inclure des activités cardiorespiratoires modérément vigoureuses (la marche rapide), un entraînement à la force et à la puissance pour la préservation de la masse musculaire et de la capacité de travail de groupes musculaires choisis et des exercices d’équilibre et d’étirement au besoin.
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Age-associated alterations in muscle protein quantity and quality that adversely affect muscle structure, composition, and function have been referred to as sarcopenia. Muscle protein is metabolically active, and the age-associated loss of muscle protein mass is related to a loss of physical function and an inability to perform activities of daily living (physical frailty). It is important to maintain adequate reserves of muscle protein and amino acids as we age. As in all cachectic conditions, sarcopenia can be explained by an imbalance between the rates of muscle protein synthesis and muscle proteolysis, in which net muscle protein balance is negative. This review summarizes evidence that supports the notion that: (a). advancing age and physical frailty are associated with a reduction in the fasting rate of mixed and myosin heavy chain protein synthesis, which contributes to muscle protein wasting in advancing age; (b). this impairment can be corrected because resistance exercise acutely and dramatically increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in men and women aged 76 years and older; and (c). resistance exercise training maintains a modest increment in the rate of muscle protein synthesis and contributes to muscle hypertrophy and improved muscle strength in frail elderly men and women. The cellular mechanisms responsible for these adaptations, as well as the role of nutrition and hormone replacement in reversing sarcopenia, require further investigation.
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The ability of physical stimuli demonstrated as potently osteogenic in the young adult skeleton were evaluated for their capacity to stimulate new bone formation in the aging skeleton. Using the externally loadable, functionally isolated turkey ulna preparation, the ulnae of 1-year-old (n=5), and 3-year-old (n=3) turkeys were subjected to 300 cycles per day of a load regimen generating a high but physiologic level of normal strain (3,000 microstrain). Following 8 weeks of loading, areal properties and histomorphometry were performed on both the experimental and intact control ulnae. Bone cross-sectional areas in the 1-year-old animal increased by 30.2% (7.8%) as compared with the intact contralateral control ulnae, whereas the areal properties of the older skeleton remained essentially unchanged (-3.37.5%). Renewed bone formation in the experimental ulnae of the 1-year-old animals was characterized by the activation of periosteal bone apposition (4.00.4 m/day). In comparison, periosteal bone formation in the 3-year-old males was activated in only 1 animal, and this at a significantly attenuated level (less than 0.8 m/day). The histomorphometric evaluation of intracortical bone remodeling revealed no significant differences between the control and experimental ulnae in either age group. However, osteon mean wall thickness and bone formation sigma were significantly increased in the 3-year-old males (P
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The dose-response relation between physical activity and all-cause mortality is not well defined at present. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the association with all-cause mortality of different domains of physical activity and of defined increases in physical activity and energy expenditure. MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched up to September 2010 for cohort studies examining all-cause mortality across different domains and levels of physical activity in adult general populations. We estimated combined risk ratios (RRs) associated with defined increments and recommended levels, using random-effects meta-analysis and dose-response meta-regression models. Data from 80 studies with 1 338 143 participants (118 121 deaths) were included. Combined RRs comparing highest with lowest activity levels were 0.65 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.60-0.71] for total activity, 0.74 (95% CI 0.70-0.77) for leisure activity, 0.64 (95% CI 0.55-0.75) for activities of daily living and 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.97) for occupational activity. RRs per 1-h increment per week were 0.91 (95% CI 0.87-0.94) for vigorous exercise and 0.96 (95% CI 0.93-0.98) for moderate-intensity activities of daily living. RRs corresponding to 150 and 300 min/week of moderate to vigorous activity were 0.86 (95% CI 0.80-0.92) and 0.74 (95% CI 0.65-0.85), respectively. Mortality reductions were more pronounced in women. Higher levels of total and domain-specific physical activity were associated with reduced all-cause mortality. Risk reduction per unit of time increase was largest for vigorous exercise. Moderate-intensity activities of daily living were to a lesser extent beneficial in reducing mortality.
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Older adults and special populations (living with disability and/or chronic illness that may limit mobility and/or physical endurance) can benefit from practicing a more physically active lifestyle, typically by increasing ambulatory activity. Step counting devices (accelerometers and pedometers) offer an opportunity to monitor daily ambulatory activity; however, an appropriate translation of public health guidelines in terms of steps/day is unknown. Therefore this review was conducted to translate public health recommendations in terms of steps/day. Normative data indicates that 1) healthy older adults average 2,000-9,000 steps/day, and 2) special populations average 1,200-8,800 steps/day. Pedometer-based interventions in older adults and special populations elicit a weighted increase of approximately 775 steps/day (or an effect size of 0.26) and 2,215 steps/day (or an effect size of 0.67), respectively. There is no evidence to inform a moderate intensity cadence (i.e., steps/minute) in older adults at this time. However, using the adult cadence of 100 steps/minute to demark the lower end of an absolutely-defined moderate intensity (i.e., 3 METs), and multiplying this by 30 minutes produces a reasonable heuristic (i.e., guiding) value of 3,000 steps. However, this cadence may be unattainable in some frail/diseased populations. Regardless, to truly translate public health guidelines, these steps should be taken over and above activities performed in the course of daily living, be of at least moderate intensity accumulated in minimally 10 minute bouts, and add up to at least 150 minutes over the week. Considering a daily background of 5,000 steps/day (which may actually be too high for some older adults and/or special populations), a computed translation approximates 8,000 steps on days that include a target of achieving 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and approximately 7,100 steps/day if averaged over a week. Measured directly and including these background activities, the evidence suggests that 30 minutes of daily MVPA accumulated in addition to habitual daily activities in healthy older adults is equivalent to taking approximately 7,000-10,000 steps/day. Those living with disability and/or chronic illness (that limits mobility and or/physical endurance) display lower levels of background daily activity, and this will affect whole-day estimates of recommended physical activity.
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An abundance of epidemiological research confirms the benefits of physical activity in reducing risk of various age-related morbidities and all-cause mortality. Analysis of the literature focusing on key exercise variables (e.g., intensity, type, and volume) suggests that the requisite beneficial amount of activity is that which engenders improved cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, power, and, indirectly, balance. Age-related declines in these components are such that physical limitations impinge on functional activities of daily living. However, an exercise programme can minimize declines, thus preventing older adults (age 65+ years) from crossing functional thresholds of inability. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data demonstrate that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with functional capacity and independence; strength and, importantly, power are related to performance and activities of daily living; and balance-mobility in combination with power are important factors in preventing falls. Exercise interventions have documented that older adults can adapt physiologically to exercise training, with gains in functional capacities. The few studies that have explored minimal or optimal activity requirements suggest that a threshold (intensity) within the moderately vigorous domain is needed to achieve and preserve related health benefits. Thus, physical activity and (or) exercise prescriptions should emphasize activities of the specificity and type to improve components related to the maintenance of functional capacity and independence; these will also delay morbidity and mortality. An appropriate recommendation for older adults includes moderately vigorous cardiorespiratory activities (e.g., brisk walking), strength and (or) power training for maintenance of muscle mass and specific muscle-group performance, as well as "balance-mobility practice" and flexibility (stretching) exercise as needed.
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It is widely held among the general population and even among health professionals that moderate exercise is a healthy practice but long term high intensity exercise is not. The specific amount of physical activity necessary for good health remains unclear. To date, longevity studies of elite athletes have been relatively sparse and the results are somewhat conflicting. The Tour de France is among the most gruelling sport events in the world, during which highly trained professional cyclists undertake high intensity exercise for a full 3 weeks. Consequently we set out to determine the longevity of the participants in the Tour de France, compared with that of the general population. We studied the longevity of 834 cyclists from France (n=465), Italy (n=196) and Belgium (n=173) who rode the Tour de France between the years 1930 and 1964. Dates of birth and death of the cyclists were obtained on December 31 (st) 2007. We calculated the percentage of survivors for each age and compared them with the values for the pooled general population of France, Italy and Belgium for the appropriate age cohorts. We found a very significant increase in average longevity (17%) of the cyclists when compared with the general population. The age at which 50% of the general population died was 73.5 vs. 81.5 years in Tour de France participants. Our major finding is that repeated very intense exercise prolongs life span in well trained practitioners. Our findings underpin the importance of exercising without the fear that becoming exhausted might be bad for one's health.
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In the last decades, the participation of elderly trained people in endurance events such as marathon running has dramatically increased. Previous studies suggested that the performance of master runners (>40 years) during marathon running has improved. The aims of the study were (1) to analyze the changes in participation and performance trends of master marathon runners between 1980 and 2009, and (2) to compare the gender differences in performance as a function of age across the years. Running times of the best male and female runners between 20 and 79 years of age who competed in the New York City Marathon were analyzed. Gender differences in performance times were analyzed for the top 10 male and female runners between 20 and 65 years of age. The participation of master runners increased during the 1980-2009 period, to a greater extent for females compared to males. During that period, running times of master runners significantly (P < 0.01) decreased for males older than 64 years and for females older than 44 years, respectively. Gender differences in running times decreased over the last three decades but remained relatively stable across the ages during the last decade. These data suggest that male (≥65 years) and female (≥45 years) master runners have probably not yet reached their limits in marathon performance. The relative stability of gender differences in marathon running times across the different age groups over the last decade also suggests that age-related declines in physiological function do not differ between male and female marathoners.
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We estimate comparable prevalence estimates of "successful aging" for 14 European countries and Israel, adding a new cross-nationally comparative perspective to recently published findings for the United States. Measures for a variety of specific successful aging criteria were derived from baseline interviews of respondents aged 65+ who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (n=21,493). A multivariate logistic model was run for our global successful aging measure. Our analysis revealed substantial cross-country variation around a mean value of 8.5%: Although as many as 21.1% of older Danes meet our successful aging criteria, the respective proportion in Poland is only 1.6%. Age, gender, and socioeconomic status are shown to bear highly significant associations with individuals' odds of successful aging. The observed cross-national variation in successful aging-which continues to exist if population composition is controlled for-highlights the importance of taking into consideration structural factors at the societal level. It also suggests a potential for policy interventions supporting individuals' opportunities for successful aging.
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Nutrition is an important element of health in the older population and affects the aging process. The prevalence of malnutrition is increasing in this population and is associated with a decline in: functional status, impaired muscle function, decreased bone mass, immune dysfunction, anemia, reduced cognitive function, poor wound healing, delayed recovery from surgery, higher hospital readmission rates, and mortality. Older people often have reduced appetite and energy expenditure, which, coupled with a decline in biological and physiological functions such as reduced lean body mass, changes in cytokine and hormonal level, and changes in fluid electrolyte regulation, delay gastric emptying and diminish senses of smell and taste. In addition pathologic changes of aging such as chronic diseases and psychological illness all play a role in the complex etiology of malnutrition in older people. Nutritional assessment is important to identify and treat patients at risk, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool being commonly used in clinical practice. Management requires a holistic approach, and underlying causes such as chronic illness, depression, medication and social isolation must be treated. Patients with physical or cognitive impairment require special care and attention. Oral supplements or enteral feeding should be considered in patients at high risk or in patients unable to meet daily requirements.
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In a meta-analysis we investigated the effect of physical activity with different intensity categories on all-cause mortality. Many studies have reported positive effects of regular physical activity on primary prevention. This recent meta-analysis analyzed all-cause mortality with special reference to intensity categories. A computerized systematic literature search was performed in EMBASE, PUBMED, and MEDLINE data bases (1990-2006) for prospective cohort studies on physical leisure activity. Thirty-eight studies were identified and evaluated. The presentation refers to studies with 3 or 4 different intensities of regular physical activity according to a standard questionnaire. There was a significant association of lower all-cause mortality for active individuals compared with sedentary persons. For studies with three activity categories (mildly, moderately, and highly active) and multivariate-adjusted models, highly active men had a 22% lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.84) compared to mildly active men. For women, the relative risk was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.90). We observed similar results in moderately active persons compared to mildly active individuals (RR=0.81 for men and RR=0.76 for women). This association of activity to all-cause mortality was similar and significant in older subjects. Regular physical activity over longer time is strongly associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality in active subjects compared to sedentary persons. There is a dose-response curve especially from sedentary subjects to those with mild and moderate exercise with only a minor additional reduction with further increase in activity level.
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