Expansion of psychological therapies.

The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.99). 10/2008; 193(3):256-7; author reply 257. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.193.3.256
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    • "The current study was performed as part of a "Developing Culturally-Sensitive CBT Project" in which we are developing methods to modify CBT for psychosis in the UK [15] and CBT for depression in Pakistan. This latter project involved a series of studies whose aim was to determine what factors should be taken into account so as to develop and refine a CBT manual to treat depression. "
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    ABSTRACT: Psychological therapies especially Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) are used widely in the West to help patients with psychiatric problems. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has an established evidence base for the treatment of different emotional disorders. In spite of these developments in the developed world, patients in most developing countries hardly benefit from non pharmacological interventions. Although a significant number of psychologists are trained in Pakistan each year, psychological interventions play only a minor role in treatment plans in Pakistan. We conducted interviews with psychologists in Pakistan, to explore their experiences and their views on "providing CBT in Pakistan". These interviews were conducted as part of a project whose focus was to try to develop culturally-sensitive CBT in Pakistan. In depth semi structured interviews were conducted with 5 psychologists working in psychiatry departments in Lahore, Pakistan. All the psychologists reported that psychotherapies, including CBT, need adjustments for use in Pakistan, although they were not able to elicit on these in details. Four major themes were discovered, hurdles in therapy, therapy related issues, involvement of the family and modification in therapy. The biggest hurdles in therapy were described to be service and resource issues. For CBT to be acceptable, accessible and effective in Non Western cultures numerous adjustments need to be made, taking into consideration; factors related to service structure and delivery, patient's knowledge and beliefs about health and the therapy itself. Interviews with the psychologists in these countries can give us insights which can guide development of therapy and manuals to support its delivery.
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for schizophrenia demonstrate that African-Caribbean and Black African patients have higher dropout rates and poor outcomes from treatment. The main aim of the study was to produce a culturally sensitive adaption of an existing CBT manual for therapists working with patients with psychosis from specified ethinic minority communities (African-Caribbean, Black-African/Black British, and South Asian Muslims). This will be based on gaining meaningful understanding of the way members (lay and service users) of these minority communities typically view psychosis, its origin and management including their cultural influences, values and attitudes. Method: This two-centre (Hampshire and West London) qualitative study consisted of individual semi-structured interviews with patients with schizophrenia (n = 15); focus groups with lay members from selected ethnic communities (n = 52); focus groups or semi-structured interviews with CBT therapists (n = 22); and mental health practitioners who work with patients from the ethnic communities (n = 25). Data were analyzed thematically using evolving themes and content analysis. NVivo 8 was used to manage and explore data. There was consensus from the respondent groups that CBT would be an acceptable treatment if culturally adapted. This would incorporate culturally-based patient health beliefs, attributions concerning psychosis, attention to help seeking pathways, and technical adjustments. While individualization of therapy is generally accepted as a principle, in practice therapists require an understanding of patient-related factors that are culturally bound and influence the way the patient perceives or responds to therapy. The findings of this study have practical implications for therapists and mental health practitioners using CBT with people with psychosis from BME communities.
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