Human Gut Microbiota: Dysbiosis and Manipulation

Beijing Genomics Institute-Shenzhen Shenzhen, China.
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.72). 09/2012; 2:123. DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00123
Source: PubMed
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Available from: Faxing Zhang, Apr 28, 2014
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    • "The human gut, the natural environment for a diverse microbial ecosystem, may be a major therapeutic target of research in biomedicine because gut microbiota are related to various diseases such as chronic inflammation, metabolic disorders, auto-immune diseases, and immune disorders (6,7). For example, normal microflora such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria in the gastrointestinal tract are significantly reduced in patients with IBD, suggesting that IBD could be due to an imbalance of intestinal microflora (8,9). "
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    ABSTRACT: Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host. Duolac-Gold is a mixture of seven probiotic bacteria containing three species of Bifidobacteria, two species of Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Duolac-Gold in an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mouse model. IBD was induced by administering 1.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 10 days. After induction of DSS-induced colitis, Duolac-Gold was orally administered at three different concentrations. Interestingly, Duolac-Gold treatment accelerated IBD healing, and anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by weight loss, length of the colon, and a microscopic damage score by histology. The expression of inflammatory related cytokines was measured in colon tissues and serum. Of these cytokines, the expression of interleukin-6 decreased remarkably after Duolac-Gold treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that Duolac-Gold treatment is effective in IBD healing by regulating IL-6.
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    • "Indeed, interesting are the parasite immune-modulations at the gut enterocyte level on host immune reaction. On the other site, " omics " technology and their paramount effects on gut microbiota studies have been also deeply described in the articles by Shen et al. (2012) (genomics, metagenomics, and gut modifications), Vernocchi et al. (2012), and Masotti (2012) (gene expression, transcriptomics ). Metabolic profiling has a wide potential to understand the complex interactions amongst components of the gut microbiota and to elucidate the relationships (cause/effect) between specific nutritional choices and related shifts in microbiota taxa composition. "

    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Cancers of the gastrointestinal tract account for 25 % of all cancers and for 9 % of all causes of cancer death in the world, so gastrointestinal cancers represent a major health problem. In the past decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the interactions between the gastrointestinal content and the onset of neoplasia. Methods: Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. Probiotics are mono or mixed cultures of live microorganisms that might beneficially affect the host by improving the characteristics of indigenous microflora. Although the effects of probiotic administration has been intensively investigated in vitro, in animal models, in healthy volunteers, and in some human gastrointestinal diseases, very little is still known about the possible cross-interactions among probiotic administration, changes of intestinal flora, and the neoplastic transformation of gastrointestinal mucosa. Results: Theoretically, probiotics are able to reduce cancer risk by a number of mechanisms: (a) binding and degradation of potential carcinogens; (b) quantitative, qualitative and metabolic alterations of the intestinal microflora; (c) production of anti-tumorigenic or anti-mutagenic compounds; (d) competitive action towards pathogenic bacteria; (e) enhancement of the host's immune response; (f) direct effects on cell proliferation. Conclusion: This review will attempt to highlight the literature on the most widely recognized effects of probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastrointestinal mucosa and in particular on their effects on cell proliferation.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
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