The SunWise Policy Intervention for School-Based Sun Protection: A Pilot Study

ArticleinThe Journal of School Nursing 24(4):215-21 · September 2008with9 Reads
DOI: 10.1177/1059840508319627 · Source: PubMed
Skin cancer is highly preventable, but clearly there is a critical need to focus on better ways to disseminate information about known skin cancer prevention. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) SunWise Program is one channel for reaching children, teachers, and school nurses. In a pilot study designed to increase adoption of school-based sun protection policies, 28 schools were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Control, which included the EPA's original SunWise curriculum toolkit; SunWise Policy, which included a revised toolkit emphasizing policy; and SunWise Policy plus Technical Assistance, which included the policy toolkit and 3 technical assistance phone calls. The enhanced SunWise Policy plus Technical Assistance intervention led to more new sun protection policies. Use of study interventions for improving sun protection practices such as policy toolkits or brief counseling can be easily interwoven into school hours by school nurses and other health educators.
    • "The review found evidence that capacity building affects delivery system adoption and implementation of EBIs (Additional file 2:Table S2). Of the 12 studies that assessed adoption, four found a significant within group difference [22, 24, 26, 40] and two found significant between group differences in adoption rates with the intervention group having higher rates than the comparison [39, 47]; four additional studies found an increase in adoption following the capacity-building intervention without testing for significance [21, 25, 46, 48]. Findings were mixed, however, as four studies found nonsignificant group differences in adoption rates [24, 26, 44, 49] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous agencies are providing training, technical assistance, and other support to build community-based practitioners' capacity to adopt and implement evidence-based prevention interventions. Yet, little is known about how best to design capacity-building interventions to optimize their effectiveness. Wandersman et al. (Am J Community Psychol.50:445-59, 2102) proposed the Evidence-Based System of Innovation Support (EBSIS) as a framework to guide research and thereby strengthen the evidence base for building practitioners' capacity. The purpose of this review was to contribute to further development of the EBSIS by systematically reviewing empirical studies of capacity-building interventions to identify (1) the range of strategies used, (2) variations in the way they were structured, and (3) evidence for their effectiveness at increasing practitioners' capacity to use evidence-based prevention interventions. PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for English-language articles reporting findings of empirical studies of capacity-building interventions that were published between January 2000 and January 2014 and were intended to increase use of evidence-based prevention interventions in non-clinical settings. To maximize review data, studies were not excluded a priori based on design or methodological quality. Using the EBSIS as a guide, two researchers independently extracted data from included studies. Vote counting and meta-summary methods were used to summarize findings. The review included 42 publications reporting findings from 29 studies. In addition to confirming the strategies and structures described in the EBSIS, the review identified two new strategies and two variations in structure. Capacity-building interventions were found to be effective at increasing practitioners' adoption (n = 10 of 12 studies) and implementation (n = 9 of 10 studies) of evidence-based interventions. Findings were mixed for interventions' effects on practitioners' capacity or intervention planning behaviors. Both the type and structure of capacity-building strategies may have influenced effectiveness. The review also identified contextual factors that may require variations in the ways capacity-building interventions are designed. Based on review findings, refinements are suggested to the EBSIS. The refined framework moves the field towards a more comprehensive and standardized approach to conceptualizing the types and structures of capacity-building strategies. This standardization will assist with synthesizing findings across studies and guide capacity-building practice and research.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
    • "However, a systematic review revealed that evidence for determining the effectiveness of such interventions is insufficient (Saraiya et al., 2004 ). In recent years, individualoriented (e.g., Olson et al., 2007; Reynolds et al., 2006; White et al., 2010) and environmental (e.g., Dobbinson et al., 2009; Emmons et al., 2008) approaches to sun protection interventions for teenagers have been introduced. However, there are only very few studies evaluating school-based interventions derived from theoretical models (e.g., Reynolds et al., 2006; White et al., 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sun protection standards among teenagers are low while sun exposure peaks in this age group. Study 1 explores predictors of adolescent protection intentions and exposure behavior. Study 2 tests the effectiveness of an intervention based on these predictors. Study 1(cross-sectional, N = 207, ages 15-18) and Study 2 (RCT, N = 253, ages 13-19) were conducted in schools. Path models were used to analyze data. Self-efficacy (β = .26, p < .001) and time perspective (β = .17, p = .014) were the strongest predictors of intentions; appearance motivation (β = .54, p < .001) and intention (β = -.18, p = .015) predicted behavior. The intervention effected changes in all predictors except self-efficacy. Changes in outcome expectancies (β = .19, p < .001) and time perspective (β = .09, p = .039) predicted changes in intention, while changes in intention (β = -.17, p = .002) and appearance motivation (β = .29, p < .001) predicted behavior changes. Target group- and behavior-specific intervention components are as important for changes in intentions and behavior as components derived from common health behavior theories.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sea Beam multibeam bathymetric system is in operation aboard research vessels worldwide. While it has contributed greatly in advancing the understanding of the deep-sea floor, several types of bathymetric artifacts have been identified in its contoured output which could be mistaken for sea floor structure. Among those, the "tunnel" effect results from sidelobe interference caused by the near specular return and is most prominent when the sea floor is relatively flat. It is characterized by a trough in the bottom profile produced by Sea Beam. It will be shown that this type of interference can be greatly reduced or eliminated through an adaptive filtering scheme, pending a minor modification of the Sea Beam data acquisition system. The noise-cancelling configuration of the adaptive least-squares lattice filter will be used to process simulated Sea Beam data obtained through REVGEN, a high-fidelity sonar system simulation program.
    Conference Paper · Dec 1985 · Journal of Behavioral Medicine
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