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Cognitive deficits that present with many of neuropsychiatric conditions and/or alone as developmental deficit demand use of nootropics to boost cognitive abilities. Recently there is a tremendous urge to explore medicinal plants globally for improving cognitive function owing to their less adverse effects. Ayurveda provides a list of herbs known for nootropic activity as well as their multi-dimensional utility in various conditions. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacological properties, major chemical constituents, therapeutic actions, preclinical studies, safety and possible mode of action of the selected herbs from ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Concurrently, it opens up for further research and standardization on nootropic herbs.
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Pharmacogn Rev. 2012 Jul-Dec; 6(12): 147–153.
PMCID: PMC3459457
Nootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update
Reena Kulkarni, K. J. Girish, and Abhimanyu Kumar
Department of Post Graduate Studies in Kaumarabhritya, SDM College of Ayurveda, Hassan, Karnataka, India
Department of Kayachikitsa, SDM College of Ayurveda, Hassan, Karnataka, India
Department of Kaumarabhritya, National Institute of Ayurveda, Amer Road, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Address for correspondence: Dr. Reena Kulkarni, Department of Post Graduate Studies in Kaumarabhritya, SDM College of Ayurveda,
Hassan – 573 201, Karnataka, India. E-mail:
Received 2011 Apr 20; Revised 2011 Apr 27; Accepted 2012 Aug 23.
Copyright : © Pharmacognosy Reviews
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Cognitive deficits that present with many of neuropsychiatric conditions and/or alone as developmental
deficit demand use of nootropics to boost cognitive abilities. Recently there is a tremendous urge to explore
medicinal plants globally for improving cognitive function owing to their less adverse effects. Ayurveda
provides a list of herbs known for nootropic activity as well as their multi-dimensional utility in various
conditions. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacological properties, major chemical
constituents, therapeutic actions, preclinical studies, safety and possible mode of action of the selected
herbs from ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Concurrently, it opens up for further research and standardization on
nootropic herbs
Keywords: Ayurveda, memory enhancer, Medhya Rasayana, nootropic
Medhya Rasayanas are group of medicinal plants described in Ayurveda (Indian system of medicine) with
multi-fold benefits, specifically to improve memory and intellect by Prabhava (specific action). Medha
means intellect and/or retention and Rasayana means therapeutic procedure or preparation that on regular
practice will boost nourishment, health, memory, intellect, immunity and hence longevity. Medhya
Rasayana is a group of 4 medicinal plants that can be used singly or in combinations. They are
Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Linn.), Yastimadhu (Glycirrhiza glabra Linn.), Guduchi (Tinospora
cordifolia (Wild) Miers) and Shankhapushpi (Convolvulus pleuricaulis Chois), specially mentioned with
wide range of applications on different systems. Yet in practice few more handful drugs used with same aim
are mentioned else where in the Ayurveda classical textbooks. They are Aindri (Bacopa monniera),
Jyothishmati (Celastrus panniculata), Kushmanda (Benincasa hispida), Vacha (Acorus calamus) and
Jatamamsi (Nardostachys jatamamsi). Medhya Rasayana are used either in polyherbal preparations or
alone. This paper is an attempt to present update on these drugs. Evidences used are mostly facts from
researches on animal model or on bioactive principles with some of preclinical works on human system.
Evidence based approach
Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Linn.) is a prostrate, stoloniferous perennial herb rooting at nodes[1] [
Figure 1]. Fresh whole plant juice is used for therapeutic purposes as Medhya (cognitive enhancer).[2]
Major constituents are saponin (medacoside, asiaticoside, medacassoside, asiatic acid, a new triterpenic
3] They act on behaviour besides being neuroprotectives[4] brain growth promoter.[5] Dendritic
arborization is supposed to be the neuronal basis for improved learning and memory.[
6] Anti seizure activity
ootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update
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may result from direct or indirect modulation of ATPase activity.[7] Centella asiatica inhibits the memory
impairment induced by scopolamine through the inhibition of AChE.[
8] BR-16A (Mentat), a formulation
containing Centella asiatica proved for its antistress effects.[
9] Methanol extract of Centella asiatica
showed highest free radical scavenging activity that can be attributed to the presence of polyphenols and
flavonoids as this fraction contains maximum amount of these secondary metabolites (0.07 mg/ml). It also
exhibited DNA damage protection activity on pRSETA plasmid DNA in TE buffer (10 mM Tris-Cl and 1
mM EDTA) pH 8.0. Chloroform extract of Centella showed highest poly phenolic activity followed by
methanol extracts (9.04 μg/mg, 7.7 μg/mg, 6.76 μg/mg Gallic acid equivalents respectively); while
flavinoids were abundant in water extracts, followed by chloroform extracts. These two namely poly
phenols and flavinoids are responsible for potent anti oxidant and terminate free radicals.[
10] Extracts of
Centella are used in a herbal cosmetic cream for the improvement of skin viscoelasticity and hydration.[
A study was conducted on Menotab, an effective herbomineral preparation containing Centella asiactica
with other drugs from the Himalaya drug company, Bangalore. Study showed that Menotab is an ideal
medication for relief of postmenopausal symptoms as a short-term therapy.[
12] Administration of Centella
asiatica at 1,000 mg/kg b.wt for a period of 30 days in albino rats, showed organ specific toxicity.[
Yastimadhu (Glycirrhiza glabra Linn.) is a hardy herb or under shrub belonging to Fabaceae family[
14] [
Figure 2]. Fine powder of dried root is used internally with milk for therapeutic purpose as Medhya.[2]
Active ingredients are glycyrrhizine, flavonones,[
15] isoflavones, glycyrrhetenic acid,[16] six phenolic
17] Multidimensional activities of Yashtimadhu may be attributed to glycyrrhizine and
flavonones. Yashtimadhu is cytotoxic and its prolonged use may lead to pseudoaldosteronism,[
19] and hypertension.[20,21] The roots and rhizomes of G. glabra has been studied with
respect to spatial learning and passive avoidance[
22] preliminary free radical scavenging[23] cerebral
24] and antioxidant capacity towards LDL oxidation.[25] Glycyrrhiza glabra aqueous extract
markedly improves antihypoxic effects induced by sodium nitrite in rats and this effect may be mediated by
its antioxidant properties.[
26,27] The roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra is an efficient brain tonic; it
increases the circulation into the CNS system and balance the sugar levels in the blood.[
28] Liquorice has
significant action on memory enhancing activity in dementia[
29] it significantly improved learning and
memory on scopolamine induced dementia.
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia (Wild) Miers) is a large glabrous, deciduous, climbing shrub of
Menispermaceae family found throughout tropical India[
30] [Figure 3]. Juice of whole plant is used
therapeutically as Medhya.[
2] It is also used in the form of decoction, powder and Satwa (starch extract of
stem). Its root is known for its anti stress, anti-leprotic and anti-malarial activities.[
31,32] Chemical
constituents’ classes are alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics,
aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides.[
33] Neuroprotective and ameliorative properties are due to their
antioxidant and trace element contents.[
34] Tinospora cordifolia is known to be a rich source of trace
elements (Zinc and Copper) which act as antioxidants and protects cells from the damaging effects of
oxygen radicals generated during immune activation.[
35] It increases the blood profile and has lead
scavenging activity.[
36] Tinospora cordifolia has been claimed to possess learning and memory
37] antioxidant,[38,39] and anti-stress activity.[40] Tinospora cordifolia enhanced the cognition
in normal and cognition deficits animals in behavioural test Hebb William maze and the passive avoidance
41] Mechanism of cognitive enhancement is by immunostimulation and increasing the synthesis of
acetylcholine, this supplementation of choline enhances the cognition.[
42] Myriad actions of Guduchi may
be attributed to its antioxidant[
43,44] and immunomodulatory properties.[45]
Shankhapushpi (Convolvulus pleuricaulis Chois) is a perennial, prostate or sub erect spreading hairy
46] found throughout India[47] [Figure 4]. Recommended therapeutic form is fine paste of whole
plant. Highly regarded as Medhya (intellect promoter).[
2] Important chemical principles are microphyllic
acid, shankhapushpin, kaempferol-kaempferol-3-glucoside, 3, 4 dihydroxycinnamic acid, sitosterols.
Neuroprotectve and intellect promoting activity implicated to free radical scavenging and antioxidant
48] BR-16A (Mentat), a poly herbal combination containing Shankhapushpi significantly reversed
the social isolation stress-induced prolongation of onset and decrease in pentobarbitone-induced sleep,
increased total motor activity and stress-induced antinociception in experimental model.[
49] Ayushman-8
(containing Shankhpushpi, Brahmi and Vacha) reported to be effective on Manasa-mandata (mental
ootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update
2 of 19 2/7/2015 7:07 A
retardation).[50] Shankhapushpi compound containing Shankhapushpi, Sarpagandha, and Gokshura in
equal quanitities studied to be effective in Chittodvega (anxiety disorders).[
51] Sanjay Parsania[52]
reported Shankhapushpi to be effective in relieving signs and symptoms of Chittodvega (anxiety disorders).
Herbalists believe that Shankhpushpi calms the nerves by regulating the body's production of the stress
hormones, adrenaline and cortisol.[
53] Few investigations reports that Shankhpushpi has potent depressive
action in mice.[
54] Convolvulus pleuricaulis whole plant extract, shows the highest inhibitory activity
against Helicobacter muridarum.[
Aindri (Bacopa monniera) commonly called as Brahmi belongs to Scrophulariaceae family.[
56] It is a
small, creeping marshy herb grown through out India[
57] [Figure 5]. Most beneficial therapeutic form is
macerated whole plant juice. Properties are said to be similar to that of Mandukaparni.[
58] Bacopa
monniera is a well-known nootropic plant reported for its tranquilizing,[
59] sedative action,[60] cognitive
61] hepatoprotective,[62] memory enhancer[63] and antioxidant actions.[6466]
Neuroprotective activity may be ascribed to having its reactive oxygen species scavenging property.[
Bacopa monniera is a saponin rich plant.[
68] Bacosides are the main active nootropic principle present in
the alcoholic extract of the plant.[
Isolation of a new saponin, a jujubogenin, named bacopasaponin G, and a new glycoside, phenylethyl
alcohol was reported.[
70] Three new saponins designated as bacopasides III, IV and V isolated.[71] Apart
from memory enhancer activity these bacosides have the potential to modulate the activities of heat stock
protein (Hsp70) expression, cytochrome P450 and superoxide dismutase in the rat brain.[
72] On rats,
alcoholic extract increases both cognitive function and retention capacity, decreases retrograde amnesia and
protects from phenytoin -induced cognitive deficit.[
73] It is mainly utilized in the treatment of memory and
attention disorders.[
Recent studies have indicated antioxidant effect of bacosides (triternoid saponin isolated from Bacopa
monniera) against chronic toxin induced oxidative damage in rat brain[
75] and thyroid T hormone
stimulating activity in animals in high doses.[
Jyotishmati (Celastrus panniculata) is a large, woody, climbing shrub with ovate or obvovate leaves found
all over India. Seeds are yellowish, ellipsoid or ovoid enclosed in a scarlet aril[
77] [Figure 6], Seed oil
(Jyotishmati Taila) is known for Medhya action.[
78] This oil contains several terpenoids like paniculatadiol,
b-sitosterol, celastrol, b-amyrin, pristimerin, but its most investigated components are its many
sesquiterpenoids, dihydroagarofuran-type polyols or esters.[
79] Celastrus paniculata showed antioxidant
activity by decreasing the lipid peroxidation[
80] and anti-arthritic activity in rat model.[81] Seed oil of
Celastrus panniculata (Malkangni) reversed scopolamine-induced deficits in navigational memory task in
young adult rats.[
Kushmanda (Benincasa hispida) belonging to Cucurbitaceae an extensive trailing or climbing herb
cultivated throughout the plains of India as a vegetable[
83] [Figure 7]. The fruit, broadly cylindrical, is
covered with a waxy bloom.[
84] Phytochemical analysis of Benincasa hispida shows presence of alkaloids,
flavinoids, saponins and steroids.[
85] Benincasa cerifera serves as ROS scavenger and an antioxidant
effective agent.[
86] It has a tissue protective preventive effect on colchicine induced Alzheimer's disease
via direct and indirect antioxidant activity.[
87] Kushmandadi Ghrita showed significant results in the
management Chittodvega (anxiety disorders).[
Vacha (Acorus calamus) of Araceae family is a semiaquatic, perennial, aromatic herb with its rhizome being
horizontal, rounded, somewhat vertically compressed, spongy and leaves grass like and sword shaped;
grown all over India[89] [Figure 8]. Rhizome is useful part having Medhya quality. It has been used in
Indian and Chinese system of medicine for hundreds of years to cure diseases especially the central nervous
system (CNS) abnormalities.[
9093] Active chemical principles are α-asarone, elemicine, cis-isoelemicine,
cis and trans isoeugenol and their methyl ethers, camphene, P-cymene, bgurjunene, a-selinene, b-cadinene,
camphor,terpinen-4-ol, aterpineol and a-calacorene, acorone, acrenone, acoragermacrone, 2-deca–4,7
dienol, shyobunones, linalool and preisocalamendiol. Acoradin, galangin, 2, 4, 5- trimethoxy benzaldehyde,
2,5- dimethoxybenzoquinone, calamendiol,spathulenol and sitosterol are also present 2.[
It has been proved for its analgesic and anticonvulsant,[
96] hepatoprotective,[97] antioxidant,[98,99]
ootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update
3 of 19 2/7/2015 7:07 A
antimutagenic,[100] sedative and hypothermic effects.[101] Good in clearing speech to the
102,103] and useful in schizophrenic psycosis.[104]
Food and Drug Administration banned usage its oil in food formulations and in other therapeutic
105] due carcinogenic and toxic properties of β-asarone compound.[106]
Jatamamsi (Nardostachys jatamamsi) is an erect perennial aromatic herb with long, stout, woody, greyish,
rhizomatous, tail-like rootstock covered with reddish-brown hairs or tufted fibrous remains of the petioles
of withered radical leaves[
107] [Figure 9], and belongs to Valerianaceae family. Rhizome is used for
medicinal purposes as it is Bhutaghna or Manasa Doshahara (relieves of psychiatric problems) and
108] Roots and rhizomes of N. jatamansi are used to treat hysteria, epilepsy, and
109] The decoction of the drug is also used in neurological disorders, insomnia and disorders
of cardiovascular system.[
110] Rhizomes contain a terpenoid ester, nardostachysin I.[111] It is proven to
improve learning and memory in mice[
112] and also to enhance biogenic amine activity.[113] An acetone
extract of N. jatamansi has shown significant inhibition of benzoyl peroxide-induced cutaneous oxidative
stress, toxicity, and ear oedema in mice.[
Data available so far support procognitive activity of herbs selected for discussion; at the same time
demand substantial evidences and revalidation in humans. Mostly the above said herbs act on the basis of
antioxidant, adaptogenic or essential trace elements present in them. Their activity on modulation of
biological axis and neurotransmitters requires further investigation.
Authors acknowledge support from Dr Prasanna N Rao and Dr Shailaja U for guidance during preparation
of article.
Source of Support: Nil
Conflict of Interest: None declared.
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Figures and Tables
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Figure 1
Centella asiatica
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Figure 2
Glycirrhiza glabra
ootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update
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Figure 3
Tinospora cordifolia
ootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update
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Figure 4
Convolvulus pluricaulis
ootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update
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Figure 5
Bacopa monniera
ootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update
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Figure 6
Celastrus panniculata
ootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update
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Figure 7
Benincasa hispida
ootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update
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Figure 8
Acorus calamus
ootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update
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Figure 9
Nardostachys jatamamsi
Articles from Pharmacognosy Reviews are provided here courtesy of Medknow Publications
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... [9] Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Linn.), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), and Shankhapushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy) are the four plants that form the typical Medhya drug group. [10] Since the Medhya drugs are also known to affect memory and are readily available, they possess the potential to act as an alternative and complementary therapy to the existing modern medicine therapies for the management of dementia, an outcome of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease. However, a perusal of the literature shows ample scope for research on dementia management using Medhya drugs due to want of robust data. ...
... The results of the Guduchi treatment on oxidative stress are in line with published literature. [10,13,54,55] These results of the proteomic study revealed the increased expression of tubulin proteins in GT, which are involved in the generation, migration, and differentiation of neurons. [56] α and β-tubulins are reported to play a significant role in the survival and positioning of neurons. ...
Background In ayurvedic practice, the Guduchi ( Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers) stem is used as a Medhya drug for its beneficial effects on memory improvement. Objectives The current study was planned to explore the Medhya properties of the Guduchi stem extract by observing its ameliorating effect on AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity in rats that acted as a chronic model of memory loss. Materials and Methods The aqueous extract of the Guduchi stem was prepared per the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India and administered to the AlCl3-treated Wistar rats for 42 days. The biochemical assessment of the brain tissues of the treated animals was done by the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition assay, protein expression, and oxidative stress assays, namely lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase assay. The neurobehavioral assessment was done using the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Results The EPM test revealed that treatment with Guduchi extract showed marked improvement of memory status in rats along with reduced oxidative stress, and a marked modulation of the AChE inhibition and expression of AChE tubulin proteins. Conclusion The results substantiate the Medhya properties of the Guduchi. Detailed investigations are required to be carried out to explore the precise mechanism of the neuroprotective action of the Guduchi stem extract against the AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity in rats.
... It shows antioxidant capacity which is responsible for its anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-stress, immune-modulatory, and cognition-facilitatory benefits [72]. According to Ayurveda, its properties are defined as a digestive, laxative, and also used as a tonic for heart and nervesrelated disorders [73]. Alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and steroids are the phytochemicals present in Bacopa. ...
Introduction: Medicinal plants and herbs are the most important part of the Ayurveda. The term Rasayana in Charaka Samhita confers long life, youthfulness, strong body, freedom from diseases and the plants mentioned in Rsayana possess antiaging property. Aging is the collective term used for the complex detrimental physiological changes that reduce the functional ability of the cell. Oxidative stress, telomeres shortening, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the main factors that regulate the aging process. Chronological aging is an irreversible process but the factors causing biological aging can be controlled. Ayurvedic herbs are better for the management of age-related problems. There are several natural bioactive agents present in plants that can delay the aging process in humans. They trigger actions like enhancing gene longevity and telomerase activity, ROS scavenging furthermore regeneration of tissues. Content: The plants mentioned in the Rasayana of Ayurveda have antiaging potential and can be used to solve modern problems related to aging. Some Ayurvedic plants and their antiaging potential has explained in this review. The main causes of aging, medicinal plants and their use as potential antiaging mediator are covered in this study. Summary: The process of aging is still an enigma. It is a complex, irretrievable, dynamic process that involves a number of factors and is subject to a number of environmental and genetic influences. Rasayana aspect has not been much investigated in clinical trials. Aging is considered to result from free radical damage. According to Charaka, Rasayana drugs open the partially or fully blocked channels. Many Rasayanas show free radical scavenging activity and has the potential to mitigate the effects of aging. It gives an overview of the significance of Ayurvedic medicinal plants as a source of inspiration and the use of these plants as remedies for antiaging. Outlook: This study briefly outlooks the causes of aging and how medicinal plants can be used to reverse the aging process. In this study, we discussed the antiaging potential and mechanistic roles of Ayurvedic herbs. These herbs have the properties to slow down the natural process of aging and can successfully manage common age-related problems.
... Medhya Rasayana is a group of four medicinal plants that can be used singly or in combinations. 8 • Improve circulation of Rasa by opening and cleaning the micro channel and thus improving-Medhya function. ...
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral illnesses in children and frequently persists into adulthood. Children with ADHD may struggle to control their conduct (act without considering the consequences) or be extremely active. It is typical for kids to occasionally struggle with their attention spans and manners. Nevertheless, these behaviors do not just disappear in children with ADHD. Current research indicates that heredity has a significant influence on ADHD, even though the etiology and risk factors are unclear. Together with behavioral therapy, Ayurvedic treatments that improve brain function, increase concentration , and quiet the mind can be highly beneficial in treating ADHD.
... Neurocognitive interventions in Ayurveda have also shown promising effects. (5) ...
Kaumārabhr̥tya or Bālacikitsa has transcended the tests of time. It has been an area of proactive practice in several parts of the nation. Pediatrics is a promising field not only in Ayurveda but in Siddha (Kuzhantai maruttuvam/Bālavagadattiruṭṭu) and Unani (Amraz-e-Atfal) too. These traditional branches of pediatrics are at crossroads. The public notion that the indigenous, traditional interventions suit their children better has probably led to an increased preference towards these systems. On the other side, for these practices to remain current and find their deserving space in community health, it needs much more evidence. Health promotion and disease prevention Svarṇaprāśana is one of the most important contributions of Kaumārabhr̥tya to society. It is like presenting ‘old wine in new bottle’ – a new beacon in Ayurveda Pediatric practice. It is the experience of many learned practitioners of Ayurveda and research outcomes in specific that Svarṇaprāśana acts as a positive adjuvant to many existing therapies and boost the cure and recovery rate and many a times acts as a sure shot remedy too! Its use as a prophylactic immunomodulator and nootropic has become a widespread practice all over the country owing to its safety and effectiveness in these domains. In biomedicine as well, gold is an emerging broad- spectrum therapeutic agent in cancer, respiratory illnesses, pain, and cognitive impairments. Non- gold preparations having prophylactic and immunomodulatory actions are also common in practice as parts of vernacular traditions, like Uraimarunnu in the south and Janma ghunti in the north. Prākāra yogas are immunomodulators specific to children, mentioned in Ārogyakalpadruma (pediatric treatise).
... It is a set of mental abilities or processes that are part of nearly every human action while we are awake 2 . and the drugs act as a neuro-nutrient by promoting intelligence and functions of the brain as Medhya Rasayana (neuro-nutrients) 4,5 . Neuro nutrients are useful for the prevention and treatment of mental disorders of all age groups. ...
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Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn), is one of the important neuro-nutrient herbs (Medhya Rasayana) mentioned in Ayurveda classics. Also, its usefulness on memory and cognition has been shown in many studies. Yoga, a part of rich Indian heritage has also shown promising results in memory enhancement of children & adults. Thus, a study was planned to assess efficacy of their combined schedule in teenage students. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. was converted into an herbal formulation ‘Yastimadhu Kalpa’ (YK) as per principles of Ayurveda pharmaceutics.The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of YK & Yoga schedule on memory and cognitive performance of teenage (13-16 years old) students. In this open-labelled, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 100 assenting healthy students between 13-16 years of age were enrolled and randomized into trial and control groups, after obtaining EC approval and parent consent. Those in the trial group received YK and Yoga, control group participants received placebo (Ragi malt) and Yoga. The YK and placebo were to be taken with cow milk in the morning. A 30-minute Yoga schedule was also taught to them. The duration of treatment was of 90 days. Effect on memory & cognition was assessed by cognitive ability and mental ability tests devised by Jnana-Prabodhini’s Institute of Psychology, Pune. These assessments were done on randomization visit (Day 0) and end of study visit (Day 90). Appropriate statistical tests applied to the data to obtain results.Both groups showed significant improvement in cognition and memory after 90 days treatment duration. However, YK group showed more significant improvement in cognition of figural classes and cognition of figural system in cognitive ability and memory of figural transformations, memory of symbolic transformations, total memory and mental ability among memory test parameters when compared to control group. Inclusion of Yoga schedule in both groups was found to be effective on improvement of memory & cognition.YK (formulation of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) along with Yoga can be used in children to enhance their memory and cognition.
... Medhya activity has many components such as nootropic, anxiolytic, anti-oxidant, anti-psychotic, anti-parkinsonism, and anti-amnestic activity. [7] Kaiyadeva nighantu and Bhavaprakasha nighantu have praised Mundi for its Medhya potential, which can be elaborated on the basis of Rasapanchaka (~pharmacodynamic attributes) [8] Chittodvega is mainly due to the vitiation of Vata-pitta dosha and Raja dushti. Pharmacodynamic attributes of Gorakhmundi are responsible for the alleviation of Vata (Vata kshaya) and Raja (Raja shamana) and also for balancing the qualities of Pitta dosha (Pitta samyakara). ...
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With an exponential rise in population and subsequently intensified socioeconomic stress, the incidence of mental health disorders like anxiety possess a significant great health burden on society. Levetiracetam is an antiepileptic drug indicated in the management of partial-onset, tonic myoclonic, and tonic-clonic seizures. However, it is associated with severe adverse drug reactions such as psychosis, anxiety, suicide, and allergic reactions. The presenting symptoms of anxiety disorder can be identified as Chittodwega (~anxiety), which is a Manasa vikara (~psychological disorder) in the context of Ayurveda. This case report shows the effect of the Ayurvedic drug Gorakhmundi in relieving the symptoms of anxiety in Levetiracetam-induced anxiety. A 50-year-old female patient who is a known case of seizures presented to the outpatient department with symptoms of anxiety. The patient was diagnosed with levetiracetam-induced anxiety and was suffering from heaviness in the head, palpitation, irritability, tingling sensation in extremities, irrational fear, diminished sleep, and intermittent gastrointestinal disturbances. The patient assessment was done on the basis of the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and Manasa bhava parikshana (~assessment of psychological parameters) according to the principles of Ayurveda. The patient was treated with Gorakhmundi ghana vati (500 mg) twice a day for two months. The patient showed complete remission of symptoms after two months of treatment. A significant change was observed in pre-and post therapy assessment through the HAM-A and Manasa bhava parikshana. The case report highlights the effective use of Ayurveda treatment for the management of drug-induced anxiety disorder in an epileptic patient.
... In this regard, using plant products based on traditional knowledge is currently on the rise in both developed and developing countries. Although there is considerable debate as to the effectiveness of these plant formulations based on sometimes questionable and unconvincing results, several controlled studies have demonstrated the positive effects of these natural substances on improving brain function [4,10,11]. ...
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Plant-based nootropics are a diverse group of natural drugs that can improve cognitive abilities through various physiological mechanisms, especially in cases where these functions are weakened or impaired. In many cases, the nootropics enhance erythrocyte plasticity and inhibit aggregation, which improves the blood's rheological properties and increases its flow to the brain. Many of these formulations possess antioxidant activity that protects brain tissue from neurotoxicity and improves the brain's oxygen supply. They can induce the synthesis of neuronal proteins, nucleic acids, and phospholipids for constructing and repairing neurohormonal membranes. These natural compounds can potentially be present in a great variety of herbs, shrubs, and even some trees and vines. The plant species reviewed here were selected based on the availability of verifiable experimental data and clinical trials investigating potential nootropic effects. Original research articles, relevant animal studies, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and clinical trials were included in this review. Selected representatives of this heterogeneous group included Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst., Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim., Ginkgo biloba L., Lepidium meyenii Walp., Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Paullinia cupana Kunth, Rhodiola rosea L., Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. The species are depicted and described, together with their active components and nootropic effects, and evidence of their efficacy is presented. The study provides brief descriptions of the representative species, their occurrence, history, and the chemical composition of the principle medicinal compounds, with uses, indications, experimental treatments, dosages, possible side effects, and contraindications. Most plant nootropics must be taken at optimal doses for extended periods before measurable improvement occurs, but they are generally very well tolerated. Their psychoactive properties are not produced by a single molecule but by a synergistic combination of several compounds. The available data suggest that including extracts from these plants in medicinal products to treat cognitive disorders can have substantial potential therapeutic benefits.
... The myocardial enzymes (CK, CK-MB, and LDH) are normally present inside the myocardial cells. The alteration in the plasma membrane integrity and/or permeability is reflected by the amount of these cellular enzymes in the blood [27,77]. In agreement, the elevated serum myocardial enzymes in the present study in all NP-administered groups could be attributed to cell damage or ischemic necrosis and leakage of CK, CK-MB, and LDH into the circulation which are considered diagnostic markers of myocardial injury [42,50]. ...
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The present study determines the possible protective role of fig fruit extract with olive oil and date palm fruit extract (FOD) in decreasing the oral subchronic blood and cardiovascular toxicity of SiO2NPs, Al2O3NPs, or ZnONPs. The present study used 80 male Wistar rats (8 groups, n = 10 ) distributed according to the treatment. The FOD treatments were used at their recommended antioxidant doses. All nanoparticles (NPs) were given orally and daily at doses of 100 mg/kg for 75 days. The oral administration of different NPs alone led to dramatic, oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, blood coagulation, endothelial dysfunction markers, myocardial enzymes, hematological parameters, lipid profile, and histopathological features compared with the control group. The FOD-NP-treated groups recorded significantly ameliorated blood and cardiovascular toxicity hazards compared to the groups administered with the NPs alone. In conclusion, the administration of FOD provides considerable chemopreventive and ameliorative effects against NP toxicity.
... -no improvement in cognition occurred in behavioural tests after the administration of an anti-inflammatory agent concurrently with a chemotherapeutic agent compared to chemotherapy alone treatment group. Is an ayurvedi formulation, reported to reduce oxidative stress, maintain good blood flow to the brain and maintain brain glucose levels, although its exact mechanisms are currently unknown (Kulkarni et al., 2012). ...
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Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) is a debilitating condition resulting from chemotherapy administration for cancer treatment. CICI is characterised by various cognitive impairments, including issues with learning, memory, and concentration, impacting quality of life. Several neural mechanisms are proposed to drive CICI, including inflammation, therefore, anti-inflammatory agents could ameliorate such impairments. Research is still in the preclinical stage; however, the efficacy of anti-inflammatories to reduce CICI in animal models is unknown. Therefore, a systematic review was conducted, with searches performed in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, PsycInfo and Cochrane Library. A total of 64 studies were included, and of the 50 agents identified, 41 (82%) reduced CICI. Interestingly, while non-traditional anti-inflammatory agents and natural compounds reduced impairment, the traditional agents were unsuccessful. Such results must be taken with caution due to the heterogeneity observed in terms of methods employed. Nevertheless, preliminary evidence suggests anti-inflammatory agents could be beneficial for treating CICI, although it may be critical to think beyond the use of traditional anti-inflammatories when considering which specific compounds to prioritise in development.
... Shankhpushpi calms hyperactivity, impulsivity by regulating the body's production of the stress hormones, adrenaline and cortisol [27]. In another study it was proved that Shankhapushpi compound (containing Shankhapushpi, Sarpagandha, and Gokshura in equal quantities) found to be effective in ameliorating symptoms of Chittodvega (anxiety disorders) [28]. ...
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Ayurvedic system of medicine has a treasury of description of several Ayurveda herbs that elevate the mental as well as intellectual power primarily claimed as 'Medhya'. Firstly, the Rasayana drugs which are mentioned in Charaka Samhita called 'Medhya Rasayana' are supposed to be having specific influence on brain functions. Cognitive deficit can be present from birth or result from environmental causes such as brain damage, mental illness, or neurological abnormalities. This causes significant restrictions to the ability to learn and operate, like in ADHD. Sufferer of this clinical entity children stay confused, unable to do daily routine work normally, face difficulty in learning and understanding, unable to focus on one thing at a time. In Ayurvedic literature, impairment of memory is mentioned as Smriti bhramsha which occurs due to vitiation of Raja and Tama dosha. It has been noted that cognitive functions are thoroughly affected due to stress, anxiety and other related psychological disorders. It has been explained that Medha (intellect) and Buddhi (wisdom) get deteriorated in this condition. Some features of ADHD are resembled with Unmada. Medhya drugs mentioned in Ayurveda have multi-dimensional actions including effect on memory. These not only enhance the intellectual capacity but also rejuvenate the whole body system and their pathways. This review article delineates the introduction of ADHD, its Ayurvedic association and the herbs that are effective in management of ADHD.
To investigate protective effect of Benincasa cerifera (BC) against kidney injury induced by Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) in hyperlipidemic (HC) rats. Hyperlipidemia was developed by cholesterol diet (2% cholesterol and 20 % coconut oil) feeding for 3 weeks. At the end of 3rd week, renal ischemia was induced by both renal arteries occlusion for 60 min followed 24 h of reperfusion. Methanolic extract of Benincasa cerifera (500 mg/kg/day) was administered orally 7 days before induction of ischemia. Benincasa cerifera treatment reversed all antioxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents as well serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. This data conclude the renoprotective activity of Benincasa cerifera against renal damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury in hyperlipidemic rat.
The present study was designed to evaluate central inhibitory effects of the essential oil from Acori graminei Rhizoma (AGR), the dry rhizomes of Acorus gramineus SOLANDER (Araceae) upon fragrance inhalation (aroma therapy). Preinhalation of the oil markedly delayed the appearance of pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion. Furthermore, inhalation impressively inhibited the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase, a degrading enzyme for GABA as the inhalation period was lengthened. The GABA level was significantly increased and glutamate content was significantly decreased in mouse brain by preinhalation of the essential oil. The above results suggest that the anticonvulsive effect of this AGR oil is originated by the enhancement of GABA level in the mouse brain, because convulsion depends partially on GABA concentration which can be properly preserved by inhibiting GABA transaminase. Moreover, fragrance inhalation progressively prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time as inhalation time was lengthened. Ten hour inhalation corresponded almost to the effect (145% increase) of oral administration (60 mg/kg). This sedative effect after inhalation or oral administration of AGR essential oil suggests that this oil may act on the CNS via the GABAergic system. The inhibitory activity of preinhalation of the essential oil on lipid peroxidation, to which the anticonvulsive action is attributed, also supported the above results, confirming and amplifying our previous reports on the CNS inhibitory effects of AGR.
Rasayana is one of the eight clinical specialities of classical Ayurveda. Rasayana replenish the vital fluids of our body, thus keeping us away from diseases. The rasayana therapy enhance the qualities of rasa, enriches it with nutrients so one can attains longevity, memory, intelligence, freedom from disorder, youthfulness, excellence of luster, complexion and voice, optimum development of physique and sense organs, mastery over phonetics and brilliance. Taking rasayana is helpful to increase the immunity of the person to keep him away from disease and also reverses the disease process and prevents the re-occurrence. The Rasayanas are rejuvenators, nutritional supplements and possess strong antioxidant activity. They also have antagonistic actions on the oxidative stressors, which give rise to the formation of different free radicals. Ocimum sanctum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Convolvulus pluricaulis, Centella asiatica, Bacopa monniera, Withania somnifera, Triphala rasayana, Chyawanprash, Brahma rasayana are very important rasayanas which are described in ayurveda and proved by new researches.
The roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Leguminosae) have been used in the traditional system of medicine for their antiinflammatory, antiulcer, expectorant and antimicrobial activities.They are also reported to have anxiolytic and antidepressant properties in mice.The present study was under taken to investigate the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory in rats.Spatial learning T-maze and passive avoidance paradigm were employed to test learning and memory.Three doses of(100,200,300mg/ kg p.o) of the aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra were administered for 15 days in separate group of animals. The aqueous extract significantly improved spatial learning performance and retention of memory in rats. Furthermore 300mg/kg p.o of this extract significantly reversed the amnesia induced by scopalamine(0.5mg/kg i.p.)Anti oxidant property of Glycyrrhiza glabra may be contributing favourably to the memory enhancement effect.Since scopolamine induced amnesia was reversed by Glycyrrhiza glabra, it is possible that the beneficial effect on learning and memory was due to facilitation of cholinergic.