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In this article, the rapidly growing body of research that has been published recently on the topic of crossmodal correspondences that involve auditory and gustatory/flavor stimuli is critically reviewed. The evidence demonstrates that people reliably match different tastes/flavors to auditory stimuli varying in both their psychoacoustic (e.g., pitch) and musical (e.g., timbre) properties. In order to stimulate further progress in this relatively young research field, the present article aims at consolidating prior findings concerning specific auditory-gustatory mappings, whereby special attention is given to highlighting (1) any conflicts in the existing experimental evidence and (2) any potential caveats with regard to the most appropriate interpretation of prior studies. Next, potential mechanisms underlying auditory-gustatory crossmodal correspondences are discussed. Finally, a number of potentially fruitful avenues for future research are outlined.
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... While the existing literature has mostly emphasized the effect of frequency on consumer expectations, this paper also investigates the effect of tempo, which is another important musical component that can influence food perception (Bronner et al., 2012;Knoferle & Spence, 2012). While there has been no documented report studying solely the effect of tempo on expectations of food healthfulness, recent research has demonstrated that classical and jazz music containing slow tempo affects selection and preference of healthy foods (Motoki et al., 2022;Peng-Li et al., 2021). ...
... Secondly, although high frequency is found to be associated with healthfulness, it is also linked with sweetness (e.g., Knoferle & Spence, 2012). Given that sounds differently influence the perception of sweet and savoury foods (Motoki et al., 2021;Motoki et al., 2022), it is interesting that somewhat differential results were obtained here. ...
Article
Sonic brand logos, also termed “sogos”, are a marketing communication tool that brands use to signify brand or product benefits to consumers in catchy, non-visual ways. Given the considerable utility of brand lsogos, it is surprising that there has been scant research into the nature of the specific acoustic features that can be modulated to connote certain traits, such as the healthfulness of products within the food category. Our findings revealed that sogos created with higher (vs. lower) frequency were significantly matched with healthy food products (vs. less healthy), while the effect of tempo was neutral. This effect generalizes to high (vs. low) spatial frequency visual stimuli too. The current study contributes to the literature on the crossmodal correspondence between acoustic sound clips and expectations of healthfulness. It also advances the theoretical insights into business applications using optimal sogos congruent with visual cues on packaging to connote food healthfulness to consumers implicitly.
... There is now a large and growing body of peer-reviewed empirical research matching sound qualities to specific taste qualities (e.g., see Knöferle and Spence, 2012;Knöferle et al., 2015; and for more recent sonic seasoning research, see only: Mesz et al., 2011Mesz et al., , 2012Guetta and Loui, 2017;Watson and Gunter, 2017;Höchenberger and Ohla, 2019). A summary of the musical properties associated with each of the basic tastes as reported by Knöferle et al. (2015) is shown in Figure 1. ...
... Research from a wide range of consumers shows the musical parameters that are matched with specific tastes (Knöferle and Spence, 2012;Knöferle et al., 2015; see also Ngo et al., 2011 andSimner et al., 2010, on the vocal parameters matched with FIGURE 1 | Participants' selections for (psycho-)acoustic parameters in response to basic taste words in Knöferle et al. (2015, Experiment 1). Error bars indicate 95% within-subjects confidence intervals (Morey, 2008). ...
Book
Full-text available
Eating and drinking are undoubtedly amongst life’s most multisensory experiences. Take, for instance, the enjoyment of flavor, which is one of the most important elements of such experiences, resulting from the integration of gustatory, (retronasal) olfactory, and possibly also trigeminal/oral-somatosensory cues. Nevertheless, researchers have suggested that all our senses can influence the way in which we perceive flavor, not to mention our eating and drinking experiences. For instance, the color and shape of the food, the background sonic/noise cues in our eating environments, and/or the sounds associated with mastication can all influence our perception and enjoyment of our eating and drinking experiences. Human-Food Interaction (HFI) research has been growing steadily in recent years. Research into multisensory interactions designed to create, modify, and/or enhance our food-related experiences is one of the core areas of HFI (Multisensory HFI or MHFI). The aim being to further our understanding of the principles that govern the systematic connections between the senses in the context of HFI. In this Research Topic, we called for investigations and applications of systems that create new, or enhance already existing, multisensory eating and drinking experiences (what can be considered the “hacking” of food experiences) in the context of HFI. Moreover, we were also interested in those works that focus on or are based on the principles governing the systematic connections that exist between the senses. HFI also involves the experiencing of food interactions digitally in remote locations. Therefore, we were also interested in sensing and actuation interfaces, new communication mediums, and persisting and retrieving technologies for human food interactions. Enhancing social interactions to augment the eating experience is another issue we wanted to see addressed here, what has been referred to as “digital commensality”.
... Cross-modal correspondences are defined as a tendency for a sensory feature, or attribute, in one modality, either physically present or merely imagined to be matched (or associated) with a sensory feature in another modality [1]. A large body of research has described the existence of cross-modal associations between different sensory modalities, such as speech sounds and shapes [2,3], colors and odors [4], and sounds and tastes [5]. Although the nature of such interactions remains unclear, it is certain that people often map stimulus properties from different sensory modalities onto each other in a consistent manner. ...
Chapter
The current study explores cultural differences in cross-modal color-taste associations among Japanese, Taiwanese, and Russian respondents. The participants were asked to choose a color from a 35-color palette that corresponds to a particular item including three voices (male, female, and child), five basic tastes, five types of oral chemesthesis (hot, sharp, spicy, fatty, and astringent), and eight functional foods. The results demonstrate that in the cases of voices, three basic tastes (sweet, salty, and sour), and hot and fatty tastes, cross-modal associations were mostly similar among the participants and consistent with previous studies. However, for some specific tastes such as umami, several types of oral chemesthesis, and functional foods, more cultural differences were observed. We also measured the level of consistency/diversity of opinions among the participants of a single nation by calculating the Selected Colors (SC)-80 parameter, which represents the number of colors selected by 80% of the respondents. The results have shown that it is connected with the level of familiarity of certain tastes and foods; however, specific cultural features were also observed.
... In the future, this kind of research will hopefully help to inform our conceptualization of the nature of olfactory-sound correspondences. reported that the bitter or sweet taste in a bitter-sweet toffee could be emphasized simply by playing music that contains either high-or low-pitched sounds (see Knöferle & Spence, 2012, for a review of the literature in this area). What is more, North (2012) has also demonstrated that people's rating of the attributes of a wine can be influenced by background music (i.e., playing "zingy and refreshing" music can lead people to perceive wines as more "zingy and refreshing"). ...
Chapter
In the latter half of the 19th Century, the chemist and perfumer Septimus Piesse drew attention to the close association (or similarity) that he felt existed between fragrance and music/sound. But what, one might be tempted to ask, is the value of knowing about such audio-olfactory associations (or crossmodal correspondences)? Here, we highlight a number of the ways in which such crossmodal correspondences have been incorporated in the context of multisensory experience design, in both the commercial and artistic spheres. We discuss how both academic researchers and practitioners are now increasingly starting to incorporate such audio-olfactory associations into the design of multisensory experiences and highlight some of the exciting opportunities that lie ahead. It is important to stress how the correspondences, unlike the synaesthetic relations with which they have long been confused, are consensually shared across populations, thus meaning that they provide a more robust basis for multisensory experience design. While Piesse may well have been the first to highlight the existence of these correspondences, only now are we coming to realize how they can be used to systematically influence human experience. As an illustration of the latter, we describe a small study demonstrating how the sounds that people hear influence their ratings of a qualities of fragrances, thus hinting at their value for those wanting to modulate consumer/audience experience.
... In the future, this kind of research will hopefully help to inform our conceptualization of the nature of olfactory-sound correspondences. reported that the bitter or sweet taste in a bitter-sweet toffee could be emphasized simply by playing music that contains either high-or low-pitched sounds (see Knöferle & Spence, 2012, for a review of the literature in this area). What is more, North (2012) has also demonstrated that people's rating of the attributes of a wine can be influenced by background music (i.e., playing "zingy and refreshing" music can lead people to perceive wines as more "zingy and refreshing"). ...
Book
This book will serve as a first-stop, academic resource for every scholar of experiential marketing, aspiring marketing and consumer behavior student, agency executive, professor, and experiential marketing practitioner. It is as rigorous as it is informative and can be used as an introductory reading for experiential marketing courses and seminars, and as a playbook for future research development in the experiential marketing domain. This book will help readers learn the state of customer experience and experiential marketing, understand the use of experiential marketing in specific contexts such as fashion or e-retail, and how to reach and expand a firm’s customer base using experiential promotional products. It includes cutting-edge sensory marketing developments that can be used in a firm’s customer experience strategy to create hedonic experiences. Overall, this book captures the essence of experiential marketing, the newest marketing paradigm.
... These approaches are complementary and, in our humble with low-register, brassy sounds Wang, Woods and Spence 2015). Salty taste is mostly associated with staccato articulations (Mesz et al. 2011;Knöferle and Spence 2012). Interestingly, the same correspondences have been documented in non-western cultures (Knoeferle, Woods, Käppler, and Spence 2015). ...
Article
INTRODUCTION: In this paper we discuss concepts and practices that point to a new field of ubiquitous music (ubimus)research centered on domestic settings.OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to document and share a preliminary study of the use of taste as a trigger forcreative decisions and a comparative study of creative music making done at home and in transitional settings.METHODS: Groundwork in this area encompasses the design, implementation and deployment of ubimus systems. Keyaspects include sonic resources and metaphors for creative action based on multimodality.RESULTS: The results indicate that unpredictable sonic environments foster originality but may compromise the subjects’creative performance — reducing their level of engagement and fun and the possibilities for collaboration, while increasingthe cognitive demands of the activity. Home seems to furnish a positive context as long as the objective is not to increasethe originality of the outcomes.CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of taste as a scaffold for creative decisions was partially confirmed, demanding furtherstudies. These results have implications for both the artistic aspects of sound making and the everyday usage of sound fordistant socializing in domestic settings, posing renewed challenges to the ongoing STEAM initiatives.
... Crossmodal interactions between smell and both vision and hearing have been well documented, for example, olfaction-audition [5,10,63], olfaction-color [25,34,41], olfaction-visual motion [36], and olfaction-angularity of shapes [29,34]. The mechanisms underlying such correspondences are still not fully understood, but three main explanations have emerged: hedonics [10,11,29,46,71], semantics [14,34,46,67,69], and natural co-occurrence [35,67,69]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Olfaction is ingrained into the fabric of our daily lives and constitutes an integral part of our perceptual reality. Within this reality, there are crossmodal interactions and sensory expectations; understanding how olfaction interacts with other sensory modalities is crucial for augmenting interactive experiences with more advanced multisensorial capabilities. This knowledge will eventually lead to better designs, more engaging experiences, and enhancing the perceived quality of experience. Toward this end, the authors investigated a range of crossmodal correspondences between ten olfactory stimuli and different modalities (angularity of shapes, smoothness of texture, pleasantness, pitch, colors, musical genres, and emotional dimensions) using a sample of 68 observers. Consistent crossmodal correspondences were obtained in all cases, including our novel modality (the smoothness of texture). These associations are most likely mediated by both the knowledge of an odor’s identity and the underlying hedonic ratings: the knowledge of an odor’s identity plays a role when judging the emotional and musical dimensions but not for the angularity of shapes, smoothness of texture, perceived pleasantness, or pitch. Overall, hedonics was the most dominant mediator of crossmodal correspondences.
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Phonetic elements of brand names can convey a range of specific meanings. However, an integrated understanding of the sound symbolism of brand names remains elusive. Here, we classify sound symbolism in brand names based on three key dimensions of the semantic differential (evaluation, potency, and activity). In particular, we demonstrated that the sound symbolism of brand names can be explained in terms of the two dimensions of evaluation and potency (but not activity). The presence of higher-frequency sounds (front vowels, fricative, and voiceless consonants) in brand names tends to be associated with concepts linked to higher evaluation and lower potency, whereas lower-frequency sounds (back vowels, stop, and voiced consonants) tend to be more strongly associated with concepts linked to lower evaluation and higher potency. This study provides an integrative understanding of sound symbolism in brand names in terms of semantic differential meanings.
Article
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Voice quality, or type of phonation (e.g., a whispery voice) can prime specific sensory associations amongst consumers. In the realm of sensory and consumer science, a wide range of taste-sound correspondences have been documented. A growing body of research on crossmodal correspondences has revealed that people reliably associate sounds with basic taste qualities. Here, we examined the largely unexplored associations between basic tastes and sounds: namely taste-voice quality correspondences. Across three pre-registered studies, participants associated four types of voice qualities (modal, whispery, creaky, and falsetto) with the five basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami). Study 1 investigated the relations between voice qualities and taste words. Study 2 attempted to replicate the findings and revealed the underpinning psychological mechanisms in terms of semantic/emotional associations. Study 3 used the descriptions of food products that varied in terms of their taste in order to expand the applicability of the findings. The results demonstrated that participants reliably associate specific voice qualities with particular tastes. Falsetto voices are matched more strongly with sweetness than other voices. Creaky voices are matched more strongly with bitterness than with other voice qualities. Modal voices are matched more strongly with umami than creaky voices. Evaluation/positive valence might partially underlie the associations between sweet/bitter-voice quality correspondences. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel case of sound-taste correspondences and deepen our understanding of how people are able to associate attributes from different senses.
Chapter
Full-text available
When the senses receive the external stimuli perceived by the afferent or sensory neurons, the brain relates the experience lived in its interaction with the product, the space or the communication; giving way to the efferent neurons, which return such information transforming it into a motor response, which reinforces or motivates the consumers' attitude towards the purchase or allows them to generate a state of pleasure that is transferred as value to the brand, contributing to its positioning and recall. Cuando los sentidos reciben los estímulos externos percibidos por las neuronas aferentes o sensoriales, el cerebro relaciona la experiencia vivida en su interacción con el producto, el espacio o la comunicación; dando paso a las neuronas eferentes, las cuales devuelven dicha información transformándola en una respuesta motora, que refuerza o motiva la actitud de los consumidores hacia la compra o les permite generar un estado de placer que se transfiere como valor a la marca, contribuyendo a su posicionamiento y recordación.
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The role of attention in speeded Garner classification of concurrently presented auditory and visual signals was examined in 4 experiments. Within-trial interference (i.e., congruence effects) occurred regardless of the attentional demands of the task. Between-trials interference (i.e., Garner interference) occurred only under conditions of divided attention when making judgments about auditory signals. Of importance, the data show congruence effects in the absence of Garner interference. Such a pattern has been rarely reported in studies of the classification of purely visual stimuli and contradicts theoretical accounts asserting that the effects share a common locus. The data question the notion that Garner classification reveals fundamental insights about the nature of the perceptual processing of bimodal stimuli.
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Is it possible to understand the intentions of other people by simply observing their actions? Many believe that this ability is made possible by the brain's mirror neuron system through its direct link between action and observation. However, precisely how intentions can be inferred through action observation has provoked much debate. Here we suggest that the function of the mirror system can be understood within a predictive coding framework that appeals to the statistical approach known as empirical Bayes. Within this scheme the most likely cause of an observed action can be inferred by minimizing the prediction error at all levels of the cortical hierarchy that are engaged during action observation. This account identifies a precise role for the mirror system in our ability to infer intentions from actions and provides the outline of the underlying computational mechanisms.
Book
Celebrating the founding of the Flavor Subdivision of the Agriculture and Food Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society, this book provides an overview of progress made during the past 30-40 years in various aspects of flavor chemistry as seen by internationally renowned scientists in the forefront of their respective fields. In addition, it presents up-to-date findings in the areas of flavor chemistry, analytical methods, thermally produced flavors and precursors, enzymatically produced flavors and precursors, and sensory methods and results.
Chapter
For centuries, now, people have been excited by the possibility of meaningfully matching musical notes with tastes, flavours and perfumes (see Huxley, 1932; Huysmans, 1884; Piesse, 1862/1891, for early examples). However, until recently, it has never been clear whether such surprising crossmodal matches reflected anything more than the idle fancies of the creative minds who came up with them (a kind of idiosyncratic synaes-thesia if you will). Over the last few years, though, cognitive neuroscien-tists have started to demonstrate that many of these crossmodal correspondences (sometimes called synaesthetic mappings) are actually remarkably robust (that is, shared by the majority of people within a community). As such, the opportunity arises to start scientifically developing music and soundscapes that correspond crossmodally to the tastes, flavours and fragrances of that which they are supposed to be associated On Crossmodal Correspondences and the Future of Synaesthetic Marketing 42 with. Perhaps unsurprisingly, sensory marketers are becoming increasingly excited by the possibilities associated with synaesthetic marketing.
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Umami is a characteristic taste imparted by glutamate and 5’-nucleotides such as inosinate and guanylate. Glutamate and nucleotides are present in many foods and play important roles in the flavor of foods. The taste was first discovered by K. Ikeda in 1908 who named this distinctive taste “umami.” There is no English word which is synonymous with umami, however it is most often described as savory, meaty or broth-like. Since the term, umami, is originally a Japanese term, many people think that umami is a unique oriental taste concept accepted only in Japan and a few other Asian countries. However, many researchers studied the unique taste quality of umami and established the idea of a fifth basic taste beyond sweet, sour, salty and bitter. Although the acceptance and classification of umami as a basic taste is a recent development, the taste is common to meat, fish, certain vegetables, mushrooms and cheese.