Occupational Factors and Smoking Cessation Among Unionized Building Trades Workers
School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.Workplace health & safety (Impact Factor: 0.56). 10/2012; 60(10):445-52. DOI: 10.3928/21650799-20120926-65
The purpose of this study was to estimate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking cessation among building trades workers. Longitudinal data came from the MassBUILT smoking cessation intervention study for unionized building trades workers. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the significant predictors of smoking cessation, which was defined as abstinence from smoking during the previous 7 days at the 1-month monitoring and prolonged abstinence for at least 6 months at the 6-month monitoring. Greater concern about exposure to occupational hazards was significantly associated with increased likelihood of smoking cessation at 1 month (odds ratio = 1.06; 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.11). Additionally, smokers who had a more positive view of their unions had at least marginally increased likelihood of smoking cessation at 1 month. Furthermore, older age, higher levels of educational attainment and household income, and fewer cigarettes smoked per day were important covariates that predicted smoking cessation. Concerns about exposures to work hazards should be incorporated into comprehensive intervention approaches for building trades workers. Additionally, the findings emphasize that blue-collar workers with lower income and education levels and heavy smokers should be considered target groups for implementing cessation interventions.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking cessation and examine the association between cessation and various factors among workers in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Data were derived from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Prevalence rates were calculated for interest in quitting smoking, making an attempt to quit smoking, and successful smoking cessation (defined as smokers who had quit for 6-12 months). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with cessation after adjustment for demographic characteristics (age group, race/ethnicity, educational level and marital status). Data were available for 17 524 adults who were employed in the 12 months prior to interview. The prevalence of quit interest, quit attempt and recent cessation was 65.2%, 53.8% and 6.8%, respectively. Quit interest was less likely among workers with long work hours, but more likely among workers with job insecurity, or frequent workplace skin and/or respiratory exposures. Quit attempt was more likely among workers with a hostile work environment but less likely among workers living in a home that permitted smoking or who smoked ≥11 cigarettes/day. Recent smoking cessation was less likely among workers with frequent exposure to others smoking at work or living in a home that permitted smoking, but more likely among workers with health insurance. Factors associated with cessation interest or attempt differed from those associated with successful cessation. Cessation success might be improved by reducing exposure to others smoking at work and home, and by improving access to health insurance.
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ABSTRACT: Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational.
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