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Abstract

Protection against skin damage from sunlight by nutritional means has been examined. Likewise, there has been work on the topical application of phytochemicals to the skin. This review focuses on the nutritional aspect of phytochemicals in humans-ie, the provision of carotenoid micronutrients by dietary means to the skin and their role in protection. Human intervention studies have documented protective effects for β-carotene or for lycopene provided either by a carotenoid-rich diet or by supplementation. In exposed tissues, light induces primary and secondary photooxidative processes. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species is considered to be a mechanism of action underlying the protective activity of carotenoids. However, food comprises a complex mixture of numerous constituents, so that other components may also contribute to the observed activity. Molecules with suitable structures absorb UV light and prevent direct damage of cellular targets. Phytoene and phytofluene are precursor molecules of higher unsaturated carotenoids and occur in various fruit and vegetables. Their absorption spectra cover the UVB and UVA range, respectively, thus potentially contributing to photoprotective effects of carotenoid-rich food. Because of the physiologic turnover time of skin, several weeks are required for protective effects to appear. Photoprotection through individual dietary components such as β-carotene or lycopene in terms of sun protection factor is considerably lower than that achieved by using topical sunscreens. However, an optimal supply of antioxidant micronutrients in the skin increases basal dermal defense against UV irradiation, supports longer-term protection, and contributes to maintenance of skin health and appearance.

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... Carotenoids including α-and β-carotene and α-tocopherol are detected in the human dermis and epidermis, as reviewed in [55]. The presence of carotenoids in the skin is thought to protect damages caused by the photooxidative processes. ...
... Carotenoids including αand β-carotene and α-tocopherol are detected in the human dermis and epidermis, as reviewed in [55]. The presence of carotenoids in the skin is thought to protect damages caused by the photooxidative processes. ...
... The presence of carotenoids in the skin is thought to protect damages caused by the photooxidative processes. Carotenoids and other antioxidants can eliminate reactive oxygen species and absorb UV light, which can be achieved through dietary supplements and tropical applications [55]. In addition to β-carotene, other carotenoids can be extracted from microalgae. ...
Article
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β-carotene, a member of the carotenoid family, is a provitamin A, and can be converted into vitamin A (retinol), which plays essential roles in the regulation of physiological functions in animal bodies. Microalgae synthesize a variety of carotenoids including β-carotene and are a rich source of natural β-carotene. This has attracted the attention of researchers in academia and the biotech industry. Methods to enrich or purify β-carotene from microalgae have been investigated, and experiments to understand the biological functions of microalgae products containing β-carotene have been conducted. To better understand the use of microalgae to produce β-carotene and other carotenoids, we have searched PubMed in August 2021 for the recent studies that are focused on microalgae carotenoid content, the extraction methods to produce β-carotene from microalgae, and the bioactivities of β-carotene from microalgae. Articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals were identified, screened, and summarized here. So far, various types and amounts of carotenoids have been identified and extracted in different types of microalgae. Diverse methods have been developed overtime to extract β-carotene efficiently and practically from microalgae for mass production. It appears that methods have been developed to simplify the steps and extract β-carotene directly and efficiently. Multiple studies have shown that extracts or whole organism of microalgae containing β-carotene have activities to promote lifespan in lab animals and reduce oxidative stress in culture cells, etc. Nevertheless, more studies are warranted to study the health benefits and functional mechanisms of β-carotene in these microalgae extracts, which may benefit human and animal health in the future.
... Their biomasses derived from different cultivation systems, environmental and nutritional conditions can produce an extensive variety of high value-added compounds to enhance the quality of food as well as cosmetics and even with health purposes. Thus, many reviews that remark the health benefits of pigments, such as carotenoids are now available in the literature (Aburai, Ohkubo, Miyashita, & Abe, 2013;De Jesus Raposo, De Morais, & De Morais, 2013;Grundman, Richter, & Ini, 2018;Stahl & Sies, 2012). However, only a few information describes the cosmetic effects of such active biocompounds Wang et al., 2015;Yarkent, G€ urlek, & Oncel, 2020). ...
... Carotenoids function as provitamin A in skin tissue and may act as physical quenching against UV radiation. Moreover, skin sun damage may be avoided by UV light absorption by carotenoids (Stahl & Sies, 2012). ...
... The use of algae biomass as sunscreen in cosmetics has been recently suggested. Thus, we found some studies emphasizing the health benefits of carotenoids (Aburai et al., 2013;Cezare-Gomes et al., 2019;De Jesus Raposo et al., 2013;Grundman et al., 2018;Stahl & Sies, 2012). However, there are a few studies about their cosmetic properties Wang et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
Among photosynthetic microorganisms, Cyanobacteria and Microalgae species have been highly studied thank to their high value-added compounds for several industrial applications. Thus, their production is increasing in the last decade to produce raw material for cosmetics. In fact, the daily routine includes the use of cosmetics and sunscreens to protect against the environmental changes, mainly the increment of ultraviolet (UV) radiation rate with a consequent skin damage and premature aging due to this overexposure. As it is well discussed, chemical UV filters are extensively incorporated into sunscreens formulas; however, they can induce allergenic reactions as well. For these reasons, some pigments derived from microalgae, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene as well as other biocompounds are now well described in the literature as well as biotechnologically manufactured as natural ingredients to be incorporated into skin care products with multifunctional benefits even for sunscreen purposes. Hence, this investigation summarizes the recent studies about the main pigments from photosynthetic microorganisms' biomasses as well as their uses in dermocosmetics with novel attributes, such as anti-aging agents, makeups, skin lightening and whitening, among others.
... Their biomasses derived from different cultivation systems, environmental and nutritional conditions can produce an extensive variety of high value-added compounds to enhance the quality of food as well as cosmetics and even with health purposes. Thus, many reviews that remark the health benefits of pigments, such as carotenoids are now available in the literature (Aburai, Ohkubo, Miyashita, & Abe, 2013;De Jesus Raposo, De Morais, & De Morais, 2013;Grundman, Richter, & Ini, 2018;Stahl & Sies, 2012). However, only a few information describes the cosmetic effects of such active biocompounds Wang et al., 2015;Yarkent, G€ urlek, & Oncel, 2020). ...
... Carotenoids function as provitamin A in skin tissue and may act as physical quenching against UV radiation. Moreover, skin sun damage may be avoided by UV light absorption by carotenoids (Stahl & Sies, 2012). ...
... The use of algae biomass as sunscreen in cosmetics has been recently suggested. Thus, we found some studies emphasizing the health benefits of carotenoids (Aburai et al., 2013;Cezare-Gomes et al., 2019;De Jesus Raposo et al., 2013;Grundman et al., 2018;Stahl & Sies, 2012). However, there are a few studies about their cosmetic properties Wang et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
Carbon one industry flux gas generated from fossil fuels, various industrial and domestic waste, as well as lignocellulosic biomass provides an innovative raw material to lead the sustainable development. Through the chemical and biological processing, the gas mixture composed of CO, CO2, and H2, also termed as syngas, is converted to biofuels and high-value chemicals. Here, the syngas fermentation process is elaborated to provide an overview. Sources of syngas are summarized and the influences of impurities on biological fermentation are exhibited. Acetogens and carboxydotrophs are the two main clusters of syngas utilizing microorganisms, their essential characters are presented, especially the energy metabolic scheme with CO, CO2, and H2. Synthetic biology techniques and microcompartment regulation are further discussed and proposed to create a high-efficiency cell factory. Moreover, the influencing factors in fermentation and products in carboxylic acids, alcohols, and others such like polyhydroxyalkanoate and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate are addressed. Biological fermentation from carbon one industry flux gas is a promising alternative, the latest scientific advances are expatiated hoping to inspire more creative transformation.
... Studies have shown the best antioxidant capacity of lycopene in the quenching of ROS and b-carotene showed interesting results in the protection of ultraviolet and infrared light photo-radiation. [155] In addition, the carotenoid precursors phytoene and phytofluene have light absorption capacity of UV-B (abourt 5% of the UV radiation in the earth) and UV-A (about 95% of the UV radiation in the earth) respectively. [26,145,155] Additionally, topical formulations containing phytoene and phytofluene (5 mg per day) led to skin lightening and additional positive anti-wrinkle and anti-aging effects, observing skin lightening results of up to 82%. ...
... [155] In addition, the carotenoid precursors phytoene and phytofluene have light absorption capacity of UV-B (abourt 5% of the UV radiation in the earth) and UV-A (about 95% of the UV radiation in the earth) respectively. [26,145,155] Additionally, topical formulations containing phytoene and phytofluene (5 mg per day) led to skin lightening and additional positive anti-wrinkle and anti-aging effects, observing skin lightening results of up to 82%. [26] Interesting results because these carotenoid precursors could replace the use of hydroquinone as a skin depigmenting agent, which is associated with the side effects of developing malignancies and irritation. ...
Article
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Natural carotenoids are secondary metabolites that exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. These types of compounds are highly demanded by pharmaceutical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and food industries, leading to the search for new natural sources of carotenoids. In recent years, the production of carotenoids from bacteria has become of great interest for industrial applications. In addition to carotenoids with C40-skeletons, some bacteria have the ability to synthesize characteristic carotenoids with C30-skeletons. In this regard, a great variety of methodologies for the extraction and identification of bacterial carotenoids has been reported and this is the first review that condenses most of this information. To understand the diversity of carotenoids from bacteria, we present their biosynthetic origin in order to focus on the methodologies employed in their extraction and characterization. Special emphasis has been made on high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) for the analysis and identification of bacterial carotenoids. We end up this review showing their potential commercial use. This review is proposed as a guide for the identification of these metabolites, which are frequently reported in new bacteria strains.
... In the literature, there are studies about lycopene photoprotective capacity. In a trial with volunteers using foods rich in lycopene a reduction was demonstrated in UV-induced erythema, protecting the basal thermal defense against irradiation (Stahl, Heinrich, Aust, Tronnier, & Sies, 2006;Stahl & Sies, 2012), reducing MMP-1 and mitochondrial DNA damage (Rizwan et al., 2011), also with a mixture of carotenoids upregulation of IL-6 and TNF-α was observed. The pre-treatment of HaCaT cells with lycopene and UVB exposure also demonstrated an increase in Bax and caspase-3, in addition to an effect on the cell division cycle, reducing the G0/G1 phase (B.-S. ...
... Kim et al., 2016). Despite showing encouraging mechanisms of systemic photoprotection, this information is still not enough to replace topical sunscreens (Stahl & Sies, 2012). ...
Article
Background Lycopene, a red-colored carotenoid, has several biological properties, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, antihypercholesterolemic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, photoprotector and anticancer, making desirable its use as nutraceutical. Despite the fact that it can be found in several foods, tomato deserves great prominence because it is the major extraction source and the cheapest raw material, being therefore the human most ingested source. Tomato also stands out for being the source where lycopene was first discovered. Scope and approach This review article seeks to highlight the entire route that lycopene passes until its use as a nutraceutical, highlighting the main methods of extraction, concentration and quantification. Key findings and conclusions Solvent extraction and super-critical fluid extraction, centrifugation and evaporation and HPLC and UV–vis spectrophotometer were the researchers most chosen methods of extraction, concentration and quantification, respectively. It also was noted that its association with nanotechnology is desirable to circumvent limitations related to its physicochemical characteristics that limit, not only its extraction process but also its nutraceutical use.
... However, oral photoprotectors have some advantages, such as the ease of use, the efficiency that is not modified by external factors, and the possibility to estimate the half-lives of the different molecules [3]. Systemic photoprotection, consisting in the administration of substances such as nicotinamide, carotenoids, polyphenols, and other antioxidants, is important for reducing photocarcinogenesis or to support long-term protection against UV irradiation [3][4][5][6][7]. ...
... A randomized controlled trial studied β-carotene supplementation in the prevention of NMSC, reporting that there was no beneficial or harmful effect on the rates of new skin cancers [9]. So far, the efficacy of carotenoids in reducing new skin cancers in humans has not been demonstrated [5,9,10]. The active derivative of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D3) enhances the survival of skin cells following exposure to UV radiation by reducing the level of damage to DNA and thus reducing UV-induced apoptosis in preclinical studies [11]. ...
Article
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Background: Systemic photoprotection (i.e., administration of substances such as nicotinamide, carotenoids, and vitamin D) may be important to reduce photocarcinogenesis or to support long-term protection against UV irradiation. Clinical trials showed that oral nicotinamide is effective in reducing the onset of new nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), while other oral photoprotectors failed to achieve the reduction of new melanoma or NMSC formation in humans. The aim of this study was to summarize the current state of knowledge of systemic photoprotection and to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of dermatologists regarding these treatments. Methods: The survey was conducted on a sample of dermatologists recruited according to a snowball sampling procedure. The questionnaire consisted of a first part asking for characteristics of the participant and a second part with 12 specific questions on their knowledge about systemic photoprotection, particularly their knowledge of astaxanthin, β-carotene, nicotinamide, and vitamin D3. Results: One hundred eight dermatologists answered the survey. Most of them (85.2%) stated that oral photoprotectors have a role in the prevention of skin cancer, and responses mainly mentioned nicotinamide. More than half of them (54.6%) had prescribed all the considered oral photoprotectors, but the majority of them had prescribed nicotinamide, mainly for 2 to 3 months during summer, almost invariably (n = 106) associated with topical photoprotectors. Most dermatologists (>80%) were aware of scientific publications demonstrating an effect of systemic photoprotectors on NMSC. Conclusions: Most Italian dermatologists have positive views on oral photoprotection in skin cancer and are aware of the demonstrated potential of nicotinamide in the prevention of NMSCs.
... The primary functions of carotenoids are antioxidant ones as they have a strong efficiency at scavenging reactive oxygen species such peroxide radicals or singlet oxygen molecules through their varying structures of ten or more conjugated double-bonds. Thus, they can protect cells against damage, strengthen the immune system (Eggersdorfer and Wyss 2018) and protect the skin from UV lightinduced damage, sunburn, and skin aging (Kopcke and Krutmann 2008;Stahl and Sies 2012). Carotenoids are not only essential for human health via their antioxidant activity; they also act through additional mechanisms. ...
Article
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The green algae Tetraspora sp. CU2551 was previously identified as a strain with high potential for biohydrogen production; however, its algal biomass characteristics changed from green to reddish orange within 43 days of biohydrogen production. The crude pigments were extracted, partially purified, and characterized by chemical determination. The present study focused on elucidating the carotenoid composition of the selected green alga Tetraspora sp. CU2551. The pigment extract was partially purified and fractionated using thin layer chromatography, and yielded two major and two minor carotenoid bands. The fractions were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC–DAD) before being identified and confirmed using Liquid Chromatograph-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The spectral data of these fractions revealed four sub-fractions of interest that were lutein, canthaxanthin, neochrome, and β-carotene, which had percentages in the crude extracts of 30.57%, 25.47%, 7.89%, and 0.71%, respectively. Lutein and canthaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoid pigments present. Our findings in this present study are the first reporting of Tetraspora sp. CU2551 as a potential alternate source for carotenoid pigment production.
... [4][5][6][7][8] Experiments conducted in the past two decades to study potential effects of oral intake of carotenoids on skin focused mainly on the effect of β-carotene and lycopene with scarce information on phytoene and phytofluene. 9,10 Specific benefits of lycopene and/or β-carotene include protection against UV-induced erythema and sun damage, [11][12][13] reduced oxidative stress, 14 and antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activities. 15 β-Carotene is, of course, the precursor of vitamin A and is known to supports collagen synthesis. ...
Article
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Scope: Two experiments were performed to test the effects of rich tomato extract (Golden Tomato Extract, GTE) on human skin. In one experiment, the effects of this extract on gene expression in cultured human dermal fibroblasts were examined. In a second experiment, human subjects consumed the extract and trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), and aspects of skin appearance were monitored. Methods and results: Primary human dermal fibroblasts in culture were treated with the extract. After six hours, RNA was extracted, and gene expression was examined using Affymetrix Human Clariom D array processing. For the clinical study, 65 human subjects consumed a capsule once a day for 16 weeks, and various skin parameters were assessed at predetermined time intervals. Among the genes upregulated by GTE are genes that augment innate immunity, enhance DNA repair, and the ability to detoxify xenobiotics. GTE significantly reduced TEWL in subjects who had high TEWL at baseline, but it had no effect on TEWL in subjects who had lower TEWL at baseline. Conclusions: Golden tomato extract may provide benefits to the skin by enhancing innate immunity and other defense mechanisms in the dermis and by providing antioxidants to the skin surface to optimize TEWL and the appearance of the skin.
... β-carotene a predominant constituent in carrot (Daucus carota) and lycopene play a role in the protection against photooxidative damage by singlet oxygen and peroxyl radical scavenging activity and can interact synergistically with other antioxidants [117]. Other phytochemical compounds such as tocopherols, tocotrienols, ascorbate, polyphenols (flavonoids), selenium compounds, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), also have photoprotective effect on skin [118]. ...
Article
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The excess level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) disturbs the oxidative balance leading to oxidative stress, which, in turn, causes diabetes mellites, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. These effects of ROS and oxidative stress can be balanced by dietary antioxidants. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend in the use of herbal products for personal and beauty care. The Apiaceae (previously Umbelliferae) family is a good source of antioxidants, predominantly phenolic compounds, therefore, widely used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, cosmeceutical, flavor, and perfumery industries. These natural antioxidants include polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, carotenoids, tocopherols, and ascorbic acids, and exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis, and anticancer. This review discusses the Apiaceae family plants as an important source of antioxidants their therapeutic value and the use in cosmetics.
... Carotenoid ability to reduce the risk of several ailments and age-related biological transformations has been attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties [104]. In the skin, they act as a protective barrier to UV radiation and accumulate mostly in the epidermis, whose amount depends on dietary intake and supplementation [105][106][107][108]. Likewise, topical administration of carotenoids to the skin and their role in photoprotection has been investigated [106,109]. ...
Article
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Carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 are naturally occurring antioxidant compounds that are also found in human skin. These bioactive compounds have been the focus of considerable researches due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and photoprotective properties. In this review, the current state of the art in the encapsulation of carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 in lipid nanoparticles to improve their bioavailability, chemical stability and skin absorption is discussed. Additionally, it is highlighted the main findings on the cytotoxic and photoprotective effects of these systems in the skin.
... Les caroténoïdes : comprenant entre autres l'␣-carotène, le ␤-carotène, la ␤-cryptoxanthine, le lycopène, la lutéine et la zeaxanthine, ils sont connus pour avoir des effets biologiques positifs et certains sont essentiels à la production de vitamine A par notre organisme. L'efficacité des ␤-carotènes, en particulier, a été résumée par Wilhelm Stahl et Helmut Sies en 2012 [65] . Ces auteurs ont conclu qu'il y a deux paramètres particulièrement importants concernant l'efficacité du ␤-carotène : la durée de la supplémentation et la dose journalière ingérée. ...
Article
Les compléments alimentaires représentent aujourd'hui un sujet de recherche important dans de nombreux domaines relatifs à la santé et la nutrition. L'utilisation de ces concentrés de vitamines, minéraux, ou autres substances à effets physiologiques ou nutritionnels, dans un but dermatocosmétique est également fréquente pour maintenir ou rétablir le bon état des parties superficielles du corps humain. Cet article s'adresse aux dermatologues et a pour objectif d'apporter une meilleure connaissance sur les relations entre compléments alimentaires et conditions non pathologiques liées à la peau, aux cheveux ou aux ongles. L'analyse de la littérature scientifique à ce sujet révèle une documentation relativement bien fournie concernant la peau alors que le domaine des phanères reste moins exploité. Un certain nombre d'ingrédients ont été associés à des effets intéressants mais beaucoup demandent la réalisation d'études cliniques plus robustes. © 2020 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.
... 19 Roles of carotenoids in skin heath are well-known, 52 and carotenoids can also provide protection against sunlight and UV. [53][54][55] Plenty of studies have shown that carotenoids have beauty-enhancing effects, and thus carotenoids are widely used in cosmetic products. 56 Owing to the pro-vitamin A and strong antioxidant activity of carotenoids, their demand is very high in health and pharmaceuticals sectors. ...
Article
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The intrinsic ability of microalgae to accumulate high amounts of carotenoids has made them the preferred aquatic organisms of biotechnological exploration for carotenoid production. To continuously innovate and modify microalgal bioprocesses, aquaculture scientists have been working hard for the past decades in a forward‐looking way, and mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae is deemed as a promising strategy to decrease production cost. This review is intended to summarise the recent research advancement of carotenoids production from mixotrophically cultivated microalgae, starting from the structure, biosynthesis, physiological roles and applications of carotenoids and followed by the production processes both currently established and under development. Most importantly, the microalgal physiology of mixotrophic cultivation is reviewed in depth both in general and specifically for the most studied species, and the prospects of commercially viable mixotrophic microalgal processes for carotenoid production along with the insight of future research are of course discussed. Finally, we conclude that mixotrophy might be a promising strategy for large‐scale cultivation of microalgae to produce carotenoids although some technical obstacles need to be overcome.
... Pepper fruit serves as one of the primary dietary sources of provitamin A carotenoids which helps to counter vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and consequently prevents abnormalities in growth, development, immune function and vision [48]. Capsanthin, capsorubin, β-carotene and lutein are the carotenoids of pepper that possess the ability to complement and support the dermal photoprotection system against UV radiation via their strong antioxidant defence, mainly as singlet oxygen quencher and peroxyl radicals scavenger [49,50]. ...
Article
This study aims to analyze the effect of red paprika flour in fish feed to increase the color intensity of the Comet fish juvenile. The research method used a Complete Randomized Design experiment consist of four treatments and three replicates. The treatments consisted of various levels of addition red pepper extract, namely treatment A (0%), B (3%), C (5%) and D (7%). The investigation includes color intensity of the fish. Survival rate and water quality parameters data were also taken. The color observation data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis, if there was a significant difference, the Z test was performed. The results of this study indicated that the addition of 5% red paprika extract to the feed was the best treatment with an increase in the color intensity level of comet fish at 4.71. While the comet fish Survival Rate (SR) data in all treatments were observed to be 100% and the water quality during the maintenance period was in the optimal range and met the standards. The average temperature value was 24.7-26.4ºC, DO 5.6-5.8 mg/L and pH 6.67-7.53.
... Carotenoids are tetraterpenoids with a central carbon chain of alternating single and double bonds carrying different cyclic or acyclic end groups [61]. Their extended system of conjugated double bonds gives them photoprotective properties, including the ability to absorb UVR, useful antioxidant capacity by physical quenching of radicals, such as peroxide and singlet molecular oxygen generated during photooxidation, and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation [62]. Furthermore, carotenoids can induce cellular protective responses since they are able to induce phase 2 cytoprotective genes [63]. ...
Article
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Human skin works as a barrier against the adverse effects of environmental agents, including ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Exposure to UVR is associated with a variety of harmful effects on the skin, and it is one of the most common health concerns. Solar UVR constitutes the major etiological factor in the development of cutaneous malignancy. However, more than 90% of skin cancer cases could be avoided with appropriate preventive measures such as regular sunscreen use. Plants, constantly irradiated by sunlight, are able to synthesize specialized molecules to fight against UVR damage. Phenolic compounds, alkaloids and carotenoids constitute the major plant secondary metabolism compounds with relevant UVR protection activities. Hence, plants are an important source of molecules used to avoid UVR damage, reduce photoaging and prevent skin cancers and related illnesses. Due to its significance, we reviewed the main plant secondary metabolites related to UVR protection and its reported mechanisms. In addition, we summarized the research in Mexican plants related to UV protection. We presented the most studied Mexican plants and the photoprotective molecules found in them. Additionally, we analyzed the studies conducted to elucidate the mechanism of photoprotection of those molecules and their potential use as ingredients in sunscreen formulas.
... Due to the photoprotective role of carotenoids in plants, they are applied as natural photoprotective agents in the treatment of human photosensitivity, particularly mediated by porphyrins (Anstey, 2002). Stahl and Sies (2012) reported the effect of β-carotene and lycopene dietary intake that provide protection against UV-induced skin damage in humans. Mezzomo and Ferreira (2016) reported the function of carotenoids to absorb harmful UV radiation and act as UV filters to protect the skin against photodamage. ...
Article
The photoprotective skincare products are in high demand to meet the consumer market with concern on skin health. Seed oils are commonly used as ingredients in many cosmetic products due to their natural antioxidants and now being increasingly recognized for their effects on skin health and photoprotection. This article briefly reviews the application of seed oils in sunscreen development focusing on the antioxidants that contribute to photoprotection, thus preventing UV‐induced erythema and photoaging. The addition of seed oils that contain specific natural bioactive compounds was discussed in the review. Besides that, seed oils acting in molecular pathways that benefit photoprotection were also summarized. Seed oils (pomegranate seed oil, castor oil, cocoa butter, jojoba oil, rosehip oil, grapeseed oil, kenaf seed oil, and pumpkin seed oil) utilization have high potential to act as natural UV filters and at the same time help in skin repairing. The seed oils contributed beneficial properties to the sunscreen formulation due to their synergistic effect with antioxidants, antiaging properties, anti‐inflammatory effect, and potential hormetic effect. The finding of specific bioactive compound from seed oils provides a better understanding of the contribution of seed oils in sunscreen formulation.
... Lycopene could improve skin protection against UV radiation better than beta carotene. Previous research showed that the use of high-lycopene foods in diet could reduce the skin damage caused by UV-A and UV-B exposure (Stahl & Sies, 2012). Moreover, lycopene could reduce erythema or skin redness (Tapiero et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Lycopene is one of naturally occurring carotenoids in plants including watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Heat, light, and oxygen effect on lycopene isomerization and degradation. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are drug delivery system which can enhance the stability of active compound. Therefore, this study aimed to develop watermelon extract loaded in NLCs for lycopene stability improvement. The NLCs were prepared using a hot homogenization technique. Cocoa butter was used as solid lipid. Grape seed oil was used as liquid lipid. Span® 80 and Plantasens® HE20 were used as an emulsifier. The selected unloaded NLCs contained solid lipid to liquid lipid at the ratio of 3:1 and 10% (w/w) of total lipid. The particle size of watermelon extract‐loaded NLCs (WH‐loaded NLCs) was 130.17 ± 0.72 nm with low PDI and high zeta potential. It also presented high entrapment efficiency. For stability study, the WH‐NLC3 could enhance stability and maintain lycopene content after stability test. It exhibited the highest values of lycopene content (83.26 ± 2.30%) when stored at 4°C. It also possessed a prolonged release pattern over 48 hr. Therefore, the NLCs could improve stability and release profile of lycopene from watermelon extract. The WH‐loaded NLCs were successfully prepared to enhance the stability and prolonged release profile of lycopene. It is a promising delivery system with a safe ingredient and an easy process for improving the stability of WH extract and other unstable extracts. Furthermore, it can further study for use in industry or high scale production.
... lung). 16,180,185,191,[201][202][203][204][205] Zeaxanthin Antioxidant protection (scavenger of peroxyl free radicals), maintenance of normal and accurate visual function, fight of eye-related diseases (i.e. macula degeneration, cataracts and diabetic retinopathy), cancer-preventive properties (i.e. ...
Chapter
Cyanobacteria are a diverse class of photosynthetic microorganisms with highly developed light-harvesting systems composed by pigments. The variety of such pigment classes across cellular localizations, arrangements, and sizes makes them extremely relevant to cyanobacterial adaptation and survival in the most extreme niches on Earth. Three main classes of photosynthetic pigments stand out in cyanobacteria: chlorophylls, carotenoids and phycobiliproteins, besides other classes as scytonemin, more targeted for cyanobacterial cells protection. Adding up, such pigments have important biotechnological significance owing to their bioactive features (i.e., antioxidant, antitumoral, antiviral, etc.) that can be employed in the pharmaceutical, feed and cosmetic fields, and as functional ingredients in food; besides, their natural bright colors are quite appealing for food colorant and textile industries. Thus, from their remarkable physicochemical and physiological functions in cyanobacterial cells (photosynthesis), to their important biotechnological value, this chapter will address to some extent the photosynthetic purposes and the potential biotechnological application of cyanobacterial pigments.
... Ce sont des pigments de couleur jaune-orangée présents dans les fruits et les légumes, et leur consommation journalière est estimée à 5 mg/jour(Scalbert and Williamson 2000). Le β-carotène agit grâce à sa longue chaîne carbonée riche en doubles liaisons en piégeant les molécules d'oxygène singulet formées par les radiations solaires(Stahl and Sies 2012). De structure lipophile, ces antioxydants ciblent principalement les lipides oxydés.Les oligoéléments sont des petits minéraux nécessaires à l'organisme en petite quantité. ...
Thesis
Au cours du diabète, l’hyperglycémie provoque des altérations du système vasculaire aggravant les complications cérébrovasculaires comme l’accident vasculaire cérébral. En effet, l’hyperglycémie altère l’intégrité de la barrière hémato-encéphalique qui sépare le cerveau du compartiment sanguin. Les cellules endothéliales cérébrales qui composent cette barrière hémato-encéphalique sont particulièrement affectées par le stress oxydatif et l’état pro-inflammatoire engendrés par l’hyperglycémie. Dans ce contexte, un intérêt croissant est accordé aux effets santé des polyphénols d’origine végétale dotés de propriétés antioxydantes et anti-inflammatoires. L’objectif du travail de thèse était d’évaluer les altérations fonctionnelles des cellules endothéliales cérébrales en condition hyperglycémique et de déterminer le rôle protecteur des polyphénols extraits de plantes médicinales de La Réunion. Pour ce faire, nous avons développé un modèle de cellules endothéliales cérébrales murines exposées à une hyperglycémie expérimentale ainsi qu’un modèle de souris rendues obèses et diabétiques par un régime riche en graisses puis placées en situation d’ischémie cérébrale lors d’un accident vasculaire cérébral provoqué par occlusion de l’artère cérébrale moyenne. Les polyphénols testés ont été extraits de quatre plantes médicinales réunionnaises traditionnellement utilisées pour des effets antidiabétiques. Nos résultats ont montré que l’hyperglycémie a causé un stress oxydatif, une réponse pro-inflammatoire avec adhésion monocytaire et une dérégulation de la production de marqueurs vasoactifs des cellules endothéliales cérébrales. En situation d’ischémie cérébrale, l’hyperglycémie a aggravé le volume de l’infarctus cérébral et la transformation hémorragique chez les souris obèses et diabétiques. De plus, l’hyperglycémie a provoqué l’altération de marqueurs redox et d’intégrité de la barrière hémato-encéphalique, et a exacerbé la neuroinflammation. Plusieurs cibles moléculaires ont été identifiées dont les enzymes antioxydantes Cu/ZnSOD et MnSOD, les médiateurs inflammatoires de type IL-6, TNF-a, MCP-1 et E-sélectine, les facteurs vasoactifs ET-1, eNOS et NO ainsi que les jonctions serrées ZO-1, ZO-2, claudine-5 et occludine. Le rôle de voies de signalisation clés impliquant NFκB, AMPK, Nrf2 et PPARg a été mis en évidence. De manière importante, les polyphénols ont exercé des effets antioxydants et anti-inflammatoires atténuant les altérations fonctionnelles des cellules endothéliales cérébrales et les complications cérébrovasculaires causées par l’hyperglycémie. Ces effets protecteurs des polyphénols ont été associés à leur détection au niveau cérébral et plasmatique ainsi que dans les cellules endothéliales cérébrales. En conclusion, ce travail de thèse a montré l’effet délétère de l’hyperglycémie sur la fonction endothéliale et le rôle protecteur des polyphénols. L’utilisation des modèles expérimentaux développés permettra d’approfondir l’exploration des mécanismes moléculaires impliqués et d’identifier de possibles cibles thérapeutiques innovantes.
... However, results showed that the presence of compounds such as lavonoids, tannins, phenols or even tocopherol or -carotenes in the extract. Among these compounds, some are known, like lavonoids or tocopherol, which reinforce the extracellular matrix component or stimulate the ibroblasts bioactivity [36] β-carotene inhibits metalloproteinase expression [37]. More recently, a global antioxidant and anti-aging effect has been described for lax [38]. ...
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Objective: During aging, skin undergoes structural, cellular and molecular changes, which not only alter skin mechanical properties but also biological and physiological functions. Structurally the epidermis becomes thinner, the dermal epidermal junction flattens and the extra-cellular matrix component of the dermis is disorganized and degraded. The dermis is composed of two compartments: The Reticular dermis is the deepest and thickest part while the upper layer, the papillary dermis, which is much thinner and is in close contact with epidermis, plays an important role in the structure and function of the skin. We have recently shown that the papillary dermis was preferentially affected by skin aging because the activity of fibroblasts in this region was especially altered as a function of age. The purpose of this study was to investigate the capacity of a flax extract as anti-aging component. Method: We investigated the capacity of a flax extract to stimulate or restore the activity of papillary fibroblasts from young and old donors in cultured monolayers and in reconstructed skin. Several biological markers of extracellular matrix homeostasis and mechanical properties were investigated. Results: The tested flax extract seemed to improve parameters known to change with age: I/ In monolayers after treatment the number of aged fibroblasts increased II/ In reconstructed skin the flax extract appears to positively regulate some biological activities; particularly in aged fibroblasts where the deposition of laminin 5, fibrillin 1, procollagen I were increased in the dermis and the secretion of specific soluble factors like MMP1, MMP3 and KGF were regulated to levels similar to those observed in young fibroblasts III/ Mechanical properties were improved particularly for elastics parameters (R5, R2 and R7). Conclusion: The flax extract is a promising anti-aging compound. The treatment of aged papillary fibroblasts resulted in a return to a younger-like profile for some of the studied parameters.
... In plants carotenoids are accumulated in the plastids and are inactive in photosynthesis but play an auxiliary role as light-harvesting pigments, absorbing light energy for use in photosynthesis; simultaneously they provide photoprotection via non-photochemical quenching. [1][2][3] Mammals obtain carotenoids predominantly through plant foods, carnivorous animals obtain them also from animal fat. 4 In organism carotenoids are absorbed by the intestines into the blood, which transports them to various tissues in the body using lipoproteins. Approximately twenty of fat-soluble carotenoids are found in human blood and tissues. ...
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The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of β-carotene on the oxidative stress injury of human normal colon cell line CCD-18Co triggered by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP). XTT examination was used to determine cell viability after β-carotene supplementation and to determine the optimal concentration of antioxidant in spectroscopic studies. Cell biochemistry for the CCD-18Co control group, after tBHP addition and for cells in the β-carotene-tBHP model was studied using label-free Raman microspectroscopy. Results for stress treated CCD-18Co human colon normal cells and human colon cancer cells Caco-2 based on vibration features were also compared. Pretreatment with β-carotene alleviated damage in CCD-18Co human normal colon cells induced by tBHP and showed the preventative effect on cell apoptosis. Treatment with β-carotene altered the level of ROS investigated based on intensities of Raman peaks typical for lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The present study confirmed the antioxidant, protective role of β-carotene against ROS by using spectroscopic label-free Raman techniques.
... Numerous studies have suggested that an antioxidantrich diet is associated with a lower risk of several cancers, including skin tumors [9,37]. Animal studies have shown that antioxidants, such as beta-carotene, other carotenoids, and tocopherols, may protect the skin from UV photo-damage [38,39]. However, a review of epidemiological studies concluded that there was little evidence for an association between dietary beta-carotene intake and KC risk; findings for retinol were inconsistent and the authors called for more studies on Tocopherol and vitamin C [14]. ...
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Purpose Experimental studies suggested that antioxidants could protect against skin carcinomas. However, epidemiological studies on antioxidant supplement use in relation to basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) risks yielded inconsistent findings, and few prospective studies have been conducted to date. We aimed to investigate the associations between antioxidant supplement intake and keratinocyte cancer (KC) risk. Methods E3N is an ongoing prospective cohort initiated in 1990 and involving 98,995 French women aged 40–65 years at recruitment. Intakes of dietary antioxidants were estimated via a validated dietary questionnaire in 1993 and self-reported antioxidant supplement use was collected in 1995. We used Cox models to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age and skin cancer risk factors. Results Over 1995–2014, 2426 BCC and 451 SCC cases were diagnosed among 63,063 women. We found positive relationships between vitamin A supplement use and KC risk (HR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.15–1.62), particularly with BCC (HR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.17–1.69); and between vitamin E supplement use and risks of both BCC (HR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.03–1.52) and SCC (HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.03–1.99). Intake of beta-carotene supplements was associated with an increased SCC risk (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.00–2.54). Vitamin C supplement use was not associated with KC risk. We found similar results when considering total antioxidant intake. Conclusions Intakes of vitamin A or E supplements were associated with an increased KC risk in women. Further studies with information on doses and duration of supplement use and the ability to examine their underlying mechanisms are needed.
... The role of lutein and zeaxanthin as macular pigments and their function in eye health has been reported in previous studies [83]. It has been anticipated that phytoene and phytofluene which are colorless precursors of other carotenoids possess light absorption in UV-A and UV-B range and protect skin by their photo-protective characteristics [84,85]. Astaxanthin is also known as the super antioxidant. ...
Chapter
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Sweetpotato [sweet potato; Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] is the seventh most valued food crop of the world. It has an inherent ability to grow under diverse agro-ecological and microclimatic zones ranging from tropical and subtropical zones to temperate areas with its tuberous roots enriched with the secondary metabolites of immense nutritional value. Among these, carotenoids are the most conspicuous one for having their use in nutritional, pharmaceutical, food, feed, aquaculture, and cosmetic industries. In food industries, carotenoids are used as food additives being antioxidants with attractive colors. Despite the immense economic importance, sweetpotato has received lesser attention in terms of its breeding with improved varieties. The conventional method of breeding by crossing has not been much successful due to the complexity of genome sterility and cross-incompatibility. Hence, the modern molecular breeding approaches, e.g. genetic, genomic, and metabolic (pathway) engineering, have been applied to this crop by some of researchers in Japan, Korea, and China to generate various cultivars with improved quantities and qualities of carotenoids. This has also opened a new gate for molecular breeders to engineer new sweetpotato cultivars enriched with carotenoids under current global scenario of dramatically rising climatic changes where novel food resources are bitterly needed, especially under alarmingly growing world population, the majority of which suffers from malnutrition.
Chapter
Carotenoids possess strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions in addition to a plethora of other properties. These actions of carotenoids are primarily due to their structure which dictate their functions. Because of their protective potential in disease states, carotenoids are associated with prevention and/or treatment of various neurological diseases. In this chapter, the role(s) of carotenoids in various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, mild cognitive impairment, neurological trauma, brain tumor, schizophrenia, depression, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis, have been reviewed. A number of studies report associations of low levels of carotenoids with higher likelihood of neurological diseases. Other investigations describe beneficial and protective effects of pharmacological or dietary interventions which lead to enhancement of carotenoids levels in the body. However, further validation of these beneficial actions is required both in clinical and animal studies. Development of good animal models of neurological diseases will help.
Article
Background Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) represents the largest cultivated member of the Cucurbitaceae family, showing great relevance from the economic point of view and largely consumed throughout the Mediterranean basin. It is characterized by several bioactive compounds, showing different chemical structures, such as carotenoids, xanthophylls, phenolic compounds, citrulline, and unsaturated fatty acids. These compounds have been widely studied in the last years as capable to modulate several metabolic processes, thus providing beneficial effects as related to human health. Scope and approach In the last decades, this great interest towards natural bioactive compounds led many researchers to study watermelon as natural source of bioactive compounds, mainly when considering some biological properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, inhibition or induction of enzymes, inhibition of receptor activities, together with induction/inhibition of gene expression. However, the most of scientific literature on this topic was based on in vitro assays, thus limiting the comprehensive understanding of the real health-promoting outcomes. Key findings and conclusions Therefore, the aim of this review was to present the up-to-date research carried out on watermelon phytochemicals, showing the most important biological activities reported from both in vitro and in vivo trials. Besides, the potential exploitation of watermelon by-products in the green circular economy and food-waste valorization has been discussed
Article
Palm oil has been used for centuries as a food source and medicine. The palm oil production chain generates large amounts of byproducts, which contain various residual oils. These residual oils can be used to develop new products because they contain high concentrations of vitamin E, carotenoids, and squalene, which are powerful antioxidants that have been shown to protect cell membranes against damage caused by free radicals and reactive oxygen species. This review provides an overview of the literature on the oil fractions recovered from the by-products generated by the palm oil production chain (OFRB), including the characteristics of the phytonutrients and their concentrations found in various studies. There is an increasing number of studies exploring the potential uses of the by-products, generated by palm oil mills and refineries, after processing them. Thus, the goal of this review is to summarize, in detail, the research on the recovery of residual oil contained in the byproducts generated by the palm oil production chain and the functional, nutritional, and pharmaceutical properties of the phytochemicals contained in OFRB as well as suggest areas that need further research.
Chapter
Carotenoids are the most abundant fat-soluble plant pigments. Skin endogenic antioxidant defense mechanism consists of enzymes and non-enzymes and is quite effective in normal routine to cope the antioxidant stress. This enzyme component consists of various enzymes such as catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase which reduce lipid hydroperoxide, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide. The non-enzyme antioxidant elements comprise of aqueous phase L-ascorbic acid of skin, α-tocopherol, cellular glutathione and mitochondrial ubiquinol. However, in case of excessive oxidative stress, this defense mechanism cannot handle the pressure and there is need to take antioxidants from outside either orally or topically. Carotenoids have proved efficiency against premature skin ageing induced by oxidative stress as shown by clinical trials.
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The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of β-carotene on the oxidative stress injury of human normal colon cell line CCD-18Co triggered by tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP). XTT examination was used to determine cell viability after β-carotene supplementation and to determine the optimal concentration of antioxidant in spectroscopic studies. Cell biochemistry for CCD-18Co control group, after tBHP adding and for cells in β-carotene - tBHP model was studied by using label-free Raman microspectroscopy. Results for stress treated CCD-18Co human colon normal cells and human colon cancer cells Caco-2 based on vibration features were also compared. Pretreatment with β-carotene alleviated damages in CCD-18Co human normal colon cells induced by tBHP and showed the preventative effect on cells apoptosis. Treatment with β-carotene altered the level of ROS investigated based on intensities of Raman peaks typical for lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Presented study confirmed the antioxidant, protective role of β-carotene against ROS by using spectroscopic label-free Raman techniques.
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Phytophenols are important phytonutrients and useful building blocks for medicinal chemistry research. Designed conjugates derived from phytophenols and nitrobenzoate were evaluated for MPO inhibition using in-silico docking and ADMET studies. Hit to lead compounds were prepared and confirmed by NMR, mass, and single-crystal XRD analysis. Based on the in-silico study, an in-vitro MPO inhibition assay was performed and identified two best compounds 1 and 2 (MPO-IC50 value is 12.88 and 14.97 µM respectively) lead molecules. An ex-vivo anti-inflammatory study was performed with human erythrocyte hemolysis using coagulated blood cells with increasing concentration (20 to 100 µM) of the lead molecules. The activity range was found to be ~85% and ~75% for compounds 1 and 2, respectively. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays of the lead molecules were compared with ascorbic acid (positive control). MTT-cell line study shows that lead compounds were non-toxic even at higher concentrations. The outcome of this study demonstrated that conjugates 1 and 2 be considered potent inhibitors of MPO and useful cardiovascular therapeutic agents.
Chapter
Incorporation of a vast number of additives in foods is permitted to fulfill a wide range of functions. During processing and storage, they may undergo chemical alterations in line with their intended actions. Examples are the reaction of nitrite with myoglobin to produce the reddish-pink color typical of cured meat and the reaction of sulfite with intermediates of the Maillard reaction and ascorbic acid oxidation to prevent nonenzymatic browning. On the other hand, degradation of additives may occur, such as the degradation of carotenoids and citral, resulting in loss of color and flavor, respectively. Additives may also undergo unintended interactions with other additives and food constituents, with desirable or undesirable consequences on food quality and human health. This chapter discusses the chemical changes, reactions, and interactions of some additives: antioxidants, colorants, flavorings, sulfites, and nitrites/nitrates. This type of information is vital to the food sector, since it provides the necessary background so that beneficial alterations can be enhanced and detrimental effects minimized.
Chapter
Anthocyanins, betalains, carotenoids, and chlorophylls confer the attractive colors of plant-derived foods. These natural pigments, however, are unstable and prone to chemical changes during processing and storage, resulting in loss of color and biological activities. Anthocyanins suffer hydrolysis, nucleophilic attack by water, ring cleavage, and polymerization. Betacyanins undergo hydrolysis, C15 isomerization, dehydrogenation, and decarboxylation. Carotenoids are susceptible to geometric isomerization, epoxidation, and cleavage to apocarotenals and, eventually, to volatile compounds. Chlorophylls are epimerized and transformed to pheophytin, pyropheophytin, chlorophyllide, pheophorbide, and pyropheophorbide. The factors that enhance or inhibit these chemical alterations have been widely investigated. Considering the importance of these pigments to food quality and their potential health-promoting effects, the wealth of knowledge that has been accrued should be used to guarantee retention of these valuable compounds during processing and storage of food.
Article
Considering the high nutritional value of fish as food, in combination with the worldwide problem of overfishing, aquaculture constitutes a major sector of economic activity. Consumers of marine products are affected by the appearance and particularly of the fish colour. In this context, the coloration of the final product represents an important criterion for its final selection. The European Food Safety Authority has enacted a legislation regarding coloration in food. Although colour on the skin of fish is principally genetically determined, fish are unable to produce colour pigments. Therefore, diet is directly related to colour and the most common pigment is carotenoids. One of the most successful examples of aquaculture, in terms of skin coloration, is the red porgy Pagrus pagrus. Concerning the achievement of its colour, concatenated data from different studies show that the most effective method is the combination of two factors: diet with astaxanthin and maintenance of fish in short‐term periods in white background before sale. Moreover, alternative and effective ways for achievement of the desired colour are the submerged cages and the in sea cages with canopies. However, knowledge about carotenoids regarding fish coloration is scarce. Thus, future research is needed in order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms concerning the chromatic plasticity in the skin of fish.
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Nutraceuticals are considered as a safe alternative to allopathic medicine and therefore are widely used for wound healing as well as part of antiaging cosmetics. In this chapter, we describe the anatomy and physiology of skin followed by the current understanding of the wound healing process. Finally, we describe some well-known nutraceuticals that have shown wound healing potential and antiaging properties on the skin. As skin nutraceuticals are an upcoming market, knowledge about phytoconstituents, their mechanisms of action, and therapeutic uses are essential.
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Technologies based on synthetic biology to produce bacterial natural carotenoids depend on information regarding their biosynthesis. Although the biosynthetic pathway of common carotenoids is known, there are carotenoids whose pathways are not completely described. This work aimed to mine the genome of the deep-sea bacterium Erythrobacter citreus LAMA 915, an uncommon bacterium that forms yellow colonies under cultivation. This work further explores the potential application of the carotenoids found and low-cost substrates for bacterial growth. A combined approach of genome mining and untargeted metabolomics analysis was applied. The carotenoid erythroxanthin sulfate was detected in E. citreus LAMA 915 cell extract. A proposal for carotenoid biosynthesis by this bacterium is provided, involving the genes crtBIYZWG. These are responsible for the biosynthesis of carotenoids from the zeaxanthin pathway and their 2,2′-hydroxylated derivatives. E. citreus LAMA 915 extracts showed antioxidant and sun protection effects. Based on the high content of proteases and lipases, it was possible to rationally select substrates for bacterial growth, with residual oil from fish processing the best low-cost substrate selected. This work advances in the understanding of carotenoid biosynthesis and provides a genetic basis that can be further explored as a biotechnological route for carotenoid production.
Experiment Findings
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In principle, the enhancement of photoprotective compounds in response to UV stress was successful, although for example the MAA concentrations obtained initially were low and only in the range of natural occurring ones found in phytoplankton communities according to literature. Even in the final experiment under optimised conditions MAA concentrations obtained were only up to 61% higher than in the first induction experiment and were still low compared to values reached for instance in the red seaweed Porphyra sp. Nevertheless, the overall richness of the tested cyanobacteria in photoprotectants (MAAs, scytonemin, sPS) and components of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative defense systems such as polyphenols (flavonoids), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR), might point to future opportunities to utilize these valuable metabolites in cosmetic products by application of a biorefinery approach.
Chapter
Carotenoids are among the most investigated bioactive compounds of food. Numerous epidemiological studies and intervention trials have been conducted, and in spite of some inconsistencies in the results obtained, there is scientific support for carotenoids’ action against certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, macular degeneration, and cataract. Carotenoids differ in their efficacy; lycopene is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer while lutein and zeaxanthin are credited with lower risk of macular degeneration and cataract. Other potential health effects of carotenoids are emerging, such as protection of the skin from sunlight and maintenance of cognitive function. The most studied carotenoids have been β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, and the carotenoids most commonly found in foods, but other carotenoids, such as astaxanthin, crocetin, bixin, and fucoxanthin, are being increasingly investigated. There is a continuous call for well-designed, long-term, large-scale human clinical trials, which require months of costly, laborious, complicated, challenging research with high probability of inconsistent or inconclusive results.
Article
Systemic photoprotection aims to negate the negative effects of ultraviolet radiation‐induced DNA damage. Systemic supplements might be used as a monotherapy or in combination with topical sunscreens. Using the keywords ‘carotenoids,’ ‘flavonoids,’ ‘systemic photoprotection,’ ‘polyphenols’ and ‘polypodium leucotomos extract,” we searched the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE to find relevant English‐language articles. Few trials have supported the use of any of these supplements as a monotherapy, impeding the recommendation of these systemic supplements as an alternative to sunscreen for photoprotection. Nicotinamide has exhibited clinically relevant benefits in reducing non‐melanoma skin cancers in trials and could be recommended as an adjunctive therapy in those most vulnerable. Further research is required that is of higher statistical power, using more clinically meaningful outcome measures with comparison to the current gold standard of care, topical photoprotection, to support the use of alternative therapies in clinical practice.
Article
Capsanthin is the main carotenoid compound in red paprika (Capsicum annuum L.). However, little is known about the beneficial effects of capsanthin in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, the hepatoprotective activity of capsanthin was investigated in a mouse model of NAFLD. Apolipoprotein-E knockout mice were fed with normal diet, Western-type diet (WD, NAFLD model), WD with capsanthin (0.5 mg/kg of body weight/day, CAP), WD with capsanthin-rich extract (25 mg/kg of body weight/day; CRE), or WD with red paprika powder (25 mg/kg of body weight/day, RPP) for 12 weeks. The carotenoid content in CRE or RPP was analyzed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography. The capsanthin concentration in CRE was 2067 mg/100 g of dry weight, which was 63% of total carotenoids. The oral administration of CRE or capsanthin significantly reduced the WD-induced increase in body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver (vs. the RPP group). In addition, CRE or capsanthin significantly inhibited the WD-induced increase in cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels. Furthermore, CRE or capsanthin showed reduced levels of plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST, respectively), suggesting a steatohepatitis protective effect. Capsanthin regulated mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Pparα), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (Cpt1a), acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (Acox1), and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebp1c), which are associated with hepatic fatty acid metabolism. Overall, our results suggest that the capsanthin of red paprika plays a protective role against hepatic steatosis/steatohepatitis in NAFLD.
Chapter
Algae,the diverse group of photosynthetic organisms are exceptionally richand pragmatic source of miscellaneous high‐value biomolecules.This chapter discusseshigh‐valuebiomolecules and their extensive utilization in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, and renewable bioenergy industries. Algal biomass serves as an unorthodox source of biomolecules in health and nutrition like polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, pigments, polyphenols, and sterols,over the conventional ones i.e. terrestrial plants, animals and fishes.Algal biomoleculeshave natural health‐promoting and medicinal properties likeimmune‐stimulatory, anticancer,strong antioxidants, anti‐inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, and many more. Being most efficient photoautotrophs, they capture and sequester carbon dioxide, and significantly reduce the impact of global warming.Algal biomass is used for production of green fuels like biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas, syngas, biohydrogen, and photo‐microbial cells. However, scalable production of high‐value biomolecules largely depends on the genotype and strain‐specific growth conditions.Therefore, this underexplored group requires more comprehensive research to identify suitable strains and strain‐specific cultivation conditions to produce the desirable biomolecules with remarkable yields.
Article
Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.) is a palm tree found in several regions of Latin America. Buriti fruit is a rich source of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. Thus, the aim of this study was to extract bioactive compounds from buriti fruit by ethanol and a supramolecular solvent system (SUPRAS) formed by octanoic acid aggregates. The extracts were evaluated for total carotenoids, β-carotene, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. Additionally, SUPRAS extracts were characterized for antibacterial activity and modulating effect. The extraction of β-carotene with SUPRAS showed a yield of 5.82 ± 0.05 mg/g for the peel and 26.7 ± 0.02 mg/g for the pulp. In relation to total phenolic compounds, the yields were 32.1 ± 1.2 μg GAE/g for the peel and 24.53 ± 4.9 μg GAE/g for the pulp. The presence of gallic acid, quercetin and catechin stand out regarding the phenolics identified. The extracts showed antioxidant activity, with an emphasis on the extracts obtained by SUPRAS, which presented EC 50 (concentration required to obtain a 50% antioxidant effect) for the ABTS radical sequestration of 3.00 μg/mL for the peel and 0.84 μg/mL for the pulp. When combined with norfloxacin and gentamicin antibiotics, the extracts also showed a synergistic action against multi-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Thus, the extraction of bioactive compounds from buriti fruit using a safe, biocompatible, biodegradable and environmentally friendly solvent such as SUPRAS represents potential for developing new pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and functional foods.
Article
Keratinocytes are rich in lipids and are the main sensitive cells to ultraviolet (UV) rays. Theaflavins are the core functional components of black tea and are known as the “soft gold” in tea. In this study, ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation caused apoptosis and necrosis of human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). EGCG and the four theaflavins had anti-UVB damage activity, among which theaflavin-3′-gallate (TF3’G) had the best activity. The results of biophysical and molecular biology experiments showed that TF3’G has anti-damage effects on UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells through the dual effects of photoprotection and maintenance of cell homeostasis. That is, TF3’G preincubation could absorb UV rays, reduce the accumulation of aging-related heterochromatin (SAHF) formation, increase mitochondrial membrane potential, downregulate NF-κB inflammation pathways, inhibit the formation of cytotoxic aggregates, and protect biological macromolecules Structure, etc. The accumulation of conjugated π bonds and the balance benzoquinone are the core functional structure of TF3’G with high efficiency and low toxicity. The study indicates that TF3’G has the potential to inhibit the photoaging and intrinsic aging of skin cells.
Article
Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), the most widely diagnosed cancer in the United States (US), is rising in incidence despite public health and educational campaigns that highlight the importance of sun avoidance. It is therefore important to establish other modifiable risk factors that may be contributing to this increase. There is a growing body of evidence in the literature suggesting certain nutrients may have protective and/or harmful effects on NMSC. We review the current literature on nutrition and its effect on NMSC with a focus on dietary fat, vitamin A, nicotinamide, folate, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, polyphenols, and selenium.
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The exposure to sun radiation is indispensable to our health; however, a long-term and high exposure could lead to cell damage, erythema, premature skin aging, and promotion of skin tumors. An underlying pathomechanism is the formation of free radicals which may induce oxidative stress at elevated concentrations. Different skin models, such as porcine-, murine-, human-ex vivo skin, reconstructed human skin (RHS) and human skin in vivo, were investigated during and after irradiation using X-and L-band EPR spectroscopy within different spectral regions (UVC to NIR). The amount of radical formation was quantified with the spin probe PCA and the radical types were measured ex vivo with the spin trap DMPO. The radiation dose influences the types of radicals formed in the skin. While reactive oxygen species (ROS) are always pronounced at low doses, there is an increase in lipid oxygen species (LOS) at high doses. Furthermore, the radical types arise independent from the irradiation wavelength, whereas the general amount of radical formation differs with the irradiation wavelength. Heat pre-stressed porcine skin already starts with higher LOS values. Thus, the radical type ratio might be an indicator of stress and the reversal of ROS/LOS constitutes the point where positive stress turns into negative stress.Compared to light skin types, darker types produce less radicals in the ultraviolet, similar amounts in the visible and higher ones in the infrared spectral region, rendering skin type-specific sun protection a necessity.
Chapter
The high UV radiation (280–400 nm) tends to damage the cellular structure of microalgae, changing their photosynthetic efficiency. However, microalgae show a tendency to adapt to UV radiation. For this, these microorganisms develop defense mechanisms and/or tolerance to UV radiation, such as DNA repair, and syntheses of antioxidants and enzymatic/nonenzymatic compounds. Moreover, depending on the dose of UV radiation applied in microalgae cultivation, as well as nutritional and process conditions, the chemical composition of microalgae is altered. The use of these cultivation strategies contributes to the production of macromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids to obtain various bioproducts. Therefore, the chapter addresses the potential of microalgae biomass for the extraction of compounds with potential UV protection capacity. The extraction techniques, cultivation strategies, the effects of UV stress, as well as the prospects for application for microalgae biomass and its metabolites are also presented.
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The pre-biotic origin, emergence, and subsequent evolution of biotic life, out of the ‘Big-Bang’, consequential on the interaction of matter and energy, including, the “subtle guidance exerted by bonding orbital geometry” (Schwabe, 2002), and light, is of widespread interest. This review aims to extend the work of others, presenting six theoretical propositions, the first two are ‘novel’, with the last four having ‘novel’ elements: • A zeolite-tubule-‘exoskeleton’-constrained-dimer-RNA-base-pair-stack-based, self-replicating proto-RNA (section 3.1), that as selects, via their side chains, for ‘exactly’ 22 amino acids (‘mathematically’ determined, see section 4), and through desiccation-based condensation reaction creates a range of repeatable proteins. • Silica-protein-photopigmented/ polysaccharide-amino and or lipid-lined/ pore-containing transparent ‘shell-cell’ vesicles, were the first proto-cells, possibly the Last Universal Common Ancestor: and precursors to the First Common Ancestors: pored polysaccharide-amino lipid-lined cell-wall membrane (non-silicate) archeal and bacterial cellular life forms: and, pellicle-protein-layer, lipid-lined, silicate ‘shell-cell’ cell-walled organisms, that became the first eukaryotes. • Archea, eukarya, and bacteria, each with different cell-wall types, all evolved contemporaneously, at environmentally determined rates, from their individual first Common Ancestors. • UVC is a key evolutionary creative, and selective, force of life’s building blocks, including RNA bases, amino acids, and simple sugars. • Life’s emergence was predetermined by ‘laws’ of atoms and energy, including light. • Competitive evolution inherently selects for greater complexity.
Book
PREFACE Cyanobacteria are among the most successful and ancient forms of life ever known. These photosynthetic autotrophs have been studied for decades as model organisms in various aspects, from photosynthesis to biotechnological applications and, more recently, for their pharmacological potential in umpteen fields. In fact, cyanobacteria are now recognized as top metabolic producers of a huge number of bioactive compounds with medical interest and that can revolutionize drug discovery and development. Allied to their metabolic capabilities, cyanobacteria benefit from a cost-effective energy-capturing ability, and high cultivation yields with minimum nutritional requirements, being extremely attractive in terms of industrial-scale production processes. This book was designed to bring together fields in which cyanobacteria derived compounds most stood out, with a special focus on those related to therapeutics, cosmetics, and nutrition, emphasizing unique molecules not found in higher organisms. Of the most promising compounds isolated so far, those acting as anti-inflammatories, anti-carcinogens, antimicrobials, and UV protectors fill a prominent place within drug discovery programs. The metabolic richness of cyanobacteria has also been upholding their key role in the field of cosmetics and nutraceuticals, with the last occupying a prominent place in a rapidly expanding market. Apart from the pharmacological and biotechnological approach, this book does not set aside the well-known cyanobacterial toxins, warning to their substantial economic and social impacts, and drawing attention to the urgency of fully addressing algal blooms and their systematic monitoring. Additionally, and given its extreme importance, this book provides a distinctive approach to cyanobacteria systematics, by exploring general aspects and biodiversity of these organisms to discuss trends in cyanobacterial taxonomy. Overall, The Pharmacological Potential of Cyanobacteria is intended to be a useful resource for students, researchers, and professionals working in the field of cyanobacteria, serving as a guide in the discovery, research, and application of these unique microorganisms. Graciliana Lopes, Marisa Silva and Vitor Vasconcelos
Book
Cyanobacteria are among the most successful and ancient forms of life ever known. These photosynthetic autotrophs have been studied for decades as model organisms in various aspects, from photosynthesis to biotechnological applications and, more recently, for their pharmacological potential in umpteen fields. In fact, cyanobacteria are now recognized as top metabolic producers of a huge number of bioactive compounds with medical interest and that can revolutionize drug discovery and development. Allied to their metabolic capabilities, cyanobacteria benefit from a cost-effective energy-capturing ability, and high cultivation yields with minimum nutritional requirements, being extremely attractive in terms of industrial-scale production processes. This book was designed to bring together fields in which cyanobacteria derived compounds most stood out, with a special focus on those related to therapeutics, cosmetics, and nutrition, emphasizing unique molecules not found in higher organisms. Of the most promising compounds isolated so far, those acting as anti-inflammatories, anti-carcinogens, antimicrobials, and UV protectors fill a prominent place within drug discovery programs. The metabolic richness of cyanobacteria has also been upholding their key role in the field of cosmetics and nutraceuticals, with the last occupying a prominent place in a rapidly expanding market. Apart from the pharmacological and biotechnological approach, this book does not set aside the well-known cyanobacterial toxins, warning to their substantial economic and social impacts, and drawing attention to the urgency of fully addressing algal blooms and their systematic monitoring. Additionally, and given its extreme importance, this book provides a distinctive approach to cyanobacteria systematics, by exploring general aspects and biodiversity of these organisms to discuss trends in cyanobacterial taxonomy. Overall, The Pharmacological Potential of Cyanobacteria is intended to be a useful resource for students, researchers, and professionals working in the field of cyanobacteria, serving as a guide in the discovery, research, and application of these unique microorganisms. Graciliana Lopes, Marisa Silva and Vitor Vasconcelos
Article
Riassunto Gli integratori alimentari rappresentano oggi un importante soggetto di ricerca in molti campi relativi alla salute e alla nutrizione. L’uso di questi concentrati di vitamine, minerali o altre sostanze con effetti fisiologici o nutrizionali è frequente anche per scopi dermatocosmetici, per mantenere o ripristinare il buono stato delle parti superficiali del corpo umano. Questo articolo è destinato ai dermatologi e si propone di fornire una migliore conoscenza della relazione tra integratori alimentari e condizioni non patologiche legate alla cute, ai capelli o alle unghie. L’analisi della letteratura scientifica su questo argomento rivela una documentazione relativamente ricca per quanto riguarda la cute, mentre il campo degli annessi resta meno esplorato. Un certo numero di ingredienti è stato associato a effetti interessanti, ma molti richiedono la realizzazione di studi clinici più robusti.
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The ever-expanding human population puts tremendous pressure on global food security. With climate change threats lowering crop productivity and food nutritional quality, it is important to search for alternative and sustainable food sources. Microalgae are a promising carbon-neutral biomass with fast growth rate and do not compete with terrestrial crops for land use. More so, microalgae synthesize exclusive marine carotenoids shown to not only exert antioxidant activities but also anti-cancer properties. Unfortunately, the conventional method for fucoxanthin extraction is mainly based on solvent extraction, which is cheap but less environmentally friendly. With the emergence of greener extraction techniques, the extraction of fucoxanthin could adopt these strategies aligned to UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This is a timely review with a focus on existing fucoxanthin extraction processes, complemented with future outlook on the potential and limitations in alternative fucoxanthin extraction technologies. This review will serve as an important guide to the sustainable and environmentally friendly extraction of fucoxanthin and other carotenoids including but not limited to astaxanthin, lutein or zeaxanthin. This is aligned to the SDGs wherein it is envisaged that this review becomes an antecedent to further research work in extract standardization with the goal of meeting quality control and quality assurance benchmarks for future commercialization purposes.
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β-Carotene is the major dietary source of provitamin A. Central cleavage of β-carotene catalyzed by β-carotene oxygenase 1 yields two molecules of retinaldehyde. Subsequent oxidation produces all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), which functions as a ligand for a family of nuclear transcription factors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Eccentric cleavage of β-carotene at non-central double bonds is catalyzed by other enzymes and can also occur non-enzymatically. The products of these reactions are β-apocarotenals and β-apocarotenones, whose biological functions in mammals are unknown. We used reporter gene assays to show that none of the β-apocarotenoids significantly activated RARs. Importantly, however, β-apo-14'-carotenal, β-apo-14'-carotenoic acid, and β-apo-13-carotenone antagonized ATRA-induced transactivation of RARs. Competitive radioligand binding assays demonstrated that these putative RAR antagonists compete directly with retinoic acid for high affinity binding to purified receptors. Molecular modeling studies confirmed that β-apo-13-carotenone can interact directly with the ligand binding site of the retinoid receptors. β-Apo-13-carotenone and the β-apo-14'-carotenoids inhibited ATRA-induced expression of retinoid responsive genes in Hep G2 cells. Finally, we developed an LC/MS method and found 3-5 nm β-apo-13-carotenone was present in human plasma. These findings suggest that β-apocarotenoids function as naturally occurring retinoid antagonists. The antagonism of retinoid signaling by these metabolites may have implications for the activities of dietary β-carotene as a provitamin A and as a modulator of risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer.
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Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) has been suggested as a feasible method for noninvasive carotenoid measurement of human skin. However, before RRS measures of dermal carotenoids can be used as a biomarker, data on intra- and intersubject variability and validity are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of RRS measures of dermal total carotenoids and lycopene in humans. In study 1, 74 men and women with diverse skin pigmentation were recruited. RRS measures of the palm, inner arm, and outer arm were obtained at baseline, 1 wk, 2 wk, 1 mo, 3 mo, and 6 mo (to maximize seasonal variation). The RRS device used visible light at 488 nm to estimate total carotenoids and at 514 nm to estimate lycopene. Reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). In study 2, we recruited 28 subjects and assessed dietary carotenoid intake, obtained blood for HPLC analyses, performed RRS measures of dermal carotenoid status, and performed dermal biopsies (3-mm punch biopsy) with dermal carotenoids assessed by HPLC. ICCs for total carotenoids across time were 0.97 (palm), 0.95 (inner arm), and 0.93 (outer arm). Total dermal carotenoids assessed by RRS were significantly correlated with total dermal carotenoids assessed by HPLC of dermal biopsies (r = 0.66, P = 0.0001). Similarly, lycopene assessed by RRS was significantly correlated with lycopene assessed by HPLC of dermal biopsies (r = 0.74, P < 0.0001). RRS is a feasible and valid method for noninvasively assessing dermal carotenoids as a biomarker for studies of nutrition and health.
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A higher daily intake of fruits and vegetables in healthy elderly is associated with an improved antioxidant status in comparison to subjects consuming diets poor in fruits and vegetables, but the impact on cognitive performance is unclear. Healthy community dwellers (45 to 102 years old, n=193) underwent cognitive testing and blood withdrawal for the measurement of antioxidant micronutrients and biomarkers of oxidative stress as well as administration of a food frequency questionnaire to assess the daily intake of fruits and vegetables (high intake HI, low intake LI). Ninety-four subjects of the HI group had significantly higher cognitive test scores, higher levels of carotenoids, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol as well as lower levels of F2 alpha isoprostanes than the 99 subjects of the LI group. Cognitive scores were directly correlated with blood levels of alpha-tocopherol and lycopene and negatively correlated with F2 alpha isoprostanes and protein carbonyls. The results were independent of age, gender, body mass index, education, total cholesterol, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin. Healthy subjects of any age with a high daily intake of fruits and vegetables have higher antioxidant levels, lower levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress, and better cognitive performance than healthy subjects of any age consuming low amounts of fruits and vegetables. Modification of nutritional habits aimed at increasing intake of fruits and vegetables should be encouraged to lower prevalence of cognitive impairment in later life.
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Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the most abundant carcinogens in our environment, and the development of non-melanoma skin cancers, the most common type of human malignancy worldwide, represents one of the major consequences of excessive exposure. Because of growing concerns that the level of UV radiation is increasing as a result of depletion of the stratospheric ozone and climate change, the development of strategies for protection of the skin is an urgent need. Many phytochemicals that belong to various families of secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids (caffeine, sanguinarine), flavonoids [(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate, genistein, silibinin], carotenoids ( beta-carotene, lycopene), and isothiocyanates (sulforaphane), offer exciting platforms for the development of such protective strategies. These phytochemicals have been consumed by humans for many centuries as part of plant-rich diets and are presumed to be of low toxicity, an essential requirement for a chemoprotective agent. Mechanistically, they affect multiple signalling pathways and protect against UV radiation-inflicted damage by their ability to act as direct and indirect antioxidants, as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents. Such "pluripotent character" is a critical prerequisite for an agent that is designed to counteract the multiple damaging effects of UV radiation. Especially attractive are inducers of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, which controls the gene expression of proteins whose activation leads to enhanced protection against oxidants and electrophiles. Such protection is comprehensive, long-lasting, and unlikely to cause pro-oxidant effects or interfere with the synthesis of vitamin D.
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Concentrations of preformed vitamin A and five individual carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein and lycopene) were determined in liver, kidney and lung tissue from 20 autopsies of subjects ranging in age from 4 mo to 86 y. Total carotenoid concentrations in liver tissue were always greater than in kidney or lung tissue within the same patient. Total carotenoid concentration in adult subjects was 2.5-77.1 nmol/g tissue (mean 21.0 nmol/g tissue) in liver tissue (n = 14), 0.2-12.7 nmol/g tissue (mean 3.1 nmol/g tissue) in kidney tissue (n = 13) and 0.1-8.4 nmol/g tissue (mean 1.9 nmol/g tissue) in lung tissue (n = 13). Carotenoid content in tissue samples from two infants was low, ranging from 0 to 1.0 nmol/g tissue. beta-Carotene and lycopene were almost always the predominant carotenoids found in liver, kidney and lung tissue. beta-Carotene was positively correlated (P less than 0.05) with alpha-carotene, lycopene and total carotenoids in all of the tissues examined. In addition, beta-carotene and total carotenoids from liver tissue were positively correlated with the same carotenoids in both kidney and lung tissue within each patient. Total vitamin A (free plus esterified) concentration was 8.7-1102.2 nmol/g tissue in liver (n = 17), 3.5-343.9 nmol/g tissue in kidney (n = 14) and 0.7-404.6 nmol/g tissue in lung (n = 14). Vitamin A concentrations were significantly correlated with both beta-carotene and total provitamin A carotenoid concentrations in liver tissue, but not in kidney or lung tissue.
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Of the common carotenoids present in food, beta carotene, alpha carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin as well as canthaxanthin can be considered potential prophylactic agents against carcinogenesis. They are absorbed by the human organism in reasonable amounts, and they have antioxidant properties, immunomodulating effects and may possibly influence gene expression enhancing gap junction communication. Recent suggestions that beta carotene may be metabolized directly to retinoic acid in retinoic acid target tissue and the discovery of retinoic acid nuclear receptors open up new perspectives for research. The best established chain of evidence for a protective effect of carotenoids against cancer development is available for beta carotene. Positive effects were observed in cell culture and experimental animal studies as well as in dietary and blood level studies in humans. More conclusive evidence will be provided by double-blind intervention trials in humans that are in progress. Beta carotene appears to be active in the promotion phase of carcinogenesis stabilizing initiated cells. Canthaxanthin, which has often been included in animal experiments for comparative purposes having little or no provitamin A activity, also exhibits strong protective effects. Of the other carotenoids only limited data are available. Depending on the experimental model used, lycopene, lutein or alpha carotene was particularly active. In preliminary human blood level studies, lycopene was inversely associated with cancers of the pancreas and cervix. Much work remains to be done. Of particular interest is the question of organ specificity of individual carotenoids.
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The analysis of beta-carotene and lycopene, the two predominant carotenoids in human serum and tissues, was extended to the level of geometrical (cis-trans) isomers by using an improved reversed-phase HPLC methodology. We separated five geometrical isomers of beta-carotene and seven of lycopene in human serum and tissues. 13-cis-beta-Carotene was identified as the predominant cisisomer in human serum, contributing about 5% to total beta-carotene. In tissue, however, considerable amounts of 9-cis- and traces of 15-cis-beta-carotene were also detected. In contrast to beta-carotene, the lycopene isomer patterns in human serum and tissues are quite similar.
Article
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Induction of gap junctional communication (GJC) and antioxidant activities of carotenoids have been considered as biochemical mechanisms underlying the cancer-preventive properties of these compounds. beta-Carotene and other carotenoids, including those lacking provitamin A activity, proved to be active in both these parameters. The beta-carotene analogs retrodehydro-beta-carotene, echinenone, cryptoxanthin (3-hydroxy-beta-carotene), 4-hydroxy-beta-carotene and canthaxanthin stimulate GJC and efficiently deactivate singlet molecular oxygen. beta-Carotene is less active than its retro-dehydro analog with respect to (1)O2-quenching but GJC is similar. The five-membered ring analog of canthaxanthin, dinor-canthaxanthin, has less effect on GJC as compared with the parent compound but exhibits increased singlet oxygen quenching. Straight-chain polyene dialdehydes are quenchers of singlet oxygen, the efficiency increasing with the number of conjugated double bonds. However, none of these compounds significantly induce GJC. These data indicate that the two properties of carotenoids addressed in this study may operate independent of each other.
Article
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Carotenoids and tocopherols, known to be efficient antioxidants and capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species generated during photooxidative stress, may protect the skin from ultraviolet light-induced erythema. beta-Carotene is widely used as an oral sun protectant but studies on its protective effects are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of oral supplementation with carotenoids and a combination of carotenoids and vitamin E against the development of erythema in humans. A carotenoid supplement (25 mg total carotenoids/d) and a combination of the carotenoid supplement and vitamin E [335 mg (500 IU) RRR-alpha-tocopherol/d] were given for 12 wk to healthy volunteers. Erythema was induced by illumination with a blue-light solar simulator. Serum beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol concentrations and skin carotenoid levels were assessed by HPLC and reflection photometry. Serum beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol concentrations increased with supplementation. Erythema on dorsal skin (back) was significantly diminished (P < 0.01) after week 8, and erythema suppression was greater with the combination of carotenoids and vitamin E than with carotenoids alone. The antioxidants used in this study provided protection against erythema in humans and may be useful for diminishing sensitivity to ultraviolet light.
Article
Increasing numbers of patients with different kinds of UV-induced dermatoses and skin cancer; are presenting at medical care institutions in many countries. If social and cultural behaviour does not change, lowering the risk of harmful effects of W radiation, for example by the use of topical and systemic preventive agents acting as sunscreens and antoxidants, is going to have to be a priority. We conducted a randomized, placebo controlled, double blind study in 20 healthy young female students (skin type II + III, body mass index 18-22) to evaluate the efficacy of a moderate dose of 30 mg/d beta carotene (BC) after 10 weeks presupplementation and over 13 days, of time and intensity controlled sunlight exposure at sea level (30° latitude, Red Sea, Eilath, Israel) with regard to development skin erythema assessed by chromometry at selected skin sites with and without topical UVA/B sunscreen cream. In addition, BC blood levels, were regularly checked before and after UV-exposure as well as epidermal Langerhans cell (LHC) density by biopsy, delayed type hypersensitivity by recall antigens and lymphocyte counts by flowcytometry-analysis of the peripheral blood. A 10-week BC-supplementation did not lead to a visible carotenodermia. Development of erythema in selected skin areas exposed to natural sunlight was lower in the group supplemented with BC. Body areas in the verum group protected with sunscreen cream plus systemic BC showed lower median degrees of erythema. Serum levels of BC did not fall during sun exposure in the verum group under the normal value, whereas in the placebo group the levels decreased significantly to sub-physiological levels. Langerhans cells increased significantly (p < 0.01) in density per sqmm/epidermis after presupplementation with BC. After UV-exposure, LHC-density decreased in both groups, however, compared to baseline levels this was significant (p < 0.05) in the temporary exposed skin region only for the placebo group. The lymphocyte counts and recall antigen profile did not change significantly. Presupplementation with moderate doses of beta carotene before and during natural sunlight exposure combined with topical sunscreens are more effective than sunscreen cream alone. From our results the use of such a combination for the general health of populations at risk e.g., before UV-exposure during vacation would seem advisable.
Article
Induction of gap junctional communication (GJC) and antioxidant activities of carotenoids have been considered as biochemical mechanisms underlying the cancer-preventive properties of these compounds. β-Carotene and other carotenoids, including those lacking provitamin A activity, proved to be active in both these parameters. The β-carotene analogs retrodehydro-β-carotene, echinenone, cryptoxanthin (3-hydroxy-β-carotene), 4-hydroxy-β-carotene and canthaxanthin stimulate GJC and efficiently deactivate singlet molecular oxygen. β-Carotene is less active than its retro-dehydro analog with respect to 1 O 2 -quenching but GJC is similar. The five-membered ring analog of canthaxanthin, dinor-canthaxanthin, has less effect on GJC as compared with the parent compound but exhibits increased singlet oxygen quenching. Straight-chain polyene dialdehydes are quenchers of singlet oxygen, the efficiency increasing with the number of conjugated double bonds. However, none of these compounds significantly induce GJC. These data indicate that the two properties of carotenoids addressed in this study may operate independent of each other.
Article
We measured enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in human epidermis and dermis from six healthy volunteers undergoing surgical procedures. Epidermis was separated from dermis by currettage and antioxidants were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or standard spectrophotometric methods. The concentration of every antioxidant (referenced to skin wet weight) was higher in the epidermis than in the dermis. Among the enzymic antioxidants, the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were higher in the epidermis compared to the dermis by 126, 61 and 215%, respectively. Catalase activity in particular was much higher (720%) in the epidermis. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase, which provide reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), also showed higher activity in the epidermis than the dermis by 111% and 313%, respectively. Among the lipophilic antioxidants, the concentration of α-tocopherol was higher in the epidermis than the dermis by 90%. The concentration of ubiquinol 10 was especially higher in the epidermis, by 900%. Among the hydrophilic antioxidants, concentrations of ascorbic acid and uric acid were also higher in the epidermis than in the dermis by 425 and 488%, respectively. Reduced glutathione and total glutathione were higher in the epidermis than in the dermis by 513 and 471%. Thus the antioxidant capacity of the human epidermis is far greater than that of dermis. As the epidermis composes the outermost 10% of the skin and acts as the initial barrier to oxidant assault, it is perhaps not surprising that it has higher levels of antioxidants.
Article
Since cis or trans isomers of carotenoids may have different biological reactivities, the isomeric composition of lycopene and β-carotene was measured in serum and seven human tissues. In addition to all-trans lycopene, at least three cis-isomers (9-, 13-, and 15-cis) were present, accounting for more than 50% of total lycopene. 13-and 15-cis-β-carotene, however, were present at only 5% of the all-trans isomer. In addition, 9-cis-β-carotene was present in tissue samples but not in serum. There were interindividual differences in carotenoid levels of the different tissue types, but liver, adrenal gland, and testes always contained significantly higher amounts of the carotenoids than kidney, ovary, and fat; carotenoids in brain stem tissue were below the detection limit. β-Carotene was the major carotenoid in liver, adrenal gland, kidney, ovary, and fat, whereas lycopene was the predominant carotenoid in testes.
Article
The profile of antioxidants in biological fluids and tissues may be helpful in assessing oxidative stress in humans. Plasma antioxidants can be decreased as compared to established normal values, in abnormal or subnormal conditions, for instance as a consequence of disease-related free radical production. Alternatively, plasma antioxidants may be below the normal range due to insufficient dietary supply. Therefore, the profile of antioxidants can be of use only in conjunction with other parameters of the oxidative stress status. This article examines the profiles of plasma antioxidants in oxidative stress–related conditions, e.g., diabetes and some other diseases, as well as smoking and smoking cessation.
Article
Carotenoids are micronutrients present mainly in fruits and vegetables, and they are ingested from these sources with the diet. They exhibit specific antioxidant activity but also influence signaling and gene expression at the cellular level. β-Carotene and lycopene, the colorants of carrots and tomatoes, respectively, are among the most prominent members of this group of lipids, and they are usually the dominating carotenoids in human blood and tissues. Both compounds modulate skin properties when ingested as supplements or as dietary products. There is evidence that they protect the skin against sunburn (solar erythema) by increasing the basal defense against UV light-mediated damage. Their photoprotective efficacy, however, is not comparable to the use of a sunscreen. In vitro data show that also other carotenoids are efficient photoprotectors. Among them are lutein and structurally unusual phenolic polyenes like 3,3'-dihydroxyisorenieratene.
Article
The recent search for new anti-cancer drugs focuses more on natural compounds from the regular human diet because these compounds rarely exhibit severe side-effects yet efficiently act on a wide range of molecular targets involved in carcinogenesis. One promising compound, which is now being tested in clinical studies, is the tomato-derived carotenoid lycopene. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the cellular action of lycopene and presents the molecular targets responsible for its remarkable chemopreventive and anti-proliferative activity. Its antioxidant effects include a considerable reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, which allows lycopene to prevent lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Simultaneously, lycopene induces enzymes of the cellular antioxidant defense systems by activating the antioxidant response element transcription system. As another chemopreventive strategy, lycopene increases gap junctional communication, which is suppressed during carcinogenesis. This review focuses also on the synergistic effects of lycopene with other natural antioxidants that might be important for its future application in anti-cancer treatment. Lastly, this review provides evidence for the biological activity of some oxidized lycopene metabolites, which seem to be partially responsible for the strong and manifold anti-cancer potential of lycopene.
Article
Previous epidemiological, animal and human data report that lycopene has a protective effect against ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced erythema. We examined whether tomato paste--rich in lycopene, a powerful antioxidant--can protect human skin against UVR-induced effects partially mediated by oxidative stress, i.e. erythema, matrix changes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage. In a randomized controlled study, 20 healthy women (median age 33 years, range 21-47; phototype I/II) ingested 55 g tomato paste (16 mg lycopene) in olive oil, or olive oil alone, daily for 12 weeks. Pre- and postsupplementation, UVR erythemal sensitivity was assessed visually as the minimal erythema dose (MED) and quantified with a reflectance instrument. Biopsies were taken from unexposed and UVR-exposed (3 × MED 24 h earlier) buttock skin pre- and postsupplementation, and analysed immunohistochemically for procollagen (pC) I, fibrillin-1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for mtDNA 3895-bp deletion. Mean ± SD erythemal D(30) was significantly higher following tomato paste vs. control (baseline, 26·5 ± 7·5 mJ cm(-2); control, 23 ± 6·6 mJ cm(-2); tomato paste, 36·6 ± 14·7 mJ cm(-2); P = 0·03), while the MED was not significantly different between groups (baseline, 35·1 ± 9·9 mJ cm(-2); control, 32·6 ± 9·6 mJ cm(-2); tomato paste, 42·2 ± 11·3 mJ cm(-2)). Presupplementation, UVR induced an increase in MMP-1 (P = 0·01) and a reduction in fibrillin-1 (P = 0·03). Postsupplementation, UVR-induced MMP-1 was reduced in the tomato paste vs. control group (P = 0·04), while the UVR-induced reduction in fibrillin-1 was similarly abrogated in both groups, and an increase in pCI deposition was seen following tomato paste (P = 0·05). mtDNA 3895-bp deletion following 3 × MED UVR was significantly reduced postsupplementation with tomato paste (P = 0·01). Tomato paste containing lycopene provides protection against acute and potentially longer-term aspects of photodamage.
Article
Raman spectroscopy holds promise as a rapid objective non-invasive optical method for the detection of carotenoid compounds in human tissue in vivo. Carotenoids are of interest due to their functions as antioxidants and/or optical absorbers of phototoxic light at deep blue and near UV wavelengths. In the macular region of the human retina, carotenoids may prevent or delay the onset of age-related tissue degeneration. In human skin, they may help prevent premature skin aging, and are possibly involved in the prevention of certain skin cancers. Furthermore, since carotenoids exist in high concentrations in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, and are routinely taken up by the human body through the diet, skin carotenoid levels may serve as an objective biomarker for fruit and vegetable intake. Before the Raman method can be accepted as a widespread optical alternative for carotenoid measurements, direct validation studies are needed to compare it with the gold standard of high performance liquid chromatography. This is because the tissue Raman response is in general accompanied by a host of other optical processes which have to be taken into account. In skin, the most prominent is strongly diffusive, non-Raman scattering, leading to relatively shallow light penetration of the blue/green excitation light required for resonant Raman detection of carotenoids. Also, sizable light attenuation exists due to the combined absorption from collagen, porphyrin, hemoglobin, and melanin chromophores, and additional fluorescence is generated by collagen and porphyrins. In this study, we investigate for the first time the direct correlation of in vivo skin tissue carotenoid Raman measurements with subsequent chromatography derived carotenoid concentrations. As tissue site we use heel skin, in which the stratum corneum layer thickness exceeds the light penetration depth, which is free of optically confounding chromophores, which can be easily optically accessed for in vivo RRS measurement, and which can be easily removed for subsequent biochemical measurements. Excellent correlation (coefficient R=0.95) is obtained for this tissue site which could serve as a model site for scaled up future validation studies of large populations. The obtained results provide proof that resonance Raman spectroscopy is a valid non-invasive objective methodology for the quantitative assessment of carotenoid antioxidants in human skin in vivo.
Article
Carotenoids in skin have been known to play a role in photoprotection against UV radiation. We performed dermal biopsies of healthy humans (N=27) and collected blood samples for pair-wise correlation analyses of total and individual carotenoid content by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The hydrocarbon carotenoids (lycopene and beta-carotene) made up the majority of carotenoids in both skin and plasma, and skin was somewhat enriched in these carotenoids relative to plasma. Beta-cryptoxanthin, a monohydroxycarotenoid, was found in similar proportions in skin as in plasma. In contrast, the dihydroxycarotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, were relatively lacking in human skin in absolute and relative levels as compared to plasma. Total carotenoids were significantly correlated in skin and plasma (r=0.53, p<0.01). Our findings suggest that human skin is relatively enriched in lycopene and beta-carotene, compared to lutein and zeaxanthin, possibly reflecting a specific function of hydrocarbon carotenoids in human skin photoprotection.
Article
We conducted a study to determine the effect of different doses of a lutein supplement on serum lutein concentration and macular pigment optical density (MPOD). Lutein is one of the major components of human macular pigment. Eighty-seven subjects received daily doses of 5, 10, or 20 mg of lutein, or a placebo, over a 140 day period. Serum lutein concentration was determined by HPLC and MPOD by heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP). Serum lutein responded positively, except in the placebo group, reaching a plateau that, averaged for each dosage group, was linearly dependent on dose. Likewise MPOD, on average, increased at a rate that varied linearly with dose. For subjects deemed more proficient at HFP, approximately 29% of the variability in MPOD response could be attributed to a linear dependence on the fractional change in serum lutein concentration. We did not detect any significant influence of age on serum lutein uptake or MPOD response.
Article
Skin functions and structure are significantly influenced by nutrients. Antioxidants protect the supportive layer of the skin against any damaging irradiation effects and the action of free radicals. A lack of suitable methods means that the pharmacokinetic properties of systemically applied carotenoids transferred into the skin remain poorly understood. In this study, a natural kale extract or placebo oil were given orally to 22 healthy volunteers for 4 weeks. Carotenoid bioaccessibility was evaluated using non-invasive resonance Raman spectroscopy on the palm and forehead skin. For the analysis of the blood serum, the standard HPLC method was used. The blood and skin levels of the carotenoids increased significantly during the study but compared to the blood serum values, increases in skin were delayed and depended on the dermal area as well as on the carotenoid. Lycopene, measured as being low in the extract, increases more in the skin compared to the blood indicating that the natural mixture of the extract stabilizes the antioxidative network in the skin. After supplementation had ended, the carotenoids decreased much faster in the blood than in the skin. The delayed decrease in the skin may indicate a peripheral buffer function of the skin for carotenoids.
Article
With the rise of the cosmeceutical industry, numerous formulations have surfaced with claims of reducing the clinical manifestations of photoaging. Many of these products capitalize on the positive connection the public makes with vitamins, especially with respect to their antioxidant capabilities. An impressive amount of basic science and clinical research has been conducted in both an attempt to discover novel strategies for preventing detrimental sun damage and to validate the addition of vitamins to skin care products. As dermatologists, it will be essential to provide our patients with substantiated counseling regarding the efficacy of commercial assertions. In this review, we will systematically examine the evidence supporting the use of vitamins in oral and topical formulations and provide a brief summary of the pathogenesis of photoaging. Limitations of this study include that there may be unpublished data or additional studies that may have been overlooked in our comprehensive review of this topic.
Article
The increasing incidence of skin cancer despite the use of externally applied sun protection strategies, alongside research showing that nutrients reduce photo-oxidative damage, suggest nutritional approaches could play a beneficial role in skin cancer prevention. Penetrating photo-oxidative ultraviolet A radiation reduces skin and blood antioxidants and damages cell components, including DNA. Dietary antioxidant vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals in addition to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids, and low pro-inflammatory n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have demonstrated protective properties. The presence of these elements in the traditional Greek-style Mediterranean diet may have contributed to the low rates of melanoma in the Mediterranean region despite high levels of solar radiation. This suggests a potentially relevant model for studying dietary/nutritional supplementation for lifelong internal support of sun-protection mechanisms, which could complement external strategies.
Article
The cutaneous antioxidants form an efficient protection system against the destructive potential of free radicals, produced by environmental factors, such as UV-sun irradiation, hazardous substances and lifestyle habits. Most of the antioxidants cannot be produced by the human organism. Thus, they have to be incorporated by food and beverages. In the present manuscript, the distribution of carotenoids as a marker for antioxidative potential in human skin was investigated with two different in vivo Raman spectroscopy methods with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm (Skin Analyzer) and at 488 nm (resonance Raman spectroscopy). The carotenoid profile was assessed at three different anatomical locations (palm, forehead and volar forearm) in 12 healthy volunteers. In untreated skin, the major fraction of the carotenoids is located in the upper part of the stratum corneum (SC). The amount of carotenoid is lower in the upper part of the SC on the forearm compared to forehead and palm shown with both methods. Both methods detect similar distinction patterns of carotenoid levels for the three anatomical locations. The present study supports the hypothesis that antioxidative substances; here carotenoids, are secreted via eccrine sweat glands and/or sebaceous glands to the skin surface. Raman spectroscopic methods are an efficient tool to analyze the distribution of carotenoids in the human skin over time and with the Skin Analyzer over different layers of the epidermis. Resonance Raman spectroscopy is suited to analyze deeper parts of the skin.
Article
Epidemiological evidence and studies in whole animals and cell culture have indicated that carotenoids have cancer chemopreventive action. In mouse C3H10T1/2 cells, this activity is highly correlated with the ability of carotenoids to up-regulate gap junctional intercellular communication. Here, we report that in mouse cells, carotenoids increase the expression of connexin43, a gene that encodes a major gap junction protein. This effect appears unrelated to their provitamin A or antioxidant properties, since carotenoids with and without provitamin A activity increased levels of connexin43 mRNA and protein, whereas the antioxidants methyl-bixin and alpha-tocopherol were inactive. Moreover, the active carotenoid canthaxanthin did not induce the vitamin A-inducible gene retinoic acid receptor-beta. Connexin43 is the first carotenoid-inducible gene described in mammals. By indicating an additional pathway through which carotenoids function, these data provide a mechanistic basis for cancer chemoprevention by carotenoids and may lead to a re-evaluation of carotenoid physiology.
Article
The aim of this study was to examine whether beta-carotene protects against the immunosuppression seen with long-wave ultraviolet-light (UV-A) exposure. Free-living, healthy men, aged 19-39 y received 30 mg beta-carotene/d or a placebo while on a single-menu, low-carotenoid diet. After 28 d all subjects received 12 exposures to a UV-A/B light source over a 16-d period. The total UV-A dose received ranged from 15.9 to 19.3 J/cm2. The total shorter-wave ultraviolet-light (UV-B) dose varied from 1.59 to 1.96 J/cm2. Follow-up continued for 21 d. Carotenoid assays and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) tests were performed at baseline, pre-UV, post-UV, and after follow-up. The DTH-test responses were significantly suppressed in the placebo group after UV treatments. The suppression was inversely related to plasma beta-carotene concentrations in this group. There was no significant suppression of DTH test responses in the beta-carotene group. It is concluded that beta-carotene protects against photosuppression of immune function.
Article
Since cis or trans isomers of carotenoids may have different biological reactivities, the isomeric composition of lycopene and beta-carotene was measured in serum and seven human tissues. In addition to all-trans lycopene, at least three cis-isomers (9-, 13-, and 15-cis) were present, accounting for more than 50% of total lycopene. 13- and 15-cis-beta-carotene, however, were present at only 5% of the all-trans isomer. In addition, 9-cis-beta-carotene was present in tissue samples but not in serum. There were interindividual differences in carotenoid levels of the different tissue types, but liver, adrenal gland, and testes always contained significantly higher amounts of the carotenoids than kidney, ovary, and fat; carotenoids in brain stem tissue were below the detection limit. beta-Carotene was the major carotenoid in liver, adrenal gland, kidney, ovary, and fat, whereas lycopene was the predominant carotenoid in testes.
Article
To explore the relation between plasma and tissue concentrations of seven fat-soluble micronutrients (retinol, alpha-tocopherol, lutein, cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene), we developed methods for clarifying plasma and tissue samples and quantitating these seven analytes simultaneously by using HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Clarification of tissue samples was performed by using enzymatic digestion followed by mechanical homogenization; saponification was avoided and tocopherol nicotinate was used as an internal standard. Precision and sensitivity for small samples of plasma and solid tissues were determined. Accuracy for plasma samples was assessed by comparing results obtained by using this method with those obtained by using older, standardized methods. Results from application of this method to patient samples of plasma and various tissues are presented. This method will be of interest to investigators seeking to quantitate these seven micronutrients in solid tissue samples, but desiring to avoid the usual saponification step required in most other reported techniques.
Article
The carotenoid content of 10 different organs obtained at autopsy from 16 humans was determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The same qualitative pattern of carotenoids found in serum was found for all the tissues, although there were important quantitative differences in the different carotenoids between organs. The median levels of zeaxanthins, lycopene and beta-carotene varied disproportionately between organs; similar levels of one carotenoid for two organs would not predict similar levels of another carotenoid for the same organs. Similarly, there was not a consistent relationship between all the carotenoids for a given organ. The uneven but wide tissue distribution of most dietary carotenoids may indicate an active biological role for these compounds.
Article
Lycopene, a biologically occurring carotenoid, exhibits the highest physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen (kq = 31 X 10(9) M-1 s-1), and its plasma level is slightly higher than that of beta-carotene (kq = 14 X 10(9) M-1 s-1). This is of considerable general interest, since nutritional carotenoids, particularly beta-carotene, and other antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol (kq = 0.3 X 10(9) M-1 s-1) have been implicated in the defense against prooxidant states; epidemiological evidence reveals that such compounds exert a protective action against certain types of cancer. Also, albumin-bound bilirubin is a known singlet oxygen quencher (kq = 3.2 X 10(9) M-1 s-1). Interestingly, those compounds with low kq values occur at higher plasma levels. When these differences are taken into account, the singlet oxygen quenching capacities of lycopene (0.7 microM in plasma), beta-carotene (0.5 microM in plasma), albumin-bound bilirubin (15 microM in plasma), and alpha-tocopherol (22 microM in plasma) are of comparable magnitude.
Article
This study was performed in order to (1) assess the magnitude of a possible protective effect of oral carotenoids on ultraviolet B (UVB)-, ultraviolet A (UVA)-, and psoralen ultraviolet A (PUVA)-induced erythema in human skin and (2) to evaluate whether the postulated prevention of skin cancer by prophylactic administration of carotenoids is based on a decrease in UVB-induced DNA damage. Twenty-three healthy volunteers received oral carotenoids (150 mg/day) for 4 weeks. Serum levels were quantitated, and ranged from 390 to 1710 micrograms/dl. Before and after carotenoid administration, the UVA- and UVB-MEDs and the PUVA-MPD were determined by standard phototesting. DNA damage was assessed by autoradiographical measurement of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) following UVB exposure before and after treatment. No statistically significant carotenoid-dependent protection was found against UVA, UVB, and PUVA erythema by comparing the pre- and postcarotenoid erythema doses. Also at the DNA level there was no indication of a protective effect that could be detected with the methods employed: the amount of UVB-induced UDS was not decreased after carotenoid treatment. We conclude that (1) carotenoids do not reduce UVB-, UVA-, or PUVA-induced erythema in human skin; that (2) reactive oxygen species may not be involved in PUVA-erythema production or, alternatively, carotenoids may not quench these radicals sufficiently in vivo; and that (3) carotenoid protection against UVB-induced carcinogenesis does not operate by reducing the number of mutagenic lesions in DNA.
Article
Beta-carotene (180 mg/day, p. o. ) or a placebo was administered to 30 normal male volunteers for 10 weeks, after which the volunteers were exposed to sunlight in the Arizona desert for up to 2 hours. Beta-carotene had a small but statistically significant effect in increasing the minimal erythema dose of sunburn radiation. The observed effects were too small to recommend the use of beta-carotene as a photoprotective agent for sunburn, but the methods developed provide a workable model for randomized controlled trials for evaluating the efficacy of systemic photoprotective agents.
Article
The mechanism of lipid peroxidation and the manner in which antioxidants function is reviewed. beta-Carotene is a purported anticancer agent, which is believed by some to have antioxidant action of a radical-trapping type. However, definitive experimental support for such action has been lacking. New experiments in vitro show that beta-carotene belongs to a previously unknown class of biological antioxidants. Specifically, it exhibits good radical-trapping antioxidant behavior only at partial pressures of oxygen significantly less than 150 torr, the pressure of oxygen in normal air. Such low oxygen partial pressures are found in most tissues under physiological conditions. At higher oxygen pressures, beta-carotene loses its antioxidant activity and shows an autocatalytic, prooxidant effect, particularly at relatively high concentrations. Similar oxygen-pressure-dependent behavior may be shown by other compounds containing many conjugated double bonds.
Article
Beta-carotene, a quencher of excited species such as singlet oxygen and free radicals, has been reported to protect against cutaneous photodamage, including sunburn acutely and photocarcinogenesis chronically. The present double blind placebo-controlled study examines the effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the human sunburn response and specifically on the induction of sunburn cells at the time of peak reaction intensity (24 h) after a single solar simulated light exposure 3 times the individually determined minimal erythema dose (MED). Administered orally either as a single 120 mg dose to dietarily restricted subjects or for 23 d as a daily 90 mg supplement to subjects on standard diets, beta-carotene increased plasma and skin levels of beta-carotene compared to both pretreatment levels and placebo-treated controls, but provided no clinically or histologically detectable protection against a 3 MED sunburn reaction. Thus, these data suggest that oral beta-carotene supplementation is unlikely to modify the severity of cutaneous photodamage in normal individuals to a clinically meaningful degree.
Article
There has been an increasing interest in the measurement of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in human tissues because some of these micronutrients have been shown to have chemopreventive activity. Since clinical tissue samples obtained for analysis are usually small in quantity, a sensitive analytical procedure that can simultaneously measure all the micronutrients of interest in one small piece of human tissue is necessary. Moreover, some solid tissues, such as skin, are very difficult to homogenize unless they are first saponified in alcoholic KOH, but the saponification often causes substantial destruction of some micronutrients. Thus, a nonsaponification procedure using collagenase to facilitate homogenization was developed. Solid tissues are first incubated in a collagenase solution, homogenized, then incubated in a protease solution, followed by precipitation of tissue proteins and extraction with hexane. Collagenase digestion facilitates homogenization, and protease digestion increases the extractable amounts of the micronutrients from certain tissue samples. In this study, the recovery and precision (coefficient of variation) of the new procedure was determined. In addition, the extracted amounts of seven carotenoids, two retinoids, and two tocopherols from human skin, cervical/ovarian tissue, as well as sarcoma and kidney tumors using the new procedure and a commonly applied saponification procedure were compared.