Amino Acids in Conserved Region II Are Crucial to Substrate Specificity, Reaction Velocity, and Regioselectivity in the Transglucosylation of Honeybee GH-13 α-Glucosidases
Honeybees, Apis mellifera, possess three α-glucosidase isozymes, HBG-I, HBG-II, and HBG-III, which belong to glycoside hydrolase family 13. They show high sequence similarity, but clearly different enzymatic properties. HBG-III preferred sucrose to maltose as substrate and formed only α-1,4-glucosidic linkages by transglucosylation, while HBG-II preferred maltose and formed the α-1,6-linkage. Mutation analysis of five amino acids in conserved region II revealed that Pro226-Tyr227 of HBG-III and the corresponding Asn226-His227 of HBG-II were crucial to the discriminating properties. By replacing these two amino acids, the substrate specificities and regioselectivity in transglucosylation were changed drastically toward the other. The HBG-III mutant, Y227H, and the HBG-II mutant, N226P, which harbor HBG-I-type Pro-His at the crucial positions, resembled HBG-I in enzymatic properties with marked increases in reaction velocities on maltose and transglucosylation ratios. These findings indicate that the two residues are determinants of the enzymatic properties of glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH-13) α-glucosidases and related enzymes.
Available from: Jean-Luc Parrou
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ABSTRACT: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae IMA multigene family encodes four isomaltases sharing high sequence identity from 65% to 99%. Here, we explore their functional diversity, with exhaustive in-vitro characterisation of their enzymological and biochemical properties. The four isoenzymes exhibited a preference for the α-(1,6) disaccharides isomaltose and palatinose, with Michaëlis–Menten kinetics and inhibition at high substrates concentration. They were also able to hydrolyse trisaccharides bearing an α-(1,6) linkage, but also α-(1,2), α-(1,3) and α-(1,5) disaccharides including sucrose, highlighting their substrate ambiguity. While Ima1p and Ima2p presented almost identical characteristics, our results nevertheless showed many singularities within this protein family. In particular, Ima3p presented lower activities and thermostability than Ima2p despite only three different amino acids between the sequences of these two isoforms. The Ima3p_R279Q variant recovered activity levels of Ima2p, while the Leu-to-Pro substitution at position 240 significantly increased the stability of Ima3p and supported the role of prolines in thermostability. The most distant protein, Ima5p, presented the lowest optimal temperature and was also extremely sensitive to temperature. Isomaltose hydrolysis by Ima5p challenged previous conclusions about the requirement of specific amino acids for determining the specificity for α-(1,6) substrates. We finally found a mixed inhibition by maltose for Ima5p while, contrary to a previous work, Ima1p inhibition by maltose was competitive at very low isomaltose concentrations and uncompetitive as the substrate concentration increased. Altogether, this work illustrates that a gene family encoding proteins with strong sequence similarities can lead to enzyme with notable differences in biochemical and enzymological properties.
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ABSTRACT: Gluconobacter oxydans ATCC 11894 produces dextran dextrinase (DDase, EC 188.8.131.52), which synthesizes dextran from the starch hydrolysate, dextrin and is known to cause ropy beer. G. oxydans ATCC 11894 was believed to possess both a secreted DDase (DDext) and an intracellular DDase (DDint), expressed upon cultivation with dextrin and glucose, respectively. However, genomic southern blot, peptide mass fingerprinting and reaction product-pattern analyses revealed that both DDext and DDint were identical. The activity in the cell suspension and its liberation from the spheroplast cells indicated that DDint was localized on the cell surface. The localization of DDase was altered during the culture depending on the growth phase. During the early growth stage, DDase was exclusively liberated into the medium (DDext), and the cell-associated form (DDint) appeared after depletion of glucose from the medium.
Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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