Comparison between Respiratory Variations in Pulse Oximetry Plethysmographic Waveform Amplitude and Arterial Pulse Pressure during Major Abdominal Surgery

ArticleinAnesthesiology 117(5):973-80 · October 2012with20 Reads
DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182700901 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
: To assess preload dependence, the variation of the plethysmographic waveform of pulse oximetry (ΔPOP) has been proposed as a surrogate of the pulse pressure variation (ΔPP). The aim of the study was to assess the ability of the pulse oximeter-derived plethysmographic analysis to accurately trend ΔPP in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery by using standard monitors. : A continuous recording of arterial and plethysmographic waveform was performed in 43 patients undergoing abdominal surgery. ΔPP and ΔPOP were calculated on validated respiratory cycles. : For analysis, 92,467 respiratory cycles were kept (73.5% of cycles recorded in 40 patients). The mean of intrapatient coefficients of correlation was low (r = 0.22). The Bland and Altman analysis showed a systematic bias of 5.21; the ΔPOP being greater than the ΔPP, this bias increased with the mean value of the two indices and the limits of agreement were wide (upper 21.7% and lower -11.3%). Considering a ΔPP threshold at 12% to classify respiratory cycles as responders and nonresponders, the corresponding best cutoff value of ΔPOP was 13.6 ± 4.3%. Using these threshold values, the observed classification agreement was moderate (κ = 0.50 ± 0.09). : The wide limits of agreement between ΔPP and ΔPOP and the weak correlation between both values cast doubt regarding the ability of ΔPOP to substitute ΔPP to follow trend in preload dependence and classify respiratory cycles as responders or nonresponders using standard monitor during anesthesia for major abdominal surgery.
    • "Whereas the same group in a later article 34 stated that the reported ∆POP was computed over 10 respiratory cycles and that these were calculated in a custom-made program in LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX). Hengy et al. 28 2012 " "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ΔPOP is a physiological parameter derived from the respiration-induced change in the pulse oximetry plethysmographic (POP) waveform or "pleth." It has been proposed as a proxy for pulse pressure variation used in the determination of the response to intravascular volume expansion in hypovolemic patients. Many studies have now reported on the parameter, and many research groups have constructed algorithms for its computation from the first principles where the implementation details have been described. This review focuses on the signal processing aspects of ΔPOP, as reported in the literature, and aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the wide-ranging algorithmic strategies that have been attempted in its computation. A search was conducted for articles concerning the use of ΔPOP as a fluid responsiveness parameter. In particular, articles concerning the correlation between ΔPOP and pulse pressure variation were targeted. Comments and replies to comments by the authors in which signal processing aspects were discussed were also included in the review. The parameter is first defined, and a history of the early work surrounding pleth-based fluid responsiveness parameters is presented. This is followed by an overview of the signal processing methods used in the reported studies, including details of exclusion criteria, manual filtering (preprocessing), gain change issues, acquisition details, selection of registration periods, averaging methods, physiological influences on the pleth, and comments by the investigators themselves. It is concluded that to develop a robust, fully automated ΔPOP algorithm for use in the clinical environment, more rigorous signal processing is required. Specifically, signals should be evaluated over significant periods of time, with emphasis on the quality and temporal relevance of the information.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
    • "We also determined optimal sensitivity/specificity pairs using the pre-defined criterion of maximising the Youden index (sensitivity ? (specificity -1)) [8, 13, 15]. Note that in practice we prefer the use of the R statistic over AUC's in driving our analysis of performance as it is generally more sensitive to outliers. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DPOP (∆POP or Delta-POP) is a non-invasive parameter which measures the strength of respiratory modulations present in the pulse oximetry photoplethysmogram (pleth) waveform. It has been proposed as a non-invasive surrogate parameter for pulse pressure variation (PPV) used in the prediction of the response to volume expansion in hypovolemic patients. Many groups have reported on the DPOP parameter and its correlation with PPV using various semi-automated algorithmic implementations. The study reported here demonstrates the performance gains made by adding increasingly sophisticated signal processing components to a fully automated DPOP algorithm. A DPOP algorithm was coded and its performance systematically enhanced through a series of code module alterations and additions. Each algorithm iteration was tested on data from 20 mechanically ventilated OR patients. Correlation coefficients and ROC curve statistics were computed at each stage. For the purposes of the analysis we split the data into a manually selected 'stable' region subset of the data containing relatively noise free segments and a 'global' set incorporating the whole data record. Performance gains were measured in terms of correlation against PPV measurements in OR patients undergoing controlled mechanical ventilation. Through increasingly advanced pre-processing and post-processing enhancements to the algorithm, the correlation coefficient between DPOP and PPV improved from a baseline value of R = 0.347 to R = 0.852 for the stable data set, and, correspondingly, R = 0.225 to R = 0.728 for the more challenging global data set. Marked gains in algorithm performance are achievable for manually selected stable regions of the signals using relatively simple algorithm enhancements. Significant additional algorithm enhancements, including a correction for low perfusion values, were required before similar gains were realised for the more challenging global data set.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
    • "The remaining study carried out by de Souza Neto et al. [26] reported í µí±… = 0.48. Note that Hengy et al. [15] found a relatively high í µí±… value of 0.79 for the correlation between mean values for all patients and lower value of í µí±… = 0.47 when considering the mean value of intrapatient coefficients of correlation. Hengy also manually deleted 5.7% of the respiratory cycles because of poor quality signal, whereas, in the present study, the whole data record was fed into the algorithm. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DPOP quantifies respiratory modulations in the photoplethysmogram. It has been proposed as a noninvasive surrogate for pulse pressure variation (PPV) used in the prediction of the response to volume expansion in hypovolemic patients. The correlation between DPOP and PPV may degrade due to low perfusion effects. We implemented an automated DPOP algorithm with an optional correction for low perfusion. These two algorithm variants (DPOPa and DPOPb) were tested on data from 20 mechanically ventilated OR patients split into a benign "stable region" subset and a whole record "global set." Strong correlation was found between DPOP and PPV for both algorithms when applied to the stable data set: R = 0.83/0.85 for DPOPa/DPOPb. However, a marked improvement was found when applying the low perfusion correction to the global data set: R = 0.47/0.73 for DPOPa/DPOPb. Sensitivities, Specificities, and AUCs were 0.86, 0.70, and 0.88 for DPOPa/stable region; 0.89, 0.82, and 0.92 for DPOPb/stable region; 0.81, 0.61, and 0.73 for DPOPa/global region; 0.83, 0.76, and 0.86 for DPOPb/global region. An improvement was found in all results across both data sets when using the DPOPb algorithm. Further, DPOPb showed marked improvements, both in terms of its values, and correlation with PPV, for signals exhibiting low percent modulations.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
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