Electron Microscopy and 3D Reconstruction Reveals Filamin Ig Domain Binding to F-Actin
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA. Journal of Molecular Biology
(Impact Factor: 4.33).
10/2012; 424(5). DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2012.09.025
Filamin A (FLNa) is an actin-binding protein that cross-links F-actin into networks of orthogonally branched filaments. FLNa also directs the networks to integrins while responding to mechanochemical signaling pathways. Flexible, 160-nm-long FLNa molecules are tail-to-tail dimers, each subunit of which contains an N-terminal calponin homology (CH)/actin-binding domain connected by a series of 24 immunoglobulin (Ig) repeats to a dimerization site at their C-terminal end. Whereas the contribution of the CH domains to F-actin affinity is weak (apparent K(a)~10(5)), the binding of the intact protein to F-actin is strong (apparent K(a)~10(8)), suggesting involvement of additional parts of the molecule in this association. Indeed, previous results indicate that Ig repeats along FLNa contribute significantly to the strength of the actin filament interaction. In the current study, we used electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction to elucidate the structural basis of the Ig repeat-F-actin binding. We find that FLNa density is clearly delineated in reconstructions of F-actin complexed either with a four-Ig-repeat segment of FLNa containing Ig repeat 10 or with immunoglobulin-like filamin A repeat (IgFLNa)10 alone. The mass attributable to IgFLNa10 lies peripherally along the actin helix over the N-terminus of actin subdomain 1. The interaction appears to be specific, since no other fragment of the FLNa molecule or individual Ig repeats examined, besides ones with CH domains, decorated F-actin filaments or were detected in reconstructions. We conclude that the combined interactions of CH domains and the IgFLNa10 repeat provide the binding strength of the whole FLNa molecule and propose a model for the association of IgFLNa10 on actin filaments.
Available from: Benjamin‐Andreas Berk
- "The Ig repeats are further segmented by two calpain-sensitive hinges, resulting in rod-1 (repeats 1e15), rod-2 (repeats 16e23), and dimerization domain (repeat 24) . FLNA protein crosslinks actin filaments through the N-terminal actin-binding domain and rod-1 segment, whereas rod- 2 segment is free from F-actin  . FLNA connects F-actin to membrane proteins such as integrin and glycoproteins to stabilize plasma membrane and to transmit signals [1,5e7]. "
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ABSTRACT: Filamin A (FLNA) is an actin filament crosslinking protein with multiple intracellular binding partners. Mechanical force exposes cryptic FLNA binding sites for some of these ligands. To identify new force-dependent binding interactions, we used a fusion construct composed of two FLNA domains, one of which was previously identified as containing a force-dependent binding site as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid system and identified the Rho dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) as a potential interacting partner. A RhoGDI2 truncate with 81 N-terminal amino acid residues and a phosphomimetic mutant, RhoGDI(Tyr153Glu) interacted with the FLNA construct. However, neither wild-type or full-length RhoGDI2 phosphorylated at Y153 interacted with FLNA. Our interpretation of these contradictions is that truncation and/or mutation of RhoGDI2 perturbs its conformation to expose a site that adventitiously binds FLNA and is not a bona-fide interaction. Therefore, previous studies reporting that a RhoGDI(Y153E) mutant suppresses the metastasis of human bladder cancer cells must be reinvestigated in light of artificial interaction of this point mutant with FLNA.
Available from: Moriah Beck
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ABSTRACT: Here we report the NMR structure of the actin-binding domain contained in the cell adhesion protein palladin. Previously we demonstrated that one of the immunoglobulin domains of palladin (Ig3) is both necessary and sufficient for direct F-actin binding in vitro. In this study, we identify two basic patches on opposite faces of Ig3 that are critical for actin binding and crosslinking. Sedimentation equilibrium assays indicate that the Ig3 domain of palladin does not self-associate. These combined data are consistent with an actin crosslinking mechanism that involves concurrent attachment of two actin filaments by a single palladin molecule by an electrostatic mechanism. Palladin mutations that disrupt actin binding show altered cellular distributions and morphology of actin in cells, revealing a functional requirement for the interaction between palladin and actin in vivo.
Available from: biochemj.org
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ABSTRACT: Cell migration, phagocytosis and cytokinesis are mechanically intensive cellular processes that are mediated by the dynamic assembly and contractility of the actin cytoskeleton. GAPs (GTPase-activating proteins) control activities of the Rho family proteins including Cdc42, Rac1 and RhoA, which are prominent upstream regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. The present review concerns a class of Rho GAPs, FilGAP (ARHGAP24 gene product) and its close relatives (ARHGAP22 and AHRGAP25 gene products). FilGAP is a GAP for Rac1 and a binding partner of FLNa (filamin A), a widely expressed F-actin (filamentous actin)-cross-linking protein that binds many different proteins that are important in cell regulation. Phosphorylation of FilGAP serine/threonine residues and binding to FLNa modulate FilGAP's GAP activity and, as a result, its ability to regulate cell protrusion and spreading. FLNa binds to FilGAP at F-actin-enriched sites, such as at the leading edge of the cell where Rac1 activity is controlled to inhibit actin assembly. FilGAP then dissociates from FLNa in actin networks by myosin-dependent mechanical deformation of FLNa's FilGAP-binding site to relocate at the plasma membrane by binding to polyphosphoinositides. Since actomyosin contraction is activated downstream of RhoA-ROCK (Rho-kinase), RhoA activity regulates Rac1 through FilGAP by signalling to the force-generating system. FilGAP and the ARHGAP22 gene product also act as mediators between RhoA and Rac1 pathways, which lead to amoeboid and mesenchymal modes of cell movements respectively. Therefore FilGAP and its close relatives are key regulators that promote the reciprocal inhibitory relationship between RhoA and Rac1 in cell shape changes and the mesenchymal-amoeboid transition in tumour cells.
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