Article

Electromyographical Activity of the Pectoralis Muscle During Incline and Decline Bench Presses

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between motor unit recruitment within two areas of the pectoralis major and two forms of bench press exercise. Fifteen young men experienced in weight lifting completed 6 repetitions of the bench press at incline and decline angles of +30 and -15[degrees] from horizontal, respectively. Electrodes were placed over the pectoralis major at the 2nd and 5th intercostal spaces, midclavicular line. Surface electromyography was recorded and integrated during the concentric (Con) and eccentric (Ecc) phases of each repetition. Reliability of IEMG across repetitions was r = 0.87. Dependent means t-tests were used to examine motor unit activation for the lower (incline vs. decline) and upper pectoral muscles. Results showed significantly greater lower pectoral Con activation during decline bench press. The same result was seen during the Ecc phase. No significant differences were seen in upper pectoral activation between incline and decline bench press. It is concluded there are variations in the activation of the lower pectoralis major with regard to the angle of bench press, while the upper pectoral portion is unchanged. (C) 1997 National Strength and Conditioning Association

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... Surface electromyography has been extensively used to investigate the pattern of pectoralis major (PM) activation in resistance training studies. Attention is often focused on the effect of exercise variants on PM activation, such as trunk inclination, hand grip distance on the barbell and different training methods (Barnett et al., 1995;Glass and Armstrong, 1997;Gomo and Van Den Tillaar, 2016;Keogh et al., 1999;Lauver et al., 2016;Lehman, 2005;Mookerjee and Ratamess, 1999;Sakamoto and Sinclair, 2012;Snyder and Fry, 2012;Trebs et al., 2010). Notwithstanding such well-conducted research, contradictory findings on the pattern of PM activation have been reported. ...
... Notwithstanding such well-conducted research, contradictory findings on the pattern of PM activation have been reported. For example, while Glass and Armstrong (1997) did not observe a significant effect of bench press inclination on the degree of activation of the PM clavicular region, Trebs et al. (2010) observed greater activation of this region for more inclined bench press positions. Whether such discrepancies indicate different patterns of PM activation between individuals or are possibly attributable to a broad spectrum of well-described limitations in surface electromyography remains an open issue. ...
... This possibly explains the controversial results on the pattern of PM activation during the bench press exercise. For instance, although positioning surface electrodes similarly (at 2nd intercostal space, midclavicular line), previous studies found distinct results on the effect of bench press inclination in upper PM portion activity (Glass and Armstrong, 1997;Trebs et al., 2010). Contributing to the initiatives aimed at providing recommendations for the good practice of bipolar surface EMG (Hermens et al., 2000;Barbero et al., 2012), our results seem to suggest EMGs sampled from the lateral half of the PM muscle would be less affected by changes in IZ position with glenohumeral movement. ...
Article
Changes in innervation zone (IZ) position may affect the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMGs). If not accounted for, these changes may lead to equivocal interpretation on the degree of muscle activity from EMG amplitude. In this study we ask how much the IZ position changes within different regions of the pectoralis major (PM) during the bench press exercise. If expressive, changes in IZ position may explain the conflictual results reported on PM activation during bench press. Single-differential surface EMGs were collected from 15 regions along the PM cranial, centro-cranial, centro-caudal and caudal fibres, while 11 healthy participants gently, isometrically contracted their muscle. IZs were identified visually, from EMGs collected with the glenohumeral joint at extreme bench press positions; 20° and 110° of abduction in the horizontal plane. Except for 3 out of 88 acquisitions (4 detection sites x 2 glenohumeral angles x 11 participants), for which no phase opposition and action potential propagation were observed, IZs could be well identified. Group results revealed the IZ moved medially from 110° to 20° of glenohumeral joint abduction in the horizontal plane, regardless of the PM region from where EMGs were detected (P<0.01). IZs were confined medially within PM, from ~20% to ~40% of the muscle-tendon unit length, and their position changed up to 13.3%. These results suggest that changes in the amplitude of EMGs detected mainly medially from PM may be not associated with changes in the degree of PM activity during bench press.
... Additionally, the sternocostal head is a shoulder horizontal adductor, which can be helpful during the horizontal bench press. Previous research has shown the sternocostal head to be most active during the decline or horizontal bench [2][3][4]. The clavicular head can also be a shoulder flexor [1]. ...
... Previous research offers varying results concerning activation differences between the concentric and eccentric phases of a bench press exercise. While muscle activity did not differ between the two phases when using relatively high resistance like 80% 1 RM [6] or a true 1 RM [4,7], activation during the concentric phase was revealed to be higher compared to the eccentric phase at relatively low resistances like 60% 1 RM [8] and 70% 1 RM [3]. These studies either did not use dumbbells or were focusing their investigation on core muscle activation during a press exercise on a Swiss ball. ...
... As far as comparisons of muscle activation during the concentric and eccentric phases, our results support the finding of previous studies that suggested at lesser submaximal testing [3,8], activation is higher during the concentric phase versus the eccentric phase. This may be due to there not being a need for as much stabilization of the weight during the descent versus what is required during the completion of a higher %RM lift. ...
Article
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Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals () and novice female resistance trained exercisers () from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric) was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases). While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs.
... There have been several ways that researchers have altered the standard bench press exercise in an attempt to increase pressing performance. Examples of these include altering the grip width [1], the inclination angle [1,5,11], using unstable loads [2,10,[12][13][14][15], altering the rest and timing of the lift [8], and altering the arch of the back [3]. With the prime movers being the pectoralis major, triceps brachii, and the anterior deltoids [1] the bench press is, irrefutably, an upper-body dominant exercise. ...
... Additionally, arching the back during a flat bench press changes the angular relationship of the arms with respect to the torso; similar to performing the lift in a decline position. For example, Glass and Armstrong [5] demonstrated that in comparison to an incline press, lifting on a decline bench increased the muscle activation of the inferior muscle fibers of the pectoralis major as well as increased the amount of load lifted [5]. It is suggested that the reason greater load was lifted in the decline position was that the lower fibers of the pectoralis major are more effectively positioned than the anterior deltoids to produce horizontal adduction torque on the humerus. ...
... Additionally, arching the back during a flat bench press changes the angular relationship of the arms with respect to the torso; similar to performing the lift in a decline position. For example, Glass and Armstrong [5] demonstrated that in comparison to an incline press, lifting on a decline bench increased the muscle activation of the inferior muscle fibers of the pectoralis major as well as increased the amount of load lifted [5]. It is suggested that the reason greater load was lifted in the decline position was that the lower fibers of the pectoralis major are more effectively positioned than the anterior deltoids to produce horizontal adduction torque on the humerus. ...
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IntroductionThe bench press is commonly used to measure upper-body strength. While much emphasis has been placed on the upper-body, little is known about how the lower-body can play a role in bench press performance. Leg-drive is a technique that includes flexing the knee so the feet line up posterior to the knee joint, while simultaneously contracting the knee extensors isometrically during the lift. The purpose of this study was to compare strength characteristics of lifters in a standard bench press versus a leg-drive bench press over the course of 5-weeks of training.Methods Twenty-three recreationally active males (age: 22.4 ± 2.1 years, height: 175.0 ± 5.9 cm, mass: 78.4 ± 9.5 kg) were randomized into a standard bench or leg-drive bench press group. Participants performed four sets to failure, two times per week for five weeks. Variables of interests were training volume and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength. For training volume, a 2 × 5 (group × week) repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) was used. For the 1RM’s, a 2 × 2 × 2 (group × press type × time) RMANOVA was used. A priori alpha levels were set to 0.05.ResultsOver time, both groups showed an approximate 6% increase in 1RM strength. Training volume for week 4 was 5.6% less than week 5, but was not different from weeks 1 through 3. No between-group differences were observed for 1RM strength or training volume.Conclusion This results of this work indicates that 5 weeks of leg-drive training is effective in increasing 1RM strength, but was not more effective than standard bench press training. Practically, lifters should choose either lifting style based on personal preference.
... Several studies have evaluated the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the pectoralis major by varying the bench press inclination (incline and decline bench press) [3,[5][6][7][8]. Barnett et al. [6] investigated how the EMG activity of five muscles acting at the shoulder joint was affected by varying the bench inclination and hand spacing. ...
... Moreover, in this study, over the horizontal plane, the authors only compared three bench press inclinations (horizontal, 40 • above horizontal, and the vertical "military press") [6]. Glass and Armstrong [7] compared the EMG activity of the upper pectoral (clavicular portion) and the lower pectoral (costal portion) at two bench press inclinations (+30 • and −15 • from horizontal). Their results showed significantly greater lower pectoral activation with a decline bench press, and similar activation of the upper pectoral was found with incline and decline bench press. ...
... Previous studies demonstrated that the decline bench press activates the lower pectoralis major [3,5,7], the flat bench press activates the sternocostal pectoralis major, and the incline bench press activates the upper pectoralis major [6,8]. For this reason, it is commonly believed that the horizontal bench press exercise is effective for stimulating the middle portion of the pectoralis major, and when the bench press is inclined above horizontal, the EMG activity produced in the upper portion of the pectoralis major is greater. ...
Article
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The bench press exercise is one of the most used for training and for evaluating upper-body strength. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the electromyographic (EMG) activity levels of the pectoralis major (PM) in its three portions (upper portion, PMUP, middle portion, PMMP, and lower portion, PMLP), the anterior deltoid (AD), and the triceps brachii (TB) medial head during the bench press exercise at five bench angles (0 • , 15 • , 30 • , 45 • , and 60 •). Thirty trained adults participated in the study. The EMG activity of the muscles was recorded at the aforementioned inclinations at 60% of one-repetition maximum (1RM). The results showed that the maximal EMG activity for PMUP occurred at a bench inclination of 30 •. PMMP and PMLP showed higher EMG activity at a 0 • bench inclination. AD had the highest EMG activity at 60 •. TB showed similar EMG activities at all bench inclinations. In conclusion, the horizontal bench press produces similar electromyographic activities for the pectoralis major and the anterior deltoid. An inclination of 30 • produces greater activation of the upper portion of the pectoralis major. Inclinations greater than 45 • produce significantly higher activation of the anterior deltoid and decrease the muscular performance of the pectoralis major.
... However, Trebs et al. (2010) found no difference in upper pectoralis activation between 28°a nd horizontal bench, and similar to Barnett et al. (1995) observed the highest activation of the lower pectoralis during horizontal bench (Trebs et al., 2010). Although the methodological approaches of previous investigations (Barnett et al., 1995;Glass & Armstrong, 1997;Trebs et al., 2010) vary slightly (i.e., bench angles and equipment) participants were tested using the same relative resistance load during all bench conditions. Muscle activation may be effected with a change in the absolute resistance load (Basmajian & De Luca, 1985) regardless of change in bench angle and/or body position, which is an important consideration as alterations in the bench angle during bench press are utilised in an effort to elicit the greatest muscle activation of either the upper or lower pectoralis major. ...
... The participants then performed a five-minute warm-up on a stationary cycle (Body Solid, BFSB 10, Forest Park, IL; Glass & Armstrong, 1997;Trebs et al., 2010). Two sets (10 repetitions, 6 repetitions) of horizontal barbell bench press at selfselected intensities were completed (Trebs et al., 2010). ...
... The duty cycle for each repetition included a two-second eccentric phase followed by a two-second concentric phase (Barnett et al., 1995). In agreement with previous studies (Barnett et al., 1995;Glass & Armstrong, 1997;Trebs et al., 2010), standard contraction duration methods were used by setting a metronome to provide the participants with an audible cue for the intended duty cycle. The participants were asked to maintain a barbell grip width of 150% of their measured biacromial width and complete a full ROM. ...
Article
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This study compared the muscular activation of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid and triceps brachii during a free-weight barbell bench press performed at 0°, 30°, 45° and -15° bench angles. Fourteen healthy resistance trained males (age 21.4 ± 0.4 years) participated in this study. One set of six repetitions for each bench press conditions at 65% one repetition maximum were performed. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was utilised to examine the muscular activation of the selected muscles during the eccentric and concentric phases. In addition, each phase was subdivided into 25% contraction durations, resulting in four separate time points for comparison between bench conditions. The sEMG of upper pectoralis displayed no difference during any of the bench conditions when examining the complete concentric contraction, however differences during 26-50% contraction duration were found for both the 30° [122.5 ± 10.1% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC)] and 45° (124 ± 9.1% MVIC) bench condition, resulting in greater sEMG compared to horizontal (98.2 ± 5.4% MVIC) and -15 (96.1 ± 5.5% MVIC). The sEMG of lower pectoralis was greater during -15° (100.4 ± 5.7% MVIC), 30° (86.6 ± 4.8% MVIC) and horizontal (100.1 ± 5.2% MVIC) bench conditions compared to the 45° (71.9 ± 4.5% MVIC) for the whole concentric contraction. The results of this study support the use of a horizontal bench to achieve muscular activation of both the upper and lower heads of the pectoralis. However, a bench incline angle of 30° or 45° resulted in greater muscular activation during certain time points, suggesting that it is important to consider how muscular activation is affected at various time points when selecting bench press exercises.
... Varying the bench position (inclined and declined) has been shown to bias activation in either the sternal or clavicular portion of the PM (Barnett et al., 1995;Glass and Armstrong, 1997;Lauver et al., 2016;Trebs et al., 2010). Increased activation of the clavicular part of the PM has been demonstrated on an inclined bench (Trebs et al., 2010), with reduced activation of sternocostal fibers of the PM compared with the flat bench position (Barnett et al., 1995;Trebs et al., 2010). ...
... Barnett et al. (2015) demonstrated a similar pattern of increased activation of the sternocostal PM, but only an increase of the clavicular PM at the inclined compared with declined bench position. In contrast, Glass and Armstrong (1997) observed a similar increase in clavicular activation, with a greater increase in sternocostal PM activation in the declined position compared with an inclined bench. The inconclusive evidence from aforementioned studies could be the result of different inclined and declined bench positions (greater position of inclination compared with the position of decline) or that only positions of inclination were assessed (Barnett et al., 1995;Glass and Armstrong, 1997;Lauver et al., 2016;Trebs et al., 2010). ...
... In contrast, Glass and Armstrong (1997) observed a similar increase in clavicular activation, with a greater increase in sternocostal PM activation in the declined position compared with an inclined bench. The inconclusive evidence from aforementioned studies could be the result of different inclined and declined bench positions (greater position of inclination compared with the position of decline) or that only positions of inclination were assessed (Barnett et al., 1995;Glass and Armstrong, 1997;Lauver et al., 2016;Trebs et al., 2010). Previous bench press studies were also limited by having examined recreational or strength-trained participants rather than competitive bench press athletes, testing muscle activation patterns at non-fatiguing, submaximal loads, and applying the criterion of absolute rather than relative intensity when comparing different variations of the bench press action ( Barnett et al., 1995;Clemons and Aaron, 1997;Glass and Armstrong, 1997;Lauver et al., 2016;Trebs et al., 2010). ...
Article
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The aim of the study was to compare the EMG activity performing 6RM competition style bench press (flat bench-wide grip) with 1) medium and narrow grip widths on a flat bench and 1) inclined and declined bench positions with a wide grip. Twelve bench press athletes competing at national and international level participated in the study. EMG activity was measured in the pectoralis major, anterior and posterior deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi. Non-significant differences in activation were observed between the three bench positions with the exception of 58.5-62.6% lower triceps brachii activation, but 48.3-68.7% greater biceps brachii activation in the inclined bench compared with the flat and declined bench position. Comparing the three grip widths, non-significant differences in activations were observed, with the exception of 25.9-30.5% lower EMG activity in the biceps brachii using a narrow grip, compared to the medium and wide grip conditions. The 6-RM loads were 5.8-11.1% greater using a medium and wide grip compared to narrow grip width and 18.5-21.5% lower in the inclined bench position compared with flat and declined. Comparing the EMG activity during the competition bench press style with either the inclined and declined bench position (wide grip) or using a narrow and medium grip (flat bench), only resulted in different EMG activity in the biceps- and triceps brachii. The 6RM loads varied with each bench press variation and we recommend the use of a wide grip on a flat bench during high load hypertrophy training to bench press athletes.
... Some authors have analyzed the BP exercise through kinematic and electromyographic data acquisition [2]. The bench press is a multi-articular exercise and it has been demonstrated that the distance between the hands changes the involvement of the affected muscle groups [3][4][5]. The activations and the muscular synergies are correlated with: the subject's experience [6], the use of a free barbell bar, or the assistance of a Smith machine [7], or with the use of a "peck deck" [8], and finally with the type of support (stable bench vs. unstable surfaces) [9]. ...
... The muscle groups involved in the bench press are the pectoralis major (PM), the elbow extensors represented by the triceps brachii (TB), the anterior deltoid (AD), the serratus anterior muscle (GD), and the elbow flexors represented by the biceps brachialis (BB), as well as the peri-articular shoulder muscles group [3][4][5]. By focusing exclusively on the TB and the PM which are the muscles most involved during the exercise, a decrease in the inter-handle distance (IHD) diminishes the involvement of the PM in favor of the TB [5]. ...
... As the large pectoral muscles are the main target muscles of the exercise, we chose to use a horizontal bench [3,4] for the tests, and a distance between the grips not less than 200% of the biacromial distance [3]. Figure 2 (please insert here) provides a picture of the exercise execution with the free-grip barbell To familiarize the volunteers with the free-grip barbell, all subjects were asked to perform familiarization lifts (four series) and, after a break of at least 5 min, a test with the traditional barbell. Each test included a minimum of 20 repetitions: the order of the tests with the locked or free-grip barbell was randomized. ...
Article
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Background: The bench press exercise (BP) is commonly practiced in both recreational and professional training. The weight is lowered from a position where the elbows are at a 90° angle at the start and <90° at the end of eccentric phase, and then returned to the elbows extended position. In order to focus the exercise more on the triceps brachii (TB) rather than the pectoralis major (PM), the inter-handle distance (IHD) is decreased diminishing the involvement of the PM in favor of the TB. Purpose: To improve performance of the exercise by reducing force dissociation and transmitting 100% of the external load to the muscle tissue we propose a prototype of the barbell with a bar on which two sleeves are capable of sliding. The dynamic modifications of the IHD keep the elbow flexion angle constant at 90°. Results: Analysis of the inter-handle distance (IHD) signals of the upper body muscles showed a marked increase in muscle activity using the experimental barbell for the PM (19.5%) and for the biceps brachii (173%). Conclusions: The experimental barbell increased the muscle activity typical of the bench press exercise, obtaining the same training induction with a lower load and consequently preventing articular stress.
... Thus, unstable surfaces may be beneficial for increasing muscle strength and power performance as well as motor control. Electromyography has been demonstrated as a valuable tool to evaluate the effectiveness of exercises based on levels of muscle activation, thereby changing the mechanics of movement by varying range of motion, planes, segment position, and/or stability (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)9,12,16,(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)26). Marshall et al. (18) compared the dumbbell bench press (BP) performed on a ball and a stable bench. ...
... For instance, Lauver et al. (16) indicated that AD activity increased muscle activity in the incline BP compared with the horizontal BP, but with irrelevant differences in the PM clavicular head (PMC) for the entire movement cycle. Related results found in other studies (1,9,12,16,23) showed small effect sizes (22). Recently, Saeterbakken et al. (23) found similar muscle activity of the AD and PM using the BP exercise with different grip width and incline positions in powerlifters. ...
... With regards to the PMS, there was a significant decrease in the activity of the sternocostal fibers when changing the plane modality from Horizontal to Incline. This finding is in agreement with the previous literature pertaining to the BP exercises (1,12,16,25). These changes may be because the PMS is a better shoulder horizontal adductor than a shoulder abductor, which is true for the PMC fibers. ...
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Reiser FC, Lira JLO, Bonfim BMA, Santos Filho SJA, Durante BG, Cardoso JMD, Miotto H, Soares MAA, Bonuzzi GMG, Tavares LD. Electromyography of Dumbbell Fly Exercise Using Different Planes and Labile Surfaces. JEPonline 2017;20(6):31-40. The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyography of the shoulder muscles during the dumbbell fly on a stable horizontal surface, a stable incline surface, and an unstable surface. Seventeen males participated in three conditions. The first and second training sessions were held for exercise familiarization, to determine maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) normalization procedures, and to determine the load used on the third day in the electromyography exercise protocol. Results of the serratus anterior and the anterior deltoid muscles were higher in the incline condition versus the horizontal position. The activity of the pectoralis major (sternocostal head) was higher during the horizontal position versus the incline position. The unstable surface condition maintained similar muscle activity, but with a less total weight load. This finding suggests that the muscle groups analyzed in these exercises can be used either for rehabilitation or strength gain purposes.
... While a high number of studies have analysed muscle activity patterns during bench press exercises [7][8][9][10][11][12][13], relatively little research has been done on joint kinematics and kinetics of the upper limbs for both bench press and cable pulley exercises. The authors of [14] investigated the effects of exercise intensity on trunk muscle activity during pulleybased shoulder exercises on an unstable support surface. ...
... Previous research suggests that muscle activation patterns during the bench press exercise tend to demonstrate a specificity during moderate-intensity, non-fatiguing exercise execution [8,10]. Thereby, declined bench press was found to induce a greater overall activation of the pectoralis muscles as compared to the inclined bench press. ...
Article
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Injuries to the shoulder are very common in sports that involve overhead arm or throwing movements. Strength training of the chest muscles has the potential to protect the shoulder from injury. Kinematic and kinetic data were acquired in 20 healthy subjects (age: 24.9 ± 2.7 years) using motion capture, force plates for the bench press exercises and load cells in the cable for the cable pulley exercises with 15% and 30% of body weight (BW). Joint ranges of motion (RoM) and joint moments at the shoulder, elbow and wrist were derived using an inverse dynamics approach. The maximum absolute moments at the shoulder joint were significantly larger for the cable pulley exercises than for the bench press exercises. The cable cross-over exercise resulted in substantially different joint angles and loading patterns compared to most other exercises, with higher fluctuations during the exercise cycle. The present results indicate that a combination of bench press and cable pulley exercises are best to train the full RoM and, thus, intra-muscular coordination across the upper limbs. Care has to be taken when performing cable cross-over exercises to ensure proper stabilisation of the joints during exercise execution and avoid joint overloading.
... 다양한 웨이트 트레이닝 중에서 벤치 프레스는 큰 가슴 근육을 주로 자극하고 어깨 복합체와 위팔의 근육을 협력 근으로 사용하는 대표적인 주요 운동이다 (Baechle & Earle, 2008;Lim, 2006 (Barnett, Kippers, & Turner, 1995;Escamilla, Yamashiro, Paulos, & Andrews, 2009;Glass & Armstrong, 1997;Kohler, Flanagan, & Whiting, 2010;Schick, E. E., Coburn, J. W., Brown, L. E., Judelson, D. A., Khamoui, A. V., Tran, T. T., & Uribe, B. P., 2010). 벤치 프레스 운동의 효율성을 극대화시키기 위한 다양한 연구가 시도 되었는 데 벤치 프레스 운동 시 바를 잡는 형태와 너비에 따라 사용되는 위팔과 어깨 복합체 근육군의 근육량을 비교하 고 올바른 벤치 프레스 바의 사용법을 밝힌 연구 (Clemons & Aaron, 1997;Green & Comfort, 2007;Lehman, 2005)들과 벤치 프레스 운동 시 벤치의 기울어진 방향에 따라 큰 가슴 근육의 활성화 영역의 변화 (Barnett et al., 1995;Glass & Armstrong, 1997;Haupt, 2001;Welsch, Bird, & Mayhew, 2005), 안정된 상황과 불안정환 상황에 서의 근육 사용량의 변화에 대한 연구 (Goodman, Pearce, Nicholes, Gatt, & Fairweather, 2008;Kohler et al., 2010;Koshida, Urabe, Miyashita, Iwai, & Kagimori, 2008;Lehman, 2005;Marshall & Murphy, 2006;Schick et al., 2010)등과 같이 운동 장비의 변화로 발생하 는 근육 사용량의 변화에 대한 연구들뿐 만 아니라 효율 적인 운동 시간과 휴식 시간의 관계와 적절한 운동량에 대 한 연구 (Abdessemed, Duche, Hautier, Poumarat, & Bedu, 2007;Faigenbaum, A. D., Ratamess, N. A., McFarland, J., Kaczmarek, J., Coraggio, M., Kang, J., & Hoffman, J., 2008;Ratamess et al., 2007;Weir, Wagner, & Housh, 1994;Willardson & Burkett, 2006 (Green & Comfort, 2007;Joseph & Habib, 2005;Keogh, Hume, & Pearson, 2006;Kolber, Beekhuizen, Cheng, & Hellman, 2010). ...
... 다양한 웨이트 트레이닝 중에서 벤치 프레스는 큰 가슴 근육을 주로 자극하고 어깨 복합체와 위팔의 근육을 협력 근으로 사용하는 대표적인 주요 운동이다 (Baechle & Earle, 2008;Lim, 2006 (Barnett, Kippers, & Turner, 1995;Escamilla, Yamashiro, Paulos, & Andrews, 2009;Glass & Armstrong, 1997;Kohler, Flanagan, & Whiting, 2010;Schick, E. E., Coburn, J. W., Brown, L. E., Judelson, D. A., Khamoui, A. V., Tran, T. T., & Uribe, B. P., 2010). 벤치 프레스 운동의 효율성을 극대화시키기 위한 다양한 연구가 시도 되었는 데 벤치 프레스 운동 시 바를 잡는 형태와 너비에 따라 사용되는 위팔과 어깨 복합체 근육군의 근육량을 비교하 고 올바른 벤치 프레스 바의 사용법을 밝힌 연구 (Clemons & Aaron, 1997;Green & Comfort, 2007;Lehman, 2005)들과 벤치 프레스 운동 시 벤치의 기울어진 방향에 따라 큰 가슴 근육의 활성화 영역의 변화 (Barnett et al., 1995;Glass & Armstrong, 1997;Haupt, 2001;Welsch, Bird, & Mayhew, 2005), 안정된 상황과 불안정환 상황에 서의 근육 사용량의 변화에 대한 연구 (Goodman, Pearce, Nicholes, Gatt, & Fairweather, 2008;Kohler et al., 2010;Koshida, Urabe, Miyashita, Iwai, & Kagimori, 2008;Lehman, 2005;Marshall & Murphy, 2006;Schick et al., 2010)등과 같이 운동 장비의 변화로 발생하 는 근육 사용량의 변화에 대한 연구들뿐 만 아니라 효율 적인 운동 시간과 휴식 시간의 관계와 적절한 운동량에 대 한 연구 (Abdessemed, Duche, Hautier, Poumarat, & Bedu, 2007;Faigenbaum, A. D., Ratamess, N. A., McFarland, J., Kaczmarek, J., Coraggio, M., Kang, J., & Hoffman, J., 2008;Ratamess et al., 2007;Weir, Wagner, & Housh, 1994;Willardson & Burkett, 2006 (Green & Comfort, 2007;Joseph & Habib, 2005;Keogh, Hume, & Pearson, 2006;Kolber, Beekhuizen, Cheng, & Hellman, 2010). 실제로 전문적인 지식이 부족한 생활체육인들은 벤 치 프레스 동작을 수행하면서 골반의 위치, 허리, 어깨 복 합체, 손목의 잘못된 자세로 인해 크고 작은 부상에 노출 되어 있다 (Joseph & Habib, 2005). ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the scapulothoracic joint movement between different weight bearing contributing to effective bench press exercise. Ten male subjects participated in this study. All subjects were tested on the flat bench press machine which modified weight (50% and 70% of 1RM) and subjects were performed two different conditions(none protraction condition and protraction condition). Weight bar height and vertical velocity, EMG activation was measured using 3D motion capture system and wireless EMG analysis system. As the results, none protraction condition showed that it is more concentrate better pectoralis major muscle activation than protraction condition and middle pectoralis major, anterior deltoid and triceps brachii was significant higher integrated EMG in 70% of 1RM condition. In conclusion, limited scapulothoracic joint movement was more effective activated pectoralis major muscle all the weight through, while we could not find that it was not affected integrated EMG on eight muslces related to shoulder complex between scapulothracic joint movement conditions.
... Regarding the upper (clavicular) part of the pectoralis major, no differences in the electrical activity between horizontal, incline and decline bench press modalities were found. These results corroborate the study by Glass and Armstrong [18] in which electromyographic data revealed no significant differences in the activation of the upper part of the pectoralis major between incline and decline bench press. However, in the study by Barnett et al [19], the clavicular part showed a similar activity for the incline and the horizontal bench press and it showed less activity during the decline bench press. ...
... It was possible to observe a significant difference in the lower part, with lower values of electrical activity in the incline modality when compared with the other ones. Different results were found by Glass and Armstrong [18] according to which there was a significant difference when compared with the lower part of the pectoralis major, which was more activated by the decline bench press. An increase was observed in the electromyographic activity of the clavicular part when compared with the sternocostal part in the horizontal bench press with and without lumbar rectification and in the incline bench press. ...
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Introduction: The sports have great meanings in adult health. The contributions of the practices of physical exercise has been huge. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the strength and the electrical activity of the pectoralis major muscle during bench press exercise on a machine in horizontal, incline and decline positions. Methodology: The sample was constituted of 20 male subjects with mean age of 23.2 ± 0.9 years old. They underwent electromyographic evaluation of the three parts of the pectoralis major muscle, performing the horizontal bench press exercise with or without lumbar rectification, and they also performed the incline and decline modalities. The exercises consisted of three repetitions with Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction (MVIC) lasting 5 seconds each, with one-minute interval between them, followed by verbal commands of the researcher. The muscle strength values expressed in kilograms (kg) were analyzed using Miograph 2.0 software and the electromyographic signal was normalized by MVIC and extracted from a three-second window. Inferential statistics was applied by Friedman and Multiple Comparisons non-parametric tests (p<0.05). Results: The electrical activity of the clavicular and sternocostal parts of the pectoralis major muscle showed no significant difference between the four modalities of bench press exercises. However, the electrical activity of the lower part in the incline bench press exercise was statistically lower compared with the other modalities. Muscle strength was not significantly different between the four modalities of bench press exercise. Conclusion: In conclusion, muscle strength and electrical activity of the pectoralis major muscle showed no differences between the bench press modalities, except for the electrical activity of the lower part in incline exercise.
... The diversity in research objectives resulted in variability of observed participants, although all studies referred to RT men but represented different sport disciplines and different performance levels. The included studies were similar in the number of participants (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22) and their ages (21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35), which means that our outcomes should be interpreted specifically for male subjects of this age group. Although there were differences in the study outcomes, their results provided a sufficient amount of normalized data to answer the first research question and six different conditions that cause changes in muscle activity during the BP. ...
... of the speed of the BP task (Table 1). There were also some studies that pre-defined the speed of the movement but were focused on comparison of EMG amplitude between different joint angles, such as different bench inclinations [35][36][37], which would be contradictory to the first quality inclusion criteria. In contrast, the included studies differed slightly in their instructions for grip width (e.g., wider than shoulder width or grip wide derived from 90˚elbow flexion position during the BP). ...
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Background The bench press exercise (BP) plays an important role in recreational and professional training, in which muscle activity is an important multifactorial phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to systematically review electromyography (EMG) studies performed on the barbell BP exercise to answer the following research questions: Which muscles show the greatest activity during the flat BP? Which changes in muscle activity are related to specific conditions under which the BP movement is performed? Strategy PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library were searched through June 10, 2016. A combination of the following search terms was used: bench press, chest press, board press, test, measure, assessment, dynamometer, kinematics and biomechanics. Only original, full-text articles were considered. Results The search process resulted in 14 relevant studies that were included in the discussion. The triceps brachii (TB) and pectoralis major (PM) muscles were found to have similar activity during the BP, which was significantly higher than the activity of the anterior deltoid. During the BP movement, muscle activity changes with exercise intensity, velocity of movement, fatigue, mental focus, movement phase and stability conditions, such as bar vibration or unstable surfaces. Under these circumstances, TB is the most common object of activity change. Conclusions PM and TB EMG activity is more dominant and shows greater EMG amplitude than anterior deltoid during the BP. There are six factors that can influence muscle activity during the BP; however, the most important factor is exercise intensity, which interacts with all other factors. The research on muscle activity in the BP has several unresolved areas, such as clearly and strongly defined guidelines to perform EMG measurements (e.g., how to elaborate with surface EMG limits) or guidelines for the use of exact muscle models.
... Exercise choice and muscle damage recovery stability requirements (i.e., free -weights, machines, elastic bands, etc.) (3,4,13). These variations provide several options to design resistance training programs. ...
... Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase levels were not significantly different between Copyright ª 2016 National Strength and Conditioning Association A C C E P T E D 13 Exercise choice and muscle damage recovery groups following exercise. According to the authors, the intensity of the bench press exercise did not affect the magnitude of muscle soreness or blood markers of muscle damage. ...
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This study investigated the time course of 96 h of muscle recovery after three different chest-press exercises with different stability requirements in resistance-trained men. Twenty-seven men (23.5±3.8 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) Smith machine bench press; 2) barbell bench press; or 3) dumbbell bench press. Participants performed 8 sets of 10 repetition maximum with 2 min rest between sets. Muscle thickness, peak torque (PT), and soreness were measured pre, post, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following exercise. There were no differences in the time course of PT or muscle thickness values of the pectoralis major (p=0.98 and p=0.91, respectively) or elbow extensors (p=0.07 and p=0.86, respectively) between groups. Muscle soreness of the pectoralis major was also not different between groups (p>0.05). However, the Smith machine and barbell groups recovered from triceps brachii muscle soreness by 72 h post-exercise (p>0.05), while the dumbbell group did not present any triceps brachii muscle soreness after exercise (p>0.05). In conclusion, resistance-trained men experience similar muscle damage recovery following Smith machine, barbell and dumbbell chest-press exercise. However, muscle soreness of the elbow extensors takes a longer time to recover after using a barbell chest-press exercise.
... The electrodes were placed on each participant's dominant side on the pectoralis major upper fibers (clavicular portion -PMUF) on the midclavicular line over the second intercostal space [25]; pectoralis major middle fibers (sternal portion -PMMF) on the chest wall horizontal from the arising muscle mass (approximately 2cm out from the axillary fold) [26]; pectoralis major lower fibers (costal portion -PMLF) on the midclavicular line over the fifth intercostal space [25]; anterior deltoid (AD) on 1.5 cm distal and anterior to the acromion [16]; triceps brachii, medial head (TB) at the midpoint between the posterior aspect of the acromion and the olecranon processes [27]; forearm (flexor digitorum -FA) in the middle of the muscle belly between the joints of the wrist and the elbow [28]; rectus abdominis (RA) on the 3cm lateral to the midline and midway between the xiphoid process and the umbilicus [29]; external oblique (EO) superior to the anterior superior iliac spine at an oblique angle, at the level of the umbilicus [29]; and rectus femoris, quadriceps (RF) at a point in midway between the anterior iliac spine and the superior part on the patella [30]. All electrodes were placed in accordance with the Surface Electromyography for the Non-invasive Assessment of Muscles (SENIAM) recommendations [31]. ...
... The electrodes were placed on each participant's dominant side on the pectoralis major upper fibers (clavicular portion -PMUF) on the midclavicular line over the second intercostal space [25]; pectoralis major middle fibers (sternal portion -PMMF) on the chest wall horizontal from the arising muscle mass (approximately 2cm out from the axillary fold) [26]; pectoralis major lower fibers (costal portion -PMLF) on the midclavicular line over the fifth intercostal space [25]; anterior deltoid (AD) on 1.5 cm distal and anterior to the acromion [16]; triceps brachii, medial head (TB) at the midpoint between the posterior aspect of the acromion and the olecranon processes [27]; forearm (flexor digitorum -FA) in the middle of the muscle belly between the joints of the wrist and the elbow [28]; rectus abdominis (RA) on the 3cm lateral to the midline and midway between the xiphoid process and the umbilicus [29]; external oblique (EO) superior to the anterior superior iliac spine at an oblique angle, at the level of the umbilicus [29]; and rectus femoris, quadriceps (RF) at a point in midway between the anterior iliac spine and the superior part on the patella [30]. All electrodes were placed in accordance with the Surface Electromyography for the Non-invasive Assessment of Muscles (SENIAM) recommendations [31]. ...
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The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the levels of electromyographic activation in the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, forearm, rectus abdominis, external oblique, and rectus femoris muscles during a horizontal bench press in two situations: 1) with the feet on the ground; and 2) with active hip flexion and 90° of knee flexion. Twenty young men were familiarized with the procedure and the calculation of one-rep max (1RM). In a second session, electromyographic activity values were recorded in both bench press situations (with the feet on the ground vs active hip flexion and knees at 90°) at 60% 1RM. Performing the bench press with the hips and knees flexed produced significantly greater muscle activation of all elevated muscles (p < 0.01; d > 0.5). The pectoralis major showed the greatest activation, followed by the anterior deltoid and the triceps brachii. In addition, the greater activation of the abdominal muscles occurs due to the need to stabilize the core while performing the bench press with hip and knee flexion as well as the lumbar spine due to traction of the hip flexors.
... Several studies have examined the bench press exercise. For example, different chestpress exercises have been examined with regard to muscle strength, electromyographic activity (EMG) and kinematics [2,3], bench angles [4,5], biomechanics [6][7][8][9], unstable surfaces [10,11], successful and unsuccessful attempts [6], and different muscle actions (e.g., isometric, concentric only, and counter movement) [12,13]. The main focus has been the primary muscle groups (pectoralis major, deltoid anterior, and triceps brachii) in addition to the synergist and antagonist in the exercise [1,9,14,15]. ...
... Several studies have examined the bench press exercise. For example, different chestpress exercises have been examined with regard to muscle strength, electromyographic activity (EMG) and kinematics [2,3], bench angles [4,5], biomechanics [6][7][8][9], unstable surfaces [10,11], successful and unsuccessful attempts [6], and different muscle actions (e.g., isometric, concentric only, and counter movement) [12,13]. The main focus has been the primary muscle groups (pectoralis major, deltoid anterior, and triceps brachii) in addition to the synergist and antagonist in the exercise [1,9,14,15]. ...
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Background: This study compared the muscle activity and six repetition maximum (6- RM) loads in bench press with narrow, medium, and wide grip widths with sub-group comparisons of resistance-trained (RT) and novice-trained (NT) men. Methods: After two familiarization sessions, twenty-eight subjects lifted their 6-RM loads with the different grip widths with measurement of electromyographic activity. Results: Biceps brachii activity increased with increasing grip width, whereas wide grip displayed lower triceps brachii activation than medium and narrow. In the anterior deltoid, greater activity was observed using a medium compared to narrow grip. Similar muscle activities were observed between the grip widths for the other muscles. For the RT group, greater biceps brachii activity with increasing grip width was observed, but only greater activity was observed in the NT group between narrow and wide. Comparing wide and medium grip width, the RT group showed lower triceps activation using a wide grip, whereas the NT group showed lower anterior deltoid activation using a narrow compared to medium grip. Both groups demonstrated lower 6-RM loads using a narrow grip compared to the other grips. Conclusion: Grip widths affect both 6-RM loads and triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and anterior deltoid activity especially between wide and narrow grip widths.
... Data from the maximal isometric strength tests were synchronized with EMG by the system interface. The electrodes were placed at the: a) sternal head of pectoralis major -at the fifth intercostal space of the rib cage along the midclavicular line (15) and b) the clavicular head of the pectoralis major -at the second intercostal space along the midclavicular line (15). Before electrode fixation, the skin was shaved and cleaned with alcohol according to SENIAM recommendations (17). ...
... Data from the maximal isometric strength tests were synchronized with EMG by the system interface. The electrodes were placed at the: a) sternal head of pectoralis major -at the fifth intercostal space of the rib cage along the midclavicular line (15) and b) the clavicular head of the pectoralis major -at the second intercostal space along the midclavicular line (15). Before electrode fixation, the skin was shaved and cleaned with alcohol according to SENIAM recommendations (17). ...
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International Journal of Exercise Science 13(6): 859-872, 2020. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of horizontal and incline bench press as well as the combination of both exercises on neuromuscular adaptation in untrained young men. Forty-seven untrained men were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: 1) a horizontal bench press group (n= 15), 2) an incline bench press group (n= 15), and 3) a combination (horizontal + incline) group (n= 17). Training was conducted once a week for eight weeks, with equalized number of sets among groups. Muscle thickness, isometric strength and electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the pectoralis major were measured one week before and after the training period. There was no difference between groups for the change in horizontal bench press isometric strength (~ 10 kg increase, p=0.776) or incline bench press isometric strength (~ 11 kg increase, p=0.333). Changes in muscle thickness differed only in one of the three sites. The changes in the second intercostal space of the pectoralis major was greatest in the incline pressure group compared with the horizontal [mean difference (95% CI) of 0.62 (0.23, 1.0) cm, p=0.003] and combination groups [mean difference (95% CI) of 0.50 (0.14, 0.86) cm, p=0.008]. The change in EMG amplitude following training differed between groups in only one out of the four sites. The present results indicate that strength and conditioning professionals might consider that horizontal and incline bench press exercises, or a combination of both exercises can render similar change in general strength.
... These authors speculate that the different anatomical functions performed by biarticular muscles would result in a high degree of variability in the EMG amplitude and force responses. Therefore, although variability in the muscle activation during resistance training protocols has often been reported in the literature (17,31), this fact may explain the distinct EMG amplitude responses between the triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscles. ...
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Lacerda, LT, Costa, CG, Lima, FV, Martins-Costa, HC, Diniz, RCR, Andrade, AGP, Peixoto, GHC, Bemben, MG, and Chagas, MH. Longer concentric action increases muscle activation and neuromuscular fatigue responses in protocols equalized by repetition duration. J Strength Cond Res 33(6): 1629-1639, 2019-The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of protocols equalized by the repetition duration but composed of different concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) durations on muscle activation and neuromuscular fatigue. Seventeen males with previous experience in resistance training performed 3 training protocols (A-2 second CON: 4 second ECC; B-3 second CON: 3 second ECC; and C-4 second CON: 2 second ECC) with the Smith machine bench press exercise, all with 3 sets, 6 repetitions, 3 minutes' rest, and 60% of 1RM. The normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (EMG RMS) and mean frequency elec-tromyography (EMG MF) for pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles were calculated for second and fifth repetitions in each set. The results showed an EMG MF decrease across the repetitions accompanied by a progressive increase of the EMG RMS across the repetitions for all protocols and muscles. The EMG RMS was higher in protocol C when compared with protocol A and B for pectoralis major. The EMG MF was lower in protocols B and C than in protocol A for pectoralis major throughout the sets and repetitions. A higher EMG RMS and a lower EMG MF were observed in protocols B and C compared with protocol A for triceps brachii, solely in the fifth repetition. In conclusion, training protocols conducted with the same repetition duration, but with different concentric and eccentric durations , produce distinct muscle activation and neuromuscular fatigue responses, in which performing longer concentric durations could be the more appropriate strategy to increase muscle activation and neuromuscular fatigue.
... Diferentemente Clemons e Aaron 9 não identificaram diferenças nas porções do peitoral maior em quatro tipos de pegada, e sim uma maior ativação do tríceps, independente da largura dos braços. Já Glass e Armstrong 10 , concluem que existe maior participação do peitoral no exercício de supino declinado em comparação ao inclinado, sendo que esta diferença ocorre exclusivamente em função de uma maior atividade elétrica da porção esternocostal na variação declinado. Curiosamente as pesquisas apontam que o exercício supino com uma pegada mais fechada apresenta uma maior ativação do tríceps, enquanto que a execução no banco inclinado favorece uma maior ativação da porção clavicular do peitoral maior em detrimento da porção esternocostal 11 , o que reflete nas dúvidas geradas pelas atuais pesquisas. ...
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Objective: The objective of this was to evaluate of the peak maximum strength, and EMG activation (EMG) in the muscles clavicular portion of pectoralis major (CPPM), sternal portion of pectoralis major (SPPM), and anterior deltoid (AD) in the 3 different angles of the bench press. Method: They were selected 11 male subjects (23.7 ± 3.2 years, 75.1 ± 12.6 kg, 173.7 cm, 9.8 ± 3.6 % BF), experienced in strength training (2,8 ± 1.5 years, 3.2 ± 0.2 days of the week, 70 ± 8.9 minutes by session). The subjects were submitted to the tests of voluntary contraction maximum isometrics (CVIM), in the horizontal bench press (HBP: 90°), in the inclined bench press (IBP: 45°) and declined bench press (DBP: - 30°), being the three evaluations carried out respecting 48 hours of break between the same. Results: After the evaluations we identify the following results in the CVIM (162.65 ± 18.63 Kgf HPB, 155.02 ± 11.97 Kgf IPB and 163.90 ± 15.77 Kgf DPB) and we identify that do not statistically significant between exercises. When checking the differences recorded EMG to muscle the DA, in the exercises PBI and PBH, PBI and PBD. Conclusion: The results support, that the 2 portions of the greater pectoral muscle similarly are activated in the different angles of the press of banking, and that the IBP causes a greater activation of DA.
... It may also be advisable to avoid incline variations of the bench press, unless the angle is specific for sports performance, as this will lead to a greater level of external rotation and possibly an increase in the risk of injury. Research has also demonstrated that the level of inclination does not alter activation of the clavicular (upper) portion of the pectorals, but does decrease activation of the sternal portion, resulting in a reduction in force (9). ...
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summary: Bodybuilders, athletes, and recreational lifters select a grip width during the bench press that they believe will produce a greater force output. Research has demonstrated that a wide grip (> 1.5 biacromial width) may increase the risk of shoulder injury, including anterior shoulder instability, atraumatic osteolysis of distal clavicle, and pectoralis major rupture. Reducing grip width to <=1.5 biacromial width appears to reduce this risk and does not affect muscle recruitment patterns, only resulting in a +/-5% difference in one repetition maximum. (C) 2007 National Strength and Conditioning Association
... Os autores reportaram que um determinado percentual de 1-RM permite um número exacerbado de repetições para alguns exercícios e um número reduzido para outros. Desse modo, estudos com essa metodologia, como os de Barnett et al. (16) , Glass e Armstrong (17) e Bompa e Cornacchia (8) , devem ser analisados com cautela, tendo em vista que o procedimento em si pode acarretar diferenças nos exercícios por subestimar ou superestimar a capacidade muscular em diferentes movimentos. ...
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The identification of the characteristics of each movement and its adjustment to the training goals are tasks that demand the in- teraction of many knowledge areas. These tasks are essential to the success in sports activities and training programs designed with athletic, aesthetic or healthy purposes. The objective of the present study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activ- ity of the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoids (DA) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles during the barbell bench press (SP) and the peck deck (PD) exercises. EMG activity of TB, PM and DA were assessed during 10 maximum repetitions performed in SP and PD in 13 trained men. The results did not show any differences be- tween exercises for PM and DA activity; however, TB activity was higher for SP than PD exercise. During SP, the PM muscle activity was higher than TB. There were no differences between PM and DA, or between DA and TB. During the PD exercise, the PM and DA muscle activities were higher than TB. There were no differ- ences between PM and DA. It was concluded that the prime mov- ers of both exercise are DA and PM, and there are no differences between them. Therefore, both PD and SP could be performed with the purpose to stimulate DA and PM muscles, depending on the availability of the equipments and/or the specificity of the mo- tor tasks.
... Diferentemente Clemons e Aaron 9 não identificaram diferenças nas porções do peitoral maior em quatro tipos de pegada, e sim uma maior ativação do tríceps, independente da largura dos braços. Já Glass e Armstrong 10 , concluem que existe maior participação do peitoral no exercício de supino declinado em comparação ao inclinado, sendo que esta diferença ocorre exclusivamente em função de uma maior atividade elétrica da porção esternocostal na variação declinado. Curiosamente as pesquisas apontam que o exercício supino com uma pegada mais fechada apresenta uma maior ativação do tríceps, enquanto que a execução no banco inclinado favorece uma maior ativação da porção clavicular do peitoral maior em detrimento da porção esternocostal 11 , o que reflete nas dúvidas geradas pelas atuais pesquisas. ...
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Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o pico de força máxima, e a ativação eletromiográfica (EMG) do músculo do peitoral maior porção clavicular (PMC), peitoral maior porção esternocostal (PME) e deltóide anterior (DA) em 3 diferentes ângulos do exercício supino. Método: Foram selecionados 11 indivíduos do sexo masculino (23,7 ± 3,2 anos; 75,1 ± 12,6 Kg; 173,7 cm; 9,8 ± 3,6 %G), experientes em treinamento resistido (2,8 ± 1,5 anos; 3,2 ± 0,2 dias por semana; 70 ± 8,9 minutos por sessão). Os sujeitos foram submetidos aos testes de contração voluntária isométrica máxima (CVIM), no supino horizontal (SH: 90°), supino inclinado (SI: 45°) e supino declinado (SD: -30°), sendo as três coletas realizadas respeitando 48 horas de intervalo entre as mesmas. Resultados: Após a coleta encontramos os seguintes resultados na CVIM (162,65 ± 18,63 Kgf SH, 155,02 ± 11,97 Kgf SI e 163,90 ± 15,77 Kgf SD) e constatamos que, não existem diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os exercícios. Ao verificar a EMG registramos diferenças para a musculatura do DA, nos exercícios de SI e SH, SI e SD. Conclusão: Os resultados suportam que, os diferentes ângulos do supino ativam a musculatura do peitoral maior em suas 2 porções, e que o SI provoca uma maior ativação do DA.
... However, other exercises and variations of the horizontal bench press have been used to diversify training. These changes usually include modifications in the angle of the equipment seat (Barnett, Kippers, & Turner, 1995;Glass, & Armstrong, 1997;Trebs, Brandenburg, & Pitney, 2010), as well as the use of other exercise equipments (McCaw & Friday, 1994;Trebs, Brandenburg, & Pitney, 2010), dumbbell exercises , dumbbell fly exercises (Welsch, Bird, & Mayhew, 2005), cables and pulleys (Clemons & Aron, 1997;Sadri et al., 2011), and stable and unstable surfaces (Goodman et al., 2008). These are exercise alternatives routinely prescribed as a way to complement training. ...
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The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the following muscles: clavicular portion of pectoralis major, sternal portion of pectoralis major, long portion of triceps brachii, anterior deltoid, posterior deltoid and latissimus dorsi during dynamic contractions between flat horizontal bench press and barbell pullover exercises. The sample comprised 12 males individuals experienced in resistance training. The volunteers made three visits to the laboratory. The first one consisted of 12 repetitions of the exercises for the electromyographic data collection. The results showed a higher EMG activation of the pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles in the flat horizontal bench press in comparison with the barbell pullover. The triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi muscles were more activated in the barbell pullover. © 2014, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP. All rights reserved.
... . Thus, it may be best for bodybuilders to use proper form and full range of motion to enhance hypertrophy. Furthermore, bodybuilders sometimes exhibit limited joint range of motion102 , therefore full range of motion training and a balance of strength across muscle groups may help to prevent injury during training.Skeletal muscles are often compartmentalized103 , and different compartments are preferentially activated based on joint position and angle104 . Thus, reviewers of hypertrophy training have recommended a wide exercise variety and frequent exercise rotation based on the fact that variations in angle, plane of motion and grip position can change muscle activation patterns and may therefore maximize hypertrophy16,105 . ...
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The anabolic effect of resistance training can mitigate muscle loss during contest preparation. In reviewing relevant literature, we recommend a periodized approach be utilized. Block and undulating models show promise. Muscle groups should be trained 2 times weekly or more, although high volume training may benefit from higher frequencies to keep volume at any one session from becoming excessive. Low to high (~3--15) repetitions can be utilized but most repetitions should occur in the 6--12 range using 70--80% of 1 repetition maximum. Roughly 40--70 reps per muscle group per session should be performed, however higher volume may be appropriate for advanced bodybuilders. Traditional rest intervals of 1--3 minutes are adequate, but longer intervals can be used. Tempo should allow muscular control of the load;; 1-- 2sec concentric and 2--3sec eccentric tempos. Training to failure should be limited when performing heavy loads on taxing exercises, and primarily relegated to single--joint exercises and higher repetitions. A core of multi--joint exercises with some single--joint exercises to address specific muscle groups as needed should be used, emphasizing full range of motion and proper form. Cardiovascular training can be used to enhance fat loss. Interference with strength training adaptations increases concomitantly with frequency and duration of cardiovascular training. Thus, the lowest frequency and duration possible while achieving sufficient fat loss should be used. Full--body modalities or cycling may reduce interference. High intensities may as well;; however, require more recovery. Fasted cardiovascular training may not have benefits over fed--state and could be detrimental.
... For the inclination of the bench, the present study showed no significant difference in activation of the sternocostal head between the three inclinations in both close and wide pronated grips, which is consistent with the results of Lauver et al. (9), Glass and Armstrong (6) and Trebs et al. (14). When examining the differences compared to a wide pronated grip in the horizontal (0°) bench press, all supinated grips (6) in all three inclinations (HSC, HSW, ISC, ISW, DSC, DSW) stimulated significantly less the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major. ...
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This study compared the activation of the clavicular, sternocostal and abdominal heads of the pectoralis major (PM) and the long portion of the triceps brachii during the execution of the bench press with several inclinations, grip types, and grip widths. Thirteen healthy men with more than a year of resistance training experience participated in this study. The subjects performed 6 repetitions of various variations of the bench press at angles of -15°, 0° and 30° with grip width of 100% and 200% of their biacromial width in both pronation and supination with a load equivalent of their respective 12RM for each movement. EMG, bar acceleration and shoulder angle were recorded during each repetition. Activation of the clavicular head of the PM was, compared to a wide pronation at 0°, significantly higher at a close pronation at 0°and 30°; during a close supination at 30° and during a wide supination at 30°. Activation of the sternocostal head of the PM was, during a wide pronation at 0°, significantly higher than during a close supination at 0°, 30° and -15°; during a wide supination at 30; during a wide supination at 0° and 30° and at close pronation at 30° and -15°. Activation of the abdominal head of the PM was significantly better with wide pronation at -15° and 0° compared to all positions at 30°. Triceps brachii were better solicited during close pronation at 0° and -15° compared to supinated grip at 0° and 30°. Results from this study show that the bench press exercise performed with a wide pronation grip at 0° can maximize the activation of the three heads of the PM.
... Há relato de caso sobre rupturas do seu tendão de inserção durante a execução do exercício "supino", um exercício comum em programas de condicionamento físico [9]. O peitoral maior também já foi estudado eletromiograficamente durante o exercício de supino [10,11]. (Fig. 4). ...
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Resumo: A crescente procura pela prática de musculação não é acompanhada pela investigação científica dos aparelhos utilizados nesse treinamento. Este estudo tem o intento verificar o comportamento da força muscular resultante exigida pelo "aparelho voador" ao longo do exercício e se o esforço que o aparelho exige dos músculos envolvidos condiz com as características musculares de produção de força. Para tanto, foram esquematizados diagramas de corpo livre da parte móvel do aparelho e do segmento humano e, também, foram realizadas equações de equilíbrio de torque onde a velocidade foi considerada constante. O aparelho analisado exige maior produção de força muscular no início do exercício onde os músculos estão mais alongados e, portanto, mais capazes de produzir força. Palavras chaves: musculação, flexores horizontais, torque. Abstract: The non-stop searching for resistance training is not followed by the scientific investigation upon the machines used in this training. The present study intends to verify how muscle force behaves on the "fly machine" throughout the range of movement and if the demanded effort is suitable to the muscle capacity to generate force. For that, free body diagrams had been schematized of the movable part of the machine and also, the human segment. Lo longer, we had used torque equilibrium equations where the velocity was considered to be steady. The analyzed machine demands higher force output in the beginning of the exercise, just right where the muscle are stretched, therefore, more able to produce force.
... Knowledge of the changes in force during the acceleration and deceleration phases of the bar movement in the bench press exercise could result in a better understanding of changes in EMG (31) and blood lactate responses (12). Furthermore, the data indicate a large variability in the EMG RMS responses (large interquartile range values), especially for Protocol B. It is possible that during Protocol B the higher variation in muscle activation may be due to the need for greater acceleration of the bar in a shorter time period compared with Protocol A. However, variability in the EMG responses during strength training protocols has often been reported in the literature (16,25). ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of protocols equalized by the time under tension (TUT), but composed of different repetition durations and repetitions numbers, on muscle activation and blood lactate concentration. Twenty-two males with previous experience in resistance training performed two training protocols (A and B) with the Smith machine bench press exercise, both with 3 sets, 3 minutes rest, and 60% of one repetition maximum (1RM). Protocol A consisted of 6 repetitions with a 6s repetition duration for each repetition, while in Protocol B the subjects performed 12 repetitions with a 3s repetition duration for each repetition. Muscular activation was measured in the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscles while performing the two protocols and the normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (EMGRMS) was calculated for each set. Blood lactate concentrations were measured during and up to 12 minutes after the completion of each protocol. The results showed that the EMGRMS of all muscles increased during the sets and was higher in Protocol B when compared to Protocol A. Likewise, blood lactate concentrations also increased throughout the sets and was higher in Protocol B both during and after the completion of each training session. The data obtained in this study show that training protocols conducted with the same TUT, but with different configurations, produce distinct neuromuscular and metabolic responses, so that, performing higher repetition numbers with shorter repetition durations might be a more appropriate strategy to increase muscle activation and blood lactate concentration.
... The change in the external load proposed by the authors of this study, resulting from the changes in application of the motion speed substantially affects the changes in the activity patterns and allows for the emphasis on the muscles driving the motor task. In this light, the EMG procedure used in the study represents a somehow innovative approach, but it is consistent with all the reasoning tendencies for this measurement methodology [28,29]. The strong point of the present study is the participants' high level of performance. ...
... Diferentemente Clemons e Aaron 9 não identificaram diferenças nas porções do peitoral maior em quatro tipos de pegada, e sim uma maior ativação do tríceps, independente da largura dos braços. Já Glass e Armstrong 10 , concluem que existe maior participação do peitoral no exercício de supino declinado em comparação ao inclinado, sendo que esta diferença ocorre exclusivamente em função de uma maior atividade elétrica da porção esternocostal na variação declinado. Curiosamente as pesquisas apontam que o exercício supino com uma pegada mais fechada apresenta uma maior ativação do tríceps, enquanto que a execução no banco inclinado favorece uma maior ativação da porção clavicular do peitoral maior em detrimento da porção esternocostal 11 , o que reflete nas dúvidas geradas pelas atuais pesquisas. ...
... However, the popularity of the bench press is because of its ability to develop the strength, power, and hypertrophy of the prime movers: the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii (13,21,24,26). Several studies demonstrate the transfer of bench press strength to improvements in motor unit recruitment through various planes of the shoulder (13,14), and more importantly for athletic performance, strength in the bench press is an indicator of performance in strength and power sports (10,11,23). Therefore, developing strategies to improve bench press performance has the potential to improve performance across a range of sports including but not limited to powerlifting, discus throwing (10), swimming (11), and kayaking (23). ...
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This study examined the acute effects of the 'Slingshot' on bench-press performance, prime-mover surface electromyographic (sEMG) amplitude, and barbell velocity during maximal and submaximal bench-pressing in competitive male powerlifters. Fifteen male powerlifters (mean ± SD age: 27.05 ± 5.94 years; mass: 94.15kg; 1RM bench-press: 139.7 ± 16.79kg) participated in the study. Bench-press strength, average barbell velocity, and sEMG amplitude of the prime mover muscles (triceps brachii, pectoralis major and anterior deltoid) were measured during two conditions; 'Raw' (without use of any assistance) and 'Slingshot' [using the 'Slingshot' to perform both the weight achieved during 'Raw' 1RM testing (Raw max/SS), and absolute 1RM using the 'Slingshot' (SS)]. The results showed that the 'Slingshot' significantly increased bench press 1RM performance by a mean ± SD of 20.67kg ± 3.4kg. Barbell velocity and stick point analysis indicate that this improvement is likely driven by an increase in peak and pre-stick barbell velocity as triceps RMS was lower throughout all rep max phases with the 'Slingshot'. The 'Slingshot' also caused reductions in RMS, specifically of the triceps at all rep ranges but barbell velocity was better maintained in the last reps of all sets. These data indicate that the 'Slingshot' specifically de-loaded the triceps muscle throughout all rep ranges and provide assistance to maintaining barbell velocity under fatigue during later repetitions of multiple-repetition sets. The 'Slingshot' training aid could therefore be used in de-load phases of bench press training or as an over-reaching and velocity training aid.
... Logically, this makes sense as the more difficult a lift is, the more muscle recruitment is required in order to complete the lift. It is important to note that these EMG values were recorded during non-fatiguing contractions (1 and 2 rep sets in the current study) since fatigue may cause EMG patterns to be altered [6]. Though subjects only completed one repetition, implications can be made based on previous data. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to compare barbell kinematics and muscle patterning in bench press with different loads, but with maximum effort, in young males with resistance training experience. Ten healthy experiences strength-training males (aged 27.3±5.9 years, body mass 82.8±16.6 kg, height 1.78±0.05 m, experience 7.3±4.2 years) performed maximal effort bench presses (1–2 repetitions) with loads varying from 30%, with 10% increments until 100% of 1-RM. Muscle activity of seven muscles and barbell kinematics were measured during descending and ascending phases. Average and peak upwards lifting velocity increased, while lifting time decreases with each decreasing load. In general, the maximal activation of most muscles decreases with decreasing loads, but it was not linear. No effect of loads was shown for the biceps brachii and posterior deltoid muscles. Based upon these findings, it was concluded that maximal lifting velocity may compensate for increased loads, which may allow resistancetrained males who are both healthy or in rehabilitation to avoid heavy loads but experience similar muscle activation. By decreasing the loads, the mechanical stress decreases and time to recover is reduced. Using lower loads with maximal lifting velocity may allow athletes to increase the total volume without increasing the risk of injuries.
... However, this procedure would demand knowing, beforehand, where to specifically position the two pairs of electrodes to sample EMGs exclusively from each of the two PM heads; otherwise, it may bias the estimations of muscle excitation. 30 By sampling EMGs with an array of electrodes, we were able to assess regional variations in EMG amplitude between bench press exercises without the need of labeling electrodes ( Figure 1A) according to anatomical conventions set for the PM muscle 14,31 ; the approach we used here was not sensitive to between-subject differences in the boundary separating PM regions which, according to our results ( Figure 5), appears to be highly variable between subjects. ...
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Non‐physiological sources may lead to equivocal interpretation on the degree of muscle excitation from electromyograms (EMGs) amplitude. This presumably explains the contradictory findings regarding the effect of the bench press inclination on the pectoralis major (PM) activation pattern. To contend with these issues, herein we used high‐density surface EMG to investigate whether different PM regions are excited during the flat and 45° inclined bench press exercises. Single‐differential EMGs were collected from 15 regions along the PM cranio‐caudal axis, while 8 volunteers performed a set of the flat and 45° inclined bench press at 50% and 70% of 1 repetition maximum. The coefficient of variation, the range of motion, and the cycle duration were calculated from the barbell vertical position to assess the within‐subject consistency across cycles. The number of channels detecting the largest EMGs amplitude (active channels), their interquartile range and their barycentre coordinate were assessed to characterise the EMG amplitude distribution within PM. No significant differences in the range of motion (P>0.11), cycle duration (P>0.28), number of active channels (P>0.05) and interquartile range of active channels (P>0.39) were observed between the two bench press inclinations. Conversely, the barycentre shifted towards the PM clavicular region (P<0.001) when the bench press changed from flat to 45°. Our results revealed that greatest EMG amplitudes were concentrated at the PM sternocostal and clavicular heads when exercising in the flat and 45° inclined bench press, respectively. Performing the bench press exercise, with different postures, seem to demand the excitation of different PM regions.
... The skin area was shaved, abraded, and cleaned with an isopropyl alcohol pad to reduce skin impedance before electrode placement. Two active bar electrodes (10 mm center-to-center) were positioned on the midclavicular line, midway between the acromioclavicular joint and the sternoclavicular joint, over the second (i.e., sternocostal head of the pectoralis major) and fifth intercostal (i.e., sternal portion of the pectoralis major) spaces, respectively [17,18], parallel to the presumed orientation of the muscle fibers. The position of each electrode during the first session was marked on the skin with a semi-permanent marker, and marks were reapplied on each successive visit to the laboratory. ...
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This study investigated the effects of advanced training techniques (ATT) on muscular responses and if performing a second training session would negatively affect the training stimulus. Eleven strength-trained males performed a traditional strength training session (TST) and four different ATT: pre-exhaustion A (PE-A), pre-exhaustion B (PE-B), forced repetitions (FR), and super-set (SS). On day 1, SS produced lower volume load than TST, FR, and PE-B (16.0%, p=0.03; 14.9, p= 0.03 and 18.2%, p=0.01, respectively). On day 2, SS produced lower volumes than all the other ATT (9.73-18.5%, p=0.03). Additionally, subjects demonstrated lower perceived exertion on day 1 compared to day 2 (6.5 ± 0.4 AU vs. 8.7 ± 0.3 AU, p = 0.0001). For blood lactate concentration [La-] on days 1 and 2, [La-] after the tenth set was the highest compared to all other time points (baseline: 1.7 ± 0.2, fifth-set: 8.7 ± 1.0, tenth-set 9.7 ± 0.9, post-5 min: 8.7 ± 0.7 mmol·L 1 , p=0.0001). Acute muscle swelling was greater immediately and 30-min post compared to baseline (p=0.0001). On day 2, electromyography (EMG) amplitude on the clavicular head of the pectoralis major was lower for SS than TST, PEA , and PE-B (11.7%, p=0.01; 14.4%, p=0.009; 20.9%, p = 0.0003, respectively). Detrimental effects to the training stimulus were not observed when ATT (besides SS) are repeated. Strength trained individuals can sustain performance, compared to TST, when they are using ATT in an acute fashion. Although ATT have traditionally been used as a means to optimize metabolic stress, volume load, and neuromuscular responses, our data did not project differences in these variables compared to TST. However, it is important to note that different ATT might produce slight changes in volume load, muscle excitation, and fluid accumulation in strength-trained individuals from session to session.
... The change in the external load proposed by the authors of this study, resulting from the changes in application of the motion speed substantially affects the changes in the activity patterns and allows for the emphasis on the muscles driving the motor task. In this light, the EMG procedure used in the study represents a somehow innovative approach, but it is consistent with all the reasoning tendencies for this measurement methodology [28,29]. The strong point of the present study is the participants' high level of performance. ...
... The horizontal bench press (HBP) is a popular exercise used for developing upper body strength and power. Studies have investigated EMG activity of muscles involved in the HBP with regard to performance (11,23,25,28) and the effects of width of grip and trunk inclination (2,8,16,22,26). Others (14,15,17,21,24) have examined shoulder injury prevention for better performance of the bench press. In many sports, particularly football, bench press capacity is used as a performance measure (13) and is an important lift in competitive powerlifting. ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of frontal plane glenohumeral joint abduction (GHJA), scapular mobility and lower-back orientation of the horizontal bench press (HBP) on electromyographic activity of the upper clavicular and lower sternocostal heads of the pectoralis major (UCPM and LSPM), anterior deltoid (AD) and lateral head of triceps brachii (TB). Fourteen male subjects, with at least two years weight-training experience, volunteered for this study and signed informed consent forms prior to testing. Filtered EMG signals were full-wave rectified, integrated, and time normalized (EMG activity/time taken for concentric phase of lift) and expressed as a percentage of maximum mean integrated EMG (%MmIEMG) for each muscle. Repeated-measures ANOVA recorded overall differences in %MmIEMG between six exercise positions for each muscle with α level of 0.05. No significant differences in EMG activity were found in frontal plane GHJA, scapular mobility or lower-back position for anisometric measurements of the UCPM and LSPM and the lateral head of triceps brachii. Significant difference in EMG activity of the anterior deltoid was found for change in frontal plane GHJA from 70° to 90° (P = 0.046) and from 50° to 90° (P = 0.027) (fatigue screen applied) (with the 70º and 50° GHJAs producing greater activity than the 90°). This significant change in muscle fiber recruitment of the anterior deltoid from the 70º to 90º GHJA, together with the results of no significant changes in %MmIEMG activity of the UCPM, LSPM and lateral head of triceps brachii can aid in outlining specific techniques that can be employed by powerlifters, bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts when performing the HBP. Keywords: bench press, surface electromyography, pectoralis major, fatigue index.
... Biacromial distance is typically measured as the breadth between the most lateral points on the acromion processes (40). Although typically performed with a barbell, the bench press exercise can be performed with dumbbells (19), a machine (15), and on incline or decline benches (17,32). The traditional bench press performed on a flat bench can also be modified by altering the width of the grip on the bar. ...
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THE CLOSE-GRIP BENCH PRESS HAS RECEIVED LIMITED ANALYSIS IN THE PROFESSIONAL LITERATURE. THEREFORE, THIS ARTICLE WILL REVIEW THE EXISTING LITERATURE THAT DOCUMENTS THE TECHNIQUE, MUSCLE ACTIVATION CHANGES THAT OCCUR WHEN PERFORMING THIS EXERCISE, AND THE RESULTING IMPLICATIONS. THIS RELATES TO POTENTIAL HYPERTROPHY AND STRENGTH ADAPTATIONS THAT MAY RESULT FOR MUSCLES INVOLVED IN ELBOW EXTENSION (E.G., TRICEPS BRACHII) AND ARM FLEXION (E.G., PECTORALIS MAJOR), AS WELL AS SPORT-SPECIFIC POWER ADAPTATIONS. THE BENEFITS OF USING A CLOSER GRIP DURING THE BENCH PRESS FOR CERTAIN INDIVIDUALS WILL BE ACKNOWLEDGED. LAST, THE EXECUTION OF THIS EXERCISE (STARTING POSITION, BAR DESCENT, AND BAR ASCENT) WILL BE DETAILED.
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The quest to increase lean body mass is widely pursued by those who lift weights. Research is lacking, however, as to the best approach for maximizing exercise-induced muscle growth. Bodybuilders generally train with moderate loads and fairly short rest intervals that induce high amounts of metabolic stress. Powerlifters, on the other hand, routinely train with high-intensity loads and lengthy rest periods between sets. Although both groups are known to display impressive muscularity, it is not clear which method is superior for hypertrophic gains. It has been shown that many factors mediate the hypertrophic process and that mechanical tension, muscle damage, and metabolic stress all can play a role in exercise-induced muscle growth. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to extensively review the literature as to the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to exercise training and (b) to draw conclusions from the research as to the optimal protocol for maximizing muscle growth.
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Optimizing development of the pectoralis major. 2009. This article seeks to determine optimum body/hand position and the best exercises for development of the pectoralis major. Gaps in the field of literature are also addressed. Body/hand position, execution, width of grip, trunk inclination, dumbbells and barbells are all variables that affect the prime movers (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid and triceps brachii) of the bench press. Electromyography is a technique used for recording changes in electrical potential of muscle fibres that are associated with their contractions Payton, C. J., Bartlett, R. M. (Eds.). (2008). Electromyographic (EMG) studies are well known for determining muscle activity. Due to the overwhelming contradictory information and multiple variations of the bench press, EMG studies have been undertaken. The research has shown that the horizontal barbell bench press done with a grip between 165% to 190% biacromial width produces maximum EMG activity in the pectoralis major. The clavicular (upper) head produces maximum activity in the close grip incline barbell bench press. Dumbbells and barbells can be used interchangeably to overcome training plateaus.
Article
Objective Investigate the effects of modifying bench inclination and hand spacing (narrow, wide) on the electromyography (EMG) response, during the exercises of inclined press (IBP) (33°) and declined press (DBP) (9°) with respect to the horizontal press (HBP). Method Fourteen semitrained young men performed the test at 75% of IRM. Surface electrodes were placed in both the clavicular (cp) and sternocostal portions (sp). Results With wide grip, (cp); (DBP) (111,24%; p<0,001), (IBP) (103,32%; p<0,00l) and (HBP) (l00%)The (sp) was activated in the same way in (HBP) and (DBP), but registred lower activity in (IBP) (71%; p<0,00l). With narrow grip there was a tendency to activate more the (cp) in the exercises of (HBP) (p = 0,013) and (DBP) (n.s.p = 0,080), This tendency was not found in (IBP). The (sp) did not experiment changes when varying the grip. Conclusions With both grips, the (DBP) was the one which showed a greater EMG response gave in both portions of the pectoral. The (IBP) proved itself showed effective in the (cp), but not in (ep). The (HBP) in the (cp) obtained a lower EMG response than that of the (IBP) and (DBP), giving in the (sp) a sensibly lower EMG activity than the (DBP) and an ostensibly greater one than in (IBP).
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From the perspective of the health, the program of neuromuscular conditioning (PANM) must present criteria of efficiency and safety criteria. In the present text there is approached the criterion of efficiency based on the muscular activation unleashed by the execution of the exercise, whereas the safety criteria are based on the biomechanical analyses of the movement involved during the exercise. The aim of the present sistematic review is developing the safety aspects and efficiency of the exercise in the bench press and its variants. It has been made a bibliographical search in the databases PUBmed, SPORTdiscus and PEDro and specific manuals. It is possible to conclude that supporting the suitable criteria of efficiency and safety, the bench press is an exercise that can be prescribed in the programs of neuromuscular conditioning.
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Introduction The sport of people with disabilities has gained increased attention, recognition and acceptance in media and society. The process of professionalisation can be seen in the development of attendance, performance, and scientific exami-nations. Because of the highly individual properties, a huge potential for the paralympic sport is lying in the field of sports biomechanics [44]. As a part of paracycling, handcycling became a very common sport for people with spinal cord injuries or amputations on recreational und international level. An optimi-sation in handcycling propulsion kinematics and kinetics could improve the performance of interational athletes. Purpose The aim of the current study was to examine the kinematics and kinetics of handcycling propulsion during an incremental test. In addition, parameters that are crucial for the sportspecific performance were identified. Methods Twelve non-disabled male triathletes (26.0±4.4 yrs., 1,83±0.06 m, 74.3±3.6 kg) without handcycling experience perfromed an initial familarization followed by a 15-s All-Out test. The tests were performed in a racing handcycle (Shark S, Sopur, Sunrisemedical, Malsch, Germany) that was attached to a ergometer (Cyclus 2, 8 Hz, RBM elektronik-automation GmbH, Leipzig, Germany). Out of this sprint test, the peak power output (POmax,AO15) and the glycolytic rate (V̇Lamax) were determined. The incremental test started with an initial load of 20 W and increased every 5 min by 20 W until subjective exhaustion. In the end of every stage, the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) on a global (cardio-pulmo-nary) and local (upper extremity) level, arterialized capillary blood lactate concentration of the ear lobe (La [mmol l-1]) and heart rate (HR [min-1]) were recorded. Performance criteria were the maximal power output during the incremental test (POmax,ST) and the calculated lactate threshold based on the fixed 4 mmol l-1 method (PO4mmol) [32; 4]. The kinematic and kinetic measure-ments occured at the end of the first and beginning of the last minute of each stage for 20 seconds. Seven high speed infrared cameras (100 Hz, MX-F40 and MX-3+, Vicon Nexus 2.3, Vicon Motion Systems Ltd., Oxford, UK) were placed aroud the handcycle. 44 spherical retro-reflective Markers were placed on the crank, the ergometer and anatomical landmarks according to the UpperLimb-Model of Vicon Nexus. The joint kinematics considered the angles and angular velocities of shoulder-flexion (SF), shourler-abduction (SA), shoulder-rotation (SR), elbow-flexion (EF), palmar-flexion (PF), radial-duction (RD) und trunk-flexion (RF). The tangential crank kinetics based on a power-meter (1000 Hz, Schobener Bike Management System, SRM, Jülich, Ger-many) installed in the crank. Out of the crank angular velocity and torque sig-nals, the acute power output (PO) was calculated. The data were averaged, filtered (4th-order low-pass Butterworth filter, cut-off frequency 10 Hz) and resampled to a length of 360 frames per cycle using MATLAB (R2016a, MathWorks®, Natick, Massachusetts, USA). Parameters of kinematics and kinetics were maximum and minimum value (MinV and MinI), range (MaxV-MinV), the crank angle of the maximum and minimum (MaxI and MinI) and the values at maximal and minimal acute PO (@MaxPO and @MinPO). Additionally, the accomplished work within one cycle during six sectors (Press-down, 330 to 30°; Pull-down, 30 to 90°; Pull-up, 90 to 150°; Lift-up, 150 to 210°; Push-up, 210 to 270°; Push-down, 270 to 330°) was calculated. Changes within the incremental test were analysed usind a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures [28]. In case of missing assumption of normal distribution (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test with Lilliefors-correction), the non-parametric Fried-man test was applied. Post-Hoc comparisons based on Bonferroni. The calculation of partial eta-squared (ηp2) was added as effect-size. To identify determinants of performance, bivariate Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated. For parameters with significant difference to normal distribution, the non-parametric correlation coefficient of Spearman was applied. The level of significance was set to α = 0.05 [28]. For specific comparisons of means, the effect size Cohen’s d was calculated [18]. Results The mean POmax,AO15, V̇Lamax, POmax,ST and PO4mmol were 545±70 W, 0.44±0.11 mmol l-1 s-1, 131±15 W, 87±12 W. RPElocal at exhaustion was significantly higher than RPEglobal (p = 0.003, d = 2.03). The maximal torque was found within the Pull-down or Push-up sector, whereas the lowest torque and ca-dence occured during the Lift-up. During the incremantal test, a significant decrease in retroversion (p < 0.0005, ηp2 = 0.346), adduction (p < 0.0005, ηp2 = 0.527), elbow-flexion (p < 0.0005, ηp2 = 0.572) and elbow-extension (p < 0.0005, ηp2 = 0.658) was observed. Maximal abduction (p < 0.0005, ηp2 = 0.723) and internal rotation (p = 0.031, ηp2 = 0.046) showed an increase. The MaxV-MinV of the SF (p = 0.069, ηp2 = 0.252), EF (p < 0.0005, ηp2 = 0.775) and RD (p < 0.0005, ηp2 = 0.438) rather decreased, whereas a rather increase in MaxV-MinV for SA (p = 0.003, ηp2 = 0.410), SR (p = 0.069, ηp2 = 0.035) and RF (p = 0.009, ηp2 = 0.385) was found. The maximal elbow-flexion (p = 0.002, ηp2 = 0.414), elbow-extension (p = 0.006, ηp2 = 0.310) and dorsal-flexion (p < 0.0005, ηp2 = 0.356) occured significantly later in crank cycle. At the 180° position, a signifiantly higher abduction (p < 0.0005, ηp2 = 0.405) and lower elbow-flexion (p = 0.001, ηp2 = 0.202) was measured. The angular velocity of all degrees of freedom (df) increased during the incremental test. The maximal angular velocity of anteversion (p = 0.004, ηp2 = 0.052), abduction (p = 0.009, ηp2 = 0.410), dorsal-flexion (p = 0.053, ηp2 = 0.211), ulnar-duction (p = 0.037, ηp2 = 0.169) and trunk-flexion (p = 0.006, ηp2 = 0.092) occured later in crank cycle. The Lift-up was performed with a significantly higher anteversion velocity (p < 0.0005, ηp2 = 0.348), internal-rotation velocity (p = 0.006, ηp2 = 0.092) and dorsal-flexion velocity (p = 0.024, ηp2 = 0.0284). The proportion of work showed a decrease of the Press-down from 20 W to 80 (p = 0.021, d = -1.22) and 100 W (p = 0.041, d = -1.11) and an increase of the Pull-down from 20 to 120 W (p = 0.011, d = 1.33). POmax,ST significantly correlated with Lamax,ST (p = 0.015, r = -0.680), V̇Lamax (p = 0.022, r = -0.649), and PO4mmol (p = 0.050, r = 0.577). The variability of cadence was negatively correlated with POmax,ST (p = 0.009, r = -0.711). Near the 180° position, a lower internal-rotation (p = 0.019, r = -0.662), higher elbow flexion (p = 0.005, r = 0.750), and lower dorsal-flexion (p = 0.003, r = 0.775) was beneficial for POmax,ST. An early maximal external-rotation velocity (p = 0.080, r = -0.511) and abduction velocity (p = 0.079, r = 0.525) and a late dorsal-flexion velocity (p = 0.213, p = -388) tended to result in higher POmax,ST. For PO4mmol, a significant correlation was found to the training load of the participants [h w-1] (p = 0.029, r = 0.628), and the maximal lactate concen-tration during the incremental test (p = 0.037, r = -0.605). Participants with a high MaxV-MinV in SF (p = 0.016, r = 0.676) and RD (p = 0.023, r = -0.492) and a low MaxV-MinV in EF (p = 0.087, r = -0.514) and PF (p = 0.461, r = -0.231) achieved higher PO4mmol. At 180°, a lower internal-rotation (p = 0.012, r = -0.698) and dorsal-flexion (p = 0.226, r = 0.349) and a higher abduction (p = 0.174, r = 0.420) and elbow-flexion (p = 0.214, 0.387) was beneficial for PO4mmol. The maximal anteversion velocity positively correlated with PO4mmol (p = 0.027, r = 0.349). A late occurrence of the maximal anteversion velocity (p = 0.023, r = 0.646), adduction velocity (p = 0.039, r = 0.600), dorsal-flexion velocity (p = 0.031, r = 0.623), and trunk-flexion velocity (p = 0.048, r = 0.579) and early occurrence of the maximal elbow-extension velocity (p = 0.018, r = -0.665) resulted in higher PO4mmol. At 180°, a high maximal abduction velocity (p = 0.026, r = 0.636), dorsal-flexion velocity (p = 0.003, r = -0.774), and radial-duction velocity (p = 0.025, r = 0.640) resulted in higher PO4mmol. Discussion The increase in cadence was higher than the increase in torque, which is consistent with literature, assuming that high muscle forces and concomitant limitations in local blood flow are responsible for exhaustion in arm cranking exercises [59; 66]. Another incidence for an especially local based fatigue, are the significantly higher RPE values on local level. The kinematic and kinetic results indicate that the maintenance of high PO is primaliry limited by the clean like motion near the 180° crank angle, which defines the transition between pull and push phase. For maximal PO, a reinforced pull phase could narrow the loss in crank angular velocity during the clean and thus delay fatigue. Participants who perform the clean with a higher retroversion and lower abduction and internal-rotation are advantaged. For submaximal PO, the change in direction of the force vector (especially during the clean) should be as tangential as possible to avoid unnecessary work. An active wrist motion in RD could improve the propulsion economy. Transfered to practice, a shorter crank arm and slim backrest seem to be suitible alterations of the handcycle setting. A sport specific strength training of the upper extermity is important to improve perfromance. Especially the wrist, cheast and shoulder muscles should be trained in strength and endu-rance. Limitations of the study mosty refer to the unexperienced and non-disabled participants. Therefore, future studies should replicate the current study with elite handcyclists and expand the test spectrum by sprint and continous loads considering the examination of muscle activation patterns (MAP).
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