Article

The Effects of Self-selection for Frequency of Training in a Winter Conditioning Program for Football

Article

The Effects of Self-selection for Frequency of Training in a Winter Conditioning Program for Football

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Abstract

Information concerning frequency of training for resistance trained individuals is relatively unknown. Problems in designing training programs for student athletes are frequently encountered due to differential time constraints placed upon them. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-selection of resistance training frequency on muscular strength. Sixty-one members of an NCAA. Division IAA football team participated in a 10-week winter conditioning program. Each subject was given the option of choosing from a three-day (3d, n=12) four-day (4d, n=15), five-day (5d, n=23) or six-day (6d, n=ll) per week resistance training program. In addition to the strength training, the subjects participated in a football conditioning program twice a week. Testing was conducted before and after the 10-week training program. Field tests common to football off-season conditioning programs were utilized to evaluate strength (1 RM squat and bench press), speed (40-yard sprint), endurance (two-mile run), vertical jump and anthropometric measurements. Posttests revealed significant changes for the 3d group in decreased time for the two-mile run (2mi), decreased sum of skinfolds (SF) and an increased chest girth (CH). The 4d program revealed significant decreases in body weight, 2mi, SF, and increases in 1 RM squat, CH and thigh girths (TH). The 5d group significantly decreased 2mi, and SF, and increased both 1 RM squat and bench press and CH and TH. The 6d group revealed significant decreases in 2mi, and SF, and an increase in 1 RM squat. Of the total variables measured, 4d and 5d frequency groups revealed the greatest amount of improvement. In conclusion, when resistance training frequency is self-selected by athletes (i.e., college football players) it appears that four or five days per week are the optimal choices for developing strength, endurance and muscle mass. (C) 1990 National Strength and Conditioning Association

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... Optimal frequency necessary for progression during advanced training varies considerably. It has been demonstrated that football players training 4 -5 d·wk Ϫ1 achieved better results than those who trained either 3 or 6 d·wk Ϫ1 (121). Advanced weightlifters and bodybuilders use highfrequency training (e.g., 4 -6 d·wk Ϫ1 ). ...
... The effect of resistance training on various motor performance skills has been investigated (3,45,121,237). The importance of improved motor performance resulting from resistance training has implications not only for the training of specific athletic movements but also the performance of activities of daily living (i.e., balance, stair climbing). The principle of "specificity" is important for improving motor performance, as the greatest improvements are observed when resistance training programs are prescribed that are specific to the task or activity. ...
... Resistance training programs of 5-6 d·wk Ϫ1 elicit greater vertical jump improvements (2.3-4.3%) than programs of 3-4 d·wk Ϫ1 (0 -1.2%) in resistance-trained Division 1AA college football players (121). The inclusion of plyometric training (explosive form of exercise involving various jumps) in combination with resistance training has been shown to be most effective for improving jumping ability (3). ...
Article
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American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand on Progression Models in Resistance Training for Healthy Adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. Vol. 34, No. 2, 2002, pp. 364-380. In order to stimulate further adaptation toward a specific training goal(s), progression in the type of resistance training protocol used is necessary. The optimal characteristics of strength-specific programs include the use of both concentric and eccentric muscle actions and the performance of both single- and multiple-joint exercises. It is also recommended that the strength program sequence exercises to optimize the quality of the exercise intensity (large before small muscle group exercises, multiple-joint exercises before single-joint exercises, and higher intensity before lower intensity exercises). For initial resistances, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) be used in novice training. For intermediate to advanced training, it is recommended that individuals use a wider loading range, from 1-12 RM in a periodized fashion, with eventual emphasis on heavy loading (1-6 RM) using at least 3-min rest periods between sets performed at a moderate contraction velocity (1-2 s concentric. 1-2 s eccentric). When training at a specific RM load, it is recommended that 2-10% increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number. The recommendation for training frequency is 2-3 d.wk(-1) for novice and intermediate training and 4-5 d.wk(-1) for advanced training. Similar program designs are recommended for hypertrophy training with respect to exercise selection and frequency. For loading, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 1-12 RM be used in periodized fashion, with emphasis on the 6-12 RM zone using 1- to 2-min rest periods between sets at a moderate velocity. Higher volume, multiple-set programs are recommended for maximizing hypertrophy. Progression in power training entails two general loading strategies: 1) strength training, and 2) use of light loads (30-60% of 1 RM) performed at a fast contraction velocity with 2-3 min of rest between sets for multiple sets per exercise. It is also recommended that emphasis be placed on multiple-joint exercises, especially those involving the total body. For local muscular endurance training, it is recommended that light to moderate loads (40-60% of 1 RM) be performed for high repetitions (> 15) using short rest periods (< 90 s). In the interpretation of this position stand, as with prior ones, the recommendations should be viewed in context of the individual's target goals, physical capacity, and training status.
... Both training paradigms are used by strength/power athletes and sport enthusiasts; SR, however, is more common than TB among advanced bodybuilders (19), whereas TB is more popular among weightlifters (11,13). Previous research has also indicated that the use of an SR training program may be more beneficial for strength development than a TB workout by allowing a greater number of assistance exercises to be performed per workout (21). ...
... The increase in the number of assistance exercises seems to be an important stimulus for increasing strength in experienced, resistance-trained strength/power athletes (21). However, some coaches consider the TB approach a more appropriate training method for their athletes (7,33). ...
... However, in this study, training volume was similar between the groups, indicating that training frequency (e.g., how often muscle groups were trained) provided a greater impact on stimulating maximal strength and hypertrophy adaptations in experience, resistance-trained men. This is supportive of Hoffman and colleagues (21) who demonstrated that a greater training volume per muscle group was important for stimulating strength gains in experienced, strength-trained athletes. ...
Article
Bartolomei, S, Nigro, F, Malagoli Lanzoni, I, Masina, F, Di Michele, R, and Hoffman, JR. A comparison between total body and split routine resistance training programs in trained men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the effects of total body (TB) versus split routine (SR) resistance training workouts on maximal strength and muscle hypertrophy in trained men. Twenty-one resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a TB (TB: age = 24.1 ± 4.4 years; body mass = 78.7 ± 11.3 kg; body height = 177.0 ± 3.9 cm) or the SR group (SR: age = 24.9 ± 4.2 years; body mass = 79.2 ± 9.5 kg; body height = 175.2 ± 6.0 cm). Both groups performed a 10-week resistance training program. Isokinetic bench press at 75 and 25 cm·s (ISOK75 and ISOK25, respectively), isometric bench press (ISOBP), isometric squat (ISOSQ), and one repetition maximum BP and SQ assessments were performed before and after training. Muscle thickness of the pectoralis major (PECMT), superior part of trapezius (TRAPMT), and vastus lateralis (VLMT) muscles was also evaluated at the same timepoints using ultrasonography. Improvements were observed in both groups for all strength assessments and muscle thicknesses. Only changes in ISOK25 were significantly (p = 0.015) greater in TB than in SR, while significantly greater (p = 0.037) changes in VLMT were detected in SR compared with TB. Results indicated that a TB training paradigm may be more appropriate for maximal strength improvement, while an SR training protocol may be more optimal in stimulating muscle growth in experienced, resistance-trained men.
... In the Methods section (p. 77), Hoffman et al. (107) claimed that the so-called "core" exercises were operationally defined as the bench press and squat; however, in their Hoffman et al. (107) claimed that the weekly number of sets for the 6day/wk group was similar to the 4day/wk and 5day/wk group. However, their claim contradicts the data reported in their Table 4 (p. ...
... In the Methods section (p. 77), Hoffman et al. (107) claimed that the so-called "core" exercises were operationally defined as the bench press and squat; however, in their Hoffman et al. (107) claimed that the weekly number of sets for the 6day/wk group was similar to the 4day/wk and 5day/wk group. However, their claim contradicts the data reported in their Table 4 (p. ...
... The gains in 1 RM squat (5.2, 7.3, 7.5, and 6.5 %, 3, 4, 5, and 6 day/wk groups, respectively) were significant for all groups except the 3 day/wk group. Hoffman et al. (107) claimed that resistance training in the 5day/wk group, who performed the bench-press exercise 3x/wk, had the greatest impact on strength development because it was the only group to significantly improve 1 RM bench press (3.2 %). However, the 3day/wk group also performed the bench press and squat exercises 3x/wk, but showed no significant increase in either bench-press or squat strength. ...
Article
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JEPonline 2004;7(3):1-60. In February 2002, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) published a Position Stand entitled Progression Models in Resistance Training for Healthy Adults. The ACSM claims that the programmed manipulation of resistance-training protocols such as the training modality, repetition duration, range of repetitions, number of sets, and frequency of training will differentially affect specific physiological adaptations such as muscular strength, hypertrophy, power, and endurance. The ACSM also asserts that for progression in healthy adults, the programs for intermediate, advanced, and elite trainees must be different from those prescribed for novices. An objective evaluation of the resistance-training studies shows that these claims are primarily unsubstantiated. In fact, the preponderance of resistance-training studies suggest that simple, low-volume, time-efficient, resistance training is just as effective for increasing muscular strength, hypertrophy, power, and endurance—regardless of training experience—as are the complex, high-volume, time-consuming protocols that are recommended in the Position Stand. This document examines the basis for many of the claims in the Position Stand and provides an objective review of the resistance training literature.
... Studies [38,46,396,400] that prescribed four weekly training sessions per muscle group utilised a range of training methods (i.e. mixed, linear and non-linear) and durations (four to fifteen weeks) to improve strength capabilities in their athletes. ...
... A ten week intervention study [396] that assigned six training sessions per week (four sessions per muscle group) in a linear fashion (i.e. increasing from 4-5 sets of 8 at 80%, to 4-5 set of 2 reps at 95% 1RM from the first to final week) found moderate weekly gains in bench press (0.4%/week) and squat (0.6%/week) strength. ...
... This long term highvolume training intervention may have caused some overtraining effects within its athletes; hence the reduced weekly strength gains in comparison to the short-term interventions. The discrepancies in weekly strength gains between the short (4 and 6 weeks) and long term (10 weeks) training interventions were also partially caused by the frequency normalisation calculations, where the overall strength improvements of the four (strength increases of 9.9 -10.2%), six (strength increases of 3.3 -11.5%) and ten (strength increases of 1.4 -7.0%) week interventions were divided by their corresponding durations to allow for comparisons of weekly strength changes between studies [38,396,400] . ...
Thesis
Open Access: http://hdl.handle.net/10292/7333 Strength and ballistic qualities are vital to excelling in contact team sports, such as rugby. The assessment, development, retention and decay of these qualities are of great interest, as this information can be utilised by strength and conditioning coaches to better inform and guide the yearly training plan. The overall aim of this project was to develop innovative and effective strength and ballistic assessment batteries that provide an in depth athlete profile through novel analytical approaches to improve current methods of assessment, monitoring and programming in the semi-professional rugby union. In study one, measurement system validation (Chapter 4) outcomes revealed an inconsistency between peak force (PF), peak velocity (PV) and peak power (PP) between the force plate and accelerometers (hip and bar attachments) during vertical jumps (VJ). Both accelerometer attachments were reliable for assessing PF (ICC = 0.80 – 0.83), but were low to moderately reliable for monitoring PV and PP (ICC = 0.35 – 0.77); therefore, subsequent studies in this PhD utilised force plate technology and linear position transducers as the primary means of assessing ballistic performance. In Chapter five, bench throw (BTH) and VJ incremental relative load (body mass-VJ, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75% 1RM) profiles were also validated using a linear position transducer. The BTH (ICC > 0.80; CV < 11 %) and VJ (ICC > 0.75; CV < 11%) protocols described were relatively stable and reliable within and across testing sessions; and in turn deemed appropriate to monitor BTH and VJ PP, PF and PV adaptations in subsequent studies. The force-velocity profiling data was further analysed to predict maximum BTH and VJ force (Fmax) and velocity (Vmax) to provide a more holistic representation of these ballistic movements. In chapters six and seven, the effects of strength and sprint ability on the previously validated BTH and VJ force-velocity-power profiles were assessed. The comparative statistical analysis illustrated that stronger players produced higher BTH Pmax (14%) and Fmax (17%) and higher VJ Fmax (10%); whereas faster players produced greater VJ Pmax (14%) and Vmax (11%). These findings could be useful to better inform programming of individual and group mechanical efficiencies and deficiencies. The next three chapters used the major findings of these validation and comparative studies to assess the effects of training, detraining and a competitive season on the performance profile. Firstly, the five week complex training (Chapter 8) interventions (strength + heavy ballistic [SHB]; strength + light ballistic [SLB]) herein elicited positive adaptations in 1RM bench press (4 – 9 %) and 1RM squat (9 – 12 %); as well as reductions in 10, 20 and 30 m sprint times (-1 to -2%). SHB training caused positive shifts in Fmax (6 to 10%) and Pmax (12 to 46%); whereas the SLB training caused increases in Vmax (15 to 68%) and Pmax (15 to 36%). Findings indicate that acute SHB and SLB training can be implemented to elicit positive adaptations in strength, sprint ability and ballistic Fmax and Vmax capabilities, respectively. Secondly, the examination of six weeks of resistance detraining (Chapter 9) lead to small reductions in 1RM bench press (-1%) 1RM squat (-6%) and heavy load PF (2%); moderate and very large negative shifts in VJ Vmax (-35%) and Pmax (-14%); and large increases in sprint times over 10, 20 and 30 m (1-3%) were observed. The results suggest that decay rates using high velocity loads are greater than the high force loads. Finally, the effects of a competitive season (Chapter 10) on VJ (PP, F@PP and V@PP) was monitored pre- (58 ± 2 hrs) and post- (41 ± 10 hrs) match to assess weekly ballistic recovery patterns. Decreases in post-match PP (-2%) in comparison to baseline, and increases in pre-match PP (4%) and V@PP (3%) in comparison to post-match were observed. Furthermore, a very large correlation was also observed between PP (r = 0.72) and the number of hours post-match jump testing took place, a trendline fitted to this data also suggests that PP may be reduced for up to 110 hrs. There were also increases in PP (2%) and V@PP (6%) from the first two weeks of competition to the last two weeks,suggesting the mixed method strength and ballistic training performed 2 to 3 times per week throughout the competition period may be sufficient to maintain VJ PP. This information has provided a greater understanding of current in-season ballistic recovery patterns of rugby union competition; and in turn may allow for more informed planning (e.g. recovery modalities and weekly training load management) throughout future competitive seasons.
... Unter dem Begriff der Trainingshäufigkeit versteht man die Anzahl der Trainingseinheiten innerhalb eines Trainingszyklus, z.B. einer Woche oder eines Monats. Hoffman et al. (1990) stellen heraus, dass die Informationen zur Trainingshäufigkeit noch relativ unspezifisch und entsprechende Empfehlungen eher theoretisch begründet, denn empirisch verifiziert sind (33). Des Weiteren liegt eine hohe Variationsbreite innerhalb der Empfehlungen zur Trainingshäufigkeit in der Literatur vor (3,5,19,25,29,33,36,68,74). ...
... Unter dem Begriff der Trainingshäufigkeit versteht man die Anzahl der Trainingseinheiten innerhalb eines Trainingszyklus, z.B. einer Woche oder eines Monats. Hoffman et al. (1990) stellen heraus, dass die Informationen zur Trainingshäufigkeit noch relativ unspezifisch und entsprechende Empfehlungen eher theoretisch begründet, denn empirisch verifiziert sind (33). Des Weiteren liegt eine hohe Variationsbreite innerhalb der Empfehlungen zur Trainingshäufigkeit in der Literatur vor (3,5,19,25,29,33,36,68,74). ...
... Hoffman et al. (1990) stellen heraus, dass die Informationen zur Trainingshäufigkeit noch relativ unspezifisch und entsprechende Empfehlungen eher theoretisch begründet, denn empirisch verifiziert sind (33). Des Weiteren liegt eine hohe Variationsbreite innerhalb der Empfehlungen zur Trainingshäufigkeit in der Literatur vor (3,5,19,25,29,33,36,68,74). Ähnlich argumentiert Tesch (1992) indem er herausstellt, dass die Frage nach dem optimalen Erholungsschema, nach der individuellen Variationsbreite der Trainingsanpassung sowie nach dem Zusammenhang zwischen Trainingsintensität, Erholungszeit und adaptativen Reaktionen noch weitgehend offen bleiben muss (71). ...
Article
Resistance training frequency is one of the main training factors in competitive and non-competitive sports as well as in evidence-based medicine. A meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect sizes of training interventions. 2198 subjects were examined with a total of 118 effect sizes at 1-RM. The results of the meta-analysis show that two (1.18 ± 0.68 ES), three (1.42 ± 0.76 ES), and four (1.85 ± 1.94 ES) weekly training sessions are better to increase 1-RM than one (0.43 ±0.30 ES), five (0.41 ± 0.29 ES) or six (0.36 ± 0.04 ES) training sessions (F = 3.96; df = 5; p < 0.05). Furthermore, the effect size of training frequency is influenced by variables such as sex, training experience, training method and periodization of training. For advanced and trained subjects, two training sessions per week are suffi cient, whereas for beginners and untrained subjects three training sessions are suggested. Training interventions with periodized intensity as well as volume have additional effects for increasing 1-RM. The relationships of cost/benefit and effort/benefit show that for most athletes, three training sessions per week is the best choice to increase the 1-RM.
... Previous studies have investigated the influence of resistance training frequency on strength development (4,(6)(7)(8)(9)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(20)(21)(22)29,30), body composition (7,17,18,20,21,29), and functional performance (13,14,22,29) using several different experimental designs and populations. Despite the previous research on this topic, some doubts persist because of the difficulty of comparing the data from different studies with different experimental characteristics. ...
... Previous studies have investigated the influence of resistance training frequency on strength development (4,(6)(7)(8)(9)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(20)(21)(22)29,30), body composition (7,17,18,20,21,29), and functional performance (13,14,22,29) using several different experimental designs and populations. Despite the previous research on this topic, some doubts persist because of the difficulty of comparing the data from different studies with different experimental characteristics. ...
... For example, some authors have chosen to equalize the weekly training volume (frequency × sets × repetitions) between the experimental groups in order to isolate the variable training frequency (7,18,20). However, other authors preferred to not control the weekly volume (5,12,17). In the present study, the weekly training volume was not controlled such that the volume of training per session (sets × repetitions) could be kept constant between the groups, which seems to increase the external validity of the results. ...
Article
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Effects of Resistance Training Frequency on Strength Gains. JEPonline 2015;18(1):37-45. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of different training frequencies on strength gains in untrained males after 8 months of resistance training. Forty-five middle-age men were randomly assigned to one of 3 training groups: 2 (G2; n = 18), 3 (G3; n = 17), and 4 sessions·week-1 (G4; n = 10). Each group performed the same resistance training program with the exception of the training frequency. The 10RM tests were conducted in 2 nonconsecutive sessions for the bench press, leg press, and lat pulldown exercises at baseline, and after 4 and 8 months following resistance training. All three groups showed significant increases in 10RM loads for all exercises (P<0.05). The findings of this study indicate that 2 to 4 weekly training sessions produce significant strength gains. Thus, lower frequencies may be all that is necessary for individuals with short time to increase adherence and strength gains in untrained males. Key Words: Performance, Strength Training, Training Variables
... Comparisons have been made between different training frequencies within a week, with little or no control over total training volume (22,77). Braith et al. (22) showed that in previously untrained males and females training three days per week was superior to training for two days per week with one set of knee extensions at 7-10RM. ...
... However, the lower frequency training group still attained ≈80% of strength gains of the higher frequency group. Hoffman et al. (77) investigated the effects of selfselected frequency of training on strength in football players. Training five days per ...
... Muscular hypertrophy may be one of the major adaptations due to increased training of frequency. Hoffman et al. (77) found four days of resistance training per week significantly decreased bodyweight, while all frequencies tested (three to six days per week) significantly reduced sum of skinfolds. Thigh circumference was also significantly increased in four and five days per week groups, while chest circumference increased in three, four and five days per week groups. ...
Thesis
Maximal strength is a physical quality imperative to success in strength sports and can also play a role in enhancing performance within many other sports. Tapering is a reduction in training load frequently undertaken prior to competitions in order to minimise training related fatigue and thus improve athletic performance. There is currently limited research for athletes and coaches to utilise when planning tapering to maximise strength at key events. This thesis investigated how strength-trained men can best structure the taper period to improve strength performance and attempted to identify the mechanisms underlying any performance improvements. Two literature reviews (Chapters Two and Three) were performed to provide background information regarding training for maximal strength and summarise current knowledge on tapering for maximal strength. The literature revealed that maximal strength training should involve high intensity training (>80% one repetition maximum (1RM)), for multiple sets, with at least two sessions per week for each major muscle group. The current literature indicated that reductions in training volume (by 30-70%) with maintained, or slight increases, in intensity were most effective for improving maximal strength. However, optimal magnitudes of change during the taper were unclear. Short periods of training cessation (less than a week) were also found to be effective at enhancing, or maintaining, maximal strength. The first study (Chapter Four) used a qualitative approach to determine strategies currently utilised by 11 elite New Zealand powerlifters (age = 28.4 ± 7.0 years, best Wilks score = 431.9 ± 43.9 points). Athletes reduced training volume by 58.9 ± 8.4%, while maintaining (or slightly reducing) training intensity. The taper lasted 2.4 ± 0.9 weeks, with the final resistance training session 3.7 ± 1.6 days out from competition. Tapering was performed to achieve maximal recovery, and practices were largely informed through trial and error, with changes based upon ‘feel’. Athletes usually removed accessory exercises and focused primarily upon the competition lifts during the taper. The first training study (Chapter Five) involved a cross-over design to determine the effects of two durations, 3.5 or 5.5 days, of training cessation on performance following four-weeks of training. Eight resistance trained males (age = 23.8 ± 5.4 years, bodyweight (BW) = 79.6 ± 10.2 kg, relative deadlift 1RM = 1.90 ± 0.30 times BW) completed the study. Combined data showed significant performance improvements, compared to pre-training, for both countermovement jump (CMJ) height (P = 0.022) and isometric bench press (IBP) relative peak force (P = 0.011) following short term training cessation (both small effect size (ES) = 0.30). This significant improvement was not present on the final training day, showing that training cessation was an effective means of enhancing strength and power. No significant differences were observed between 3.5 and 5.5 days of training cessation for any measure. These results suggest that a short period of strength training cessation can have positive effects on maximal strength expression, perhaps due to decreased neuromuscular fatigue. The second training study (Chapter Six) also had a cross-over design to determine the effects of two variations in intensity (+5% or -10%) during a one week strength taper with volume reductions (-70%), following four-weeks of training. Eleven strength-trained males (age = 21.3 ± 3.3 years, BW = 92.3 ± 17.6 kg, relative 1RM deadlift = 1.90 ± 0.20 times BW) completed the study. Combined data for both groups showed significant improvements in CMJ height over time (P < 0.001), with significant improvements across all time points (pre- to post-training P = 0.010, ES = 0.23; pre-training to post-taper P = 0.001, ES = 0.37; and, post-training to post-taper P = 0.002, ES = 0.14). Combined data for CMJ flight time: contraction time also showed significant improvements over time (P = 0.004), with significant improvements from pre- to post-training (P = 0.012, ES = 0.27). Combined data for isometric mid-thigh pull (MTP) relative peak force showed significant improvements over time (P = 0.033), with significant increases found from pre- to post-training (P = 0.013, ES = 0.25). The higher intensity taper produced small ES improvements following the taper for CMJ height (ES = 0.43), CMJ flight time: contraction time (ES = 0.42) and MTP relative peak force (ES = 0.37). In contrast, the lower intensity taper only produced a small ES improvement for CMJ height (ES = 0.30). However, differences between groups were not significant. These results indicate that a strength taper with volume reductions can have positive effects on maximal strength and power performance, with a tendency for higher intensity tapering to be more effective. This thesis has documented current tapering practices of strength athletes and demonstrated both short term training cessation and volume reduced strength tapers as effective methods of improving maximal strength following training. When tapering, athletes should make substantial training volume reductions with little changes to training intensity. During a taper, training should focus on competition specific strength exercises, and strength training should cease a few days prior to important events.
... Twenty-five potential papers from the primary analysis were screened for content relevance. Following the inclusion and exclusion criteria (Table 1), 6 of the 25 publications on weekly RT frequency were excluded [34][35][36][37][38][39] in the analysis. Descriptions for the exclusion of six of the 25 studies (Table 2) included; publications assessing the same weekly HF only [36][37][38][39]; or omitted if exercises primarily Fig. 1 The flow of journal articles through the systematic review process engaged the cervical and lumbar muscles [34,35], as these muscles relate to both upper and lower body limbs, presenting a confounding influence. ...
... Following the inclusion and exclusion criteria (Table 1), 6 of the 25 publications on weekly RT frequency were excluded [34][35][36][37][38][39] in the analysis. Descriptions for the exclusion of six of the 25 studies (Table 2) included; publications assessing the same weekly HF only [36][37][38][39]; or omitted if exercises primarily Fig. 1 The flow of journal articles through the systematic review process engaged the cervical and lumbar muscles [34,35], as these muscles relate to both upper and lower body limbs, presenting a confounding influence. ...
... Exercise physiology literature suggests that beginners train 2 to 3 days week − 1 and that more experienced subjects engage in more frequent training [53]. The ACSM position stand [10] cites 16 RT studies that support their frequency recommendations for strength development; for untrained [17,29,[53][54][55][56]; intermediate [16,17,49,53,57]; and well-trained subjects [38,53,58]. The position stand [10] recommends that novices (those with no RT experience or have not trained for several years) train the entire body 2 to 3 days week − 1 . ...
Article
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Background: The current recommendations for resistance training (RT) frequency range from 2 to 5 days per week (days week- 1) depending on the subjects' training status. However, the relationship between RT frequency and muscular strength remains controversial with reported variances existing across different population groups. We conducted a meta-analysis that (1) quantified the effects of low (LF; 1 day week- 1), medium (MF; 2 days week- 1), or high (HF; ≥ 3 days week- 1) RT frequency on muscular strength per exercise; (2) examined the effects of different RT frequency on one repetition maximum (1RM) strength gain profiles (multi-joint exercises and single joint exercises); (3) examined the effects of different RT frequency on 1RM strength gain when RT volume is equated; and (4) examined the effects of different RT frequency on 1RM strength gains on upper and lower body. Methods: Computerised searches were performed using the terms 'strength training frequency', 'resistance training frequency', 'training frequency', and 'weekly training frequency'. After review, 12 studies were deemed suitable according to pre-set eligibility criteria. Primary data were pooled using a random-effects model. Outcomes analysed for main effects were pre- to post strength change with volume-equated studies that combined multi-joint and isolation exercise; isolation-only exercise and untrained subjects only. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using I2 and Cochran's Q statistics with funnel plots used to assess publication bias and sensitivity analyses calculated for subgroups. Results: Pre- versus post-training strength analysis comprised of 74 treatment groups from 12 studies. For combined multi-joint and isolation exercises, there was a trend towards higher RT frequency compared with lower frequency [mean effect size (ES) 0.09 (95% CI - 0.06-0.24)] however not significant (p = 0.25). Volume-equated pre- to post-intervention strength gain was similar when LF was compared to HF [mean ES 0.03 (95% CI - 0.20-0.27); p = 0.78]. Upper body pre- to post-intervention strength gain was greater when HF was compared with LF [mean ES 0.48 (95% CI 0.20-0.76)] with significant differences between frequencies (p < 0.01). Upper body pre- to post-intervention strength gain was similar when MF was compared with LF (ES 0.12; 95% CI - 0.22-0.47); p = 0.48]. There was no significant difference in lower body mean ES between HF and LF [mean ES 0.21(95% CI - 0.55-0.13); p = 0.22]. There was a trend towards a difference in mean ES between MF and HF [mean ES 0.41(95% CI - 0.26-1.09); however, the effect was not significant (p = 0.23). Conclusions: The existing data does not provide a strong correlation between increased weekly training frequency (HF) and maximal strength gain in upper and lower body resistance exercises for a mixed population group. When RT is volume-equated for combined multi-joint and isolation exercises, there is no significant effect of RT frequency on muscular strength gain. More investigations are required to explore the effects of varying weekly training frequencies adequately.
... In experimental studies, a large number of studies compared one vs. two and three, three vs. four and six days per week RT on muscular adaptations and the results are controversial [4,6,7,12,15,16,20,22,25,26]; however, it seems that three days per week RT could be an optimum training modality for adaptations. Furthermore, almost all the studies examined training for three days per week or less; none of the included studies investigated high training days such as RT performed four days per week and did not compare split routine RT for three vs. four days per week on muscular adaptations, and data about this subject are unknown. ...
... Changes in muscle size or CSA could be induced by increases in myofilaments, actin and myosin filaments, sarcoplasm, and connective tissue [1,8,19]. The findings of this study are in line with previous researchers who reported improvements in muscle size or hypertrophy after RT [5,8,15,16]. In addition, the results of this study are in line with previous reviews and meta-analyses that addressed the beneficial effects of RT on muscle hypertrophy [13,23]. ...
... In relation to training frequency, Häkkkinen et al. [15] reported that two sessions per week of RT is more effective than one session per week to increase muscle CSA. Hoffman et al. [16] examined the effects of 10 weeks of different RT frequencies on muscular hypertrophy, and found that RT 4 and 5 times per week induced similar gains in chest and thigh circumferences. Recently, Schoenfeld et al. [23] in Variables RT3 (n = 11) RT4 (n = 11) CG (n = 11) ...
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Study aim : The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks of resistance training (RT) with three vs. four sessions per week and equated training volume on muscular adaptations in men. Materials and methods : Thirty-three healthy young men volunteered to participate in the study and were randomly assigned to three times per week whole-body RT (RT3, n = 11), four times per week whole-body RT (RT4, n = 11) or a control group (CG, n = 11). Before and after training, participants were evaluated for one-repetition maximum (1RM) and muscular endurance (i.e., 60% of 1RM to failure) for the leg press and bench press. In addition, thigh, arm, chest, and calf circumferences, and percent body fat were assessed before and after training. Results : The findings revealed significant main effects of time for chest and thigh circumferences (p ≤ 0.05). There were no significant group × time interactions for chest and thigh circumferences (p > 0.05), but the RT4 showed greater changes (effect size [ES]: 0.48 vs. 0.15) in chest circumference, while the RT3 showed greater changes (ES: 0.77 vs. 0.35) in thigh circumference. Significant group × time interactions were observed for the 1RM of leg and bench presses (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analyses showed greater improvements for RT3 in comparison to RT4 in 1RM bench press (p = 0.01, ES: 0.77 vs. 0.6) and leg presses (p = 0.009, ES: 0.94 vs. 0.86). Conclusions : These results suggest that RT induces meaningful adaptive effects to improve strength and muscle size in men and RT3 appears to be more effective to induce muscular adaptations.
... In the Methods section (p. 77), Hoffman et al. (107) claimed that the so-called "core" exercises were operationally defined as the bench press and squat; however, in their Hoffman et al. (107) claimed that the weekly number of sets for the 6day/wk group was similar to the 4day/wk and 5day/wk group. However, their claim contradicts the data reported in their Table 4 (p. ...
... In the Methods section (p. 77), Hoffman et al. (107) claimed that the so-called "core" exercises were operationally defined as the bench press and squat; however, in their Hoffman et al. (107) claimed that the weekly number of sets for the 6day/wk group was similar to the 4day/wk and 5day/wk group. However, their claim contradicts the data reported in their Table 4 (p. ...
... The gains in 1 RM squat (5.2, 7.3, 7.5, and 6.5 %, 3, 4, 5, and 6 day/wk groups, respectively) were significant for all groups except the 3 day/wk group. Hoffman et al. (107) claimed that resistance training in the 5day/wk group, who performed the bench-press exercise 3x/wk, had the greatest impact on strength development because it was the only group to significantly improve 1 RM bench press (3.2 %). However, the 3day/wk group also performed the bench press and squat exercises 3x/wk, but showed no significant increase in either bench-press or squat strength. ...
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In February 2002, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) published a Position Stand entitled Progression Models in Resistance Training for Healthy Adults. The ACSM claims that the programmed manipulation of resistance-training protocols such as the training modality, repetition duration, range of repetitions, number of sets, and frequency of training will differentially affect specific physiological adaptations such as muscular strength, hypertrophy, power, and endurance. The ACSM also asserts that for progression in healthy adults, the programs for intermediate, advanced, and elite trainees must be different from those prescribed for novices. An objective evaluation of the resistance-training studies shows that these claims are primarily unsubstantiated. In fact, the preponderance of resistance-training studies suggest that simple, low-volume, time-efficient, resistance training is just as effective for increasing muscular strength, hypertrophy, power, and endurance - regardless of training experience - as are the complex, high-volume, time-consuming protocols that are recommended in the Position Stand. This document examines the basis for many of the claims in the Position Stand and provides an objective review of the resistance training literature.
... Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence category A. Unilateral and bilateral single-and multiple-joint exercises should be included in RT with emphasis on multiple-joint exercises for maximizing overall muscle strength in novice, intermediate, and advanced individuals (33,(96)(97)(98)(99)(100)(101)(102)(103)(104)(105)(106)(107)113,118,120,(149)(150)(151)(152)(153)(154)(155)(156)(157)169,172,176). ...
... Optimal progression of frequency during advanced training varies considerably. It has been shown that football players training 4-5 dIwk j1 achieved better results than those who trained either 3 or 6 dIwk j1 (118). Advanced and elite weightlifters and bodybuilders use high-frequency training, for example, four to six sessions per week or more. ...
... Evidence category C. It is recommended that advanced lifters train 4-6 dIwk j1 . Elite weightlifters and bodybuilders may benefit from using very high frequency, for example, two workouts in 1 d for 4-5 dIwk j1 (102,118,206,225). ...
Article
SUMMARY In order to stimulate further adaptation toward specific training goals, progressive resistance training (RT) protocols are necessary. The optimal characteristics of strength-specific programs include the use of concentric (CON), eccentric (ECC), and isometric muscle actions and the performance of bilateral and unilateral single- and multiple-joint exercises. In addition, it is recommended that strength programs sequence exercises to optimize the preservation of exercise intensity (large before small muscle group exercises, multiple-joint exercises before single-joint exercises, and higher-intensity before lower-intensity exercises). For novice (untrained individuals with no RT experience or who have not trained for several years) training, it is recommended that loads correspond to a repetition range of an 8-12 repetition maximum (RM). For intermediate (individuals with approximately 6 months of consistent RT experience) to advanced (individuals with years of RT experience) training, it is recommended that individuals use a wider loading range from 1 to 12 RM in a periodized fashion with eventual emphasis on heavy loading (1-6 RM) using 3- to 5-min rest periods between sets performed at a moderate contraction velocity (1-2 s CON; 1-2 s ECC). When training at a specific RM load, it is recommended that 2-10% increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number. The recommendation for training frequency is 2-3 dIwkj1 for novice training, 3-4 dIwkj1 for intermediate training, and 4-5 dIwkj1 for advanced training. Similar program designs are recom- mended for hypertrophy training with respect to exercise selection and frequency. For loading, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 1-12 RM be used in periodized fashion with emphasis on the 6-12 RM zone using 1- to 2-min rest periods between sets at a moderate velocity. Higher volume, multiple-set programs are recommended for maximizing hypertrophy. Progression in power training entails two general loading strategies: 1) strength training and 2) use of light loads (0-60% of 1 RM for lower body exercises; 30-60% of 1 RM for upper body exercises) performed at a fast contraction velocity with 3-5 min of rest between sets for multiple sets per exercise (three to five sets). It is also recommended that emphasis be placed on multiple-joint exercises especially those involving the total body. For local muscular endurance training, it is recommended that light to moderate loads (40-60% of 1 RM) be performed for high repetitions (915) using short rest periods (G90 s). In the interpretation of this position stand as with prior ones, recommendations should be applied in context and should be contingent upon an individual's target goals, physical capacity, and training
... Training frequencies can be interpreted across the whole spectrum, with some sports considering a 'high' frequency to be the equivalent of a 'low' frequency in other sports; for example, within basketball, the majority of the season is spent playing three games per week, whereby one or two dedicated RT sessions would be considered high frequency, compared to a sport such as rugby or American Football whereby that same frequency would be considered low. From a research perspective, there is also no clear definition of what constitutes high and low frequencies, with some studies for example labeling three sessions a week as low [28,29] frequency and some as high [30][31][32][33]. The authors, therefore, have not definitively classified any frequency as either being low or high but made comparisons as lower and higher. ...
... 2.2. Figure 1 illustrates that of the total studies identified, 142 articles were duplicates and, therefore, removed first. Following the application of the predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria to both titles and abstracts of the identified studies, and with further inspection of the full text if required, a total of ten studies remained for further analysis [28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37]. ...
... The lack of grouping has, therefore, led to some crossover between studies that have used one frequency as the 'higher' frequency that has also been included in a different study as the 'lower' frequency. An example of the crossover in training frequencies is demonstrated by McLester et al. [28] and Schoenfeld et al. [29] who both utilized three times per week as their higher RT frequency, whereas three times per week was used as the lower frequency in a number of the other studies included [30][31][32][33]. Although the crossover between descriptors of 'lower' and 'higher' frequencies may appear to be a possible issue in the reporting of data, it is important to bear in mind that the differences in effect observed range from trivial to small (g = − 0.10-0.33) ...
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Background In-season competition and tournaments for team sports can be both long and congested, with some sports competing up to three times per week. During these periods of time, athletes need to prepare technically, tactically and physically for the next fixture and the short duration between fixtures means that, in some cases, physical preparation ceases, or training focus moves to recovery as opposed to progressing adaptations. Objective The aim of this review was to investigate the effect of training frequency on muscular strength to determine if a potential method to accommodate in-season resistance training, during busy training schedules, could be achieved by utilizing shorter more frequent training sessions across a training week. Methods A literature search was conducted using the SPORTDiscus, Ovid, PubMed and Scopus databases. 2134 studies were identified prior to application of the following inclusion criteria: (1) maximal strength was assessed, (2) a minimum of two different training frequency groups were included, (3) participants were well trained, and finally (4) compound exercises were included within the training programmes. A Cochrane risk of bias assessment was applied to studies that performed randomized controlled trials and consistency of studies was analysed using I² as a test of heterogeneity. Secondary analysis of studies included Hedges’ g effect sizes (g) and between-study differences were estimated using a random-effects model. Results Inconsistency of effects between pre- and post-intervention was low within-group (I² = 0%), and moderate between-group (I² ≤ 73.95%). Risk of bias was also low based upon the Cochrane risk of bias assessment. Significant increases were observed overall for both upper (p ≤ 0.022) and lower (p ≤ 0.008) body strength, pre- to post-intervention, when all frequencies were assessed. A small effect was observed between training frequencies for upper (g ≤ 0.58) and lower body (g ≤ 0.45). Conclusion Over a 6–12-week period, there are no clear differences in maximal strength development between training frequencies, in well-trained populations. Such observations may permit the potential for training to be manipulated around competition schedules and volume to be distributed across shorter, but more frequent training sessions within a micro-cycle rather than being condensed into 1–2 sessions per week, in effect, allowing for a micro-dosing of the strength stimuli.
... Alguns estudos procuraram investigar os efeitos crônicos do TF e TP sobre o desempenho em testes de força, velocidade, agilidade, impulsão vertical e resistência (Deane, Chow, Tillman, & Fournier, 2005;Delecluse et al., 1995;G. Harris, et al., 2000;Hoffman, et al., 2004;Hoffman, Kraemer, Andrew, Deschenes, & Kemp, 1990;Hoffman et al., 2005;Kotzamanidis, 2006;Maio Alves, et al., 2010;McBride, Triplett-McBride, Davie, & Newton, 2002;Moore, et al., 2005;Myer, et al., 2007;Paavolainen, Häkkinen, Hämäläinen, Nummela, & Rusko, 1999;Rimmer & Sleivert, 2000;Spinks, Murphy, Spinks, & Lockie, 2007), e nesse casos foram utilizadas amostras compostas apenas por atletas de esportes associados a eventos de velocidade e saltos. De forma geral, os autores procuraram comparar diferentes modelos de TF e TP e a possível influência sobre os testes de desempenho motor, visto que significativas associações foram encontradas por alguns estudos (G. ...
... Os procedimentos do teste foram previamente descritos por (Cormie, et al., 2010a). (Impellizzeri, et al., 2008;Rampinini, et al., 2007 (Hoffman, et al., 1990) (2004). Para calcular o tamanho da amostra, foram seguidos os procedimentos sugeridos por (Beck, 2013), e foi usado o software G * Power 3.1. ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this study was to compare hypertrophy training (HT) and contrast complex training (CCT) at load controlled velocity on the repeated-shuttle-sprint ability (RSSA), vertical jump, maximum strength, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), maximal voluntary concentric dynamic force (MVDF), velocity / agility tests, and muscle architecture in male, young elite soccer players during the competitive season. Twenty-two male soccer players (age: 18.4 ± 0.5 years; weight: 70.2 ± 9.1 Kg; height: 179.9 ± 7.5 cm, % Body fat: 6.5 ± 2.8 %) belonging to the category U-20 of Fluminense Football Club team of the first Brazilian league division, were randomly assigned into two groups: CCT (n = 10) and HT (n = 12). The study was conducted through a randomized experiment design over an eight week period. During the study period, anthropometric measurements, muscle architecture, maximal dynamic strength, countermovement squat jump, squat jump, RSSA, strength test, isokinetic test and peak power were applied and to verify the efficiency of both CCT and HT. After statistical analysis (p<0.05), the results demonstrate that specific CCT regimen (power combined with plyometric and specific field sprints tasks)can induce relevant adaptations in some RSSA, velocity and agility parameters as well as in vertical jumping ability in young male soccer players. On the other hand, the HT promotes significant changes on strength, MVDF, countermovement jump with added external load and increased muscle thickness parameter. In conclusion, the CCT protocol performed three times / week for 8-weeks during in-season at load controlled velocity through ballistic power and/or Olympic lifting exercise followed by plyometric exercise and/or sprints tasks could use to improve RSSA dec %, RSSA mean, initial speed (five and 10 meters). improve agility, countermovement jump, squat jump and strength. While de HT develop strength, muscle growth and MVDF. The duration of the experiment could not be sufficient to result in greater adaptations of the muscle architecture, The coach of soccer player can choice CCT or HT protocol according to the needs and functions performed by soccer player
... From physiological point of view, it is much easier to maintain performance level when training athletes, then improve of the field that has already used proporcions of high adaptation. This statement is especially true, when the improvemet wants to be done in short period of time within the training program, for example 8-10 weeks (Atha, 1981;Hoffman, Kraemer, Fry, Deschenes and Kemp, 1990;Moritani and De Vries, 1979). Elite athletes must train frequently to cretae little changes in performance. ...
... Elite athletes must train frequently to cretae little changes in performance. Because of that, physiological adaptations are created in organism at the expence of little changes Hoffman, Kraemer, Fry, Deschenes and Kemp, 1990). Training has to be well-planned, effects have to be understood and evaluated. ...
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Sports training, as organized system of training operators and motor stimulants in the human body, create adaptive changes on locomotor (bones, mucles, joints), cardio-vascular, hormonal and other levels of organic systems, and also on body composition. According to Saley (1975, from Milanović, 2010), general adaptational syndrome represents training volume, i.e stress which the athlete is exposed to and causes reduction of athletes functions, followed by period of organism adaptation on external, i.e enviromental factors and improving general state of athletes organism. Several important concepts must be fully understood, when we approach to person with training procces: 1) each person different reacts on training program, 2) acquisition of physiological or performed size is in relation to the adaptational triggers represented in each athlete, 3) the amount of physiological adaptation depends on „recipes“ prescribed in training programme, 4) training for athlete's acquisition of performance is different than training based on optimal health conditions, because the adaptation needs bigger intensity, or better say volume loads. Adaptational changes on training program represent dinamic way of athlete's physical development and based on that, trainers and athletes must understand on which way certain training protocols effect on athlete's organism, i.e. on athlete's competition performance.
... Mean 2-mile run times were improved by 33 seconds in starters and 18 seconds in nonstarters. Hoffman et al. 61 recruited collegiate football players for strength training (2-6 days/week) and football conditioning (2 days/week) as part of a 10-week offseason conditioning program. Mean improvement on the 2-mile run from football training among all groups was 116 seconds. ...
... As this notable improvement in the 2-mile run time was achieved with only strength training and sprint work, it is important to note that just resistance and sprint training has been shown to improve 2-mile run times in non-endurance trained athletes. 61 Conventional training programs for athletes competing in longer middle or long distance running events have seldom included typical strength training. It is assumed that runners irrationally fear a performance-reducing gain in muscle mass associated with strength gains or that time spent on strength training has an unfavorable cost-benefit. ...
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Very little peer-reviewed information is available to aid military personnel in selecting training programs to enhance performance on fitness tests and direct fitness-related military policy. Objective: This review provides recommendations on training programs for enhancing performance on 1.5-mile and 2-mile runs based on the available relevant literature. Design: Short review article. Methods: Collected relevant research articles by using search terms such as aerobic power, military physical fitness test, strength training, resistance training, endurance training, high intensity interval training, running economy, 3 km run, 5 km run, and 1.5/2-mile run. Results: Evidence has shown running performance can improve with a combination of traditional strength training, high intensity interval training, and distance training. Conclusion: A combination of traditional strength training, high intensity interval training, and distance training should be used to enhance running performance on the 1.5 and 2-mile run tests used by the military.
... Dentre as variáveis de prescrição, a frequência de treinamento é uma importante variável que vem sendo pesquisa atualmente [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] . A frequência de treinamento refere-se ao número de sessões realizadas durante um período específico de tempo e também pode ser caracterizada como o número de sessões nas quais um mesmo exercício ou grupamento muscular é exercitado por semana 16 . ...
... A frequência de treinamento refere-se ao número de sessões realizadas durante um período específico de tempo e também pode ser caracterizada como o número de sessões nas quais um mesmo exercício ou grupamento muscular é exercitado por semana 16 . Alguns estudos já investigaram a influência desta variável sobre as adaptações ao treinamento em populações diversas [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] ; porém, poucos experimentos analisaram a influência exclusiva do TF sobre o desempenho funcional na população idosa 5,8,9,25 . ...
Article
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Introdução: No envelhecimento ocorrem declínios estruturais e funcionais que podem afetar a independência física. O treinamento de força (TF) é capaz de promover melhoras neste quesito, entretanto, poucos experimentos investigaram a influencia da frequência semanal. Objetivo: verificar a influência da frequência semanal do TF sobre o desempenho funcional em idosas. Métodos: 21 mulheres idosas foram divididas em dois grupos que treinavam em uma (G1: n=11) ou duas vezes por semana (G2: n=10). O TF aplicado foi no formato de circuito que consis - tiu de três passagens com intervalo de 30 segundos entre os exercícios e faixa de repetições entre oito a 10. Resultados: Os resultados demonstraram melhora em relação ao pré-treinamento em todos os testes em ambos os grupos (p<0,05). No entanto, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos (p>0,05). Conclusão: O TF é capaz de promover melhoras no desempenho funcional inde - pende da frequência de treinamento.
... In contrast, in the early 1980s, one study reported that running performance after a training program with resistance exercises revealed no improvement in a 40 yard sprint [14], while later a number of studies supported that strength training had a negative effect on speed, and that sprinters must train only maximum velocity sprints as well as speed strength exercises based on body mass resistance [15,16]. Similarly, researchers who examined the relationship between strength training and sprinting performance reported that the improvement in athletes' maximal strength does not have any positive impact on their sprinting ability as measured by athletes' fastest time [17,18]. Yet other researchers examining the influence of highresistance and high-velocity training on sprinting performance recommended that a combination of strength and speed training could offer a significant improvement in sprinters' performance [19]. ...
... Furthermore, maximum strength has a positive and linear relationship with the athlete's acceleration ability to increase speed from the starting position to the attainment of maximum speed. In contrast, other authors [15,17] support that the maximal strength did not improve the athletes' running speed, claiming that the use of resistance training is not an adequate training method for sprinters, who must exercise predominantly with coordination runs or maximumvelocity sprints. Controversies related to the findings of the above studies [19,20] led us to state that the combination of maximum-strength training with sprints at the highest intensity is suitable for the development of sprinters' best performance. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of strength training on sprinting performance. 27 young male athletes were divided into three groups: neuro-muscular (NGroup), hypertrophy (HGroup) and control (CGroup). The athletes in NGroup and HGroup were training 3 times per week for 8 weeks. The fastest times of 30 m and 60 m testing trials were recorded prior to, in the middle of and at the end of the training program. ANOVA revealed a significant improvement in fastest times in both 30 m (8%) and 60 m (5.9%) runs in the athletes from the NGroup. Similarly, the improvement in speed of HGroup athletes was 6.2% in 30 m and 5.2% in 60 m, respectively, while a slight improvement in fastest times in 30 m (2.1%) and 60 m (2.4%) was shown in the CGroup athletes. Conclusively, a greater improvement in speed in both 30 m and 60 m was observed in the athletes from the NGroup.
... The terms used to define training phase length in a periodized program have 217 become relatively standard in the strength and scientific communities: ...
... Hakkkinen et al. (11) reported greater increases in muscle CSA when training volume was divided into two sessions per day rather than one. Huffman et al. (26) examined the effects of 10 weeks varying self-selected training frequencies among collegiate football players using different body-part training programs, and reported significant changes in the chest and thigh circumference, and sum of skinfold following four or five session-per-week training. Previous study reported increases in lean tissue mass after 10 weeks of training (27). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of short-term equal-volume resistance training with different workout frequency on maximal strength, endurance, and body composition in novice subjects. Thirty-nine healthy males comprised four groups; total-body resistance training (12 exercises for one session per week) (part I=10), total-body resistance training (12 exercises for two sessions per week) (part II=10), lower-body, upper-body, and upper-body resistance training (12 exercises for three sessions per week) (part III=9), and control group (CG=10). Assessments of body composition, leg and arm circumferences, body weight, strength (one repetition maximum in bench and leg press) and endurance (bench and leg press) were determined before and after 8 weeks of training. One repetition maximum in bench and leg press was improved significantly in all training groups (P < 0.05). All groups increased body weight, body composition, and bench and leg press endurance (P < 0.05), but PIII group showed a little improvement rather than other groups (P > 0.05). The PIII group not only increased thigh circumference but also improved arm circumference, whereas the PI and PII groups changed either arm circumference or thigh circumference (P < 0.05). It is concluded that in healthy young men, whole and split weight training routine produce similar results over the first 2 months of training, with minimal differences among groups.
... Soccer players must reach their peak as part of preseason training, and then maintain it for extended periods of up to 35 weeks. Therefore, it has been suggested that while the classical or traditional form of periodization is appropriate during the off-season and preseason, a nontraditional (nonlinear) form of periodization is more appropriate to team sports during the in-season (33,48,(55)(56)(57). This form of periodization involves the variation in training prescription and volume loads on a session-by-session basis to concurrently account for multiple training goals. ...
Article
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Soccer is characterized as a high-intensity, intermittent, contact team sport that requires a number of proficient physical and physiological capabilities to perform successfully. Apart from the necessary technical and tactical skills required, soccer players must also develop and retain a high level of aerobic and anaerobic conditioning, speed, agility, strength, and power. These are best developed through high-intensity interval training, small-sided games, repeated sprints, coached speed and agility sessions and strength and power-based gym sessions. Soccer coaches and strength and conditioning coaches must work cohesively to ensure a structured and effective program is adhered to.
... In athlete populations, fatigue is often studied to understand underperformance and injury [32]. Insufficient recovery time, the lack of optimal training load, and training intensity have all been associated with fatigue [32,33]. Although fatigue has been well documented in postpartum and athlete populations separately, it has not been ...
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Background In 2019, a majority of runners participating in running events were female and 49% were of childbearing age. Studies have reported that women are initiating or returning to running after childbirth with up to 35% reporting pain. There are no studies exploring running-related pain or risk factors for this pain after childbirth in runners. Postpartum runners have a variety of biomechanical, musculoskeletal, and physiologic impairments from which to recover from when returning to high impact sports like running, which could influence initiating or returning to running. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify risk factors associated with running-related pain in postpartum runners with and without pain. This study also aimed to understand the compounding effects of multiple associative risk factors by developing a clinical decision tool to identify postpartum runners at higher risk for pain.Methods Postpartum runners with at least one child ≤36 months who ran once a week and postpartum runners unable to run because of pain, but identified as runners, were surveyed. Running variables (mileage, time to first postpartum run), postpartum variables (delivery type, breastfeeding, incontinence, sleep, fatigue, depression), and demographic information were collected. Risk factors for running-related pain were analyzed in bivariate regression models. Variables meeting criteria (P19 (OR 2.48; 95% CI 1.44, 4.28), previous running injury (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.31, 2.91), vaginal delivery (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.06, 2.50), incontinence (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.31, 2.84) and
... Bobbert and Van Soest (1994) reported that following training designed to enhance the neuromuscular system, the nervous system must learn to control and transfer the adaptation in neural function to increase SSC function. Hoffman et al. (1990) also found that low-frequency training resulted in minimal development of vertical jump performance. There it may be possible that the frequency and type of training employed in the microcycle of the present study was insufficient to cause an improvement in CMJ performance and adaptation of the neuromuscular system. ...
Thesis
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The popularity of soccer throughout the world has led to the demand for a scientific approach to the preparation of players for competitive matches. Although previous researchers have attempted to understand the training demands undertook by soccer players, limited information is known regarding the structure of training in soccer. At present research has focused on the frequency and duration of soccer training without using both objective and subjective measures of training load to systematically evaluate training practices in elite teams. Little is also known regarding the periodisation strategies employed by elite soccer teams across a competitive season and whether they follow traditional models of periodisation. With this in mind, the primary aim of this thesis is to therefore characterise the current training periodisation practices that exist in elite soccer using applied methods of training load assessment. The aim of the first study (Chapter 3) was to evaluate the use of Global Positioning Devices (GPS) for the measurement of soccer-specific activities to provide objective data for training load assessment. Findings from this study were applied to study 3 (Chapter 5) of the thesis. Firstly, a soccer-specific movement course was designed based on the movements exhibited by an elite soccer player during a competitive match using a multi-camera tracking system (ProZone®). Two moderately trained males performed 10 bouts of the soccer-specific track following familiarisation and a 10 minute standardised warm up. Both subjects wore two 10Hz GPS units inside a custom-made vest during all bouts of the track to determine both reliability and inter-unit reliability of the GPS devices. Data analysis revealed the reliability of the GPS devices was good for distance covered at lower velocities (0 – 4 m/s; CV% = 0.6 – 3.6%). However when the velocity of movement increased (> 4 m/s), the reliability of the units decreased (CV% = 12.7 – 33.6%). Both total distance (CV% = 0.6 – 1.5%) and max speed (CV% = 2.6 – 2.7%) were both found to be highly reliable variables. However the devices demonstrated high levels of inter-unit reliability error due to an increase in systematic error with random distribution of data points between both devices for all variables measured. The data suggested that 10Hz GPS devices are reliable for the measurement of lower velocity (0 – 4 m/s) running, including total distance and max speed. However, care must be taken when analysing data in higher velocity bands (> 4 m/s) due to the high error rates observed. The high inter-unit reliability error also suggests that 10Hz GPS devices cannot be used interchangeably between players in order to minimise the associated error. The aim of the second study (Chapter 4) was to quantify the reliability and validity of a portable vertical jump assessment tool (Optojump®) for use in the applied setting. Vertical jump assessment was utilised as a measurement tool to analyse the effect of training load on the neuromuscular system that was evaluated in study 4 (Chapter 6) of the thesis. Eleven healthy male subjects were familiarised to perform four separate common types of vertical jump test: countermovement with arm swing (CMJ-W), countermovement without arm swing (CMJ-WO), squat jump (SJ) and drop jump (DJ). Contact time, flight time and jump height were selected as jump variables for the study. For reliability assessment, all subjects performed 3 effort of each jump type across 5 identical testing sessions (separated by minimum of 2 days). For validity assessment, subjects were asked to perform the same jump modalities as the previous investigation on one occasion while data was simultaneously collected from both a force plate (criterion instrument) and the Optojump photocells. The data revealed the Optojump device was highly reliable for the assessment of jump flight and height for CMJ-W, CMJ-WO, SJ and DJ (all CV% = 3.2 and 5.6%). However reliability of the device was reduced for the measurement of contact time with the DJ (CV% = 13.9%). Validity data revealed that all jump types and variables were highly valid in comparison to the force plate criterion measure (SEE% = < 1%, Pearsons correlation = r > 0.99). This study revealed that the Optojump device is highly reliable and valid for all jump types and variables, with the exception of contact time for DJ. Therefore the Optojump system may be used with confidence to detect within-group changes in applied assessments of vertical jump performance. Due to the high cost and lack of portability of laboratory-based force plates, the Optojump system is a viable alternative for accurate jump measurement and neuromuscular assessment. The CMJ-WO jump assessment was chosen for study 4 for comparison with previous research. The aim of the third study (Chapter 5) was to quantify the periodisation strategies employed by an elite professional soccer team throughout a competitive season. Training load data was collected from 37 elite outfield soccer players at one professional English soccer team over a 45 week period during the 2011-2012 domestic season. All players wore global positioning system (GPS) devices, heart rate (HR) belts and were asked to provide a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session to generate training load data. Players were assigned to one of 5 positional groups: central defender (CD), wide defender (WD), central midfielder (CM), wide midfielder (WM) and attacker (AT). The data was separated into the pre-season (6 weeks duration) and in-season (39 weeks duration) phases in order to investigate specific training periods recognised within the annual plan. The pre-season phase was further separated into weekly blocks for analysis of the structure employed in each specific microcycle. The in-season phase was divided into 6 x 6 week blocks for analysis of mesocycle structure. Within the in-season data, three separate microcycles (weeks 7, 24 and 39) were selected consisting of the same weekly training schedules to determine differences in microcycle training load pattern existed during the in-season phase. In addition, the training data within a given microcycle was analysed to investigate the loading patterns in relation to number of days away from the competitive match fixture. Linear mixed modelling analysis revealed significant differences for total distance and average HR (P < 0.05) between periods 1, 3 and 6 during training mesocycles. However no differences were found for training variables during both pre-season and in-season microcycles (P > 0.05). Training load variables were significantly reduced on match day (MD) -1 (P < 0.05) but remained similar across MD-2, MD-3 and MD-5 (P > 0.05) during in-season microcycles. CM players generally covered the most total distance compared to other positions. Defenders reported higher internal load values (average HR and RPE) compared to attackers during in-season training phases but was not evident during pre-season. This study revealed that training load doesn’t appear to be systematically periodised across a competitive season in an elite soccer team. This may have practical implications for training planning, as monotonous training load prescription may lead to maladaptation in soccer players during a competitive season. This was the first study to systematically evaluate periodisation strategies in an elite soccer team, but further work is required to determine such practices at different soccer teams. The aim of the fourth study (Chapter 6) was to determine the neuromuscular response to a microcycle of soccer training in elite soccer players using vertical jump assessment via the Optojump device. Nine elite level youth soccer players from an U18 soccer academy team were recruited for the study. The players underwent four separate on-field soccer training sessions following familiarisation of all testing procedures. Players were assessed for CMJ (flight time and jump height) both pre and post each training session in order to determine any differences in neuromuscular status across a training microcycle. Training load data was analysed using GPS, HR and RPE and the relationship with the absolute change in CMJ performance was assessed. Data analysis revealed no significant difference in CMJ performance across the four separate training sessions leading into a competitive match (P > 0.05). Training load data was significantly reduced on MD-1 for all training load variables (with the exception of high speed distance). There was no relationship found between the absolute change in CMJ performance and training load variables (P > 0.05). This study suggested that neuromuscular status remains unaffected in soccer players during a typical microcycle of training. This may be due to the emphasis of fitness maintenance during the in-season phase in order to maximise recovery between matches resulting in the players becoming accustomed to repeated maintenance loading. In summary, the work undertaken from the studies in this thesis provides novel information in relation to the training loads within elite professional soccer in relation to periodisation strategies. Specifically, this is the first work to systematically examine the training load across a competitive soccer season using both objective and subjective measures. Methodological work in this thesis also highlighted the importance of quantifying and interpreting errors associated with measurement tools when using applied methods to quantify training load in soccer players. It was also found that neuromuscular status unchanged throughout a planned microcycle in preparation for a competitive match. These findings suggest that the training periodisation may be more applicable to maintaining levels of conditioning that improving fitness during certain periods of the season. Due to the limitations of traditional periodisation and training load management in elite soccer, future work should focus on developing periodisation models unique to the competition demands of soccer.
... Limited improvements in both squat and jump performances were likely related to the lack of plyometric drills in the training routines of both programs and the inclusion of lower-body strength training only 1 day per week. This is consistent with the previous research that has suggested that training improvements in experienced, resistance trained athletes are dependent on training frequency and the inclusion of assistance exercises (10). In addition, strength assessments for the lower body were performed using an isometric measure and dynamic jumps. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare two different periodization models in strength and power athletes. Twenty-four experienced resistance trained man were randomly assigned to either a block periodization training program (BP; age = 24.2±3.1 years, body mass = 78.5±11.0 kg, height = 177.6±4.9 cm) or to a traditional periodization program (TP; age = 26.2±6.0 years; body mass = 80.5±13.3 kg, height = 179.2±4.6). Participants in both training programs performed four-training sessions per week. Each training program consisted of the same exercises and same volume of training (total resistance lifted per session). The difference between the groups was in the manipulation of training intensity within each training phase. Strength and power testing occurred before training (PRE) and following 15 weeks (POST) of training. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare strength and power performance between the groups. Participants in BP were more likely (79.8%) to increase the area under the force-power curve than TP. Participants in BP also demonstrated a likely positive (92.76%) decrease in the load corresponding to maximal power at the bench press compared to TP group, and a possible improvement (∼ 60%) in maximal strength and power in the bench press. No significant changes were noted between groups in lower body strength or jump power performance following the 15 week training period. Results of this study indicate that BP may enhance upper-body power expression to a greater extent than TP with equal volume, however, no differences were detected for lower body performance and body composition measures.
... The 1RM bench press, back squat and power clean can have a range of 80-180 kg, 100-250 kg and 70-140 kg, respectively [18, 25, 45, 62-64, 72, 73, 107, 166, 197, 204, 244, 260, 309, 321, 326, 335, 339-342, 382, 383]. In competitive sport, heavier athletes typically have superior maximum upper and lower body strength qualities because of an increase in the muscle cross-sectional area [49,162,328,342,382,[384][385][386][387][388]. ...
Article
An athletic profile should encompass the physiological, biomechanical, anthropometric and performance measures pertinent to the athlete's sport and discipline. The measurement systems and procedures used to create these profiles are constantly evolving and becoming more precise and practical. This is a review of strength and ballistic assessment methodologies used in sport, a critique of current maximum strength [one-repetition maximum (1RM) and isometric strength] and ballistic performance (bench throw and jump capabilities) assessments for the purpose of informing practitioners and evolving current assessment methodologies. The reliability of the various maximum strength and ballistic assessment methodologies were reported in the form of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficient of variation (%CV). Mean percent differences [Formula: see text] and effect size (ES = [X method2 - X method1] ÷ SDmethod1) calculations were used to assess the magnitude and spread of methodological differences for a given performance measure of the included studies. Studies were grouped and compared according to their respective performance measure and movement pattern. The various measurement systems (e.g. force plates, position transducers, accelerometers, jump mats, optical motion sensors and jump-and-reach apparatuses) and assessment procedures (i.e. warm-up strategies, loading schemes and rest periods) currently used to assess maximum isometric squat and mid-thigh pull strength (ICC > 0.95; CV < 2.0 %), 1RM bench press, back squat and clean strength (ICC > 0.91; CV < 4.3 %), and ballistic (vertical jump and bench throw) capabilities (ICC > 0.82; CV < 6.5 %) were deemed highly reliable. The measurement systems and assessment procedures employed to assess maximum isometric strength [M Diff = 2-71 %; effect size (ES) = 0.13-4.37], 1RM strength (M Diff = 1-58 %; ES = 0.01-5.43), vertical jump capabilities (M Diff = 2-57 %; ES = 0.02-4.67) and bench throw capabilities (M Diff = 7-27 %; ES = 0.49-2.77) varied greatly, producing trivial to very large effects on these respective measures. Recreational to highly trained athletes produced maximum isometric squat and mid-thigh pull forces of 1,000-4,000 N; and 1RM bench press, back squat and power clean values of 80-180 kg, 100-260 kg and 70-140 kg, respectively. Mean and peak power production across the various loads (body mass to 60 % 1RM) were between 300 and 1,500 W during the bench throw and between 1,500 and 9,000 W during the vertical jump. The large variations in maximum strength and power can be attributed to the wide range in physical characteristics between different sports and athletic disciplines, training and chronological age as well as the different measurement systems of the included studies. The reliability and validity outcomes suggest that a number of measurement systems and testing procedures can be implemented to accurately assess maximum strength and ballistic performance in recreational and elite athletes, alike. However, the reader needs to be cognisant of the inherent differences between measurement systems, as selection will inevitably affect the outcome measure. The strength and conditioning practitioner should also carefully consider the benefits and limitations of the different measurement systems, testing apparatuses, attachment sites, movement patterns (e.g. direction of movement, contraction type, depth), loading parameters (e.g. no load, single load, absolute load, relative load, incremental loading), warm-up strategies, inter-trial rest periods, dependent variables of interest (i.e. mean, peak and rate dependent variables) and data collection and processing techniques (i.e. sampling frequency, filtering and smoothing options).
... 6,9,11,12 Training on cd should only be performed using split routines, which is a common and effective practice. 11,[13][14][15][16] Split training routines in rT are normally recommended for those who train four or more times per week. 13 Totalbody routines are normally recommended for those who train 2-3 d·wk -1 . ...
Article
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Background: Previous studies have shown that total-body resistance training (RT) performed two to three alternating days per week has positive effects on muscle strength and body composition. However, no evidence exists to determine if total-body RT workouts done on consecutive days (CD) are beneficial. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a total-body RT program performed on three con- secutive or nonconsecutive days (NCD) per week for 7 weeks on maximum strength and body composition in recreationally trained subjects. Methods: Twenty-one men were randomly assigned to a 3NCD (n = 11) or 3CD group (n =10). Prior and following training, anthropometric measures, and 1 repetition maximum values for leg press, and bench press were measured. Results: Statistical analysis revealed a significant increase for leg press strength and bench press strength for both groups (P < 0.01) from pre to post intervention. There was also a significant increase for arm and chest girth measures (P < 0.05) on the 3 CD group. No significant differences between groups were observed. Conclusions: The results suggest that RT programs performed on three consecutive or nonconsecutive days per week determine similar effects on maximum strength, and body composition.
... In addition, much of the research that has been previously done has included split-routine (SR; or split-body) protocols. 5,22,25 Although limited in scope, there is some evidence purporting the implementation of total-body (TB) training protocols in conjunction with reduced training frequency per week in trained individuals, particularly males. 6,26,27 Understanding the research into frequency and volume manipulation in comparison to SR and TB routines could have a profound effect on training recommendations for trained individuals, particularly those in male athletic sports, where the development of power through RT is at a premium. ...
Article
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Clinical Scenario : Manipulation of exercise variables in resistance training (RT) is an important component in the development of muscular strength, power, and hypertrophy. Currently, most research centers on untrained or recreationally trained subjects. This critically appraised topic focuses on studies that center on the well-trained subject with regard to frequency of training. Clinical Question : In well-trained male subjects, is there an association between RT frequency and the development of muscular strength and hypertrophy? Summary of Key Findings : Four studies met the inclusion criteria and were included for analysis. All studies showed that lower-frequency training could elicit muscular strength and hypertrophy increases. One study suggested that a higher frequency compared with a lower frequency may provide a slight benefit to hypertrophic development. One study reported a greater level of delayed onset muscle soreness with lower frequency training. The 4 studies demonstrate support for the clinical question. Clinical Bottom Line : Current evidence suggests that lower-frequency RT produces equal to greater improvements on muscular strength and hypertrophy in comparison to higher-frequency RT when volume is equated. The evidence is particularly convincing when lower-frequency RT is associated with a total-body training protocol in well-trained male subjects. Strength of Recommendation : There is moderate-to-strong evidence to suggest that lower-frequency RT, when volume is equated, will produce equal to greater improvements on muscular strength and hypertrophy in comparison to higher-frequency RT.
... Relatif kuvvet ile sprint sürati ve hızlanma arasında güç ve squat testlerinde olduğu gibi [411] yüksek ilişki bulunmaktadır (r=0,88) [399]. Buna rağmen klasik güç antrenmanları ve balistik antrenmanların sprint sürelerini azaltmaktaki etkisinin düşük olduğu söylenebilir [263,412,278,413]. Bu bakımdan sprint sürelerinin kısaltılması için uygulanacak antrenman yapısının kalça fleksörlerini kuvvetlendirici [414], kuvvet ve sprint çalışmalarının (özel sprint ve pliometrik) kombinasyonu biçiminde olması tavsiye edilmektedir [25,415]. ...
Thesis
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This study compared the effects of dynamic and static core training programs on speed, agility, related anaerobic power tests, core stability tests and body composition measurements in recreational soccer players. A static (n = 14) and dynamic (n = 13) training group performed three 30 min sessions per week for eight weeks meanwhile attended normal soccer training sessions with a control group (n = 11). Effects of different core training regimes were compared after eight weeks the with repeated measures MANOVA (p<0,05) for field, core stabilization and body composition tests. Sprint (10m-30m), agility (505-Arrowhead), vertical and standing long jump scores did not increased in any groups and no difference found between groups. Neither group demonstrated difference for body composition measurements (weight, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, body fat percentage) for repeated test scores and between groups comparisons. Two experiment groups improved in dynamic and static core stabilization tests except the plank test (for plank test, dynamic and conrtol group has the same score) while control group did not changed. Core stabilization tests showed that the improvements of experiment groups affected by the movement specifity and static training group increased static test scores (plank 23,8% - back isometric 28,9% - leg raise 15,6%) while dynamic training group increased mostly the dynamic test scores (sit-up 21,2%, push up 16,2%). Results indicate that both training types improved movement related measures of core stability but did not transfer into any anaerobic skills and body composition. Core stability training is not generate sufficient stimulus to improve power and strength dependent performance skills like sprint and agility and not required to be the main part of soccer conditioning programs.
... While previous studies examining clinical (neck pain) populations have achieved significant increases in neck strength through the use of short term (4-8 weeks) training programs (Chiu et al., 2004;Highland et al., 1992;Ylinen et al., 1994) it should be considered that Professional Rugby players are well-conditioned athletes. This may have some bearing on the potential increases in neck strength that are possible in this group over a relatively short time period (Argus et al., 2010;Hoffman et al., 1990;Olivier and DuToit, 2008;Taylor et al., 2006). While it would have been preferable to re-assess neck strength after the completion of the strength development phase of the program (at week 13), there were other priorities in the player management schedule. ...
Article
Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13- week maintenance phase) was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007- 2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using nonparametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009) or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009). However, a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11) to 2008-09 (n = 2). Nonsignificant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes.
... Hoffman, Kraemer, Fry, Deschenes & Kemp (1990) found that American football players who self-selected to perform RT 4-5 d·wk -1 achieved greater gains in strength, power and hypertrophy than those training either 3 or 6 d·wk -1 . The validity of some of the above studies may be called into question, as for example, the Graves et al. (1989) study primarily compared full v partial ROM of exercise, with frequency only assessed as a secondary variable. ...
Preprint
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect that manipulating training frequency (5x per week v 2x per week) had upon strength, power and body composition over a 5 week period (when volume and intensity were matched).
... However, it has also been reported that resistance training does not always result in enhancement of vertical jump, which is affected by other factors such as learning effect [23] training status [24] and volume of training [25] . Several studies have reported that combined programs including resistance and explosive unloaded tasks such as throwing, jumping, and punching in the same training session may improve muscular strength and the velocity of execution on the selected task [5,7,17,[26][27][28][29][30]. Improvements were attributed either to neural adaptations or to a learning transfer. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a combined program including sprint repetitions and drop jump training in the same session on male handball players. Twenty-two male handball players aged more than 20 years were assigned into 2 groups: experimental group (n=11) and control group (n=11). Selection was based on variables "axis" and "lines", goalkeepers were not included. The experimental group was subjected to 2 testing periods (test and retest) separated by 12 weeks of an additional combined plyometric and running speed training program. The control group performed the usual handball training. The testing period comprised, at the first day, a medical checking, anthropometric measurements and an incremental exercise test called yo-yo intermittent recovery test. 2 days later, participants performed the Repeated Sprint Ability test (RSA), and performed the Jumping Performance using 3 different events: Squat jump (SJ), Countermovement jump without (CMJ) and with arms (CMJA), and Drop jump (DJ). At the end of the training period, participants performed again the repeated sprint ability test, and the jumping performance. The conventional combined program improved the explosive force ability of handball players in CMJ (P=0.01), CMJA (P=0.01) and DJR (P=0.03). The change was 2.78, 2.42 and 2.62% respectively. No significant changes were noted in performances of the experimental group at the squat jump test and the drop jump with the left leg test. The training intervention also improved the running speed ability of the experimental group (P=0.003). No statistical differences were observed between lines or axes. Additional combined training program between sprint repetition and vertical jump in the same training session positively influence the jumping ability and the sprint ability of handball players.
... seconds. The corresponding ranges for the Division 1-A football players studied by Black and Roundy (6) and Division 1-AA football players examined by Hoffman et al. (25) were 4.46-5.23 seconds and 4.83-5.23 seconds, respectively. The difference in sprint performance between our subjects and subjects reported in previous studies becomes smaller when considering the differences between hand times (manually recorded using stopwatches) used in previous studies and automatic times recorded in the present study. ...
... Football players should achieve their peak as part of preparatory training and then maintain it for rest periods of up to 35 weeks [9]. Many authors [10][11][12] recommend using a traditional form with a progressive loading of training during the transition and preparatory period. A non-traditional form of periodization is used mostly during in-season and includes specific football exercises. ...
Article
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This study evaluates changes in power and strength after implementing two different models of 9-week strength training in elite women’s football players. A group of 13 players (age 20.2 ± 3.3 years, body mass 57.2 ± 3.7 kg, height 163.6 ± 5.3 cm, VO2max 45.2 ± ml/min) underwent either a complex (the intermittent load type) or combined (the maximal strength and dynamic method) model of training. The training load was tailored to each athlete. Results showed that the complex model of training improved power (10 W/kg, p = 0.006) and height of vertical jump (5.3 cm, p = 0.001), weight of 1 Repeat Maximum (1RM) which was (5.8 kg, p = 0.015), power and speed in the acceleration phase of barbell half squats (BHS) at weights from 20 to 60 kg, and the number of repetitions in BHS (10.3%, p = 0.012). The combined model of training improved the time of shuttle run (0.44 s, p = 0.000), weight of 1RM in BHS (9.6kg, p = 0.000) and BP (4 kg, p = 0.000), power in the acceleration phase of BHS at weights from 50 to 60 kg, the number of repetitions in BP (14.3%, p = 0.000), BHS (9.4%, p = 0.002), barbell bench pulls (11.9%, p = 0.002) and sit-ups (7.7%, p = 0.001). These findings indicate that the complex model of training improves explosive abilities, whereas the combined model is effective for developing strength at weights close to players’ 1RM and for repeatedly overcoming resistance. Therefore, coaches should choose the training model based on the needs of individual players.
... As general guidelines, the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) states that increased recovery time is needed between heavy lifting days and that upper body musculatures recovers faster than lower body musculature and singlejoint lifts require less recovery time than multi-joint lifts (16 p.389). However, a careful review of the literature cited in the NSCA guidelines reveals most of the references are based on anecdotal evidence in older review papers or other textbooks and no quantitative evidence of recovery patterns were collected in the investigations cited supporting upper body versus lower body recovery (6) or single versus multi-International Journal of Exercise Science http://www.intjexersci.com 86 joint lift recovery (20). ...
Article
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International Journal of Exercise Science 8(1) : 85-96, 2015. This study examined muscle recovery patterns between single-joint (SJ) versus multi-joint (MJ), and upper-body (UB) versus lower-body (LB) exercises and the utility of perceptual measures (ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and perceived recovery scale (PRS)) to assess recovery status. A 10 rep max (10-RM) was determined for 6 SJ and 4 MJ exercises (5 UB and 5 LB) for male recreational weightlifters (n = 10). Participants completed a baseline protocol including 8 repetitions at 85% of 10-RM followed by a set to failure with 100% of 10-RM. In a counterbalanced crossover design, participants returned at 24 or 48 h to repeat the protocol. PRS and RPE were assessed following the first and second sets of each exercise respectively. Wilcoxon matched pair signed-rank tests determined performance improved (p < 0.05) for every lift type category from 24 to 48 h, but the only difference in ∆ repetitions from baseline at the same time point was between MJ (-1.7 ± 1.5 repetitions) and SJ (-0.5 ± 1.8 repetitions) at 24 h (p = 0.037). Higher RPE and lower PRS estimations (p < 0.05) support the utility of perceptual measures to gauge recovery as the only between group differences were also found between MJ and SJ at 24 h. Eighty percent of participants completed within 1 repetition of baseline for all exercises at 48 h except bench press (70%) and deadlift (60%); suggesting 72 h of recovery should be implemented for multi-joint barbell lifts targeting the same muscle groups in slower recovering lifters.
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Currently, no evidence exists as to the effectiveness of strongman training programs for performance enhancement. This study compared the effects of seven weeks of strongman resistance training versus traditional resistance training on body composition, strength, power, and speed measures. Thirty experienced resistance-trained rugby players were randomly assigned to one of two groups; strongman (n = 15; mean ± SD: age, 23.4 ± 5.6 years; body mass, 91.2 ± 14.8 kg; height, 180.1 ± 6.8 cm) or traditional (n = 15; mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 3.4 years; body mass, 93.7 ± 12.3 kg; height, 181.3 ± 5.9 cm). The strongman and traditional training programs required the participants to train twice a week and contained exercises that were matched for biomechanical similarity with equal loading. Participants were assessed for body composition, strength, power, speed and change of direction (COD) performance. Within-group analyses indicated that all performance measures improved with training (0.2% to 7%) in both the strongman and traditional training groups. No significant between-group differences were observed in functional performance measures after 7-weeks of resistance training. Between group differences indicated small positive effects in muscle mass and acceleration performance and large improvements in 1RM bent over row strength associated with strongman compared to traditional training. Small to moderate positive changes in 1RM squat and deadlift strength, horizontal jump, COD turning ability and sled push performance were associated with traditional compared to strongman training. Practitioners now have the first evidence on the efficacy of a strongman training program and it would seem that short term strongman training programs are as effective as traditional resistance training programs in improving aspects of body composition, muscular function and performance.
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In order to stimulate further adaptation toward a specific training goal(s), progression in the type of resistance training protocol used is necessary. The optimal characteristics of strength-specific programs include the use of both concentric and eccentric muscle actions and the performance of both single- and multiple-joint exercises. It is also recommended that the strength program sequence exercises to optimize the quality of the exercise intensity (large before small muscle group exercises, multiple-joint exercises before single-joint exercises, and higher intensity before lower intensity exercises). For initial resistances, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) be used in novice training. For intermediate to advanced training, it is recommended that individuals use a wider loading range, from 1-12 RM in a periodized fashion, with eventual emphasis on heavy loading (1-6 RM) using at least 3-min rest periods between sets performed at a moderate contraction velocity (1-2 s concentric, 1-2 s eccentric). When training at a specific RM load, it is recommended that 2-10% increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number. The recommendation for training frequency is 2-3 d·wk-1 for novice and intermediate training and 4-5 d·wk-1 for advanced training. Similar program designs are recommended for hypertrophy training with respect to exercise selection and frequency. For loading, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 1-12 RM be used in periodized fashion, with emphasis on the 6-12 RM zone using 1- to 2-min rest periods between sets at a moderate velocity. Higher volume, multiple-set programs are recommended for maximizing hypertrophy. Progression in power training entails two general loading strategies: 1) strength training, and 2) use of light loads (30-60% of 1 RM) performed at a fast contraction velocity with 2-3 min of rest between sets for multiple sets per exercise. It is also recommended that emphasis be placed on multiple-joint exercises, especially those involving the total body. For local muscular endurance training, it is recommended that light to moderate loads (40-60% of 1 RM) be performed for high repetitions (> 15) using short rest periods (< 90 s). In the interpretation of this position stand, as with prior ones, the recommendations should be viewed in context of the individual's target goals, physical capacity, and training status.
Article
The aim of the study was to determine the anthropometric and fitness profiles of European half-heavyweight judokas by success in competition. For this purpose, we compared 5 international medallists (elite) with 5 national medallists (sub-elite). All male judokas won at least one medal in the half-heavyweight category during the previous two years. The testing in this cross-sectional study was performed during 4 days. All subjects underwent anthropometric assessment with body mass, height, skinfold, and limb circumference measures, the body fat percentage was estimated by manual bioimpedance. The physical fitness evaluation consisted in peak torques for thigh and shoulder muscles, handgrip strength, high and long jumps, medicine-ball throw, pull-ups, dead lift, bench press, deep squat, VO2max, Max Power and Tokui Waza tests. The statistical analysis by a T-Student test showed significant differences for forearm and upper-arm circumferences, peak torques, pull ups, bench press, dead lift, deep squat, VO2max, Max Power and Tokui Waza tests. Our results showed that elite judokas have a superior fitness profile than sub-elite athletes from the half-heavyweight category. Moreover, elite judokas seem to have a higher arm muscle mass than sub-elite athletes, but a similar body fat percentage. This study could be of interest for judo coaches with athletes competing in the half-heavyweight category, since some tests that discriminate by judo success for this specific weight category are described. Few studies analyse anthropometric and fitness profiles in half-heavyweight male judokas, so additionally our results can be used as a reference for coaches, athletes and scientists.
Article
Despite core exercise programs are broadly used to increase muscle function and to promote low back health, there is a lack of scientific evidence on some of the most important characteristics of trunk exercise programs, as for example training frequency. This study aimed to compare the short-term effect of training frequencies of 1, 2 and 3 days per week (d/wk) on abdominal muscle endurance in untrained adolescents. One hundred and eighteen high-school students (59 men and 59 women) with no previous experience in structured abdominal exercise programs were assigned randomly to groups that trained 1 d/wk (G1; N.=21), 2 d/wk (G2; N.=27), 3 d/wk (G3; N.=23), or to a control group (CG; N.=47) that did not train. The training groups performed crunch and cross-crunch exercises 1, 2 or 3 d/wk during six weeks. Before and after the training period, the bench trunk-curl test (BTC test) was carried out to assess abdominal muscle endurance. Men obtained higher BTC test scores than women before and after training. Training frequencies of 1, 2 and 3 d/wk provided a significant increase in BTC test scores; however, no significant differences between the three groups' scores were found after training. Therefore, a small dose of crunch exercise training (1 d/wk) may be sufficient stimulus to increase abdominal endurance in untrained male and female adolescents, at least during the first weeks of an abdominal exercise program, which seems a very relevant finding in terms of time-cost efficiency.
Article
summary: The concept of periodization is important for strength and conditioning professionals. This roundtable covers several aspects of periodization strategies.
Article
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The concept of periodization is important for strength and conditioning professionals. This roundtable covers several aspects of periodization strategies.
Article
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Ensuring internal validity is the key procedure when planning the study design. Numerous systematic reviews have demonstrated that considerations for internal validity do not receive adequate attention in the primary research in sport sciences. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review methodological procedures in current literature where the effects of resistance training on strength, speed, and endurance performance in athletes were analyzed. A computer-based literature searches of SPORTDiscus, Scopus, Medline, and Web of Science was conducted. The internal validity of individual studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. Peer-reviewed studies were accepted only if they met all the following eligibility criteria: (a) healthy male and female athletes between the ages of 18-65 years; (b) training program based on resistance exercises; (c) training program lasted for at least 4 weeks or 12 training sessions, with at least two sessions per week; (d) the study reported maximum strength, speed, or endurance outcomes; and (e) systematic reviews, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies were excluded. Of the 6,516 articles identified, 133 studies were selected for rating by the PEDro scale. Sixty-eight percent of the included studies used random allocation to groups, but only one reported concealed allocation. Baseline data are presented in almost 69% of the studies. Thirty-eight percent of studies demonstrated adequate follow-up of participants. The plan to follow the intention-to-treat or stating that all participants received training intervention or control conditions as allocated were reported in only 1.5% of studies. The procedure of blinding of assessors was also satisfied in only 1.5% of the studies. The current study highlights the gaps in designing and reporting research in the field of strength and conditioning. Randomization, blinding of assessors, reporting of attrition, and intention-to-treat analysis should be more fully addressed to reduce threats to internal validity in primary research.
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Physical fitness and participation in sports are important to the students with cerebral palsy (CP). Persons with disabilities who lack of physical fitness can affect their overall performance. The objective of the study was to assess on physical fitness performance among students with CP based on the selected fitness components. Total of 25 students (male = 11; female = 14) were randomly selected range from classification classes of C2–C7. The sample of the study consists of 48 % Malay, 28 % Chinese, and 24 % Indian. The mean age of the subjects is 23.32 ± 2.07 years old (age range from 10 to 46 years old). Majority of the subjects are in the class C4 (16 %), followed by class C5 (36 %), from class C4 (16 %), from class C2 (8 %), and from class C3 (4 %). All the subjects were assessed through physical fitness tests such as sit-and-reach test, handgrip strength test, dumbbell press test, and arm ergometry (total pedal revolution, calorie, and time). All the data were analyzed using SPSS and presented as mean. The mean value for sit-and-reach test is 26.10 ± 1.65, while the mean value for handgrip strength test is 12.20 ± 1.25. The mean value for dumbbell press test is 27.76 ± 5.68, followed by arm ergometry; the total pedal revolution (170.80 ± 31.24), calorie (5.52 ± 0.98), and time (4.78 ± 0.67). The physical fitness overall was in satisfactory level, and the subjects tried their best to achieve the highest fitness status. Physical fitness should be conducted for students with disabilities so that it can help their activity of daily living (ADL) and enjoy their quality of life.
Research
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Revision of the strength training methods to improve the jump, sprint, kick and changes of direction in footballers in the last twenty years.
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Objectives: To assess the magnitude of change and association with variation in training load of two performance markers and wellbeing, over three pre-season training blocks, in elite rugby union athletes. Design: Observational. Methods: Twenty-two professional players (age 25±5 years; training age 6±5 years; body mass, 99±13kg; stature 186±6cm) participated in this study, with changes in lower (CMJ height) and upper body (bench press mean speed) neuromuscular function and self-reported wellbeing (WB) assessed during an 11-week period. Results: There was a small increase in CMJ height (0.27, ±0.17 - likely substantial; standardised effect size, ±95% confidence limits - magnitude-based inference) (p=0.003), bench press speed (0.26, ±0.15 - likely substantial) (p=0.001) and WB (0.26, ±0.12 - possibly substantial) (p<0.0001) across the pre-season period. There was a substantial interaction in the effect of training load on these three variables across the three training phases. A two-standard deviation (2SD) change in training load was associated with: a small decrease in CMJ height during the power phase (-0.32, ±0.19 - likely substantial) (p=0.001); a small reduction in bench press speed during the hypertrophy phase (-0.40, ±0.32 - likely substantial) (p=0.02); and a small reduction in WB during the strength phase (-0.40, ±0.24 - very likely substantial) (p<0.0001). The effects of changes in training load across other phases were either likely trivial, only possibly substantial, or unclear. Conclusions: The effect of training load on performance can vary both according to the type of training stimulus being administered and based on whether upper- or lower-body outcomes are being measured.
Running after childbirth, specifically how or when to return, is a hot topic in the field of physical therapy and on social media; however, there are significant gaps in the literature supporting when and how to safely initiate running postpartum. During pregnancy and following childbirth (both vaginal and cesarean), the body undergoes changes that may impact strength, neuromuscular control, endurance, and the ability to withstand the high-impact forces and repetitive nature of running. Many mothers experience new or worsened symptoms of musculoskeletal or pelvic floor dysfunction following pregnancy and childbirth and require physical therapy to normalize function. After most major injuries, it is common to participate in formalized rehabilitation; however, this is not the norm for athletes returning to running postchildbirth. Because of lack of evidence, many runners and clinicians struggle to develop appropriate rehabilitation progressions for return to running after childbirth. Pelvic and sports physical therapists must understand biomechanical features of running gait and safely progress strength, endurance, and neuromuscular control of the kinetic chain when guiding a runner back to running. This clinical commentary builds on existing guidelines, research, and expert opinion to propose a 4-phase rehabilitation framework to help runners initiate and progress running after childbirth. The result is an in-depth exercise prescription (intensity, frequency, type), examples of exercises (hip, abdominal, pelvic floor, and foot), running progression, and progression goals to prepare runners for symptom-free running after childbirth (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/JWHPT/A58, where authors provide more insight on this return to running framework).
Book
Strength and Conditioning for Team Sports is designed to help trainers and coaches to devise more effective high-performance training programs for team sports. This remains the only evidence-based study of sport-specific practice to focus on team sports and features all-new chapters covering neuromuscular training, injury prevention and specific injury risks for different team sports. Fully revised and updated throughout, the new edition also includes over two hundred new references from the current research literature. The bookintroduces the core science underpinning different facets of physical preparation, covering all aspects of training prescription and the key components of any degree-level strength and conditioning course, including: ○ physiological and performance testing. ○ strength training. ○ metabolic conditioning. ○ power training. ○ agility and speed development. ○ training for core stability. ○ training periodisation. ○ training for injury prevention. Bridging the traditional gap between sports science research and practice, each chapter features guidelines for evidence-based best practice as well as recommendations for approaches to physical preparation to meet the specific needs of team sports players. This new edition also includes an appendix that provides detailed examples of training programmes for a range of team sports. Fully illustrated throughout, it is essential reading for all serious students of strength and conditioning, and for any practitioner seeking to extend their professional practice.
Article
Sprint (S, n=12) and endurance (E, n=14) training were performed independently and concurrently (C, n=6) for eight weeks to determine adaptive responses to each and their capability. Group S trained three days per week performing six 100m and six 50m sprints at 95 percent maximum speed. Group E ran continuously for 30 minutes at 85 percent HRmax three days per week. Group C trained six days per week, alternating days of sprint and endurance training. Group S improved (p<0.05) 50m and 100m sprint times (2.5 and 4.5 percent, respectively), 30-second run distance (2.5 percent), showed no change (p>0 .05) in 30-minute run distance or [latin capital V with dot above]O2 max, and decreased (p<0.05) average power output 20.9 percent during the 30- to 45-second interval of a 60-second continuous jump test (CJT) Group E improved (p<0.05) 30-minute run distance (12.6 percent), [latin capital V with dot above]O2, max (5.9 percent), and sprint performance (2.2 percent in 50m, 2.5 percent in 100m), but showed no change (p>0.05) in 30-second run distance. Group C showed (p<0.05) improvements of similar magnitude to group E in [latin capital V with dot above]O2, max (7.5 percent) and 30-minute run distance 9.9 percent), and to Group S in 50m (2.4 percent) and l00m (3.5 percent) times and 30-second run distance (3.5 percent). All groups decreased (p<0.05) average power output during the 45- to 60-second interval of the GO-second CJT. Our result sug gest that optimum improvements in performance are specific to the mode of training (sprint or endurance) and are independent of concurrent performance of both modes of exercise. (C) 1988 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
The purposes of this study were: to determine if an off-season conditioning program would result in change as measured by certain easily administrable performance and body composition measures: to assess the effectiveness of these measures in predicting future classification of players. 53 prospective members of the 1975 Syracuse University trained for eight weeks during the winter months of 1975. Certain ''easy to administer'' tests of body composition and performance were given before and after the program. MANOVA revealed a significant difference (p<.001) between pre and post measures. Employing post test performance and body composition measures and the 40-yd dash, stepwise multiple discrimination function analysis was employed to determine the percent of proper classification as starters (S), players (P) and non-players (N). Across all players 58.5% were properly classified which was significant at the .003 level. It was concluded that training and testing of the type employed was of merit to a major college football program.